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					After death, what would prevent a Muslim
from entering Heaven? Also, how long will
the Disbelievers stay in Hell?
Allah Almighty Said: "O ye who believe! Fear Allah as He should be Feared,
and die not except in a state of Islam. (The Noble Quran, 3:102)"

He also Said: "The Religion before God is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor
did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each
other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of God,
God is swift in calling to account. (The Noble Quran, 3:19)"

"Say: 'O my Servants who Have transgressed against their souls! Despair not
of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most
Merciful. (The Noble Quran, 39:53)"

The use of the word "Say" in this Noble Verse means that Allah Almighty
wants us to always remind each others by reciting this Noble Verse to those
who need it.

"Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgiveth
anything else, to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with God is to devise a
sin Most heinous indeed. (The Noble Quran, 4:48)"

In the above Noble Verses, we clearly see that Allah Almighty accepts nothing
from a person after death but his belief in Islam and He is Willing to forgive
our sins.

Please visit The Mercy of Allah Almighty on Mankind, and our age of 40
wisdom in Islam.




Everyone from Mankind will pass over hell:
Let us look at what Allah Almighty Said in the Noble Quran:
"And certainly We know best those who are most worthy of being burned
therein. Not one of you but will pass over it (Hell): this is, with thy Lord, a
decree which must be accomplished. (The Noble Quran, 19:70-71)"

"Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And
anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it. (The Noble Quran,
99:7-8)"

As we clearly see from the above Noble Verses, everyone will be shown and
held accountable for all of the bad things he/she have done in life.

Passing over hell in Islam, however, means that the person will enter it. But
hell, like Heaven, has different levels. Heaven has 500 levels. The Highest
Level in Heaven is for the Prophets, the Martyrs, and the Most Righteous of
Mankind. The lowest level is for the lowest people of Mankind who barely
made it to Heaven, because they were too sinful.

The Bible too speaks about the levels of Heaven. Jesus peace be upon him told
John the Baptist that the least person in Heaven will be better than John. But I
don't know how much truth the Bible really has in it. Please
visit Contradictions and proofs of Historical Corruptions in the Bible.

As for Hell, I am not sure how many levels there are, but Allah Almighty
clearly Said in the Noble Quran that the most painful level of Hell is for the
hypocrites.




Will Muslims and non-Muslims be treated
equally in punishment? Also, how long will
the Disbelievers stay in Hell?
Well, it appears from all of the above Noble Verses that Allah Almighty Will
punish everyone for the bad deeds that they committed. He Will forgive certain
bad deeds, but in general, everyone will receive a punishment.

It also appears that Muslims, no matter how bad they were, will win Paradise as
their Ultimate Reward after they receive their punishment.
As for the Disbelievers, beside from the punishment of their bad deeds that they
committed in life, it seems that Allah Almighty Will give them extra
punishment for disbelieving in Him or in Joining partners with Him, such as
Paganism and Trinity; "They do blaspheme who say: 'Allah is Christ the son of
Mary.' But said Christ: 'O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and
your Lord.' Whoever joins other gods with Allah - Allah will forbid him the
Garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrongdoers be no
one to help. (The Holy Quran, 5:72)"

Frankly, I do not know how long this punishment will last. Allah Almighty in
the Noble Quran Said that it will last for Eternity and that He will Forget about
the Disbelievers in Hell; "Taste ye then - for ye forgot the meeting of this Day
of yours. And We too will Forget you - taste ye the penalty of Eternity for your
(evil) deeds! (The Noble Quran, 32,14)"

But since He, the Almighty, defined Himself as the Only One Who Has no
beginning and no end, then the definition of "Eternity" or "Forever" might be
different for Him:

"He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Hidden: and He has full
knowledge of all things. (The Noble Quran, 57:3)"

"And verily unto Us (belong) the end and the beginning. (The Noble Quran,
92:13)"

"But it is to Allah that the end and the beginning (of all things) belong. (The
Noble Quran, 53:25)"

You see, eternity for us is limited to amount of time we exist on earth. When I
for instance say "I will continue to breath for eternity or forever", then all I am
really saying is "I will always breath for as long as I live."

So in reality, "Eternity" and "Forever" have ends. They don't go on and on
without an end. So when Allah Almighty Says that He will punish the
Disbelievers for eternity, then He might be referring to our eternity, since as I
said, only Him, the Almighty, has no end.

But I honestly don't know the answer. No one does. Even in Christianity and
Judaism, the length of time of the punishment of Hell to the Disbelievers is not
defined, and the word "Eternity" is used in the Bible for the punishment in
Hell. So, could the Bible's Eternity have an end? No one really knows.
HELL
THE FIRE
THE BLAZING FLAME,

Ar: Jahannama.

One of the most important theme in the Qur'an, perhaps an indication of the
preoccupation in Muhammad's mind is that of imagery of hell and the
punishment for the unbelievers. This is indicated by the huge number of
Qur'anic references:

       al-Baqarah 2:24,119,161,166,201; Âl 'Imran
       3:10,12,116,131,151,162,192; an-Nisa' 4:55-56,93,97,114,121,169; al-
       Ma'idah 5:10,37,72,86; al-An`am 6:27,70,128-129; al-A`raf
       7:18,36,38,41,50,179; al-Anfal 8:16,36,50; at-Taubah
       9:17,35,49,63,68,73,81,95,109,113; Yunus 10:8,27; Hud 11:16-
       17,98,106,113,119; ar-Ra`d 13:5,18,35; Ibrahim 14:16,49; al-Hijr 15:43;
       an-Nahl 16:29,62; bani Isra'il 17:8,18,39,63,97; al-Kahf
       18:29,53,100,106; Maryam 19:68,70,86; Ta Ha 20:74; al-Anbiya'
       21:39,98; al-Hajj 22:4,9,19-22,51,72; al-Mu'minun 23:103-104; an-Nur
       24:57; al-Furqan 25:11-13,34,65; ash-Shu`ara' 26:91,94; an-Naml 27:90;
       al-Qasas 28:41; al-`Ankabut 29:25,54,68; Luqman 31:21; as-Sajdah
       32:13,20; al-Ahzab 33:64,66; Saba' 34:12,42; al-Fatir 35:6,36; Ya Sin
       36:63; as-Saffat 37:10,23,55,63,68,163; Sad 38:27,56,59,61,64,85; az-
       Zumar 39:8,16,19,32,60,71-72; al-Mu'min 40:6-7,41,43,46-
       47,49,60,72,76; Ha Mim Sajdah 41:19,24,28,40; ash-Shura 42:7; az-
       Zukhruf 43:74; ad-Dukhan 44:47,56; al-Jathiyah 45:10,34-35; al-Ahqaf
       46:20,34; Muhammad 47:12,15; al-Fath 48:6,13; Qaf 50:24; adh-
       Dhariyat 51:13; at-Tur 52:13-16,18; al-Qamar 54:48; ar-Rahman 55:43;
       al-Waqi`ah 56:94; al-Hadid 57:15,19; al-Mujadilah 58:8,17; al-Hashr
       59:3,17,20; as-Saff 61:41; at-Taghabun 64:10; at-Tahrim 66:6,9-10; al-
       Mulk 67:5-10; al-Haqqah 69:31; al-Ma`arij 70:15; Nuh 71:25; al-Jinn
       72:15,23; al-Muzammil 73:12-13; al-Mudathir 74:26-31,42; ad-Dahr
       76:4; al-Mursalat 77:31; an-Naba' 78:21; an-Nazi`at 79:36,39; at-Takwir
       81:12; al-Infitar 82:14; at-Tatfif 83:16; al-Inshiqaq 84:12; al-Buruj
       85:10; al-A`la 87:12; al-Ghashiyah 88:4; al-Fajr 89:23; al-Balad 90:20;
       al-Layl 92:14; al-Bayyinah 98:6; al-Qari`ah 101:9-11; at-Takathur
       102:6; al-Humazah 104:6-9; al-Lahab 111:3

      99.9% of humans will be in hell. Sahih al-Bukhari 4.567
    The world population has been growing exponentially, let's just say that
    today's population is about 1/5 of all people who ever lived (1/2 or 1/3
    would probably be more realistic). Thus, out of thirty billion people,
    only 30 million make it to paradise, that is about 2.5% of all Muslims
    living today! If we consider this percentage in terms of today's
    population only, and assuming that only Muslims will make it, then we
    are looking at a maximum of 6 million Muslims entering paradise as
    opposed to 1.2 billion Muslims living worldwide!

    Or expressed differently, something Muslims do not tell in
    their DA'WAH: everyone converting to Islam today has a chance of
    about 1 / 200 to go to paradise. And as the percentage of Muslims in the
    total world population rises, the probability for each individual Muslim
    to make it to paradise is diminishing even further.

   Allah cares not who goes to hell or paradise. According to Musnad
    Ahmad, No. 17000:

    Narrated Alhassan bin Sewar, narrated Laith (Ibn Saad), from Maawia,
    from Rashed bin Saad, from Abdelrahman bin Qotada Alsalmi that he
    said: I heard the prophet of Allah saying: "Allah created Adam, then he
    took the creation (the people) from his (Adam's) back , and said: „These
    into paradise and I do not care, and these into the fire (hell) and I do not
    care.‟"

   all Muslims will enter Hell, Maryam 19:70-72. See the detailed articles,

           The Quran on Muslims Entering Hell
           Will Muslims Enter Hell? -- An Analysis of the Conflicting
           Hadith Reports.

   asked whether it is filled to the full, Qaf 50:30. Compare:

           "The Prince of Hell saith on a day and a day [ie. day by day]
           "Give me food unto repletion."
           The Jewish work refers to Isaiah 5:14 as proof. (Othioth, Rabbi
           Aqiba viii:1, quoted by Tisdall, The Original Sources of the
           Qur'an, p.125)

    see also God shall fill Hell with jinn and mankind

   beaten with rods or iron, al-Hajj 22:21
   boiling springs, al-Ghashiyah 88:5
   burning despair and ice cold darkness in, Sad 38:57
   chain of 70 cubits, al-Haqqah 69:32
   fire, al-Mudathir 74:30
   fire burn on their face, Ibrahim 14:49-50
   God shall fill Hell with jinn and mankind, Hud 11:119
   God created many of jinn and mankind for Hell, al-A`raf 7:179
   has 7 doors, al-Hijr 15:44
   has a bitter tree (Zaqqum), ad-Dukhan 44:43-44; al-Waqi`ah 56:52
   inmates will neither die nor remain alive, al-A`la 87:13
   is a pit, al-Qari`ah 101:9-10
   lie against Muhammad will enter Hell,
    * Narrated 'Ali:
    The Prophet said, "Do not tell a lie against me for whoever tells a lie
    against me (intentionally) then he will surely enter the Hell-fire." (Sahih
    Bukhari 1.106, Sahih Bukhari 1.107, Sahih Bukhari 1.108, Sahih
    Bukhari 1.109, Sahih Bukhari 1.110)
   majority of inhabitants of hell are women, Sahih Bukhari 4.464 and
    many more references.

    For a detailed discussion, see the article The Majority in Hell are
    Women.

   majority are ungrateful women,
    * Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and
    that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It
    was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allah?" (or are they ungrateful to
    Allah?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are
    ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If
    you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she
    sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, 'I have never
    received any good from you." (Sahih Bukhari 1.28. see also Sahih
    Bukhari 2.541)
   Muslims who committed grave sins will have to go through Hell-Fire,
    "Those of the Ummah of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant
    him peace, who have committed grave sins will be in the Fire, but not
    forever, provided they die and meet Allah as believers affirming his
    unity even if they have not repented. They are subject to His will and
    judgement. If He wants, He will forgive them and pardon them out of
    His generosity, as is mentioned in the Quran when He says: 'And He
    forgives anything less than that (shirk) to whoever He wills' (an-Nisa'
    4:116) '' (Aqida (creed) of Imam Tahawi, item 68)
   neither die nor live, al-A`la 87:13
   scorching, al-Mudathir 74:27-29
   sinners choke on liquid pus, Ibrahim 14:16-17; al-Muzammil 73:12
   skin change, al-Mudathir 74:27-29
   sores, al-Haqqah 69:36
   stay for a limited duration, an-Naba' 78:23
   the guards of, al-Mu'min 40:49
   thorns, al-Ghashiyah 88:5
   tied to chains, Ibrahim 14:50-99
   tortured in hellfire because they soiled themselves in urine,
    * Narrated Ibn Abbas: The Prophet once passed by two graves, and those
    two persons (in the graves) were being tortured. He said, "They are
    being tortured not for a great thing (to avoid). One of them never saved
    himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other was going
    about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends). He then took a
    green leaf of a date-palm tree split it into two pieces and fixed one on
    each grave. The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! Why have you done
    so?" He replied, "I hope that their punishment may be lessened till they
    (the leaf) become dry." (Sahih Bukhari 2.443, Sahih Bukhari
    1.215, Sahih Bukhari 1.217, Sahih Bukhari 2.460)
   two or three dead children will shield mother from Hell fire,
    * Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Some women requested the Prophet to
    fix a day for them as the men were taking all his time. On that he
    promised them one day for religious lessons and commandments. Once
    during such a lesson the Prophet said, "A woman whose three children
    die will be shielded by them from the Hell fire." On that a woman asked,
    "If only two die?" He replied, "Even two (will shield her from the Hell-
    fire)." (Sahih Bukhari 1.101, also Sahih Bukhari 2.341, Sahih Bukhari
    2.342, Sahih Bukhari 2.463)
    * Abu Huraira qualified that the three children referred to in the above
    mentioned Hadith as not having reached the age of committing sins (i.e.
    age of puberty) . (Sahih Bukhari 1.102, also Sahih Bukhari 2.340)
   wardens of, al-Mulk 67:8; al-Mudathir 74:28
   wear clothing of tar, Ibrahim 14:50-99
    * Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, "When the people of
    Paradise will enter Paradise and the people of Hell will go to Hell, Allah
    will order those who have had faith equal to the weight of a grain of
    mustard seed to be taken out from Hell. So they will be taken out but (by
    then) they will be blackened (charred). Then they will be put in the river
      of Haya' (rain) or Hayat (life) (the Narrator is in doubt as to which is the
      right term), and they will revive like a grain that grows near the bank of
      a flood channel. Don't you see that it comes out yellow and twisted"
      (Sahih Bukhari 1.21)




2- How will Allah Almighty
Judge the non-Muslims?
Should a person be a
Muslim first to be accepted
in Paradise by Allah
Almighty?
Allah Almighty will admit to Paradise those whom He loves because of their
righteous work and belief:

"O mankind! [this includes all races and all nations] We created you from a
single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that
ye may know each other. Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah
is the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well-
acquainted. (The Noble Quran, 49:13)"

"Not all of them are alike: Of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] are
a portion that stand (For the right): They rehearse the Signs of God all night
long, and they prostrate themselves in adoration. They believe in God and the
Last Day; they enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong; and they hasten
(in emulation) in (all) good works: They are in the ranks of the righteous. (The
Noble Quran, 3:113-3:114)"
My definition of the word 'Muslim':

I believe that the definition of 'Muslim' is not just limited to someone who
believes in Allah Almighty, Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, and the
Noble Quran only. While it is extremely important and becomes mandatory for
a person to believe in the Noble Quran and the Prophethood of Muhammad,
especially if he or she is fully convinced of the Truthfulness of Islam, but the
real Noble Quranic definition of a 'Muslim' is someone who believes in the
Absolute Oneness of GOD Almighty and associates no partners (idols or
humans or any other creations) with Him. This makes any Unitarian and
Monotheist a 'Muslim'. That is why Islam is called 'The Religion of
Abraham', because Abraham, peace be upon him was a true Monotheist and
associated no partners with GOD Almighty. So Salvation is not just reserved
for the Noble Quran's Believers only.

To support my statement above, let us look at the following Noble Verse:

"Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to God,
does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith? For God did
take Abraham for a friend. (The Noble Quran, 4:125)"

"Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth
not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. (The Noble Quran,
112:1-4)"

"Say: 'O People of the Book (i.e., Jews and Christians)! Come to common
terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we
associate no partners with Him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords
and patrons other than Allah.' If then they turn back, say ye: 'Bear witness that
we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will).' (The Noble Quran, 3:64)"

Also, Jesus peace be upon him taught his followers to be "Muslims" 600 years
before the birth of Muhammad peace be upon him: "And behold! I inspired the
Disciples to have faith in Me [Allah] and Mine Messenger [Jesus]; they said,
''We have faith, and do thou bear witness that we bow to Allah as
Muslims.' (The Noble Quran, 5:111)"

Noble Verse 5:111 seems to agree perfectly with Jesus' teachings in the Bible's
Hebrew New Testament in Luke 6:40:
From www.answering-christianity.com/luke6_40.htm:

Jesus using the word "Muslim" in Luke
6:40:
This article was give to me by brother Tamer, may Allah Almighty always be
pleased with him.

Let us look at Luke 6:40 from my N.I.V. Bible "A student is not above his
teacher, but everyone who is fully trained will be like his teacher."



From me, Osama Abdallah:

Evidence from the English translation of Luke 6:40 that further prove that the
word 'Muslim' was used by Jesus:

Luke 6:40 (KJV)
40 The disciple is not above his master: but every one that is perfect shall be as his
master.

Luke 6:40 (Darby)
40 The disciple is not above his teacher, but every one that is perfected shall be as his
teacher.

Luke 6:40 (Young's Literal Translation)
40 A disciple is not above his teacher, but every one perfected shall be as his teacher.

Luke 6:40 (21st Century King James Version)
40 The disciple is not above his master, but every one that is perfect shall be as his
master.

Luke 6:40 (American Standard Version)
40 The disciple is not above his teacher: but every one when he is perfected shall be as
his teacher.

The perfection here means a spiritual one. What the verse is saying is that knowledge is
not what matters! The teacher or master is higher in knowledge than his student. But the
student can be as high as his teacher, or even higher, by being a true 'MUSHLAM' or
Muslim, a spiritually perfect and well-disciplined person!
"Ein talmeed na'leh 'al rabbo; shekken kal adam she'MUSHLAM yihyeh k'rabbo."

Taken from the Aramaic bible society. See also the PDF file at this link.


This is further proved by the Arabic translation:

http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke%206:40;&version=28;




The Arabic word "baseera", which is what is falsely translated for "MUSHLAM" by
the deceiving polytheist trinitarian pagans from the Arabic translators, actually
means "having spiritual knowledge or discipline"! Even in their twisted translation,
the word clearly is used for spiritual discipline and not just technical knowledge of our
worldly knowledge today such as Science or Mathematics or anything else.

In other words:

1-  My math teacher can be more knowledgeable than me in math, but with
my baseera (being a very good Muslim that is), I can be an equal or even better person
than him or her!!

2-  My master, if I were a slave, can be higher than me in authority and worldly
reputation, but with my baseera (with my Islam), I can be an equal or even better person
than him!!

Even their wrong word clearly supports Islam, because the verse is crystal clear in
Aramaic!! The most accurate and honest translation for the Aramaic Mushlam is none
other than the Arabic Muslim, which meansBeliever!




Continuing with brother Tamer's article....

Let us look at what Jesus said in Luke 6:40 in the language of Aramaic
translated into Hebrew as shown below:




"Ein talmeed na'leh 'al rabbo; shekken kal adam she'MUSHLAM yihyeh
k'rabbo."

Taken from the Aramaic bible society. See also the PDF file at this link.

Note: Aramaic and Hebrew are read from right to left, which is opposite to
English.

Translation in English: "No student can be above his teacher, but everyone that
is a MUSLIM, can be as his teacher."

Important Note: The Hebrew word "Mushlam" comes from the root "Sh L
M". "Shalom" which comes from the same root means "peace". The Arabic
word "Muslim" comes from the root "S L M". "Salam" means "peace".
"Salem" means "safe". Also taken from the Aramaic bible
society, http://home.comcast.net/~rzuberi/index_files/page0005.htm,
andhttp://home.comcast.net/~rzuberi/articles/Being_Like_The_Teacher.pd
f.


Another Important Note: In case the pdf file gets lost from the
"home.comcast.net" site, I have uploaded it to my site. You can access a copy
of on my site at this link.

Also, please visit: Jesus peace be upon him spoke Aramaic during his ministry.
See Jesus predicting the coming of Muhammad after him in the Bible.




