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   Homework: Chapter 15, Sections 2-4

   Quick-Write: Why was exploring the
    Western Hemisphere so crucial?

   Begin Age of Exploration Notes
The Age of Exploration
 The Commercial Revolution marked
  an important step in Europe from
local economies to a global economy.
     The Commercial Revolution
   Led to the European expansion of world
   Joint stock companies were formed
    lead to mercantilism
          Mercantilism: when a mother country
           acquires colonies as markets and sources of
           raw materials
   A market economy formed
   Led to a rise in the middle class
Mother countries imported cheap
  raw materials like cotton and
exported more expensive finished
        goods like shirts.
     “Triangular” trade made some
continents wealthy while it impoverished
            other continents.
The Crusades
  interest in
 goods from
   the East.
 The Crusades greatly stimulated
  European interest in East Asian
goods like spices, perfume, and silk.
European rulers
  believed that
trade with Asia
  would bring
   them vast
For many years, the Silk Road connected
 China to the Middle East and ultimately,
 Europe. A mostly overland journey until
  the Mediterranean Sea, the Silk Road
     was a long and difficult journey.
       In addition to
    the Reformation,
     increased trade
      created a new
     class of people:
   the Middle Class.
   The Middle Class
     frequently allied
       with kings for
protection and stability.
                Why Explore?
   Europeans were eager to trade directly with
    the Asians and find a quicker trade route
    – Spain and Portugal led the Age of Exploration
   The need for new sources of raw
   Covert people to Christianity through
   Stories from Marco Polo
   Advances in learning and technology
    made voyages possible to explore the
    Western Hemisphere
Portugal and Spain led the way!
Catholic countries like Portugal and
Spain would seek new trade routes
    for “God, Glory, and Gold.”
By investing money in new navigational
 technologies and sponsoring explorers,
    European kings could control new
trade routes with Asia. They could gain
           wealth and power.
Other European
 to profit from
with Asia. They
began to search
    for new
 trade routes.
 European ships began exploring
the seas and oceans in search of
        new trade routes.
      Portuguese Exploration
   Led by Prince Henry the Navigator
    who opened schools for future sailors
    – Brought together mapmakers,
      mathematicians, and astronomers to
      study to study navigation
 Prince Henry
the Navigator
was determined
    to help
 discover new
 trade routes.
            Spanish Exploration
   Spanish sail for gold and silver
   Hernan Cortes
    – captured the Mexican capital of Tenochtitlan
    – natives were known as Aztecs
    – Cortes eventually captures Montezuma
   Francisco Pizarro
    – captured Inca capital in present day Peru
   Christopher Columbus
    – landed on Hispanola (Haiti and D.R.)
   Spaniards had better weapons and technology
   Cortes defeated the Aztecs by
1521.Guns, horses, and European
   diseases led to the demise of
a great and powerful Mesoamerican
 The Spaniards conquered the native
population, seized their gold and silver,
         and converted them to
   Spanish landowners needed millions
    of farm workers and miners. The
Spanish forced Native American Indians
     to work for them. The Spanish
 landowners were cruel to their workers.
  At least 20 million Native Americans
lived in Latin America when the Spanish
    first arrived. Within 100 years, the
Native population was down to 4 million.
  Many Native American Indians died
  from European diseases and the
 hard, dangerous work in the mines
and farms. But they also died because
    the Spanish refused to let them
 practice their customs and traditions.
        They simply lost hope.
       Bartolome de las Casas
   Monk who did not agree with the
    treatment of Native American Indians
    – numerous Native American Indians were
   Suggested using Africans instead
    – led to African slavery!
                  Some Spaniards tried
                to stop the mistreatment
                  of the Native people.
               Bartolome de las Casas
                  was a Spanish priest.
                   He wrote to the king
                   and condemned the
                  cruel treatment of the
                  Native Americans by
                    the Spanish. He
suggested that the king use African
workers. Later, he regretted this idea.
  Native American Indians and Africans
 were enslaved. They were mistreated
and forced to adopt the Christian religion
        and European languages.
             African Slavery
   With Native American Indians dying,
    people turned to Africa
    – The Middle Passage
   African slavery leads to racism
    – Europeans felt racially superior
   Slavery involved African, Arab and
    European slave traders
Many Native American Indians died
     from smallpox disease.
    Europeans decided to use African
slaves to replace a dying Indian population.
The “Middle Passage” was the voyage
 across the Atlantic to the Americas.
millions of
the 1500s
  and the
The Transatlantic Slave Trade was a
   tragic period in world history.
Slaves were traded in exchange for
      guns and other goods.
   during the
Middle Passage.
Enslaved Africans were usually captured
 by warring ethnic groups or tribes and
       traded to European and
        American slave traders.
          Today’s Agenda
   Homework: Ch. 16, Sec. 2, 1 and 5

   Quick-Write: After listening to the
    songs, what were some of the
    positives and negatives effects of

   Finish Age of Exploration Notes

   The Columbian Exchange
              French Exploration
   Explored for quick profits and fur
   Samuel de Champlain
    – founded Quebec (in Canada)
          first French settlement in the Americas
          English Exploration
   Explored to set up colonies
   Set up a system of mercantilism
    – colonies would provide goods for “mother
   First settlement was Jamestown
Negative Effects of Exploration
   Numerous natives were killed
    – Europeans had better technology and
   The start of Africans as slaves
    – Middle Passage begins
   Conflict arises between Portugal and
    – Line of Demarcation was drawn to divide
      Latin America
          not fair
    – Pope moved the line in the Treaty of
  While the Age of Exploration greatly
  benefited the Europeans, it greatly
 harmed the Native American Indians
who lost their land, freedom, and culture.
It also greatly harmed the African slaves
  who were enslaved to replace a dying
    Indian population in the Americas.
                    In 1493, the pope
                    drew a line down a
                   map and divided the
                   world into two parts.
                    Spain controlled all
                   new land west of the
                     line and Portugal
                 controlled all land east
                   of the line: Africa and
                India. But in 1494, under
pressure from Portugal, the pope moved
  the line farther west to include Brazil.
  Now, with the land
    officially divided,
 Spain and Portugal
     set out to rule
   this “New World.”
    Soon the king of
     Spain created
  five provinces and
    sent a viceroy to
govern each province.
    Positive Effects of Exploration
   Growing demand in Europe for goods from
    the Western Hemisphere
   Beginning of European domination
   The Columbian Exchange
    – goods were traded between Europeans and
The native population of the Americas
     was enslaved and abused.
A great exchange of people, ideas, and
products occurred as trade developed

 between the Americas, Europe, and
 Africa. This great exchange is called
       the Columbian Exchange.