Quick-Write Homework: Chapter 15, Sections 2-4 Quick-Write: Why was exploring the Western Hemisphere so crucial? Begin Age of Exploration Notes The Age of Exploration The Commercial Revolution marked an important step in Europe from local economies to a global economy. The Commercial Revolution Led to the European expansion of world trade Joint stock companies were formed lead to mercantilism Mercantilism: when a mother country acquires colonies as markets and sources of raw materials A market economy formed Led to a rise in the middle class Mother countries imported cheap raw materials like cotton and exported more expensive finished goods like shirts. “Triangular” trade made some continents wealthy while it impoverished other continents. The Crusades greatly increased European interest in goods from the East. The Crusades greatly stimulated European interest in East Asian goods like spices, perfume, and silk. European rulers correctly believed that trade with Asia would bring them vast wealth. For many years, the Silk Road connected China to the Middle East and ultimately, Europe. A mostly overland journey until the Mediterranean Sea, the Silk Road was a long and difficult journey. In addition to the Reformation, increased trade created a new class of people: the Middle Class. The Middle Class frequently allied with kings for protection and stability. Why Explore? Europeans were eager to trade directly with the Asians and find a quicker trade route – Spain and Portugal led the Age of Exploration The need for new sources of raw materials Covert people to Christianity through missionaries Stories from Marco Polo Advances in learning and technology made voyages possible to explore the Western Hemisphere Portugal and Spain led the way! Catholic countries like Portugal and Spain would seek new trade routes for “God, Glory, and Gold.” By investing money in new navigational technologies and sponsoring explorers, European kings could control new trade routes with Asia. They could gain wealth and power. Other European countries wanted to profit from trade with Asia. They began to search for new trade routes. European ships began exploring the seas and oceans in search of new trade routes. Portuguese Exploration Led by Prince Henry the Navigator who opened schools for future sailors – Brought together mapmakers, mathematicians, and astronomers to study to study navigation Prince Henry the Navigator was determined to help Portuguese explorers discover new trade routes. Spanish Exploration Spanish sail for gold and silver Hernan Cortes – captured the Mexican capital of Tenochtitlan – natives were known as Aztecs – Cortes eventually captures Montezuma Francisco Pizarro – captured Inca capital in present day Peru Christopher Columbus – landed on Hispanola (Haiti and D.R.) Spaniards had better weapons and technology Cortes defeated the Aztecs by 1521.Guns, horses, and European diseases led to the demise of a great and powerful Mesoamerican civilization. The Spaniards conquered the native population, seized their gold and silver, and converted them to Christianity. Spanish landowners needed millions of farm workers and miners. The Spanish forced Native American Indians to work for them. The Spanish landowners were cruel to their workers. At least 20 million Native Americans lived in Latin America when the Spanish first arrived. Within 100 years, the Native population was down to 4 million. Many Native American Indians died from European diseases and the hard, dangerous work in the mines and farms. But they also died because the Spanish refused to let them practice their customs and traditions. They simply lost hope. Bartolome de las Casas Monk who did not agree with the treatment of Native American Indians – numerous Native American Indians were killed Suggested using Africans instead – led to African slavery! Some Spaniards tried to stop the mistreatment of the Native people. Bartolome de las Casas was a Spanish priest. He wrote to the king and condemned the cruel treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish. He suggested that the king use African workers. Later, he regretted this idea. Native American Indians and Africans were enslaved. They were mistreated and forced to adopt the Christian religion and European languages. African Slavery With Native American Indians dying, people turned to Africa – The Middle Passage African slavery leads to racism – Europeans felt racially superior Slavery involved African, Arab and European slave traders Many Native American Indians died from smallpox disease. Europeans decided to use African slaves to replace a dying Indian population. The “Middle Passage” was the voyage across the Atlantic to the Americas. Europeans removed millions of Africans between the 1500s and the 1800s. The Transatlantic Slave Trade was a tragic period in world history. Slaves were traded in exchange for guns and other goods. Captured Africans were crammed into small quarters during the Middle Passage. Enslaved Africans were usually captured by warring ethnic groups or tribes and traded to European and American slave traders. Today’s Agenda Homework: Ch. 16, Sec. 2, 1 and 5 Quick-Write: After listening to the songs, what were some of the positives and negatives effects of exploration? Finish Age of Exploration Notes The Columbian Exchange French Exploration Explored for quick profits and fur Samuel de Champlain – founded Quebec (in Canada) first French settlement in the Americas English Exploration Explored to set up colonies Set up a system of mercantilism – colonies would provide goods for “mother county” First settlement was Jamestown Mercantilism Negative Effects of Exploration Numerous natives were killed – Europeans had better technology and weapons The start of Africans as slaves – Middle Passage begins Conflict arises between Portugal and Spain – Line of Demarcation was drawn to divide Latin America not fair – Pope moved the line in the Treaty of Tordesillas While the Age of Exploration greatly benefited the Europeans, it greatly harmed the Native American Indians who lost their land, freedom, and culture. It also greatly harmed the African slaves who were enslaved to replace a dying Indian population in the Americas. In 1493, the pope drew a line down a map and divided the world into two parts. Spain controlled all new land west of the line and Portugal controlled all land east of the line: Africa and India. But in 1494, under pressure from Portugal, the pope moved the line farther west to include Brazil. Now, with the land officially divided, Spain and Portugal set out to rule this “New World.” Soon the king of Spain created five provinces and sent a viceroy to govern each province. Positive Effects of Exploration Growing demand in Europe for goods from the Western Hemisphere Beginning of European domination The Columbian Exchange – goods were traded between Europeans and natives The native population of the Americas was enslaved and abused. A great exchange of people, ideas, and products occurred as trade developed between the Americas, Europe, and Africa. This great exchange is called the Columbian Exchange.