Most recent discoveries:
Recently Father Pecerillo, a famous Franciscan Archiologist, found more than
twenty churches in Madaba at the south of Jordan. From the Forth Century we
found houses in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Palestine with this inscription in
Arabic :"Bism Allah al Rahman al Rahim" which showed that Christians were
the first to use this name, Allah for GOD Almighty, which proves that the name
of GOD Almighty in the Noble Quran, "Allah" is the correct one. This also
proves to us that the Bible is not all found. There are still missing pieces in it
that disprove trinity.

For more details and proofs, visit: Jewish and Christian Arabs used the word
"Allah" for GOD before Islam. See historical and archeological
evidence and most recent discoveries in the Middle East.


Every religion in this universe started with a Prophet of GOD Almighty.
Judaism started with Moses peace be upon him, Christianity started with Jesus
peace be upon him and so on. Islam on the other hand did not start with
Muhammad peace be upon him. It simply started with the creation of Adam
peace be upon him. When mankind was created, Islam was created. Islam
is a Religion that started with Adam and ended with Muhammad peace be upon
them. Every religion of Allah Almighty in between such as Judaism and
Christianity is part of Islam.

This is very important to know, because now we can see that the people who
believed in the Absolute One and Living GOD Almighty before the birth of
Muhammad peace be upon him were also Muslims.

Important Note: It is up to Allah Almighty to decide who goes to Heaven and
who goes to Hell. But as we've seen in the Noble Verses above, Allah
Almighty doesn't just care about our faith, but also about our good deeds and
hearts.

All of the Righteous Unitarians (those who believe in the Absolute One GOD
Almighty) are Muslims according to Islam. Prophet Muhammad peace be upon
him taught us that faith in the Absolute One GOD is the most important and
fundamental principle. It is the heart of Islam and the mainspring of its power.
All other beliefs, commands and laws of Islam stand firm on this foundation.

One of the beauties of Islam is that when an individual becomes a Unitarian,
this wonderful religion of GOD (Islam) comes natural to him by the Will of
Allah Almighty; "...Such are among the Signs of God: He whom God, guides is
rightly guided; but he whom God leaves to stray,- for him wilt thou find no
protector to lead him to the Right Way. (The Noble Quran, 18:17)".

It comes in such a miraculous way that it creates a direct connection between
Allah Almighty and the individual; "...Allah has endeared the faith to you, Has
made it beautiful in your hearts, and He Has made hateful to you unbelief,
wickedness, and rebellion: such indeed are those who walk in righteousness- A
grace and favour from Allah; and Allah is full of Knowledge and
Wisdom. (The Noble Quran, 49:7-8)"

Once that connection is created, then the new Muslim will naturally avoid
unbelief and wickedness and will stay in the Path of Allah Almighty. The
Muslim's faith will then only increase and strengthen:

"For, believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their
hearts, and when they hear His Signs rehearsed, find their faith strengthened,
and put (all) their trust in their Lord. (The Noble Quran, 8:2)"

"Say, the Holy Spirit has brought the revelation from thy Lord in Truth, in
order to strengthen those who believe, and as a guide and glad tidings to
Muslims. (The Noble Quran, 16:102)"

"It is He [Allah] Who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers,
that they may add faith to their faith- For to Allah belong the forces of the
heavens and the earth; and Allah is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom. (The
Noble Quran, 48:4)"



As long as the person believes in "Absolute One GOD" and
does Righteousness, then he should be ok:
"God forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He
forgiveth anything else, to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with God is to
devise a sin Most heinous indeed. (The Noble Quran, 4:48)"

"Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to God,
does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith? For God did take
Abraham for a friend. (The Noble Quran, 4:125)"

Idol worshiping, trinity, and all other forms of using other creations as
mediators between yourself and GOD Almighty are not accepted. This
supports my statement above about a "Muslim" is one who believes in One
GOD only.

"They say: 'Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (To salvation).'
Say thou: 'Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he
joined not gods with God.' (The Noble Quran, 2:135)"

"Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian; but he was true in Faith, and
bowed his will to God's (Which is Islam), and he joined not gods with God.
 (The Noble Quran, 3:67)"

The "true in Faith" or the "Religion of Abraham" that GOD Almighty accepts is
believing in the Absolute One and Living GOD Almighty. This is the main
point of Islam, and the belief that would ultimately guide the individual to
Salvation.



So how will we be judged at Judgement Day?
Allah Almighty is quite clear in the Noble Quran about how He will judge us in
the Day of Judgement.

Let us look at Noble Verse 10:61 "In whatever business thou mayest be, and
whatever portion thou mayest be reciting from the Quran, and whatever deed
ye (mankind) may be doing, We are witnesses thereof when ye are deeply
engrossed therein. Nor is hidden from thy Lord (so much as) the weight of an
atom on the earth or in heaven. And not the least and not the greatest of these
things but are recorded in a clear record." In this Noble Verse, we see Allah
Almighty clearly describing to us that every single act even an atom of a thing
we do in life from good and bad will be recorded in our records.
Let us look at Noble Verse 34:3 "The unbelievers say, 'Never to us will come
the Hour': Say, 'Nay! but most surely, by my Lord, it will come upon you; by
Him Who knows the unseen, from Whom is not hidden the least little atom in
the heavens or on earth: Nor is there anything less than that, or greater, but is in
the record perspicuous.'"

Let us look at Noble Verse 34:22 "Say: 'Call upon other (gods) whom ye fancy,
besides God: They have no power,- not the weight of an atom,- in the heavens
or on earth: No (sort of) share have they therein, nor is any of them a helper to
God.'" In this Noble Verse Allah Almighty claims that no god but He will do
the Judgement in the Day of Judgement. All of the idols and images that
people worshiped and still do will not take part of any Judgement. They will be
worthless.

Let us look at Noble Verses 99:7-8 "Then shall anyone who has done an atom's
weight of good, see it! And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil,
shall see it." Everything we do in life will be recorded for us. For every atom
of good we do in life we shall see it, and for every atom of evil we do in life we
shall see it also. And Allah Almighty will ultimately make His decision on
whether you will make it to heaven or will make it to hell.




3- So am I suggesting that
there is no need to believe
in the Noble Quran? Or
there is no need to try to
spread Islam to Unitarians
such as the Jews?
Absolutely not! As a Muslim who believes in Allah Almighty and all of His
Revelations, I must believe with all my heart and mind that the Noble Quran is
the Seal of all the Revelations that came from Allah Almighty, and it must be
followed. Allah Almighty clearly said: "The Religion before God is
Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent
therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to
them. But if any deny the Signs of God, God is swift in calling to account. (The
Noble Quran, 3:19)"

But the religion of Islam is not just limited to the Noble Quran's Revelations,
especially to those who never heard of Islam, or Islam was unfortunately
misrepresented to them. Islam started from Adam and ended with Muhammad
peace be upon them. Islam was perfected or finished with the Revelations of
the Noble Quran: "...This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed
My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion....(The
Nobel Quran, 5:3)"

Islam as I mentioned above existed before Prophet Muhammad peace be upon
him and ended with him: "The same religion has He established for you as that
which He enjoined on Noah - the which We have sent by inspiration to thee -
and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye
should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who
worship other things than God, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them.
God chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those
who turn (to Him). (The Noble Quran, 42:13)"

My point about Salvation is: What I am suggesting here is that when a
Muslim is asked about who from Mankind will Allah Almighty admit to
Paradise and whom He won't admit, he should say: Only He the Almighty
Knows, because He will decide based on the person's belief and good deeds on
whether to admit him to Heaven or to Hell. There is no set rule on how the
Judgement will happen. Every individual will have his own special and unique
case that Allah Almighty will consider.

That is why Allah Almighty said in Noble Verses 99:7-8 "Then shall anyone
who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And anyone who has done an
atom's weight of evil, shall see it."


He, the Almighty, also said:
"In whatever business thou mayest be, and whatever portion thou mayest be
reciting from the Quran,- and whatever deed ye (mankind) may be doing,- We
are witnesses thereof when ye are deeply engrossed therein. Nor is hidden from
thy Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom on the earth or in heaven. And not
the least and not the greatest of these things but are recorded in a clear
record. (The Noble Quran, 10:61)"

"There is no moving creature on earth but its sustenance dependeth on God: He
knoweth the time and place of its definite abode and its temporary deposit: All
is in a clear Record. (The Noble Quran, 11:6)"

"Knowest thou not that God knows all that is in heaven and on earth? Indeed it
is all in a Record, and that is easy for God. (The Noble Quran, 22:70)"

"Nor is there aught of the unseen, in heaven or earth, but is (recorded) in a
clear record. (The Noble Quran, 27:75)"

"The Unbelievers say, "Never to us will come the Hour": Say, "Nay! but most
surely, by my Lord, it will come upon you;- by Him Who knows the unseen,-
from Whom is not hidden the least little atom in the heavens or on earth: Nor is
there anything less than that, or greater, but is in the Record
Perspicuous: (The Noble Quran, 34:3)"

"And the Earth will shine with the Glory of its Lord: the Record (of Deeds)
will be placed (open); the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward
and a just decision pronounced between them; and they will not be wronged (in
the least). (The Noble Quran, 39:69)"

"Every matter, small and great, is on record. (The Noble Quran, 54:53)"

"No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a
decree before We bring it into existence: That is truly easy for God: (The
Noble Quran, 57:22)"

"Then he that will be given his Record in his right hand will say: "Ah here!
Read ye my Record! (The Noble Quran, 69:19)"

"And he that will be given his Record in his left hand, will say: "Ah! Would
that my Record had not been given to me! (The Noble Quran, 69:25)"

"And all things have We preserved on record. (The Noble Quran, 78:29)"
A shocking video of a leopard showing mercy to a new born baby-monkey who
 was born while his mother was being eaten was added to section #3 below!

                                    (Click here)




The Mercy of Allah Almighty on
Mankind, and our age of 40 Wisdom in
Islam, Psychology and Science:
The sections of this article are:

1- The Mercy and Forgiveness of Allah Almighty on Mankind.
2- Allah Almighty will not show mercy on those who never show mercy on
others.

3- The 100 Levels of Allah Almighty's Mercy. A shocking video of a leopard
showing kindness to a baby monkey who was just born while the leapard
began eating his mother was added!

4- There are 112 Noble Verses that contain "Most Merciful" in them in the
Noble Quran!

5- Advertising personal sins to others to gain publicity will not be forgiven.

6- Allah Almighty is more forgiving to those who are under 40. The
Wisdom of the age of 40 in Islam.
7- Scientific and Psychological proofs about the Wisdom of the age of 40 in
Islam. See why Allah Almighty is more forgiving to those who are under the
age of 40, and how Science and Psychology proved that people under 40 are
less mature and tend to make more irresponsible decisions (i.e., mistakes and
sins).
1- The Mercy and
Forgiveness of Allah
Almighty on Mankind:
I first of all would like to start this beautiful topic about Allah Almighty's
Mercy by showing this Saying from our beloved Prophet Muhammad peace be
upon him:

Narrated Abu Huraira: "Allah's Apostle said, 'When Allah completed the
creation, He wrote in His Book which is with Him on His Throne, 'My Mercy
overpowers My Anger.' ' (Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Beginning of
Creation, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 416)"

There are ample Noble Verses from the Noble Quran that talk about Allah
Almighty's Mercy and Forgiveness. In fact, when I check the index in the back
of the Noble Quran that I have, I find that there are tons of references of Noble
Verses that talk about Allah Almighty's Mercy and Forgiveness. Without
exaggeration, just by looking at the references, I would say there are at least
100 Noble Verses.

Let us look at few of them that I selected:

"Say: "To whom belongeth all that is in the heavens and on earth?" Say: "To
God. He hath inscribed for Himself (the rule of) Mercy. That He will gather
you together for the Day of Judgment, there is no doubt whatever. It is they
who have lost their own souls, that will not believe. (The Noble Quran, 6:12)"

Disbelievers' sins will be all forgiven for them when they embrace Islam: "Say
to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from unbelief), their past would be
forgiven for them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is
already (a matter of warning for them). (The Noble Quran, 8:38)"

"The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all between,- Exalted in Might,
able to enforce His Will, forgiving again and again. (The Noble Quran,
38:66)"
If we are sincere, our daily sins are almost always forgiven: "Those who avoid
great sins and shameful deeds, only (falling into) small faults,- verily thy
Lord is ample in forgiveness. He knows you well when He brings you out of
the earth, And when ye are hidden in your mothers' wombs. Therefore justify
not yourselves: He knows best who it is that guards against evil. (The Noble
Quran, 53:32)"

If you ask Allah Almighty for forgiveness, then He'll forgive you: "If any one
does evil or wrongs his own soul but afterwards seeks God's forgiveness, he
will find God Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (The Noble Quran, 4:110)"

If you are grateful to Allah Almighty, then He'll give you more: "And
remember! your Lord caused to be declared (publicly): 'If ye are grateful, I
will add more (favours) unto you; But if ye show ingratitude, truly My
punishment is terrible indeed.' (The Noble Quran, 14:7)"

Be sure that Allah Almighty is always Willing to forgive all of your sins: "Say:
'O my Servants who Have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the
Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most
Merciful. (The Noble Quran, 39:53)"

The use of the word "Say" in this Noble Verse means that Allah Almighty
wants us to always remind each others by reciting this Noble Verse to those
who need it.

Allah Almighty accepts our many sins: "If God were to punish men
according to what they deserve, He would not leave on the back of the (earth)
a single living creature: but He gives them respite for a stated Term: when their
Term expires, verily God has in His sight all His Servants. (The Noble Quran,
35:45)"



Allah Almighty is our friend and He is close and listens:
"Your (real) friends are God, His Apostle, and the (fellowship of) believers,-
those who establish regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down
humbly (in worship). (The Noble Quran, 5:55)"

"Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to God,
does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith? For God did
take Abraham for a friend. (The Noble Quran, 4:125)"
Allah Almighty is close and He listens to our prayers: "When My servants ask
thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them): I listen to the prayer of
every suppliant when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will, Listen to
My call, and believe in Me: That they may walk in the right way. (The Noble
Quran, 2:186)"

Narrated Anas: "The Prophet said, 'My Lord says, 'If My slave comes nearer to
me for a span, I go nearer to him for a cubit; and if he comes nearer to Me for
a cubit, I go nearer to him for the span of outstretched arms; and if he
comes to Me walking, I go to him running.' ' (Translation of Sahih Bukhari,
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED), Volume 9, Book 93,
Number 627)"



If you are loved by people, then Allah Almighty loves you:
Narrated Abu Huraira: "Allah's Apostle said, 'If Allah loves a person, He calls
Gabriel, saying, 'Allah loves so and so, O Gabriel love him' So Gabriel would
love him and then would make an announcement in the Heavens: 'Allah has
loved so and-so therefore you should love him also.' So all the dwellers of the
Heavens would love him, and then he is granted the pleasure of the people
on the earth.' (Translation of Sahih Bukhari, ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF
ALLAH (TAWHEED), Volume 9, Book 93, Number 577)"

Allah Almighty gives rewards more than bad deeds at the Day of
Judgement: "If any does good, the reward to him is better than his deed; but
if any does evil, the doers of evil are only punished (to the extent) of their
deeds. (The Noble Quran, 28:84)"



Allah Almighty Loves to record the good deeds only as
much as possible:
It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may
peace be upon him) said: "The Great and the Glorious Lord said (to angels):
Whenever My bondsman intends to corn it an evil, do not record it against
him, but if he actually commits it, then write it as one evil. And when he
intends to do good but does not do it, then take it down is one act of
goodness, but if he does it, then write down ten good deeds (in his
record). (Translation of Sahih Muslim, The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman),
Book 001, Number 0233)"



We should always pray to Allah Almighty for forgiveness:
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr: "Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said to the Prophet "O
Allah's Apostle! Teach me an invocation with which I may invoke Allah in my
prayers." The Prophet said, "Say: O Allah! I have wronged my soul very much
(oppressed myself), and none forgives the sins but You; so please bestow Your
Forgiveness upon me. No doubt, You are the Oft-Forgiving, Most
Merciful." (Translation of Sahih Bukhari, ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF
ALLAH (TAWHEED), Volume 9, Book 93, Number 485)"




2- Allah Almighty will not
show mercy on those who
never show mercy on
others:
Let us look at what Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him said:

Narrated Jarir bin 'Abdullah: "Allah's Apostle said, 'Allah will not be merciful
to those who are not merciful to mankind.' (Translation of Sahih Bukhari,
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED), Volume 9, Book 93,
Number 473)"

The Muslim needs to always be polite, humble, patient, loving and well
mannered when he/she deals with others, whether they were Muslims or non-
Muslims. Allah Almighty certainly doesn't love those who are offensive and
rude to others:
"Allah forbids you not, With regard to those who Fight you not for (your) Faith
Nor drive you out Of your homes, From dealing kindly and justly With them:
For Allah loveth Those who are just. (The Noble Quran, 60:8)"

Please visit Good Manners in Islam.

What does Allah Almighty say about Justice for all in an Islamic State?




3- The 100 Levels of Allah
Almighty's Mercy:
                            Update!
A shocking video of a leopard showing mercy to a new born baby-monkey who
                was born while his mother was being eaten!

                               (Click here)


Again, Allah Almighty Said:

"Say: "To whom belongeth all that is in the heavens and on earth?" Say: "To
God. He hath inscribed for Himself (the rule of) Mercy. That He will gather
you together for the Day of Judgment, there is no doubt whatever. It is they
who have lost their own souls, that will not believe. (The Noble Quran, 6:12)"

Sister Wendy, a new convert to Islam, brought to my attention the 100 levels of
Allah Almighty's Mercy subject, which then prompted me to research it
further. May Allah Almighty always be pleased with her.
How can any human being that ever existed or will ever exist on earth
overpower the 100 levels of Allah Almighty's Mercy, when Allah Almighty
dedicated only one level of His Mercy here on earth for Mankind? Let us look
at the following Saying from Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him:

Narrated Abu Huraira: "I heard Allah's Apostle saying, Allah divided Mercy
into one-hundred parts and He kept its ninety-nine parts with Him and
sent down its one part on the earth, and because of that, its one single
part, His creations are Merciful to each other (see video above!), so that even
the mare lifts up its hoofs away from its baby animal, lest it should trample on
it." (Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Good Manners and Form (Al-Adab),
Volume 8, Book 73, Number 29)"

"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as
saying: Allah created one hundred (parts of mercy) and He distributed one
amongst His creation and kept this one hundred excepting one with Himself
(for the Day of Resurrection). (Translation of Sahih Muslim, The Book
Pertaining to Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance (Kitab Al-Tauba),
Book 037, Number 6630)"

"Salman Farisi reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as
saying: Verily, there are one hundred (parts of) mercy for Allah, and it is
one part of this mercy by virtue of which there is mutual love between the
people and ninety-nine reserved for the Day of Resurrection. (Translation of
Sahih Muslim, The Book Pertaining to Repentance and Exhortation to
Repentance (Kitab Al-Tauba), Book 037, Number 6632)"

"Salman reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Verily,
Allah created, on the same very day when He created the heavens and the
earth, one hundred parts of mercy. Every part of mercy is coextensive with
the space between the heavens. and the earth and He out of this mercy
endowed one part to the earth and it is because of this that the mother shows
affection to her child and even the beasts and birds show kindness to one
another (see video above!) and when there would be the Day of Resurrection,
Allah would make full (use of Mercy). (Translation of Sahih Muslim, The
Book Pertaining to Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance (Kitab Al-
Tauba), Book 037, Number 6634)"

As we clearly see from Prophet Muhammad's Sayings above, Allah Almighty
only shared one level of Mercy with us. How can any one including Adolph
Hitler, who used to bake the innocent Jews in ovens, over power Allah
Almighty's 100 levels of Mercy?! It is impossible! I even highly doubt that
Hitler over powered the one level that Allah Almighty shared with us here on
earth.

So if a mad man like Hitler couldn't over power Allah Almighty's Mercy, then
how is it possible for normal humans like you and me who only mind their own
business and work hard to feed their family and raise their children and please
Allah Almighty to over power Allah Almighty's one hundred levels of Mercy?




4- There are 112 Noble
Verses that contain "Most
Merciful" in them in the
Noble Quran!
I just used my Noble Quran's Search Engine, which is listed above in the site's
logo, and typed "Most Merciful" and chose the "Exact String" option. The
result was 112 Noble Verses returned, which all refer to Allah Almighty being
the "Most Merciful". Notice that Allah Almighty in the Noble Quran is the
Most Merciful and not just Merciful. This should be another crystal clear proof
that Allah Almighty's Mercy is far beyond us and our understanding, and it is
certainly infinitely stronger than all of the evil humans do or cause here on
earth.




5- Advertising personal
sins to others to gain
publicity will not be
forgiven:
Advertised personal sins will not be forgiven in Islam. Allah Almighty will not
forgive the sins that are publicly disclosed and bragged about.




6- Allah Almighty is more
forgiving to those who are
under 40:
Allah Almighty understands that our gradual human growth causes us to make
errors and helps us learn from them:

"We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents: In pain did his mother bear
him, and in pain did she give him birth. The carrying of the (child) to his
weaning is (a period of) thirty months. At length, when he reaches the age of
full strength and attains forty years, he says, 'O my Lord! Grant me that I
may be grateful for Thy favour which Thou has bestowed upon me, and upon
both my parents, and that I may work righteousness such as Thou mayest
approve; and be gracious to me in my issue. Truly have I turned to Thee and
truly do I bow (to Thee) in Islam.' (The Noble Quran, 46:15)"

In this Noble Verse, we clearly see how Allah Almighty considers the person
who reaches the age of 40 as a "mature" person, or a person who reached the
age of complete responsibility and maturity. He, the Almighty, understands
(since He created us) that before we reach the age of 40, we are still under the
maturity level; making a lot of serious mistakes.

While it is true that a sin is a sin, but depending on what stage in life we're
in (age, experience, environment, the way we're raised, our intentions, the
lessons learned from it and whether or not the person truly repented and never
committed the sin again or not, etc...) the same exact sin can be forgiven for
one person while it wouldn't be forgiven for another.

For more details, please visit: How can GOD Almighty be absolutely Just and
Merciful at the same time? How is justice served when Mercy and Forgiveness
of sins are applied to some people and not others?

This Noble Verse seems to suggest that Allah Almighty is very tolerant and
forgiving to our serious sins toward Him before we reach the age of forty.
Notice that He, the Almighty, used the word "Islam" in the Noble Verse.

The use of the word "Islam" in the Noble Verse suggests that in general we
would be a lot more serious about GOD Almighty's True Religion Islam when
we reach the age of 40, because we would be more appreciative for our parents
and better understand what they've gone through from pain when they brought
us here to life, and we would be more careful about striving to work
righteousness that He, the Almighty, "mayest approve", and would be also
more careful about striving to win his Graciousness.

Truly, Allah Almighty is Great! All praise is due to Him!




7- Scientific and
Psychological proofs about
the Wisdom of the age of 40
in Islam:
In this section, we will see why Allah Almighty is more forgiving to those who
are under the age of 40, and how Science and Psychology proved that people
under 40 are less mature and tend to make more irresponsible decisions (i.e.,
mistakes and sins).
Note: The following articles are mixed between Muslim and non-Muslim web
sites. However, in all articles, ample scientific evidence from non-Muslim
sources and books which were written by specialized scientists were provided.
Therefore, all of the articles below are objective.




Article #1:
The following article was taken
from: http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/wfnetwork/rft/wfpedia/wfpCSent.htm
l

                                       Career Stages
                                A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry
                                                    by
                                    Krysia Wrobel, Emory University
                           Patricia Raskin, Ph.D., Columbia Teachers College
                            Vivian Maranzano, Columbia Teachers College
                             Judith Leibholz Frankel, Executive Recruiter
                               Amy Beacom, Columbia Teachers College
Back to WF Encyclopedia Index
  Go to Recommended Readings on this topic
  Go to Suggested Class Activities


Basic Concepts and Definitions

Career stages are typically defined as evolutionary phases of working life. The
concept of career stage evolved as psychoanalysts (Erikson), developmental
psychologists (Buehler, Levinson, Piaget), and sociologists (Form, Miller)
independently studied stages of life and work (Super, 1957). Developmentalists
concentrated on stages of psychological development while sociologists identified
periods of individuals' working lives, and by combining these two foci career stages
first emerge in the literature. For example, the Exploratory Stage defined by Buehler
(1933), a German developmentalist, and the Initial Work Period classified by
sociologists Form and Miller (1949) both describe the experience of adolescents'
exploration of work. As a developmental stage, the Exploratory Stage represents the
time period in which adolescents define their adult identities through spousal, social,
and career choices, while the Initial Work Period describes the first jobs adolescents
take to explore the world of work. In this way, the contributions of both
psychologists and sociologists created a framework for understanding careers using
the concept of career stage. However, while these early models of career stage
provide a useful structure to conceptualize career development, many of the early
theorists assumed career stages to be linear and stable. Current researchers (e.g.,
Hall and Schein) have updated the concept of career stage to encompass modern,
varied patterns of career development. These patterns tend to be more fluid and
dynamic.
Importance of Topic to Work-Family Studies

Career stage is one way of thinking about career development, and in the
work/family context it is most related to the career development of women [see
entry, Career Development of Women]. It is widely recognized that women's career
development is significantly affected by family responsibilities, and it follows that
women also experience career stages uniquely as a result of work/family conflict. An
understanding of career stage helps to frame the career development challenges
women face as they progress from the early stages of career exploration and career
choice to pre-retirement and retirement decisions.

Women progress through careers at different rates and in varied succession
depending on a number of unique factors, such as family status. For that reason, it
may be more useful when studying work/family issues to use stage theory that is
independent of age rather than to use age-based stages. For example, while men
typically enter and exit the career exploration stage during adolescence, women may
experience this stage during mid-life for the first time, or they may re-enter
exploration as childcare responsibilities decrease. Similarly, the retirement stage is
based on the premise that a man has a lifelong career while women may "retire" or
intermittently leave the labor force as pregnancy or other family obligations arise.

Further, family life stage often parallels the career stage of the individual. For
instance, the demands made at work as one moves through career establishment
occur concurrently with the demands made on the family as children are born and
begin school. As Yohalem (1980) pointed out in a follow-up study of Ginzberg's
educated women, career progress is often dependent upon full-time, full-year
employment. Thus, family members who are equally committed to career and family
often fit the "interrupted" career pattern described by Super. Schwartz (1989) aptly
identified this phenomenon in "The Mommy Track," while Evetts (1994; in Nicholson,
1996) noted that careers which do not follow a steady pattern of continuous service
and regular and steady promotion are likely to be considered "imperfect."

Increasingly, men are also adapting their careers to participate more fully in the
parenting role. As the work/family field in general becomes less gendered,
progressively more men will enter the discussion of how family demands affect their
career development, and thus, career stages.

State of the Body of Knowledge

Career stage theory differs from other models of career development in that the
assumption is made that stages are discrete, that they build on former stages, and
that there are one or more developmental tasks appropriate to each stage. For the
most part, stage theory has been applied to men, and little longitudinal research has
been done to validate specific career stage theories. (Only the Career Pattern Study
conducted by Super and his longtime colleague was designed to test stage theory.)
As in other types of stage theories, theorists differ in how they demarcate stages.
Some authors use chronological age as bounds, whereas others use task or more
generic markers. Naturally, career stages which are closely related to age or life
stage are more strongly associated with developmental theories, while age-
independent, task-relevant stages are derived from a more sociological or economic
foundation. Further, as one would expect, the focus of interest shifts from the
individual to the organizational or societal level, depending on the discipline of the
theorist.

Initial work on career stage was developed by sociologists Form and Miller (1949)
who posited the preparatory work period, initial work period, trial work period, stable
work period, and retirement. Super (1957) borrowed from that sociological approach
as well as from Buehler's (1933) more general developmental theory, to posit and
test his initial career stages: exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline.

Although career patterns are not always related to stage, they often are associated.
For example, when Super talked about women's career patterns (stable
homemaking, conventional, stable working, double track, interrupted, unstable, and
multiple trial), it is evident that stage is implied. It is apparent that Super made the
assumption that homemaking should be the primary life role for women, and that
entering into the labor force would be somewhat unusual and likely to parallel the
less successful career patterns described for men.

Career Stage Research by Theorist

Erik Erikson (Psychoanalytic psychologist)
Erik Erikson (1950) described eight stages of the human life cycle, from infancy to
old age, with each stage marked by a crisis that individuals must resolve before
continuing to the next stage. The fifth stage, identity versus role confusion, is
designated as most central to developing an occupational identity, whereas his
seventh stage, middle adulthood (40-65), has as its conflict generativity verses
stagnation, which refers to a person's ability to care for another person. The most
important event in this stage is parenting. Does the adult have the ability to care and
guide the next generation? According to Erikson, "A person does best at this time to
put aside thoughts of death and balance its certainty with the only happiness that is
lasting: to increase, by whatever is yours to give, the good will and higher order in
your sector of the world". Generativity can also be seen at work; it is during this
stage that individuals are more likely to become mentors and leaders and begin to
think about succession planning if the work calls for it.

Douglas T. Hall (Organizational psychologist)
Hall documented the transition of the classic, linear model of career stage to a
modern view of careers as a series of dynamic, interrelated experiences in his book,
The Career is Dead, Long Live the Career (1996). He coined the term "Protean
Career" which refers to the concept of the individual as the driver of the career
rather than the organization [see Protean Career entry in the Work-Family
Encyclopedia]. Hall's work describes the changing contract between employer and
employee and its effects, such as an increased frequency in job and career changes
and ultimately, less organizational commitment. This transformation has
permanently altered how individuals (male or female) move through their careers,
and how modern theorists define career stages.

Daniel Levinson (Developmental psychologist)
Daniel Levinson (1986) focused on relatively universal, age-linked developmental
periods that unfold in an orderly sequence and cluster around four eras of the human
life-cycle: pre-adulthood, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood.
Each era (sometimes referred to as "seasons" or "times of life") is characterized by
both stable and transitional periods in which there is either pursuit of life values or
questioning of the status quo leading to a reappraisal of one's life. Levinson has
taken a stage approach to career development in adulthood, and has written about
both men and women. One of his major contributions to stage theory is the
identification and explication of transitional stages (1978). Transitions are likely to
occur more than once and permit us to think about re-exploration and re-
establishment. This idea of recapitulation is echoed in other general developmental
stage theorists' work, such as Erikson (1963), and is more inclusive of women's
career development.

Edgar Schein (Organizational psychologist)
Although not a model of career stage, Schein's "career anchors" have provided a
conceptual understanding of individual career development within the current reality
of impermanent organizational ties. Schein posits that an individual's self-concept,
basic values, motives, and needs serve to provide a foundation from which to make
difficult life choices, including decisions regarding career and family.

Gail Sheehy (Journalist, popular author)
In her book Passages, Gail Sheehy (1976) appealed to a wide audience and
popularized life-stage theory. Informed by Levinson's work, she identified life stages
as Pulling Up Roots (18-22), the Trying Twenties (22-29), Catching Thirty
(approaching 30), Rooting and Extending (early 30's), the Deadline Decade (35-45),
and Renewal and Resignation (mid-40's). She describes passages as the transitional
periods between life stages. Although they are difficult for most adults, they also
provide the necessary impetus for growth as one gives up the securities of one stage
in order to move on to the next. Sheehy's life stages are highly relevant to the
discussion of career stage because she marries developmental tasks with corollary
career tasks, such as the duality of the search for identity and career.

Donald Super (Counseling psychologist)
Donald Super (1980) said that career development takes place across one's entire
life-span and can be divided into five stages or "maxicycles": Growth (4-to13);
Exploration (14-to-24); Establishment (25-to-44); Maintenance (45-65); and
Disengagement (65 and over). Like Erikson, Super postulated that not everyone
progresses through these stages at fixed ages or in the same fashion, and that
within each stage are tasks whose mastery allows people to function successfully
within that stage while preparing them to move on to the next task. Before entering
the Maintenance stage, many individuals are in the process of asking the standard
mid-life question, "Do I want to do this job for the next twenty years?" eventually
deciding to either hang on or let go. If they decide to hang on, they enter the
Maintenance stage. If they decide to let go and change job, company, or career, they
recycle back to earlier stages, crystallize new career development objectives, and
move forward from there. For those who hold on, they maintain what they have,
update their skills and knowledge, and innovate.

Career Stage Research by Age

Childhood
Gottfredson's theory of conscription and compromise (1996) is the only career stage
theory applied to children. She defined 4 stages. During stage 1 (ages 3-5), children
develop an orientation to size and power. In stage 2 (ages 6-8), children construct
their tolerable -sextype boundary. Stage 3 (-13) entails orientation to social
valuation, and in stage 4 (ages 14 and older) adolescents develop their orientation to
the internal, unique sense of self (Swanson & Fouad, 1999).

Early adolescence
The developmental career task of early adolescence is exploration, typically done in
conjunction with school and family. Little research has been done on this age group,
and most of the literature is about programs that are designed to increase
adolescent exploration of the world of work.

Late adolescence
During this period, the construct of career maturity is added to exploration, i.e., the
idea that there are age-appropriate skills to be mastered at every career stage.
Considerable research has been done on this construct. Findings of the research in
this area have included the notion that career maturity increases with age (Patton &
Creed, 2001), is positively correlated with optimism (Creed, et al. 2002), and is
related to an extroverted adjustment style and positive orientation to social norms
(Savickas et al., 2002).

A measure of career maturity that has been widely used by researchers in this area
is the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI), which as developed by John Crites in 1973
and revised by Crites & Savickas in 1996. The CMI contains attitude and competence
scales which are combined to obtain an overall career maturity score.

Young adulthood
During this period, the most significant developmental task is establishment. Young
adults experience a series of "trial" jobs before more firmly establishing themselves
in a more stable career. This process of establishing oneself is the primary task
associated with young adulthood, and once stabilized, consolidation and
advancement become the next developmental tasks. Several important concepts
surface during this period of life, including career adaptability and career adjustment.
In addition, gender differences become apparent as men and women choose whether
or not to follow paths congruent with traditional gender roles.

Middle adulthood
Levinson's Mid-Life Transition era, characterized by reappraisal, stress, angst, or
freedom, begins in middle adulthood. "What have I done with my life? or "What do I
truly want?" are often questions asked during this period of time. For men, state of
health or career accomplishment may predominate. Levinson posits that the reason
for this fixation on reevaluation is based on three factors that occur around this
period of time: first, a modest decline in body functioning that may be interpreted as
a loss of vigor as well as a reminder of one's mortality; second, an age shift that
occurs as younger people regard individuals aged in the 40's to be of "another
generation"; and third, a reflective examination of their youthful dreams. Women, on
the other hand, may perceive this era as an opportunity: one to pursue either
personal or career development goals now that their childbearing role has peaked.

Older workers
Although little research exists on career stage as adults approach retirement,
developmental stage in general is implicated. Older workers' psychosocial
developmental stage, according to Erikson (1950), is ego integrity versus despair.
The basic virtue is wisdom (Erikson, 1963). This stage implies self acceptance. As
workers age, it is manifested through different career choices and changes to the
definition of career success (DBM, 2001). Older workers are more likely to consult,
seek self employment, perform community service, and they are more likely to work
part time (DBM 2001).

Older workers' attitudes toward career development activities and mobility relate to
such factors as current employment (experience or fear of lay-offs), tenure or stage
in their careers, need for achievement, and need for growth. In addition, fear of
stagnation, marketability perceptions, self esteem, and job market conditions play a
role in career decision making. A decision to engage in training or retraining can lead
an older worker to identity growth and enhanced self-esteem which in turn may
result in greater commitment to future career-development goals.

In a recent longitudinal study, however, Roberts & Friend (1998) found that
subjective career momentum (in contrast to objective indices of career plateau) in
women in their early 50's (N=83) was associated with work as central to identity.
These women were in high status jobs and had higher scores on measures of
psychological and physical well-being. These findings are consistent with the idea
that women's career stages may differ from men's.

Part-time work is an increasingly important phenomenon among older workers. More
than a third of retirees want to work part-time for "interest and enjoyment" (Roper,
2002). This reflects a relatively new and increasingly common set of circumstances
among late-stage workers, "bridge jobs." This category of jobs offers new
experiences, provides flexibility, and bridges the gap between careers or before
leaving the workforce permanently.

Implications for Practice and Research

The majority of the work written on career stage results from studies of men, and
much of that research was done prior to 1990. While the career development of
women has been explored, the concept of career stage as uniquely experienced by
women is not addressed in the literature. With the exception of Levinson and early
writers who wrote brief journal articles postulating career stages for women (e.g.,
Zytowsky, 1969 and Psathas, 1969), no serious attempts have been made to
differentiate women's career stages from men's. Researchers have explored the
differences that mark women's career development experiences but that uniqueness
has not been adequately reflected in the study of career stage.

Women continue to perform the majority share of household and childcare duties,
and the impact of those family responsibilities on career stage needs to be studied.
Possible topics for further exploration include the formation of new career stages
based on women's unique needs, varied career stage patterns of women, and the
effect of modern family structure and dual-career families on men's career stages.

Stage theory is also traditionally based on the assumption that an ordinary career
takes place over time in relatively few organizations. Hall's concept (1996) of the
Protean Career (i.e., a boundaryless career based on skills and abilities that function
independent of specific organizations) calls prior stage theory of adulthood into
question. As the career becomes more internally defined, stage theory will focus
more on internal, individual decision-making processes rather than the relationship
of the individual to an employer.
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       Article #2:
       The following article was taken from: http://www.islam-online.net/iol-
       English/qadaya/psychology-2/psychology5.asp
Note: This article's footnotes are located right under it.

Principles of Human Development
Derivable from the Qur'an and Hadith
In the opening chapter of the Qur'an, the Fatihah, God declares that He is the
Lord and Cherisher of the worlds:
All praises are due to Allah, Lord of the worlds. (1:2)
What this means is that He is the sole creator of the universe and that He
nourishes and sustains it. The implication is that He is the originator of
everything (seen and unseen, known and unknown) and that everything
depends on Him for sustenance, growth, and development. This interpretation
is conveyed in the following verse of the Qur'an:
God is the creator of all things, and He is the guardian and disposer of all
affairs. (39:62)
These verses provide the background for our discussion on aspects and
principles of human development in the Qur'an, particularly cognitive
development. In fact, as far as the Qur'an is concerned, the meaning of these
two verses is the fundamental principle of human development. So, God is the
creator of man, and He is the sole determinant of the pattern and process of his
growth and development. The following paragraphs enunciate this dominant
principle in forms of subprinciples of human development.
In the Islamic perspective of developmental psychology, the following
principles are identifiable.

Human Life (Growth and Development) Is a Gradual Process
This is the first principle of development that can be derived from the Qur'an.
Having told us that He is the creator, guardian, and disposer of all things, God
also told us that He created man in various progressive stages of growth and
development. In other words, man's life has been patterned in stages from
conception to death. The stages through which man passes in his growth and
development are not merely a matter of chance or accident. They were
predesigned, predetermined, and graduated by God Himself. God mentions this
basic fact in a number of verses in the Qur'an. Examples of such verses are the
following:
It is He Who created all things and ordered them in due proportions. (25:2)
This verse clearly spells out the fact that the life of every thing has been
designed in such a way that every aspect of it is proportionately graduated. In
the case of human growth and development it means that the various phases
mentioned above have been duly proportioned and all humans have to pass
through each stage up to old age and death. That growth and development do
not take place at once but pass through the duly and proportionately designed
phases is what makes them a gradual process. The following verse clearly
mentions that we have been created and caused to grow in phases, not at once:

   What is the matter with you, that you place not your hope for kindness and long suffering in
   God? Seeing that it is He that has created you in diverse stages? (71:13-14)


      Ibn Kathir reported that Abdullah ibn Abbas (hereinafter referred to as
      Ibn Abbas) and others interpreted this verse to mean that man has been
      created from a drop of sperm, then transformed into a clot of blood, then
      into a morsel of flesh, and so on. Allah says in the Qur'an:

      You shall surely travel from stage to stage. (84:19)

      Ibn Kathir again reported that 'Ikrimah (one of the disciples of Ibn
      Abbas) interpreted this verse to mean that man shall grow from one
      condition to the other such that he becomes a toddler after being an
      infant, old after being young and strong.
      The above verses tell us in general terms that man's growth and
      development definitely follow certain stages. These stages are
      specifically spelled out in some other verses in the Qur'an in more
      elaborate and particular terms. The Prophet himself enunciated and
      expounded them in more detail in some of his traditions. These will be
      seen in our subsequent discussions. It is however important to note that
      the phases through which growth and development pass are themselves
      spread over two broad stages.
      Human life (growth and development) has been categorized in the
      Qur'an into two broad phases: the prenatal and the postnatal. Each of
      these phases has been subdivided into different substages having
      different terms and periods. The following Qur'anic verse succinctly
      describes the first phase of human life:

   He makes you in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of
   darkness. Such is God, your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion. There is no god
   but He: then how are you turned away (from your true center)? (39:6)


      In another verse, the Qur'an describes the two phases in a precise and
      concise manner:

   It is He Who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a leech-like clot; then
   does He get you out (into the light) as a child; then lets you (grow and) reach your age of full
   strength, then lets you become old-though of you there are some who die before-and lets you
reach a term appointed; in order that you may learn wisdom. (40:67)


   The Qur'an has also told us that the first phase has a certain fixed and
   definite term within which it reaches its apex of development. Then it is
   terminated through birth (by delivery). The Qur'an says:
   And We cause Whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed
   term. (22:5)
   But in much more elaborate, precise, and detailed terms the following
   verse further describes these two broad stages with their respective
   specific phases. It reads thus:

O mankind! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then verily, We have created you (i.e.
Adam) from dust, then from a nutfah (mixed drops of male and female sexual discharges), then
from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood) then from a little lump of flesh - partly formed
and partly unformed - that We make it clear to you (i.e. to show you our Power and ability to do
what We Will). And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term,
then We bring you out as infants, then (give you growth) that you may reach your age of full
strength. And among you there is he who dies (young), and among you there is he who is
brought back to the miserable old age, so that he knows nothing after having known. (22:5)


   The Prophet (S.A.W.) has precisely and accurately described the first
   broad stage with fixed time specifications stipulated for each of the
   phases within it. The hadith reads thus:

Lo! The creation of each one of you is composed in the womb of his mother (first) as
a nutfah (mixed drop of sperm and ovum) for forty days then after that he transforms
to alaqah (a clot of congealed blood) for a similar term, then he transforms to mudghah (a lump
of flesh), and then an Angel is sent to blow the spirit into him.18


   The Qur'an has also told us that the first broad stage (prenatal) has a
   certain fixed and definite term within which it reaches its apex of
   development. Then it is terminated through birth. Allah says:
   And We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed
   term. (22:5)
   Therefore, the Qur'an has established that the prenatal period is definite
   and fixed (usually 9 months under normal circumstances as enunciated
   in one of the Prophetic traditions) and as experienced practically in daily
   life. However, the Qur'an further mentions to us that there are
   exceptional cases whereby the prenatal period terminates, before or after
   the normal term. And all these happen in accordance with God's
   Absolute Will and Decree. The Qur'an says:

He it is that fashions (shapes) you in the wombs as He pleases. There is no god save He, the
Exalted in Might, the Wise. (2:6)
   This means that the nature, form, size, and time in which individuals are
   created and shaped in the womb may vary according to the will and
   wishes of God. Because of this, He affirms that some pregnancies may
   be delivered before or after the normal time of delivery. But the
   knowledge of that (addition or reduction in time) is His exclusive
   preserve:

God doth know what every female (womb) doth bear, by how much the wombs fall short (of
their time or number) or do exceed. Every single thing is before His sight, in (due) proportion.
He knoweth the unseen and that which is open: He is the Great, the Most High. (13:8-9)


   As for the postnatal phase of growth and development, the Qur'an does
   not mention any fixed span of life that is generally applicable to all
   individuals; it differs from one individual to the other. That is why the
   Qur'an says:
   And some of you are called to die (at different ages) and some are sent to
   the feeblest old age. (22:6)
   But if the postnatal period is taken in its entirety, Islamic scholars have
   divided it into four broad stages, and each stage is itself divided into
   short substages. Allah says:

It is God Who creates you and takes your souls at death; and of you there are some who are sent
back to a feeble age, so that they know nothing after having known much. (16:70)


   In his commentary on this verse, Gummi (1922-1992) says the
   following:

Some Islamic scholars have said that man's life (after birth) has four broad stages. The first stage
is the stage of continuous growth and development, which begins from 0 to 33 years (the end of
youth and the age at which an individual attains full physical and intellectual maturity). The
second stage, from 33 to 40, is the stage of constancy in which increase in growth and
development is hardly noticeable. The age of 40 is usually considered the stage at which both
physical and intellectual ability reach maturity. The third stage is the stage of mid- or proper
adulthood (al-kuhulah). From 40 to 60 years man begins to decline physically and mentally
though so subtly and steadily that it can hardly be noticed. The last stage, from 60 to the end of
life, is the stage of old age and decline (senescence). In this stage decline becomes more obvious
and noticeable.19


   Pattern of Human Growth and Development
   According to the Qur'an, human growth and development follow one
   common pattern which is applicable to every human being. Despite
   individual differences this pattern applies to every person. The pattern is
   that every individual grows and develops from initial weakness to
   strength and then to weakness. In other words, growth and development
   follow a certain natural inevitable law of rise and fall. That is to say that
   when the individual gradually reaches the apex of his development,
   whether physical or cognitive, he then begins to decline gradually. The
   Qur'an is very precise about this:

It is God Who created you in a state of (helpless) weakness, then gave (you) strength after
weakness, then, after strength, gave (you) weakness and a hoary head; He creates as He wills.
And it is He Who has all knowledge and power. (30:54)


   It needs to be emphasized here that this single pattern mentioned in this
   principle and as demonstrated in this verse is applicable to all human
   beings. We are all created in a state of weakness. This refers to the early
   stage of our creation right inside the wombs and up to delivery. We are
   weak at these early stages both physically and mentally. This weakness
   at the onset of our life is also mentioned in another place (Surat al-
   Nahl) in the Qur'an but with specific reference to mental weaknesses:

And Allah has brought you out from the wombs of your mothers while you know nothing. And
He gave you hearing, sight, and hearts that you might give thanks (to Him). (16:78)


   In several other verses this single and common pattern of early weakness
   that first characterizes every person's life and then strength in later
   development is also clearly indicated. For example:

We have enjoined on kindness to his parents: In pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did
she give him birth. The carrying of the child (in the womb) to his weaving is (a period of) thirty
months. At length when he reaches the age of full strength and attains forty years he says, O my
Lord? Grant me that I may be grateful for thy favour, which Thou has bestowed upon me, and
upon my parents.20


   The necessary analogical deduction that can be made from this verse is
   that each person's life begins in weakness, gradually attains strength, and
   then gradually declines, just as the first verse under this principle clearly
   states. The decline is the beginning of a second dimension of weakness
   that characterizes human life at the end of one's life. And this has also
   been stated in this verse and several others. This pattern is certainly
   common to all human beings as it is witnessed in our life experiences.
   This principle, it should be noted, does not eliminate the fact of
   individual differences. What is actually meant is that, although this
   pattern is applicable to all humans, there are always a number of
   differences among individuals in terms of specific developmental
   variables and processes. For the purpose of illustration, let us assume
   that two identical things are born at the same moment. This principle
   applies to both of them in the sense that they are both helpless, weak,
miniature human beings, and both gradually begin to grow and develop
until both attain full strength. However, it may be noticed that one may
be dark in complexion while another may be light. Again, while one may
be fat, the other may be slim. These are some forms of individual
differences. They do not however, like all other forms, eliminate the fact
of the common pattern of development represented by this principle, just
as the principle itself does not wipe away this very fact of individual
differences. A more detailed discussion on individual differences in
development comes later in this article.

Human Development Is a Cumulative and Simultaneous Process
If all the verses of the Qur'an that talk about human development in its
various stages are taken together, synthesized, and analyzed, it will be
seen that the Qur'an had postulated that human development is
cumulative in nature. That is to say, any new development acquired or
attained by the individual adds up to the already existing one. In this
way, development builds one aspect upon another up to the fullest stage.
The Qur'an also teaches us that human development is a simultaneously
interwoven process. This means that all the aspects of development-
physical, mental, social, emotional, moral-are inseparable. Each one
reinforces the other. This means that one aspect of development does not
wait until another develops to its fullest before it commences. The
physical and mental developments of a person for example go together
with his social, emotional, and moral development. At each stage, all
these aspects increase in growth and maturation proportionally and
consecutively, hence, the simultaneous nature of development. Many of
the verses that talk about development refer to all its aspects either
explicity or implicity. But the physical and cognitive aspects of it are
especially explicity tied to each other in several verses of the Qur'an.
This is very clear in several verses quoted earlier. The verse in which
Allah describes the two broad stages at the same time contains not only
mention of physical development but also that of mental
development.21 The same thing applies to the verses in which He
mentions, "attainment of full strength" in development and growth.
Undoubtedly, the full strength so attained is not only restricted to
physical strength but also necessarily includes all the other aspects of
development. This is all the more obvious in the verses where Allah
refers to giving orphans their wealth when they attain "full strength." It
certainly means both physical and mental development. While physical
development as implied in the verse is indisputably more obvious from
the word "strength" which immediately signifies physical stature and
   posture, the mental component is definitely included as it is clearly
   alluded to by another verse of the Qur'an:

Make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage: if then you find sound judgement in
them: release their property to them; but consume it not wastefully nor in haste against their
growing. (4:6)


   The mention of age of marriage is a direct reference to physical maturity
   and growth while sound judgement directly means mental maturity. The
   fact of the simultaneous nature of growth and development in human life
   is thus confirmed.
   However, the Qur'an also alludes to the fact that some aspects may
   develop faster than others, thus creating intra-individual differences in
   development. For example, the individual's physical development may
   be faster than his mental development or vice versa. The Qur'an
   therefore confirms the factor of mental retardation. In this situation, the
   individual may grow and develop physically but may not grow and
   develop at the same rate mentally. Allah alludes to this in the following
   verse where He prescribes recording debt contracts:

If the party liable is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable himself to dictate, let his guardian
dictate faithfully. (2:282)


   Several other verses mention these cases of abnormal mental
   development. Another form of abnormal development has also been
   mentioned in another verse. This is abnormal language development,
   which causes speech impairment. In a parabolic and euphemistic
   description of the disbeliever, this factor is denoted, as it appears in the
   verse:
   And Allah puts forward (another) example of two men, one of them
   dumb, who has no power over anything (disbeliever) and he is a burden
   on his master; whichever way he direct him, he brings no good. Is such a
   man equal to one (believer) who commands justice, and is himself on the
   straight path? (16:76)
   In actual sense, since the Qur'an is not a textbook of psychology, only
   through deductions and inferences can we extract psychological facts
   from it. This means that it is the apparent significations and connotations
   of the verses that are taken into consideration, not necessarily the
   specific contingencies or instances upon which the verses were revealed.
   And this is an accepted principle in 'Ilmul-Usul.22
   These verses and several others do confirm that abnormality affects
   some aspects of a person's development, just as it can affect it in its
   entirety.

   Human Life (Growth and Development) Transcends Earthly
   Phenomenal Existence
   Whereas all the theories of development in modern developmental
   psychology are confined only to this earthly (temporal) life, the Qur'an
   projects human life beyond this life. The Qur'an considers the present
   life as the foundation of another life that is permanent and everlasting.
   Man is going to be transformed into a different form of life whose
   growth and development are transcendental and divine. Such growth and
   development, however, may be either in endless bliss or torment. This is
   why in many of the verses where Allah mentions the stages of human
   development, He links them directly with the life after death. It shall be a
   continuation of life in some sorts. For example, in Surat al-
   Mu'minun Allah enumerates the stages of human development in this
   earthly life. He follows the preceding verses with a mention of the next
   life:

Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay); then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a
place of rest firmly fixed; then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that
clot We made a (foetus) lump, then We made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with
flesh; then We developed out of it another creature (or full human being). So blessed be God, the
Best to create! After that, at length ye will die. Again, on the Day of Judgement, will ye be
raised up. (23:12-16)


   Therefore, it is clear that for a comprehensive study of man, this aspect
   of divine life after death should be incorporated. This is because the fear
   of death and what happens beyond it is inherent in every human being
   and it has a lot of bearing on man's psychological dispositions and
   development. Unless this is done, our knowledge about the nature of
   man will continue to remain primitive and partial.

   Human Life (Growth and Development) Passes through Certain
   Critical and Sensitive Periods
   If some verses and prophetic traditions are studied closely, it will be
   discovered that Islam has great concern regarding some of the periods
   and phases of human development. These are essentially the formative
   period or phases. They lay the foundation upon which later development
   builds. In this respect the entire prenatal, infancy, childhood, and
   adolescent periods can all be considered sensitive.
   The sensitive nature of the prenatal stage for example can be seen in the
   fact that Muslims have been enjoined to pray, by the Prophet, just when
   they are about to copulate.23
This is meant as supplication to Allah for protection from Satan and a
sound offering. Soundness here actually means protection from all sorts
of ailments that may retard the development and growth of any aspect of
the child's life. In the same way, the Qur'an enjoins Muslims to keep
supplicating to Allah for a good offspring before and during
pregnancy.24 And when a child is eventually born, the call to prayer
should be made in his ears; it was done and enjoined by the Prophet. 25
In actual fact, the primary concern of all these is the sound moral
development of the child. This concern is an indication of the sensitive
and critical nature of this period as the root of the later periods. Over and
above all these, the Prophet has told us that it was at this period that
certain important things of a person's life are decreed by Allah. He tells
us that the angel sent to blow the spirit into the foetus is commanded by
Allah to write its provisions (rizq), deeds (amal), life span (ajal), and
destiny-whether the person will be in goodness or
wickedness (sa'Eµd or shaqiy).26 This decree then runs through a
person's life up to the Hereafter. This then makes this period even more
sensitive and critical than all the rest since they all depend on it.
After birth, the Prophet enjoins Muslims to be very sensitive and careful
with the upbringing of their children. Numerous hadith have been
reported in this regard. However, another period that is considered very
critical and sensitive is the adolescent period. As a period of transition
from childhood to adulthood it constitutes a turning point in an
individual's life. It is prone to a lot of exuberance, anxieties excitements
and temptations. The Prophet has in a number of his traditions made
specific references to this stage, which allude to its sensitivity and
importance. One example is the hadith in which the Prophet specially
mentions seven categories of people that shall be comforted under the
shade of the Glorious Throne of Allah. One of them is a young
(adolescent) man who grows up in devotion and commitment to the
worship of Allah.27 This hadith alludes to the critical nature of the
adolescent period in the sense that, having been full of temptations and
exuberance, a young person who resists these temptations deserves to be
specially comforted among those who shall attain felicity on the Day of
Judgement.
Besides the troubles that characterize the adolescent period, some other
reasons that make it a critical and sensitive period in an individual's
development are its transitional nature and the fact that it marks the
beginning of taklif (legal responsibility). From the time the individual
attains puberty he shall be held responsible for all his deeds. If he
commits any sin it shall be recorded against him. This is indicated in
       many Prophetic traditions, one of which is:
       The pen (which records deeds) has been suspended in respect of three
       people: the child until he attains puberty . . .28
       Whatever can be said regarding the critical and sensitive nature of the
       adolescent period is summed up in this hadith. In a real sense, from the
       Islamic perspective, an individual's later life (growth and development)
       is made or marred at this period.


Article's Footnotes:
16 - Harris, Education, 2
17 - Badri, The Dilemma of Muslim Psychologists.
18 - Reported by Bukhari on the authority of Abullah ibn Mas'ud on the beginning of
     creation, in the chapter "Mention of the Angel," vol. 41, Hadith No. 549.
19 - 19. Abubakar Mahmoud Gummi, Radd al-Adhhan ila-Ma'an al-Qur'an (a
     commentary of the Qur'an) (Beirut: Dar al-Arabiyyah, 1982). 20. Surah al-Ahqaf
     (46:15). Other chapters and verses in which this attainment of full strength after
     weakness is mentioned are 40:67; 22:5; 17:34; 28:14; and 12:22. 21. See note (18)
     above. 22. That is the Science of Jurisprudence in Islam. The Principle referred to
     here is that which says: "Al-Itibar bi Umum al-Lafz la bi khusus al-ma'ana," i.e.,
     Consideration can be made in juristic decisions to general meaning and implications
     of phrases or statements, in addition to their specific connotations. 23. A hadith
     reported by both Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abdullahi ibn Abbas. 24.
     See Surah al-Ahqaf (46), verse 15 25. A hadith reported by Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi,
     and Hakim, on the authority of Abu Rafi. 26. See note (19) above.
20 - Ibid, x.
21 - Sabra, "The Astronomical Origin of Ibn al-Haytham's Concept of Experiment, 136.
22 - Boring, A History of Experimental Psychology; Brennan, History and Systems of
     Psychology; H. Kendler, Historical Foundations of Modern Psychology
     (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987); D. Schultz, A History of Modern
     Psychology, 3rd ed. (Orland: Academic Press, 1981).
23 - Boring, A History of Experimental Psychology.
24 - G. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics, translated by H. Adler, edited by D. Howes
     and E. Boring (New York: Holt, Rinhart and Winston, 1860).
25 - Brennan, History and Systems of Psychology, 155.
26 - Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics, 10.
27 - Ibid., xxvii.
28 - Ibid., 10.
Article #3:
The following article was taken from this link (it's too lengthy to paste).

                           A VERY GOOD YEAR:
                  Turning the Pages on a New Decade
                                                                      by Brian Clark
Milestones in an individual?s life cycle are those threshold years that usher in new
decades. Even those normally reluctant to celebrating their birthdays are generally
inspired to mark a new decade with some ritual or celebration. Turning 30, 40, 50 and 60
are watershed years in the adult life cycle. Each decade presents its own challenges,
offers its own rewards, and has its own distinctive atmosphere. And every decade can be
astrologically mapped out to reveal ages when challenges and crises can be expected, as
well as offer insight into what each life stage signifies. Each generation travels a similar
astrological route. However each generation has a unique atmosphere with its own
landmarks, road signs and territorial backdrop that mark their journey across the life
span.

The astrological life cycle is charted through the cycles of the slower moving planets,
since their orbits symbolise initiations into particular life experiences. Planets complete a
full cycle at predictable ages, and make important aspects within that round at certain
times. The ?crisis? points in these planetary cycles are usually fourfold: the initial critical
period occurs when the orbiting planet forms a square to its natal position; the second
turning point is the opposition of the orbiting planet to its natal position; the third crisis
period is the final square of the cycle. Lastly the return of the planet marks the fourth and
final critical period of the cycle. This final passage suggests a maturity of this particular
planetary archetype. Each period marks a critical turning point in the experience of this
archetype in an individual?s life. Another factor is the outer planets? dance with each
other during the life cycle. For example, the planet Pluto is transiting Neptune for young
adults currently at about the age of 22-24, characteristic of an intense encounter with
their idealism and the dreams they harbour. However for individuals in their late 50?s
orbiting Neptune is opposing their natal Pluto suggesting that more considered and
objective ideals be forged for the next part of their journey. Therefore specific ages in
the life cycle become apparent and important to consider. In a way the astrological life
cycle reminds us of important initiatory periods our culture no longer acknowledges in
the rush of life. While the transitional periods in the life cycle suggest particular themes,
each generation encounters the experience differently due to the constantly changing
social landscape.

The two slowest moving planets, Neptune and Pluto, govern astrological generations.
Neptune symbolises a generation?s legacy of ideals and dreams while Pluto suggest its
intentions, its taboos as well as its strengths and its obsessions. For the generation
turning 30, with Pluto in Libra and Neptune in Sagittarius, their intention for equality and
their ideals of justice, while challenged, are supported by the current astrological
repetition of the outer planets? elemental emphasis of fire and air. However, the
generation turning 40 this year have Neptune in Scorpio and Pluto in Virgo. Their ideals
of shared economic resources and their intention to ecologically rebalance the planet may
feel adrift in a sea of corruption, disbelief and misplaced idealism.

While every individual will experience each initiatory period in his or her own unique
way there is an archetypal theme, which underlies the transition. This is where the
roadmap of astrology becomes priceless at comprehending the meaning of change. Each
decade has its own uniqueness. But let?s start at 21, rather than 20, for here we receive
the key to adult life.

At 21: Leaving Home



The World Health Organisation defines the end of adolescence as age 24, encompassing
the second Jupiter cycle that began twelve years earlier. Therefore our early twenties are
its final phase. Adolescence is a metamorphosis, which begins at puberty. Near age 21
we are preparing to leave the chrysalis. Astrologically the decade is ushered in by the
square of transiting Uranus to its natal place in our horoscope, identifying the urge to
propel ourselves out of the familial orbit into another world. Modern economics suggests
this launch is becoming increasingly difficult delaying the process of leaving the nest.
Nevertheless the urge is a forceful one, and whether or not we can physically leave home,
we are ready to sever other ties to the security base. Following on Uranus? heels is
Saturn, which is also squaring its natal placement. The first time this occurred in its
cycle was at age 7-8, when separation from childhood fantasies began. At 22 we are
pressured to separate from our adolescent ones. And if we can?t quite manage that, then
the next major transit of Pluto conjoining natal Neptune over the next few years1 will
help to crush some of the lingering fantasies. For the first time in our lives we may be
acting out an episode of the Secret Life of Us! Or confronted for the first time with our
inner demons.



Celebrating 21 acknowledges that we are turning the ignition key and starting the motor
to drive away from what is familiar. It is a time when we are launched into the world
beyond our adolescent security systems. And byage 24 the second Jupiter return suggests
we are primed to take a bigger leap into the unknown. During the 20?s we try out for
many teams, seeking our reflection in many ponds, big and small. It is a time of
experimentation, adventure, breaking away. The generation turning 21 this year inherit a
world anxious about safety, security and money, yet astrologically are more equipped to
take risks than their older sibs were.

Recently the passage of the early twenties has been referred to as the ?quarter-life crisis?.
In one sense it is a crisis, as it presents an opportunity for change and growth. Hopefully
it is these opportunities for experimentation into the self we celebrate turning 21!

                           AGE     PLANETARY CYCLE
                           21      Uranus Square Uranus
                           22      Saturn Square Saturn
                           24      Second Jupiter Return
                           22-25   Pluto Conjunct Neptune
                           27      Progressed Lunar Return
                           28-30   Saturn Return

Figure 1: The Twenties

Figure 1: The Twenties




30-Something: Upwardly Mobile

A major cyclical return heralds the decade of the thirties. The ?Saturn Return? has
become popular shorthand for the important passage that bridges the end of the 20?s and
the start of the 30?s. The Saturn return initiates us into this new decade. Two other
cycles support the return; the progressed lunation cycle repeats its natal phase and Jupiter
opposes itself. The former suggests an alignment with character potentials innate in the
birth horoscope, while the latter cycle suggest awareness that this new cycle of change
needs to be conceptualised. The Saturn return is akin to a rebirth. By 30 we have
experience a full cycle of Saturn in all its permutations through our horoscope.
Therefore we are ready, at least theoretically, to seek validation and acknowledgment in
the world. The Saturn return identifies the time to begin to master the direction of one?s
life.

Life cycle experts have pushed the decades forward suggesting 40 is 30 and even 30 is
what 20 used to be like. While the life cycle has altered dramatically over the past
generation, the planetary orbits have not. They are fixed. Saturn still returns at 30, and
30 marks an age of maturity when we are fully responsible for our own fate. Our past,
whether it is this life or any other, is now our fate and our responsibility to manage, direct
and control.

The thirties are a decade of construction when our lives are like building sites: building
our careers, our relationships, our interests and our hobbies, and our families. Often in
the attempt to be worldly we unwittingly construct a false self, abandoning some of the
true essence of ourselves through compromising and conforming in order to be accepted.
The first half of the thirties is a steady building period continuing to find a niche in the
world. But by age 35-36 a series of cycles begin which promote a dramatic leap
forward. New opportunities, new commitments, and new challenges may present
themselves. Hard work begins to pay off and we find the path inclines steadily upward at
this point. This is the first glimmer of the turning to mid-life. Only a glimmer, though,
as there is enough momentum built up in the life to be propelled forward along the
preferred path. Changes made at this juncture in the life cycle have far-reaching
affects.

Celebrating turning thirty is honouring a new commitment to life, renewing its contract.
At 30 we celebrate the wide road ahead, firmly in control of the moving vehicle speeding
down life?s highway.


                               AGE       PLANETARY CYCLE
                               28-30     First Saturn Return
                               36        Third Jupiter Return
                               37        Saturn Square Saturn
                               37        Second Nodal Return
                               38 -      Pluto Square Pluto

Figure 2: The Thirties

Figure 2: The Thirties




Middlessence: Turning Forty

Astrologically the full mid life passage could be defined as embracing the period between
the third and fourth Jupiter returns (36-47). During this period the three outer planets
aspect their natal placements in a dynamic way: Pluto and Neptune are in a waxing
square to their natal placements2 while Uranus is at the mid point of its cycle. The
psychological landscape of the late thirties and early forties, symbolised by the critical
arrangement of the outer planets, is profound. At this juncture in the life cycle, mid-life
offers the soul the facility to retrieve aspects of the unlived life, to deepen one?s inner
experience through self-examination, and to forge a more authentic self. During mid-
life, alternate choices and risks may be taken which help to reorient the course of one?s
life. The life force is waxing and triumphant and entering into the demands of this period
clear the path forward.

Turning forty deserves a wild and extravagant celebration with all the many parts of your
life represented by your eclectic group of friends, associates and loved ones. At 40 there
is a potent mix of youthfulness andmaturity, as well as enough self-awareness to make
wiser choices in life. But in the year to come two feminine planets, Neptune and the
Moon, make important aspects in their cycles that identify the need to be more inner
orientated, less compelled with the outer world are more concerned with the inner. For
each individual this arranges itself in its own unique way. However the recognition of
loss of meaning, or feeling we do not belong in the situation we are in, or feeling a lack
of purpose help to redirect us to a more introspective position, asking spiritual questions
in our life. While we may have always asked the important spiritual questions this is
more in earnest, as for the first time we experience a life to reflect upon. For this
generation another cycle synchronises with the search for meaning and that is the Uranus
opposition. It supports the process of separating and relinquishing what is no longer
working in one?s life. In the early 40?s there is a collusion of powerful energies, which
promote and encourage a more authentic journey forward and help to reorient ourselves
towards meaningful goals while prioritising what is important to us.

                              AGE     PLANETARY CYCLE
                              41      Neptune Square Neptune
                              41      Progressed Moon opposite
                                      Moon
                              41      Uranus Opposite Uranus
                              42      Jupiter Opposite Jupiter
                              44 - 45 Saturn Opposite Saturn

Figure 3: The Forties




At 50: Brave New World

The 50?s decade is embraced by two potent astrological symbols, which profoundly
encapsulate the psychological processes taking place. The first Chiron return occurs near
the age of 50, the entry point into the decade, while the second Saturn return, which
coincides with the fifth Jupiter return, occurs near the age of 58/9, the ending of the
decade and its process of transition. This period is also punctuated by two other
important returns, which are often underestimated: the second progressed lunar return
(age 54.6) and the third return of the lunar nodes (age 56).
The Chiron return and its subsequent years present the misshapen aspects of ourselves,
which the body and the psyche are forced to accommodate. What was sacrificed to find
our niche in the world and to conform to worldly expectations challenges us to reconsider
our earlier choices. In the midst of the decade all three outer planets are trining their
natal positions3, a blatant clue to the potential psychological integration taking place, as
well as the variety of choices available for this task to be successful. In all, five cycles
are renewed in this decade, which suggest the psychological alignments occurring
throughout the 50?s are profound. At present the Pluto in Leo generation are journeying
this passage. The generation that worshipped immortality, eternity, youthfulness, and the
magical child are navigating a new territory, which challenges these constructs.

When this generation looks back to their parents at fifty, the changes that have occurred
are startling. Life expectancy, medical technology, changing life-styles, life enhancing
drugs, and retirement options have redefined the landscape of growing older. The life
cycle as the Pluto in Cancer generation knew it has dramatically altered.
Pop psychology is now labelling middle age as middle youth, partially due to the
youthfulness of this generation, but partially as a defence against aging. Erik Erikson,
one of the foremost researchers into the life cycle, suggested that the fifties were the
beginning of a matured adulthood. During this time the task is to care for what is
meaningful to us, not what others judge as important, but what is intimately creative and
restorative to the individual.4 Chiron?s return helps initiate us into this life task by
presenting the disenfranchised aspects of ones self, which are dear to the soul. In the
midst of the decade two powerful returns speak of the entry into a new age; the
third age of life when life experience is distilled into the role of a mentor. By the end of
the decade the Saturn return reminds us of this consolidation of the mentor figure.

Turning 50 is celebrated with circumspection as we honour the upcoming decade.
Enormous strides are taken towards the acceptance of the true self and these contribute to
the emerging role of mentor. However there is also a dawning of awareness that the
world ahead is a brave new frontier, no longer demarcated by signposts in the outer
world.




                               AGE       PLANETARY CYCLE
                               50        Chiron Return
                               52        Saturn Square Saturn
                               54        Second Progressed Moon
                                         Return
                               56        Third Nodal Return
                               58 - 59   Second Saturn return

                                   Figure 4: The Fifties
60: A New Frontier

The current generation reaching their seventh decade this year all have Pluto in Leo with
Saturn and Uranus both in Gemini. Two thirds will have Neptune in Libra so the
dominance of Air suggests the agility, youthfulness and mental alertness of this group.
Like the beginning of the thirties, the sixties begin in the wake of the Saturn return. Like
the previous time, a new way forward has hopefully been reconstructed. A Jupiter return
accompanies the Saturn return, and many turning 60 will experience this as the opening
lines to their new chapter of life. Following in another year will be a Uranus square to
itself. The combination of Jupiter/Uranus is an exciting symbol for the next cycle.
Freedom and new possibilities exist.

Of course the freedom and possibilities are anchored in the developmental changes,
which have taken place during the last decade. At her second Saturn return May Sarton
wrote her Journal of Solitude. The struggle she articulated was to make space in her life
to be, to forge a balance between reflection and relationship, to find solitude. The decade
of the 50?s helps to reorganise our priorities so we may create time for this solitude.
Saturn?s return offers the opportunity to build the structures to support this emerging new
way of being. Outer life structures have reached their capacity; the soul yearns to fortify
its inner life.

At 30 our gaze is on the world ahead of us, outside of ourselves. At 60 this is
internalised, focused on the creative self. May Sarton expressed that her second Saturn
return was about being, not doing. The end of the fifties is marked by two potent returns,
which characterise a return to wisdom, not information or knowledge. For the Pluto in
Leo generation, this wisdom has always been focused on the intense search for the self.
The second Saturn return coupled with the fifth Jupiter return marks the commencement
of living in the world of the intangible, the internal, and the sacred.

At her second Saturn return Germaine Greer wrote The Whole Woman. Critics
suggested this was a sequel to her ground breaking The Female Eunuch, written at her
first Saturn return. Greer has been a potent voice on woman?s issues throughout her
adult life. In an interview at her second Saturn return she shared the greatest sadness of
her life was not giving birth to a child. At her present stage of life her inner dream world
still carried the expectancy of giving birth. However wisdom at the second Saturn return
is forged out of this experience of loss and the relinquishment of her dream child.5.
Greer typifies the Pluto in Leo loss of the magical child; a loss that helps initiate this
generation into the wisdom of the third age which begins at the second Saturn return.

The landscape of old age has changed; retirement as it was once known is no longer the
preferred option, or even the goal. The question is what do we retire from? Conscious
preparation during the previous decade has helped to define a path beyond 60. What has
emerged during our fifties that is creative, rewarding and of value can be honoured and
attended to. Saturn?s quest for autonomy, hopefully, now can be realised. Saturn?s urge
for acknowledgment, hopefully, has now been internalised. Pluto in Leo does not retire;
     it has a lifestyle change. At this stage of life we depend more on our investments and it is
     the investment into self, which yields the highest return at this stage of the life cycle.

     Each decade is informed by the experiences of the previous cycles. At major transitional
     times we are drawn back to the times of the previous cycles. Shortly after turning 60 we
     experience the final square of Uranus. The first square occurred at the beginning of the
     20?s, which launched us into the early days of adulthood. At this waning square we are
     launched into the early days of elder hood. Uranus charges the atmosphere with
     electricity, discards the outdated and celebrates individuality. At its waning square these
     rituals are more internal, unlike the waxing square where they tended to be more acted
     out in the external environment. On the threshold to the 60?s we are awoken to the
     liberation of being un-tethered to the rituals of daily life as we once knew them, the
     intense demands of a full time career, the financial burdens of dependents, the grind of
     everyday adult responsibilities. The freedom to explore the internal world is available,
     not just for a weekend, a vacation or a sabbatical, but for the rest of the life. At Uranus?
     waning square the freedom to separate from the demands of the external world is taking
     hold. This is not a separation from work or even career (although it often experienced as
     this) but a separation from the false and inauthentic values of the external world.
     Retirement is from the false self, not the literal world. The Uranus square launches the
     spirit into a period of excitement and change.

                                   AGE       PLANETARY CYCLE
                                   59 - 60   Fifth Jupiter Return
                                   60 - 62   Uranus Square Uranus
                                   65        Saturn Square Saturn

                                        Figure 5: The Sixties

 Question: Does The Quran guarantee eternal life in Heaven to the Muslims?
Eternal life. Well, the Quran is very emphatic in telling the Muslim that every Muslim will enter
hell. And I said that to many of the Muslims in my discussions with them. I really I am amazed,
"How come that you would embrace a religion who will not give you the assurance of eternal life?"
And I ask the many Muslims, and you can do the same. And they will confess that, "Are you sure
that when die, as a Muslim, will you go to be with God, in Heaven? Are you sure of that?" No
Muslim have that kind of assurance. No Muslim, because the Quran doesn't give this assurance to
any Muslim. And then the Quran, in very plain words, you see, says that every Muslim, every
Muslim must enter hell. Every Muslim. And that is in surat Mariam, surat number 19, and I want to
read that for you, from there. Surat number 19, in the Quran, and we read the words, in verse 66,
"And a man says, when I am dead, shall I then be raised up alive? Does not man, remember, that
we created him before, while he was nothing? So by your lord, surely we shall gather them, human
beings, together, and also the devil." Human beings and the devil will be gathered, and also the
devil with them. "Then we shall bring them round hell, on their knees." Allah is saying we shall
gather human beings with the devil, and we shall bring them round hell, on their knees. And then, it
is said in verse 71, in the very same surat, "There is not one of you that will pass over hell." If we
want the accurate meaning, there is no one of you but will enter hell. Passover, this is not a literal
translation at all. There is no one, there is not one of you that will pass over hell. This is with your
lord, a decree which must be accomplished." What does this mean? God must send every Muslim
to hell. Of course, when you come to the clerics and ask them, "What do you think about that?" and
they say, "Yes. Every Muslim will go to hell for a time until he serves his time, and then he'll go to
paradise." But according to the Quran, anyone who will enter hell, he will be eternally there." The
Quran says that! When anyone enters hell, he will be there eternally. There is no assurance for
eternal life in the Quran.
On the other hand, when you come to Jesus Christ, and the gospel of John 5:24, "if anyone hears
my voice, and believes on the one who sent me, he'll have eternal life" He will not come to
judgment. He is transferred from this to life. Assurance. Assurance. The disciples came to Jesus
rejoicing. All, even Satan, obey the commandment when we tell them to get out of any possessed
person. And Jesus said, "Do not rejoice because Satan is under your authority. Rejoice because
your names are written in Heaven. Rejoice because you have eternal life. That is the most
important." So when you go to the New Testament, and you go to the Quran, in the Quran there is
no assurance whatsoever, to any Muslim of going to paradise or to Heaven after death. On the other
hand, in the New Testament, it is a guarantee. If you believe with your heart, that Jesus Christ died
for you on the cross of Calvary, receive Him as the only begotten Son who died on your behalf,
you'll receive eternal life immediately, and it will be eternal. That is the difference between the two.
            How will those who entered Hell then were brought forth from it enjoy Paradise?
     The people who enter Jahanam and stay there for some time and then are removed
     and entered in Jannah. How will they enjoy Jannah being that they may remember
     their experience in Jahanaam (Post Traumatic Stress).

     Praise be to Allaah.

     Ahl al-Sunnah wa‟l-Jamaa‟ah believe that some of the Muslims will enter Paradise
     without being brought to account or being punished, and some of them will enter
     Paradise after being brought to account, and some will enter Paradise after being
     punished in Hell as Allaah wills, then He will bring them forth from it.

     The fact that these people are brought forth from Hell then admitted to Paradise will not
     cause them any sorrow or distress in Paradise, because Paradise is the abode of delight,
     and they will have whatever the other people of Paradise will have, as mentioned in the
     Qur‟aan and Sunnah.

     There is nothing in the evidence to suggest that these people will feel any kind of regret
     after entering Paradise due to the punishment that they experienced in Hell.

     But the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has told us about how these
     people will be after they are brought forth from Hell. That includes the following:

     1 – They will be thrown into the River of Life, and will grow anew.

     It was narrated from Abu Sa‟eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the
     Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When the people of Paradise
     enter Paradise and the people of Hell enter Hell, Allaah will say: „Whoever had a
     mustard-seed‟s weight of faith in his heart, bring him out.‟ So they will bring him out,
and they will come out like burned skeletons, and they will turn into charcoal. They will
be thrown into the River of Life, then they will grow like seeds growing in the silt left by
a flood.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do you not see how they
emerge yellow and curved?”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (6192) and Muslim (184).

2 – The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stated that they will change
after they are brought forth from the Fire.

It was narrated from Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said of the Jahannamiyyoon (those
who had been in Hell) that they “would be brought forth from the Fire after having been
in it. They will come out as if they are branches of sesame. Then they will go into one of
the rivers of Paradise, where they will wash themselves, then they will emerge like sheets
of paper.”

Narrated by Muslim (191).

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The word sesame refers to the well-
known sesame from which sesame oil is extracted. Imam Abu‟l-Sa‟aadaat al-Mubaarak
ibn Muhammad ibn „Abd al-Kareem al-Jazari, who is known as Ibn al-Atheer (may
Allaah have mercy on him), said: What it means – and Allaah knows best – is that if the
branches of sesame are gathered and left in the sun so that their seeds may be collected,
they turn thin and black as if they have been burned, so these people are likened to them.

“then they will emerge like sheets of paper” They are likened to sheets of paper because
they will be so white after they wash themselves and all the blackness that was on them is
removed.

Sharh Muslim (3/52).

According to a report narrated by al-Bukhaari (6190):

It was narrated from Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “They will emerge from the Fire through
intercession as if they are small cucumbers.”

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

With regard to small cucumbers … What is meant is something that is white and small.

Note:
This likeness refers to how they will be after they grow. But when they first emerge from
Hell they will be like charcoal as we shall see in the hadeeth below.

Fath al-Baari (11/429).

3 – They will become like pearls, and Allaah will bestow His good pleasure upon them,
and He will never be angry with them.

It was narrated from Abu Sa‟eed al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah will say: „The angels have interceded, the
Prophets have interceded and there is no one left but the Most Merciful of those who
show mercy.‟ Then He will take a handful from Hell, and will bring out people who
never did any good and who will have turned into charcoal. He will throw them into a
river on the outskirts of Paradise that is called the River of Life, and they will emerge like
seeds in the silt carried by a flood. … They will emerge like pearls with jewels around
their necks, and the people of Paradise will recognize them. These are the ones ransomed
by Allaah, whom Allaah admitted to Paradise with no good deed that they did or sent on
ahead. Then He will say: „Enter Paradise, and whatever you see is yours.‟ They will say:
„Our Lord, You have given us what You have never given to anyone else in creation.‟ He
will say: „You will have something better than that with Me.‟ They will say, „O Lord,
what could be better than this?‟ He will say, „My good pleasure, for I will never be angry
with you again.‟”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (7002) and Muslim (183).

This is an important hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) points out the great status of those who are brought forth from Hell, and the honours
that their Lord will bestow upon them by His grace and bounty, which include:

   (a) Being thrown in the River of Life, and growing anew.

   (b) Emerging from the river like pearls with jewels around their necks

   (c) Being given everything that they see in Paradise.

   (d) Their thinking, because of the blessings and the ultimate joy they experience, that
       Allaah has honoured them with something that He has not bestowed upon anyone
       else.

   (e) He will bestow His pleasure upon them and never be angry with them again.

The honour that Allaah will bestow upon these people who enter Paradise is confirmed in
the following hadeeth:

It was narrated from „Abd-Allaah ibn Mas‟ood that the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) said: “I know the last of the people of Hell to be brought forth, and
the last of the people of Paradise to enter therein. It will be a man who will emerge
crawling from Hell, and Allaah, may He be blessed and exalted, will say to him: „Go and
enter Paradise.‟ He will come to it and it will appear to him to be full. He will go back
and say, „O Lord, I found it full.‟ Allaah, may He be blessed and exalted, will say to him:
„Go and enter Paradise.‟ He will go to it and it will appear to him to be full. He will go
back and say, „O Lord, I found it full.‟ Allaah, may He be blessed and exalted, will say to
him: „Go and enter Paradise, and you will have the equivalent of the whole world and ten
times as much.‟ He will say, „Are You mocking me – or laughing at me – when You are
the Sovereign?‟” He said: And I saw the Messenger of Allaah (S) smile so broadly that
his molars appeared. And he said: “That will be the lowest of the people of Paradise in
status.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (6202) and Muslim (186).

4 – They will be known as al-Jahannamiyyoon (the hellish ones) or “ „utaqa‟ al-Jabbaar”
(those ransomed by the Compeller, i.e., Allaah), then this name will be lifted from them.

The name al-Jahannamiyyoon is the plural of jahannami, i.e., hellish (of or pertaining to
Hell), What is meant is that Allaah has ransomed them from Hell.

It was narrated from Anas ibn Maalik that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him) said: “Some people will be brought forth from the Fire after its flames touch
them (and change their colour), then they will be admitted to Paradise, and the people of
Paradise will call them al-Jahannamiyyoon.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (6191).

Ahmad (12060) narrated from Anas: “… they will enter Paradise and the people of
Paradise will say: These are al-Jahannamiyyoon.” But al-Jabbaar (the Compeller –
Allaah) will say: „No, rather they are the ones ransomed by al-Jabbaar, may He be
glorified and exalted.‟”

Classed as saheeh by Ibn Mandah in al-Eemaan (2/847); Ibn Khuzaymah (2/710) and al-
Albaani in Hukm Taarik al-Salaah (p. 33).

Ibn Hibbaan narrated from Abu Sa‟eed al-Khudri: “… In Paradise they will be called al-
Jahannamiyyoon, because of the blackness on their faces, and they will say: „Our Lord,
take this name away from us.‟ So He will command them to wash themselves in a river in
Paradise and will take that away from them.”

Narrated and classed as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan (16/457). It was also classed as saheeh by
Shu‟ayb al-Arna‟oot.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has told us that one dip in
Paradise will cause the Muslim to forget all hardship that he faced in this world, so how
about if Paradise is to be his eternal abode? It is not farfetched to assume that this also
includes the hardship that the Muslim faced when he was in Hell.

It was narrated that Anas ibn Maalik said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) said: “The most affluent of the people in this world, of those who
will go to Hell, will be brought on the Day of Resurrection and dipped once in the Fire.
Then it will be said: O son of Adam, did you ever see anything good? Did you ever have
any pleasure? He will say: No, by Allaah, O Lord. Then the most destitute of the people
in this world, of those who will enter Paradise, will be brought and dipped once in
Paradise, and it will be said to him: O son of Adam, did you ever see anything bad? Did
you ever experience any hardship? He will say: No, by Allaah, O Lord. I never saw
anything bad and I never experienced any hardship.”

Narrated by Muslim (2807)

Another indication that one dip in the bliss of Paradise will take away all hardship that
came before it, even the hardship of being punished in Hell, in addition to what we have
mentioned of their forms being changed after they are thrown into the River of Life, is
the report narrated by Muslim (2836) from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with
him) from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said: “Whoever
enters Paradise will enjoy bliss and will not be miserable, his clothes will not wear out
and his youth will not fade.”

This blessing confirms that misery will be erased for the one who enters Paradise, and it
is general in meaning and includes everyone who enters it, whether they entered Hell
beforehand or not.

Al-Qaadi said: What this means is that Paradise is the abode of stability and blessing
which will not change or be disturbed by any hardship or corruption. Quoted in Tuhfat al-
Ahwadhi (7/194).

For all of these reasons, Allaah tells us about the condition of the people of Paradise
when they enter it:

“And they will say: „All the praises and thanks be to Allaah Who has removed from us
(all) grief. Verily, our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (good
deeds and to recompense).

35. Who, out of His Grace, has lodged us in a home that will last forever, where toil will
touch us not nor weariness will touch us‟”

[Faatir 35:34-35]

Shaykh al-Sa‟di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: i.e., the home of eternal abode,
the home where one will want to stay forever, because of the many good things therein,
and because of the ongoing delight and because there is nothing to disturb this pleasure.
That is “out of His Grace” towards us and His Bounty, not because of our deeds. Were it
not for His Grace, we would not have reached the point we have reached.

“where toil will touch us not nor weariness will touch us” i.e., there will be no tiredness
in body, heart or strength, or because of an abundance of pleasures. This indicates that
Allaah will make their bodies physically perfect and will create all means of making their
abode there one of continuous delight and pleasure, so that they will not be touched by
toil or weariness, or by worry or sorrow.

Tafseer al-Sa‟di (689).

And Allaah knows best.

The Quran on Muslims Entering Hell

Sam Shamoun

According to surah 19:70-72, everyone will enter into hell, including Muslims. Allah will
then bring out the god-fearing:

Then We shall pluck forth from every party whichever of them was the most hardened in
disdain of the All-merciful; then We shall know very well those most deserving to burn
there. Not one of you there is, but he shall go down to it (wariduha); that for thy Lord is a
thing decreed, determined. Then We shall deliver those that were godfearing; and the
evildoers We shall leave there, hobbling on their knees. A.J. Arberry

Many Muslims have tried to deny that the text says that everyone will enter hell. They
argue that the expression "go down" (wurood) doesn‟t necessarily mean to enter hell, but
it can also mean to pass through or over. Some will even argue that the text is simply
saying that people will cross over hell into Paradise on a bridge called Sirat, even though
the Quran nowhere alludes to such a bridge. The late A.Y. Ali wrote:

Three interpretations are possible, (1) The GENERAL interpretation is that EVERYONE
must pass through or by or over the Fire. Those who have Taqwa (see n. 26 to ii.2) will
be saved by Allah‟s Mercy, while unrepentant sinners will suffer the torments in
ignominy, (2) If we refer the pronoun "you" to those "in obstinate rebellion" in verse 69
above, both leaders and followers in sin, this verse only applies to the wicked, (3) Some
refer this verse to the Bridge over Hell, the Bridge Sirat, over which all must pass to their
final Destiny. This Bridge is not mentioned in the Qur‟an. (Ali, The Holy Qur‟an:
Translation and Commentary, fn. 2518; underline and capital emphasis ours)

Pay close attention to Yusuf Ali‟s claim that the general Muslim understanding of the
passage has been that everyone will have to pass through, by or over the Fire. The late
Muhammad Asad stated:
55 Lit., "none of you but will reach it". According to SOME of the classical authorities,
the pronoun "you" relates to the sinners spoken of in the preceding passages, and
particularly to those who refuse to believe in resurrection; the MAJORITY of the
commentators, however, are of the opinion that ALL HUMAN BEINGS, sinners and
righteous alike, are comprised within this address in the sense that all "will come within
sight of it": hence my rendering. (Source; capital and italic emphasis ours)

Despite Asad‟s rendering of the Arabic as "will come within sight of it", his candid
admission that the majority of Islamic scholarship held the position that the verse is
addressing every person is quite significant. We will have more to say about this point
later on.

For a sample of Muslim responses please consult the following articles: [1], [2].

Instead of responding here to all the objections we will provide a host of translations,
hadiths and commentaries to see how those Muslims understood the passage. We want to
see whether Muslims have traditionally interpreted this passage to imply that everyone
will enter hell. We will then, in the second part, take a look at a specific Muslim response
and see whether the arguments presented hold any real weight.

To make it easier for our readers to follow our arguments, we break down our article into
the following sections.
The Translations
The Quran‟s Use of wurood
The Hadiths
The Muslim Commentators

Summary Analysis

A Contradiction


1. The Translations

Here is how both Muslims and non-Muslims render the word wurood in S. 19:71.

Muslim Translations

There is not one of you but shall approach it… Pickthall

Not one of you but will pass over it… Y. Ali

And there is not one of you but shall pass over it… Daryabadi

There is not a single one of you, who shall not pass over it… F. Malik
There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell)… Hilali-Khan

And there is not one of you but shall come to it… M.M Ali

And every one of you will come within sight of it… Asad

And there is not one of you but shall come to it… Shakir

And there is not one of you but will come to it… Sher Ali

And there is none of you except he will come to it… SAHEEH INTERNATIONAL

there is not one of you but he will be led up to it… T.B. Irving

Every single one of you must see it… Khalifa

There is none among you, (O those condemned to Hell!), but shall reach there (- the
Hell)… Amatul & „Abdul Manan „Omar

It is the inevitable decree of your Lord that every one of you will be taken to hell.
Muhammad Sarwar

Non-Muslim translations

There is not one of you who shall not pass through it… N.J. Dawood

There shall be none of you but shall descend into the same [hell]… George Sale

No one is there of you who shall not go down unto it… J.M. Rodwell

Rodwell‟s footnote 25 reads:

Even the pious on their way to Paradise are to pass the confines of Hell. (Source)

The preceding renderings make one thing clear. Muslim translators, for the most part, are
more likely to render the passage in such a way as to deny that everyone will enter hell.
Sarwar is the exception, with the translations of SAHEEH INTERNATIONAL, Irving
and the Omar brothers implying that men will enter.

On the other hand, the non-Muslims render the phrase to mean actual entrance into hell,
with the exception of Dawood.

Since the translations are not conclusive at this point, we now turn our attention to the
Quran itself.
2. The Quran‟s Use of Wurood

In several places the Quran uses different forms of the word wurood in the same context
of people entering hell.

He will go before his people on the Day of Judgment, and lead them into the Fire (fa
awradahumu alnnara) (as cattle are led to water): But woeful indeed will be the place to
which they are led! S. 11:98 Y. Ali

But the sinners will we drive unto (wirdan) Hell, like flocks driven to the watering. S.
19:86 Rodwell

Verily, ye, and what ye worship beside God, shall be fuel for hell: ye shall go down into
it (waridoona). S. 21:98 Rodwell

The only possible meaning in these contexts is that evildoers will actually enter into hell
itself. Interestingly, 19:86 appears in the same surah just some fifteen verses after 19:71.
Since these contexts are virtually identical to 19:71 it therefore follows to reason that the
meaning will be the same as well, especially when some fifteen verses later the same
word is used in connection with sinners literally entering hell.

Furthermore, the verse right after 19:71 supports the view that people will literally enter
hell:

"And there is not one of you but will come to it. This is an absolute decree of thy Lord.
And WE shall save the righteous, and shall leave the wrongdoers therein, on their knees."

The statement that Allah will deliver the righteous and leave the wrongdoer in hell
presumes that the righteous are in there as well.

Hence, the usage of the term wurood within the Quran in contexts similar to 19:71, as
well as the immediate context of the passage itself, conclusively point in the direction of
all people, including all Muslims, having to enter into hell for a short while.


3. The Hadiths

The hadiths provide evidence for the view that Muslims will enter hell and then come
out. We do need to be cautious here. The hadiths do not indicate that ALL Muslims will
enter hell. They suggest that there will be many Muslims in hell which Allah will bring
out on the basis of Muhammad‟s intercession.

SAHIH AL-BUKHARI
… Anas then said, "Muhammad talked to us saying, 'On the Day of Resurrection THE
PEOPLE will surge with each other like waves, and then they will come to Adam and
say, 'Please intercede for us with your Lord.'…

They would come to me and I would say, 'I am for that.' Then I will ask for my Lord's
permission, and it will be given, and then He will inspire me to praise Him with such
praises as I do not know now. So I will praise Him with those praises and will fall down,
prostrate before Him. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for
you will be listened to; and ask, for your will be granted (your request); and intercede, for
your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, my followers! My followers!' And
then it will be said, 'Go and take out of Hell (Fire) all those who have faith in their hearts,
equal to the weight of a barley grain.' I will go and do so and return to praise Him with
the same praises, and fall down (prostrate) before Him. Then it will be said, 'O
Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and ask, for you will
be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will
say, 'O Lord, my followers! My followers!' It will be said, 'Go and take out of it all those
who have faith in their hearts equal to the weight of a small ant or a mustard seed.' I will
go and do so and return to praise Him with the same praises, and fall down in prostration
before Him. It will be said, 'O, Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be
listened to, and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your
intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, my followers!' Then He will say, 'Go
and take out (all those) in whose hearts there is faith even to the lightest, lightest mustard
seed. (Take them) out of the Fire.' I will go and do so."' …

Anas told me the same as he told you and said that the prophet added, 'I then return for a
fourth time and praise Him similarly and prostrate before Him. He asks me the same as
he did, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to; and ask, for
you will be granted (your request): and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.'
I will say, 'O Lord, allow me to intercede for whoever said, 'None has the right to be
worshiped except Allah.' Then Allah will say, 'By my Power, and my Majesty, and by
My Supremacy, and by My Greatness, I will take out of Hell (Fire) whoever said: 'None
has the right to be worshipped except Allah.'" (Volume 9, Book 93, Number 601)

SAHIH MUSLIM

… It would be said to me: O Muhammad, raise your head, and say and it would be heard;
ask and it would be granted; intercede and intercession would be accepted. So I would
say: My people, my people. It would be said to me: Go and take out from it (Hell) him
who has in his heart faith equal to the weight of a mustard seed. I would go and do that. I
would again return to my Lord and extol Him with those praises. I would then fall in
prostration. It would be said to me: O Muhammad, raise your head: say, and you would
be listened to; ask and it would be granted; intercede and intercession would be accepted.
I would say: My Lord, my people, my people. It would be said to me: Go, and bring out
of the Fire him who has in his heart as much faith as the smallest, smallest, smallest grain
of mustard seed. I would go and do that. (Book 1, Number 377)
HADITH QUDSI 36

The believers will gather together on the Day of Resurrection and will say: Should we not
ask [someone] to intercede for us with our Lord? So they will come to Adam and will
say: You are the Father of mankind; Allah created you with His hand He made His angels
bow down to you and He taught you the names of everything, so intercede for us with
you Lord so that He may give us relief form this place where we are. And he will say: I
am not in a position [to do that] - and he will mention his wrongdoing and will feel
ashamed and will say: Go to Noah, for he is the first messenger that Allah sent to the
inhabitants of the earth… So they will come to me and I shall set forth to ask permission
to come to my Lord, and permission will be given, and when I shall see my Lord I shall
prostrate myself. He will leave me thus for such time as it pleases Him, and then it will be
said [to me]: Raise your head. Ask and it will be granted. Speak and it will be heard.
Intercede and your intercession will be accepted. So I shall raise my head and praise Him
with a form of praise that He will teach me. Then I shall intercede and HE will set me a
limit [as to the number of people], so I shall admit them into Paradise. Then I shall return
to Him, and when I shall see my Lord [I shall bow down] as before. Then I shall
intercede and He will set me a limit [as to the number of people]. So I shall admit them
into Paradise. Then I shall return for a third time, then a fourth, and I shall say: There
remains in Hell-fire only those whom the Quran has confined and who must be there for
eternity. There shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and
who has in his heart goodness weighing a barley-corn; then there shall come out of Hell-
fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness
weighing a grain of wheat; then there shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There
is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing an atom.

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah). (Source)

The following tradition indicates that others will intercede for people in hell and be
heard:

Narrated Anas ibn Malik

Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "The inhabitants of Hell will be drawn up in
line, and when one of the inhabitants of Paradise passes them one of them will say, 'So
and so, do you not recognise me? I am the one who gave you a drink.' And one of them
will say, 'I am the one who gave you water for ablution.' He will then intercede for him
and bring him into Paradise."

Ibn Majah transmitted it. (Al-Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 1473– taken from the ALIM CD-
ROM version)

These traditions demonstrate the plausibility of interpreting 19:71 to mean that every
Muslim will enter hell. After all, if Allah allows bad Muslims to enter hell and then come
out due to Muhammad‟s intercession, then he can also allow good Muslims to enter there
as well.
More importantly, these hadiths do not necessarily state that Muhammad is interceding
simply for bad Muslims. The context says that the people, specifically believers, will look
for help from the prophets, without stating that these are evildoers. Thus, the natural
implication is that everyone will seek aid from the prophets on the Day of Judgment with
Muhammad specifically interceding for Muslims, whether good or bad.

It seems that Allah‟s purpose in doing this is to allow the Muslims to better appreciate his
"grace" and the "blessings" of Paradise after having experienced hellfire for a while.

There is one hadith, however, which states that mankind in general will enter hell and
come out, some faster than others, depending on their deeds (or lack thereof):

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "Mankind WILL GO DOWN TO HELL
and then COME UP up from it because of their deeds, the first of them like a flash of
lighting, the next like the wind, the next like a horse's gallop, the next like one riding on
his pack-saddle, the next like a man's running, the next like his walking." Tirmidhi
transmitted it. (Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 1475- ALIM CD-ROM Version)

This narration provides support for understanding surah 19:71 to be referring to all
mankind entering hell.

In fact, here is another narration which indicates that Allah's promise to send people to
hell also includes Muslims:

Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah's Apostle said, "Any Muslim who has lost three of his children will not be touched
by the Fire except that which will render Allah's oath fulfilled." (Sahih al-Bukhari,
Volume 8, Book 78, Number 650)

The Quran translators Al-Hilali and Khan quote this hadith in their commentary on surah
19:71 and state that the oath mentioned in this narration refers to the promise made by
Allah in this very Quranic verse to send people to hell:

* Allah's Oath alluded to here is the Qur'anic Verse: "There is not one of you but will
pass over it (Hell), this is with your Lord, a Decree which must be accomplished." (V.
19:71) (Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud Din Al-Hilali & Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan,
Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur'an: With Comments from Tafsir At-
Tabari, Tafsir Al-Qurtubi and Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Ahadith from Sahih Al-Bukhari,
Sahih Muslim and other Ahadith Books [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh,
Lahore, Houston, New York, First Edition: January 2000], Part 4. From Surah 16 to 20,
p. 400, fn. to Q. 19:71)

Thus, the above narrative substantiates that Allah‟s decree in surah 19:71 means that even
Muslims will be sent to hell!
4. The Muslim Commentators

Our dear brother Dimitrius, a very fine Christian gentleman, writer, apologist in his own
right, translated the following section entirely from the Arabic. Needless to say, this
section would not have been possible without Dimitrius‟ hard efforts in producing it. For
that, we are completely grateful to him for taking time out of his busy schedule to assist
us. May our risen and immortal Lord and Savior Jesus Christ richly bless this young
soldier and his family with God‟s eternal riches. Amen.

Dimitrius writes:

Here are the translations of all four commentaries of Surah 19:71 (Muslims going
through hell) given by Ibn Kathir, Jalalayn, Qurtubi and Tabari.

I need to make a few notes about the translation itself.

All four commentaries agree that the meaning of the word wurood means to enter and
pass through hell. However, they also present the other lesser authoritative opinions on
the topic, i.e. like wurood meaning to "walk over hell" but not actually into hell, or that
wurood could mean to be sick on earth with a fever so you don‟t go to hell in the afterlife.

The last two explanations of course don‟t make sense but the commentators have
included the quotes of people who make these claims. Please note that the majority of
quotes are of the opinion that Muslims will go into hell like everyone else, and then later
Allah will save them and take them out of the fire, or the intercession of the prophets and
other Muslims will remove them from hell. If you notice, Jalalyn‟s commentary is only
one sentence long and it says that all Muslims must go into hell…

I have tried to translate the entire commentaries word for word as opposed to re-phrasing
the meaning in my own words. I have not inserted any personal statements into the
translation. However, it was at times necessary to add a word to make the sentence read
better and in those cases I placed the word I added in brackets ( ).Usually this was done
when the commentator keeps referring to "it" in a long sentence and I would have to
write (in brackets) what the "it" was referring to.

Another point to keep in mind is that the commentator‟s writing style is lengthy,
unformatted and loaded with run-on sentences. At other times their sentences are only 2
or 3 words long. Basically, their style is very unstructured when writing an explanation.
As a matter of fact, each of their commentaries on a verse in the Arabic version is one
long paragraph that runs several pages long.

This brings me to the next point. The majority of their writing has to do with quoting
narrators who said such and such a thing. As a result, the phrase "narrated by" and "said"
is repeated over and over again. This may require you to look at the punctuation
I have used at the beginning and end of quotes. I also had to break up the commentary
into sectioned paragraph, where the topic changes.

Again, this translation is word for word, with no personal comments added. I only re-
organized the format but did not change the content. I suggest that you allow someone
fluent in both English and Arabic… read the original and the translated commentaries to
assess its accuracy. I‟m pretty confident that I have captured it all but its best to double
check.

And now on to the translations. All capital and underline emphasis ours.

Ibn Kathir‟s Commentary

Surah 19:71 Not one of you but will pass through it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree
which must be accomplished.

Imam Ahmad narrated that Sulaiman Ibn Harb narrated that Khalid Ibn Sulaiman
narrated that Kathir Ibn Ziad Al- Barsani narrated that Abu Sumaya said, "We differed
about the meaning of „Passing through it‟ (wari-duha). For some of us said that no
believer will enter hell and others said all (people) shall enter it and then Allah will save
those who have done righteousness. Then I met Jabir Ibn Abdallah and I informed him
that we differed about the meaning of, „Pass through it,‟ and he replied that,
"EVERYONE SHALL ENTER IT."

Also Sulaiman Ibn Murrah said THAT EVERYONE SHALL ENTER IT (hell). Then he
placed his fingers near his ears and said, "I would have remained silent had I not heard
the apostle of Allah -pbuh- say, „There shall not remain a righteous or sinful person but
shall enter hell. To the believer the fire will be cool and pleasant as it was to Abraham to
the point that hell will be noisy because the believers are cold. Then Allah will save those
who have avoided (evil) and greatly torment the sinners in it.‟"

Also narrated by Hassan Ibn Arfa, narrated by Marwan Ibn Mu‟awiya, narrated by Bahar
Ibn Abu Marwan, narrated by Khalid Ibn Ma‟dan who stated, "The people of paradise
said after they entered paradise, „Didn‟t our Lord promise that we will pass through hell?‟
And they will be told, „You passed through it (hell) while it‟s flames were calm.‟"

Also narrated by Abdel Razak, narrated by Ibn Ayena, narrated by Ismail Ibn Abu
Khalid, narrated by Qais Ibn Abu Hazem who said that Abdallah Ibn Rawaha placed his
head on his wife‟s lap and BEGAN TO WEEP, so his wife began to weep also. So he
asked her, "Why are you weeping?" She responded, "I saw you weeping and so I started
to weep." He said, "I remembered the saying of Allah - who is glorified and exalted-
(Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it,‟ AND I DON‟T KNOW IF I
WILL BE SAVED FROM IT OR NOT." In another narration it adds the phrase, „he said
this while he was ill.‟
Also narrated by Ibn Jarir, narrated by Abu Kurayb, narrated by Ibn Yaman, narrated by
Malik Ibn Maghul, narrated by Ibn Ishaq who said, "Whenever Abu Maysarah would lie
down on his bed he would say, „I wish my mother had never bore me.‟ And then he
would begin to weep. When asked why he was weeping he would respond, „We were told
that WE WOULD ENTER HELL, BUT WE WEREN‟T TOLD THAT WE WOULD
EXIT FROM IT.‟"

Also narrated by Abdallah Ibn Al-Mubarak, narrated by Al-Hassan Al-Basri who said,
"A man said to his brother „Have you been told that you shall enter hell?‟ The brother
answered „YES.‟ He then asked, „Have you also been told that you shall exit from it?‟
The brother responded „NO.‟ So he asked, „Then why the laughter?‟ The brother
responded, „I have not seen a person laugh until he joined Allah.‟

Narrated by Abdel Razak, narrated by Ibn Ayena narrated by Amru who told us that he
heard Ibn Abbas feud with Nafi Ibn Al-Azraq regarding the meaning of, „Entering (Al-
wurood).‟ He said it meant „Entering (Hell),‟ but Nafi disagreed. Thus Ibn Abbas read
(Surah 21:98) "„Verily ye, and the gods that ye worship besides Allah, are but fuel for
Hell! To it will ye surely will enter (Wardan),‟ and asked did they enter or not? He also
read (Surah 11:98) „He will go before his people on the Day of Judgment, and lead them
(Awrada-hum) into the fire: but woeful indeed will be the place (Wird) to which they are
led (Al-mawrud)!‟ Did they enter or not? As for you and I, WE WILL ENTER IT but let
us see if we will exit from it and I don‟t see Allah taking you out of it because you lie
(regarding its meaning)." Nafi then laughed.

Narrated by Ibn Jarir, narrated by Atta who stated that Abu Rashid Al-Harury, who is
called Nafi Ibn Al-Azraq, said, "They (the believers) will not hear hell‟s roar." So Ibn
Abbas responded, "Woe to you! Are you insane? What of Allah‟s verse (Surah 11:98)
„He will go before his people on the Day of Judgment, and lead them (Awrada-hum) into
the fire,‟ and also the verse (Surah 19:86) „And We shall drive the sinners to hell being
lead (Wirdan)‟? And also the verse (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass (Waridu-
ha) through it‟? By Allah, the supplication of those who lived previously used to be, „O
Allah TAKE ME OUT OF HELL FIRE peacefully and allow me to enter paradise
victorious.‟"

Narrated by Ibn Jarir, narrated by Muhammad Ibn Ubaid Al-Mihrabu, narrated by Asbat,
narrated by Abdel Malik, narrated by Ubaid Allah narrated by Mujahid who said, "I was
in the company of Ibn Abbas when a man called Abu Rashid, who is also known as Nafi
Al-Azraq, came and asked Ibn Abbas, „Have you seen the saying of Allah (Surah 19:71)
„Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree
which must be accomplished?‟ Ibn Abbas replied, „As for you and I, O Abu Rashid, WE
SHALL ENTER IT (hell), but let us see WHETHER we shall exit from it or not.‟"

Narrated by Abu Dawud Al-Tayalisi, narrated by Sha‟aba, narrated by Abdallah Ibn Al-
Sa‟ib about those who heard Ibn Abbas read the verse (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but
will pass through (Waridu-ha) it,‟ meaning the infidels. This is how it was narrated by
Amru Ibn Al-Walid Al-Basti that he heard Ikrimah read it likewise.
Also narrated by Al-Awfi, narrated by Ibn Abbas who said, "(Surah 19:71) „Not one of
you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it‟ means that the righteous and the sinner (shall
enter hell). For don‟t you hear what Allah said to Pharaoh (Surah 11:98) „He will go
before his people on the Day of Judgment, and lead them (Awrada-hum) into the fire,‟
and also the verse (Surah 19:86) „And We shall drive the sinners to hell being lead
(Wirdan)‟? So he called „passing through‟ (Wird) AN ENTRY INTO HELL AND NOT
AN EXIT OUT OF IT."

Narrated by Imam Ahmed, narrated by Abdel Rahman, narrated by Israel, narrated by Al-
Suddi, narrated by Murrah, narrated by Abdallah, who is known as Ibn Mas‟ud, regarding
(Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it.‟ The prophet said,
"All people will enter (Yarud) hell and exit it by their deeds." This was also narrated by
Al-Tirmidhi, narrated by Abd Ibn Hamid, narrated by Ubaid Allah, narrated by Israel,
narrated by Al-Suddi. This was also narrated through Shu‟bah, narrated by Al-Suddi,
narrated by Murrah, narrated by Ibn Mas‟ud.

It was also narrated by Asbat, narrated by Al-Suddi, narrated by Ibn Mas‟ud who said,
"All people shall walk (Yarud) on the (bridge) of Sirat and pass through (wu-rooda-hum)
the fires of hell, then they will exit the (bridge) of Sirat by their deeds. Some of them will
pass (as fast) as lightning; some of them will pass (as fast) as the wind; some of them will
pass (as fast) as birds; some of them will pass (as fast) as running horses; some of them
will pass (as fast) as running beasts, some of them will pass (running) as a man‟s enemy
so that the last one of them (passing) will have light shining only on the toes of his feet
and the Sirat (bridge) will then be full. The Sirat (bridge) will be slippery with many
thorns like a thorn bush. On either side of it will be angels with fiery shackles used for
capturing people." This same hadith was also narrated by Ibn Abu Hatim.

Narrated by Ibn Jarir, narrated by Khalid Ibn Aslam, narrated by Al-Nadir, narrated by
Israel, narrated by Abu Ishaq, narrated by Abu Al-Ahwas, narrated by Abdallah who
stated that regarding verse (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-
ha) it,‟ the bridge of Sirat that passes through hell is as sharp as a sword. The first layer of
people will pass as lightning, the second as the wind, the third as running horses, the
fourth as running beasts. As they pass the angels will say, "O Allah save, save." To this
hadith there are many references in both Sahih (Bukhari and Muslim) and others from the
narration of Ans and Abu Sa‟id and Abu Huraira and Jabir and others from among the
companions, may Allah be pleased with them.

Narrated by Ibn Jarir, narrated by Yaqub, narrated by Ibn Alia, narrated by Al-Jariri,
narrated by Abu Al-Salik, narrated by Ghunaim, narrated by Qais who stated that
regarding, „entering (wurood) hell,‟ Ka‟b related, "Hell fire will hold on to people with
great intensity so that the soles of the feet of ALL PEOPLE, both RIGHTEOUS and
sinners, will be charred. Then one will cry out to hell saying, „Hold on to your people
AND LET MY PEOPLE GO. Then hell will know who belongs to it better than a man
knows his own son and the believers will exit with whitened garments.‟" Ka‟b also added
that the distance between one guardian (of hell) and the next is a year‟s travel. Each one
of them holds a column containing two branches and with one thrust of the column,
70,000 people are thrown into the fire.

Narrated by Imam Ahmad, narrated by Abu Mu‟awiya, narrated by Al-A‟mash, narrated
by Abu Sufyan, narrated by Jabir, narrated by Um Bashir, narrated by Hafsa who related
that the prophet -pbuh- said, "It is my wish that those who participated in the battles of
Badr and Hudaibiyah will not enter hell, Allah willing." Hafsa then asked, "Doesn‟t Allah
say (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it?‟ The prophet
then replied (Surah 19:72) „Then we will save those who have avoided (evil)."

In both Sahih (of Bukhari and Muslim) there is a hadith narrated by Al-Zuhri, narrated by
Sa‟id, narrated by Abu Huraira - may Allah be pleased with him- who related that the
prophet - pbuh- said, "No Muslim whose three children die will have the fires of hell
touch him, for he will be saved by the oath of (Allah)." This was also narrated by Abdel
Razak, narrated by Ma‟mar, narrated by Al-Zuhri narrated by Ibn Al-Maseeb, narrated by
Abu Huraira who related that the prophet said, "If a person‟s three children die the fire
(of hell) will not touch him, he will be saved from it by (Allah‟s) oath." This was the
meaning of entry (wurood). Abu Zuhri stated this regarding (Surah 19:71) „Not one of
you but will pass through it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree which must be
accomplished.‟

Narrated by Jarir, narrated by Imran Ibn Bakar Al-Kila‟i, narrated by Abu Mughira,
narrated by Abdel Rahman Ibn Yazid Ibn Tamim, narrated by Ismail ibn Ubaid Allah,
narrated by Abu Salih, narrated by Abu Huraira who related that he was with the prophet
-pbuh- who went out looking for one of his companions who was ill with a fever and
said, "Allah the exalted says, „It is My fire that I impose on my believing servant, that it
may be his portion of fire in the afterlife.‟"

Narrated by Abu Kurayb, narrated by Abu Al-Yaman, narrated by Uthman Ibn Al-
Aswad, narrated by Mujahid who related that fever is every believer‟s portion of hell fire
and then he recited (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it.‟


Narrated by Imam Ahmad, narrated by Hassan, narrated by Ibn Luhay‟a, narrated by
Zaban Ibn Fa‟id, narrated by Sahil Ibn Mu‟ath Ibn Ans Al Juhani, narrated by his father
who related that the prophet said, "He who reads the verse, „Say Allah is one,‟ and
completes it ten times, Allah will build a palace for him in paradise." Then Umar
responded, "O prophet of Allah, then we will increase (the number of times we recite it)."
The prophet replied, "Allah is the increase and more pleasant." The prophet also said,
"He who reads a thousand verses for the sake of Allah will be written on the day of
resurrection as being among the prophets, believers, martyrs and righteous who are
worthy companions, if Allah wills it. He who voluntarily stands guard behind Muslims
for the sake of Allah, not being forced to do so by a sultan, his eyes will not see the fires
of hell for the oath (of Allah) rescues him."
Allah the exalted stated, (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it,‟ and
reciting (the Quran) for the sake of Allah is worth 700 times more than charity; in another
narration it is stated worth 700,000 times more than charity.

Narrated by Abu Dawud, narrated by Abu Tha‟hir, narrated by Ibn Wahb, narrated by
Yahya Ibn Ayub, narrated by Zaban, narrated by Sahil, narrated by his father who related
that the prophet -pbuh- said, "Prayer is exalted, and fasting and recitation are increased
above charity for the sake of Allah by 700 times."

Narrated by Abdel Razak, narrated by Mumar, narrated by Qatada who said, (Surah
19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it (wurood),‟ means to go through. Also,
Abdel Rahman Ibn Zaid Ibn Aslam stated regarding (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but
will pass through it,‟ that Muslims will pass over ("wurood") hell on a bridge, while the
infidels will pass through hell. The prophet -pbuh- said, "The men and women who will
be passing on the bridge (of Sirat) on judgment day will be many and there will be two
groups of angels supplicating and saying „O Allah! Save, save.‟"

Also, narrated by Al-Sadi, narrated by Murrah, narrated by Ibn Masud who stated that
regarding (Surah 19:71) „a decree which must be accomplished,‟ means that the decree is
an oath that must be fulfilled. Mujahid also stated that the decree is a certainty of
judgment. (Arabic source)

Al-Jalalayn‟s Commentary

Surah 19:71 Not one of you but will pass through it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree
which must be accomplished.

"Not one" means that there will be none.

"Of you" means ALL PEOPLE.

"But will pass through" means THE ENTRY INTO HELL.

"A decree which must be accomplished" means it is a certainty and a judgment from
which (Allah) will not relent from. (Arabic source)

Here is an alternate translation of Tafsir al-Jalalayn:

There is not one of you but shall come to it, that is, [but] shall enter Hell. That is an
inevitability [already] decreed by your Lord, [something which] He made inevitable and
[which] He decreed; He will not waive it. (Source)

Then We will deliver (read nunajjī or nunjī) those who were wary, of [committing]
idolatry or disbelief, [We will deliver them] from it, and leave those who did wrong, by
way of idolatry and disbelief, crouching therein, on their knees. (Source)
Al-Tabari‟s Commentary

Surah 19:71 Not one of you but will pass through it:

The meaning of Allah‟s saying, „Not one of you but will pass through it,‟ is that from you
people there shall be none who will not enter hell, for this was the will of thy Lord, O
Muhammad; an order that will be fulfilled. For He has commanded it and revealed it in
the mother of all books (the Quran).

The men of learning have differed about the meaning of pass through "wurood" that was
mentioned in this verse. Some of them say that pass through "wurood" mean ENTRY
INTO HELL. Of those that mentioned this meaning:

Narrated by Hassan Ibn Yahya, narrated by Abdel Razak, narrated by Ibn Ayena,
narrated by Amru who stated that someone had heard Ibn Abbas feud with Nafi Ibn Al-
Azraq. Ibn Abbas said, "Passing through (wurood) means ENTRY INTO HELL." Nafi
replied, "No." So Ibn Abbas recited (Surah 21:98) „Verily ye, and the gods that ye
worship besides Allah, are but fuel for Hell! To it will ye surely will enter (Wardan),‟ and
asked did they enter or not? He also read (Surah 11:98) „He will go before his people on
the Day of Judgment, and lead them (Awrada-hum) into the fire: but woeful indeed will
be the place (Wird) to which they are led (Al-mawrud)!‟ Did they enter or not? As for
you and I, WE WILL ENTER IT but let us see IF WE WILL EXIT FROM IT and I don‟t
see Allah taking you out of it because you lie (regarding its meaning). Nafi then laughed.

Narrated by Kasim, narrated by Al-Husain, narrated by Hajaj, narrated by Ibn Juraih,
narrated by Ibn Abu Rabah, narrated by Abu Rashid Al-Harury who said, "They (the
believers) will not hear hell‟s roar." Ibn Abbas responded, "Woe to you! Are you insane?
What of Allah‟s verse (Surah 11:98) „He will go before his people on the Day of
Judgment, and lead them (Awrada-hum) into the fire,‟ and also the verse (Surah 19:86)
„And We shall drive the sinners to hell being lead (Wirdan),‟ and also the verse (Surah
19:71) „Not one of you but will pass (Waridu-ha) through it.‟ By Allah, the supplication
of those who lived previously used to be, "O Allah TAKE ME OUT OF HELL FIRE
peacefully and allow me to enter paradise victorious."

Ibn Juraih narrated that passing though (Wurood) which Allah mentioned in the Quran
means ENTRY INTO HELL, so that into hell shall enter EVERY RIGHTEOUS and
sinner. In the Quran, entry into hell is mentioned 4 times: (Surah 11:98) „and lead them
(awrada-hum) into the fire,‟ and (Surah 21:98) „Verily ye, and the gods that ye worship
besides Allah, are but fuel for Hell! To it will ye surely will enter (Wardan).‟ And (Surah
19:86) „And We shall drive the sinners to hell being lead (Wirdan),‟ and (Surah 19:71)
„Not one of you but will pass (Waridu-ha) through it.‟

Narrated by Muhammad Ibn Sa‟d, narrated his father, narrated by his uncle, narrated by
Ibn Abbas who said the verse (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass (Waridu-ha)
through it,‟ means EVERYONE, whether righteous or sinner. For have you not heard
what Allah the exalted said to Pharaoh in (Surah 11:98) „He will go before his people on
the Day of Judgment, and lead them (Awrada-hum) into the fire.‟ And He also said in
(Surah 19:86) „And We shall drive the sinners to hell being lead (Wirdan),‟ so passing
through (wurood) meant entering hell fire, not exiting from it.

Narrated by Hassan Ibn Urfa, narrated by Marwan Ibn Mu‟awiya, narrated by Bakar,
narrated by Abu Mu‟awiya, narrated by Khalid Ibn Ma‟dan who related that the people of
paradise said when they entered paradise, "Didn‟t our Lord promise that we will pass
through hell?" They will be told, "You passed through it (hell) while its flames were
calm."

Narrated by Ibn Urfa, narrated by Marwan Ibn Mu‟awiya, narrated by Bakar Ibn Abu
Marwan, narrated by Abu Jamida, narrated by Muhammad Ibn Al-Mathna, narrated by
Marhum Ibn Abd Al-Aziz, narrated by Abu Khalid who said, "The earth will one day be
aflame, so how have you prepared for it?" he said, "This is the saying of Allah in (Surah
19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree which
must be accomplished.‟"

Narrated by Yaqub Ibn Ibrahim, narrated by Ibn Alia, narrated by Al-Jariri, narrated by
Abu Al-Salil, narrated by Ghunaim Ibn Qais who related that concerning the entry
(wurood) into hell fire Ka‟b said, "Hell fire will hold on to people with great intensity so
that the soles of the feet of ALL PEOPLE, both RIGHTEOUS and sinners, will be
charred. Then one will cry out to hell saying, „Hold on to your people AND LET MY
PEOPLE GO. Then hell will capture everyone that belongs to it, for hell will know who
belongs to it better than a man knows his own son BUT THE BELIEVERS WILL EXIT
WITH THEIR BODIES.‟" Ka‟b also added that the distance between one guardian (of
hell) and the next is a year‟s travel. Each one of them holds a column containing two
branches and with one thrust of the column, 70,000 people are thrown into the fire.

Narrated by Abu Kurayb, narrated by Ibn Yaman, narrated by Malik Ibn Maghul,
narrated by Abu Ishaq who said, "Whenever Abu Maysarah would lie down on his bed he
would say, „I wish my mother had never bore me‟ and then he would begin to weep.
When asked why he was weeping he would respond, „We were told that WE WOULD
ENTER HELL, but WE WEREN‟T TOLD THAT WE WOULD EXIT FROM IT.‟"

Narrated by Ibn Hamid, narrated by Hakam, narrated by Ismail, narrated by Qais who
related that Abdallah Ibn Rawaha WEPT DURING HIS ILLNESS, so his wife wept also.
He then asked her, "Why are you weeping?" She responded, "I saw you weeping and so I
started to weep." Ibn Rawaha said, "I KNOW THAT I WILL ENTER HELL FIRE, BUT
I DON‟T KNOW WHETHER I WILL BE TAKEN OUT OF IT OR NOT."

Narrated by Qasim, narrated by Al-Husain, narrated by Amru Dawud Ibn Al-Zabarkan,
narrated by Al-Suddi, narrated by Mura Al-Hamadani, narrated by Ibn Masud who said,
„Not one of you but will pass (Waridu-ha) through it,‟ means ENTRY (into hell).
Narrated by Qasim, narrated by Al-Husain, narrated by Hajaj, narrated by Ibn Jarih,
narrated by Mujahid, narrated by Ibn Abbas who said, "‟Not one of you but will pass
(Waridu-ha) through it,‟ means ENTRY (into hell).

Narrated by Al-Hussan Ibn Yahya, narrated by Abdel Razak, narrated by Ibn Ayina,
narrated by Ismail Ibn Abu Khalid, narrated by Qais Ibn Abu Hazim who said that
Abdallah Ibn Rawaha placed his head on his wife‟s lap and BEGAN TO WEEP, so his
wife began to weep also. So he asked her, "Why are you weeping?" She responded, "I
saw you weeping and so I started to weep." He said, "I remembered the saying of Allah -
who is glorified and exalted- (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it,‟
AND I DON‟T KNOW IF I WILL BE SAVED FROM IT OR NOT."

Others have said that „Pass through‟ (wurood) means to pass over hell fire. Of those who
mentioned this:

Narrated by Bishr, narrated by Yazid, narrated by Sa‟id, narrated by Qatada, who said
that, „Not one of you but will pass through it,‟ means that people passed over hell.

Narrated by Al-Hassan, narrated by Abdel Razak, narrated by Mu‟amar, narrated by
Qatada who said that „Not one of you but will pass through it,‟ means that people will
pass over hell.

Narrated by Khalid Ibn Aslam, narrated by Al-Nadir, narrated by Israel, narrated by Abu
Ishaq, narrated by Abu Al-Ahwas, narrated by Abdallah said regarding (Surah 19:71)
„Not one of you but will pass through it‟, "The Sirat (bridge) over hell is as sharp as a
sword. The first layer (of people) will pass as lightning, the second layer as the wind, the
third layer as running horses and the fourth layer as running beasts. Then the angels will
pass saying, „O Allah! Save, save.‟"

Others have said that pass through (wurood) means entry into hell for the infidels, not the
believers. Of those who said this:

Narrated by Al-Mathna, narrated by Abu Dawud, narrated by Shu‟ba, narrated by
Abdallah Ibn Al-Sa‟ib about a man who heard Ibn Abbas read (Surah 19:71) „Not one of
you but will pass through it,‟ in regards to the infidels, but the believers will not enter it.

Narrated by Muhammad Ibn Bashar, narrated by Abdel Rahman, narrated by Amru Ibn
Al-Walid Al-Shinni, narrated by Ikrimah who said that (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but
will pass through it,‟ refers to the infidels.

Others have said that „pass through‟ (wurood) refers to all believers and infidels, with the
difference being that (wurood) as applied to the believers means to walk through while
(wurood) as applied to the infidels means to enter and stay. Of those who mentioned this:

Narrated by Yunus, narrated by Ibn Wahb, narrated by Ibn Zaid who stated regarding
(Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it,‟ that (wurood) for the Muslims
will be to walk over the center of hell on the bridge (of Sirat) but (wurood) for the
infidels will be to enter hell. For the prophet -pbuh- said, "The men and women who will
be passing on the bridge (of Sirat) on judgment day will be many and there will be two
groups of angels supplicating and saying, „O Allah! Save, save.‟‟"

Others have said that (wurood) for the believer is what befalls him in this world from
fever and illness. Of those who said this:

Narrated by Abu Kurayb, narrated by Ibn Yaman, narrated by Uthman Ibn Al-Aswad,
narrated by Mujahid who said, "Fever is the portion of every believer from hell fire." He
then read (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it.‟

Narrated by Imran Ibn Bakar Al-Kila‟i, narrated by Abu Mughira, narrated by Abdel
Rahman Ibn Yazid Ibn Tamim, narrated by Ismail Ibn Ubaid Allah, narrated by Abu
Salih, narrated by Abu Huraira who related that he was with the prophet -pbuh- who went
out looking for one of his companions who was ill with a fever and said, "Allah the
exalted says, „It is My fire that I impose on my believing servant, that it may be his
portion of fire in the afterlife.‟"

Others have said, (Yaru-daha) means ALL PEOPLE will enter hell and the believers will
exit by their deeds. Of those who said this:

Narrated by Ibn Al-Mathna, narrated by Yahya Ibn Sai‟d, narrated by Shu‟ba, narrated
Al-Suddi, narrated by Murrah, narrated by Abdallah regarding (Surah 19:71) „Not one of
you but will pass through it.‟ He said that all people will enter it (hell) and exit from it by
their deeds.

Narrated by Muhammad Ibn Ubaid Al-Miharibi, narrated by Asbat, narrated by Abdul
Malik, narrated by Ubaid Allah, narrated by Mujahid who said, "I was in the company of
Ibn Abbas when a man called Abu Rashid, who is also known as Nafi Al-Azraq, came
and asked Ibn Abbas, „Have you seen the saying of Allah (Surah 19:71) "Not one of you
but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree which must be
accomplished"?‟ Abu Abbas replied, „As for you and I, O Abu Rashid, we SHALL
ENTER IT (hell), but let us see WHETHER we shall exit from it or not.‟"

Narrated by Ibn Bashar, narrated by Abu Asim, narrated by Ibn Juraih, narrated by Abu
Zubair who reported hearing Jabir Ibn Abdallah ask about the meaning of (wird) so he
said, "On judgment day we will either be branded or restful standing above the people.
Then all nations will be called by the name of their deities or what they worshipped, one
after the other shall they follow. Then all people, hypocrites and believers, will be given a
light to cover their darkness and follow (their deity) onto the bridge (of Sirat) where the
shackles of hell will take those whom Allah wills. The light of the hypocrite will then be
darkened and the believer will be rescued and the first group will be saved like a (bright)
night with a full moon and 70,000 will not be judged. The ones behind them will be as
bright as the stars in the skies and likewise saved. Then, intercession will dwell and they
will intercede AND OUT OF HELL FIRE WILL EXIT ANYONE WHO SAID, „There is
no god but Allah,‟ who had the weight of a single hair of goodness in his heart. They will
be hurled towards paradise where the people in paradise will dowse them with water.
They will then sprout like a plant in the downpour and they will ask (for the reward) of
the world and ten times as much will be given to them."

Also narrated by Al-Qasim, narrated by Al-Husain, narrated by Ibn Al-Mubarak who
said, "A man said to his brother „Have you been told that you shall enter hell?‟ The
brother answered „YES.‟ He then asked, „Have you also been told that you shall exit from
it?‟ The brother responded „NO.‟ So he asked, „Then why the laughter?‟ The brother
responded, „I have not seen a person laugh until he joined Allah.‟"

Narrated by Yunus, narrated by Ibn Wahb, narrated by Amru Ibn Al-Harith, narrated by
Bakara that he said to Basir, "A certain man says that passing through (wurood) hell fire
means passing over it." Basir replied that he heard Abu Huraira say, "On judgment day,
all people will be gathered and a voice will cry out „Let all people join themselves to the
deities they used to worship.‟ So some will go to stones, others to horses and others to
wood until those who remain are people who worshipped Allah. Then Allah will come to
them and they will rise when they see Him and follow Him over the (bridge) of Sirat
where there are traps. Then intercession will be allowed, so the people will pass and the
prophets will say, „O Allah! Save, save.‟"

The most PREFERRED of the correct sayings is he who said, "ALL PEOPLE WILL
ENTER IT; then the believers will exit from it, whom Allah will save, but He will keep
the infidels in it."

The meaning of the word(s) „passing through‟ (wurood-daha) is revealed in the narrations
about the prophet -pbuh- when he spoke of the (believers) passing through the crowd of
hell on the bridge (of Sirat) and the Muslims are then HEAPED UP FROM HELL. Of the
narrations that mentioned this:

Narrated by Abu Kurayb, narrated by Ibn Idris, narrated by Al-Amash, narrated by Abu
Sufyan, narrated by Jabir, narrated by Um Mubshir the wife of Zaid Ibn Haritha who
stated that the prophet -pbuh- said while he was in the house of Hafsa, "Those who
participated in the battles of Badr and Hudaibiyah will not enter hell." Hafsa then asked,
"Doesn‟t Allah say (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it?‟"
The prophet then replied (Surah 19:72) „Then we will save those who have avoided
(evil).‟"

Narrated by Hassan Ibn Mudrik, narrated by Yahya Ibn Hamad, narrated by Abu Awana,
narrated by Al-Amash, narrated by Abu Sufyan, narrated by Jabur, narrated by Um
Mubshir narrated the same hadith as above.

Narrated by Abu Kurayb, narrated by Abu Mu‟awiya, narrated by Al-Amash, narrated by
Abu Sufyan, narrated by Jabur, narrated by Um Mubshir, narrated that Hafsa stated that
the prophet - pbuh- said, "It is my wish that those who participated in the battles of Badr
and Hudaibiyah will not enter hell, Allah willing." Hafsa then asked, "Doesn‟t Allah say
(Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it?‟" The prophet then
replied (Surah 19:72) "Then we will save those who have avoided (evil)."


Narrated by Yaqub Ibn Ibrahim, narrated by Ibn Ayena, narrated by Muhammad Ibn
Ishaq, narrated by Ubaid Allah Ibn Al Mughira Ibn Mu‟ikab, narrated by Sulaiman Ibn
Umru Ibn Abd Al-Atwari, a member of the tribe of Laith, who was in the lap of Abu
Sa‟id related that he heard Abu Sa‟id Al-Khudri narrate that the apostle -pbuh- said, "The
Sirat (bridge) will be placed over the center of hell and on it will be thorns similar (to the
bones) of an ape. Then the Muslim will pass onto the bridge being wounded but saved
from the crowded imprisonment. When Allah has finished from judging the people, the
believers will look for men who were with them on earth praying as they prayed, paying
the same Zakat they paid, fasting the same fast they fasted, performing the same
pilgrimage they performed and making the same raids they made. The believers will then
ask, „O, our Lord! There were servants who worshipped you that were with us on earth
and used to pray as we prayed, pay the same Zakat we paid, fast the same fast we fasted,
perform the same pilgrimage we performed and make the same raids we made but we
don‟t see them.‟

Allah will say to them, „Depart to hell and whomever of these believers you find TAKE
THEM OUT.‟ So they will find that THE FIRE HAD ENGULFED THE BELIEVERS
according to their deeds. For some of them will be engulfed by the fire to their feet, some
of them will be engulfed to their knees, some of them will be engulfed to their chest and
some of them will be engulfed to their necks but not their faces. They will be removed
from the fire and cast into the water of life."

It was asked, "What is the water of life, O prophet of Allah?" He replied, "To be washed
by the people of paradise and they will sprout as a plant sprouts from the foam of a flood.
Then the prophets will intercede on behalf of anyone who faithfully witnessed that there
is no god but Allah and the believers will be saved from it (hell fire) and Allah will have
compassion by His mercy on THOSE LEFT IN IT so that there will not be left in it a
worshipper who has an atom‟s weight of faith in his heart who will not be REMOVED
FROM HELL."

Narrated by Muhammad Ibn Abdallah Ibn Abdel Hakim, narrated by Abu Shu‟ayb Ibn
Al-Laith, narrated by Laith Ibn Khalid, narrated by Yazid Ibn Abu Hilal, narrated by Zaid
Ibn Aslam, narrated Atta Ibn Yassar, narrated by Abu Sa‟id Al-Khudri who related that
the prophet said, "The bridge will be brought on judgment day and placed in the center of
hell." We asked, "O prophet, what is the bridge?" He replied, "A slippery slope on which
are placed catchers and shackles and flattened fish bones that have raised thorns called
Sa‟dan. The believer will pass on it like a glance, lightning, wind, running horses and
riders. Then there will be rescued Muslims, scratched Muslims all compacted in hell and
the last of them will pass quickly. You will not seek me in truth more urgently, by Allah
the blessed and exalted, than the believers on that day, who will see some saved but their
brothers left behind."
Narrated by Ahmad Ibn Issa, narrated by Sa‟id Ibn Kathir Ibn Afeer, narrated by Ibn
Luhay‟a, narrated by Abu Zubair who related that he asked Jabir Ibn Abdallah about the
meaning of (wurood), who replied that he heard the prophet -pbuh- say, "It means
ENTRY." They (the believers) WILL ENTER HELL and then exit from it. The last man
to remain on the Sirat (bridge) will crawl so Allah will raise for him a tree and the man
will cry out, „O my Lord, bring me closer to it.‟ So Allah -the blessed and exalted- will
bring him closer to it. Then the man will say, „O my Lord, place me in paradise,‟ and
Allah will tell him to ask for it and the man will ask. Then Allah will say to him, „It is
yours and ten times more or so.‟ The man will ask, „O Lord, are you mocking me?‟ Then
he will laugh to the point that his gums and back teeth show.

Narrated by Yunus, narrated by Ibn Wahb, narrated by Yahya Ibn Ayub, narrated by Abi
Kurayb, narrated by Muhammad Ibn Zaid, narrated by Rashid, who all heard from Zaid
Ibn Fa‟id, narrated by Sahl Ibn Mu‟ath, narrated by his father who narrated that the
prophet said, "He who voluntarily stands guard behind the Muslims, not taken by the
sultan with guards, will not see the fires of hell with his eyes when he is released by
Allah‟s oath. For Allah the exalted says, (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass
through (Waridu-ha) it.‟

Narrated by Al-Hassan Ibn Yahya, narrated by Abdel Razak, narrated by Ma‟mar,
narrated by AL-Zuhary, narrated by Ibn Al-Maseeb, narrated by Abu Huraira that the
prophet said, "He whose three children die will not be touched by the fires of hell for he
will be released from it by the oath (of Allah)," regarding wurood. (Arabic source)

The following is taken from The History of Al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam, translated
by Michael Fishbein (State University of New York Press [SUNY], Albany 1997),
Volume VIII (8), pp. 152-153:

According to Ibn Humayd- Salamah- Muhammad b. Ishaq- Muhammad b. Ja„far b. al-
Zubayr- „Urwah b. al-Zubayr, who said: The Messenger of God sent his expedition to
Mu‟tah in Jumada I of the year 8. He put Zayd b. Harithah in command of the men and
said, "If Zayd b. Harithah is killed, Ja„far b. Abi Talib shall be in command of the men; if
Ja„far is killed, „Abdallah b. Rawahah shall be in command… When „Abdallah b.
Rawahah said goodbye with the other commanders of the Messenger of God who were
doing so, HE WEPT. They said to him, "What is making you weep, Ibn Rawahah?" He
said, "By God, I have no love of this world or excessive love for you, but I heard the
Messenger of God recite a verse from the Book of God that mentioned the Fire [of Hell] -
„Not one of you there is, but he shall go down to it; that for thy Lord is a thing decreed,
determined‟ - AND I DO NOT KNOW HOW I CAN COME OUT AFTER GOING
DOWN." The Muslims said, "May God accompany you, defend you, and bring you back
to us in good health." …

The above story is reported by Ibn Ishaq, one of the first who wrote a biography on
Muhammad:
Muhammad b. Ja'far b. al-Zubayr from 'Urwa b. al-Zubayr said: The apostle sent his
expedition to Mu'ta in Jumada'l-Ula in the year 8 and put Zayd b. Haritha in command; if
Zayd were slain then Ja'far b. Abu 'Talib was to take command, and if he were killed then
'Abdullah b. Rawaha. The expedition got ready to the number of 3,000, and prepared to
start. When they were about to set off they bade farewell to the apostle's chiefs and
saluted them. When 'Abdullah b. Rawaha took his leave of the chiefs he wept and when
they asked him the reason he said, 'By God, it is not that I love the world and am
inordinately attached to you, but I heard the apostle read a verse from God's book in
which he mentioned hell: "There is not one of you but shall come to it; that is a
determined decree of your Lord," and I do not know how I can return after I have been to
it.' The Muslims said, 'God be with you and protect you and bring you back to us safe and
sound.' ... (Ishaq's Sirat Rasulullah (The Life of Muhammad), translated by Alfred
Guillaume [Oxford university Press, Karachi, tenth impression 1995], p. 532; bold
emphasis ours)

Al-Qurtubi‟s Commentary

There are five issues:

The first is the saying of Allah "And of you" which is a vow (in Surah 19:71). The "And"
has been explained in the hadith of the prophet -pbuh- when he said, "No Muslim whose
three children die will have the fires of hell touch him, he will be saved by the oath of
(Allah)." Al-Zuhri stated that it seems that by this hadith is explained the meaning of the
verse (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through it.‟ So the oath mentioned in
(Surah 19:71) „this is, with thy Lord, a Decree which must be accomplished,‟ refers to the
previous verse of, „Not one of you but will pass through it.‟ Some have mentioned that
the oath mentioned in this verse actually refers to (Surah 51:1), „The bounties given,‟ but
the first meaning is the more famous and fits the meaning.

The second issue:

People have differed regarding the meaning of the word (wurood), for some say wurood
means entry into hell. It is narrated by Jabir Ibn Abdallah that he heard the prophet -
pbuh- say, "Wurood is entry (into hell). There shall not remain A RIGHTEOUS MAN or
sinner who will not enter hell. For the believer, it will be cool and peaceful as it was to
Abraham. Then we will save those who have avoided (evil) and greatly torment the
sinners in it." Abu Omar gave the chain of transmission (isnad) to this hadith in his book,
"The Preparation (Al-Tam-heed)," and this is also narrated by Ibn Abbas, Khalid Ibn
Mu‟adh, Ibn Jarih and others.

It is related that Yunus used to read (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through
it,‟ to mean entry into hell and felt that some of the narrators erred in explaining the
meaning of wurood, so he established (its meaning) from the Quran.

From Al-Darimi, narrated by Abdallah Ibn Mas‟ud who related that the prophet -pbuh-
said, "All people will ENTER (yarud) hell then exit it by their deeds. Some of them will
exit like a glance, lightning, wind, a galloping horse, a glorious rider on a journey and a
man walking in stride."

It is narrated that Abu Abbas said regarding this issue to Nafi Ibn Al-Azraqi Al-Khariji,
"As for you and I, WE MUST ENTER IT. As for me, Allah will then save me from it but
for you, I doubt He will save you because you lie regarding it."

Many scholars have diligently VERIFIED THE SURETY OF ENTRY (wurood) INTO
HELL but expressed IGNORANCE ABOUT EXIT FROM IT and have stated so in the
book „The Preparation (Al-Tam-heed)‟.

A group said that wurood means walking on the bridge of (Sirat). It is narrated from Ibn
Abbas, and Ibn Mas‟ud, and Ka‟b Al-Ahbar, and Al-Suddi who narrated it from Ibn
Mas‟ud who narrated it from the prophet -pbuh.

Al-Hassan also said, "Wurood does not mean entry, rather, you can say, „I have arrived
(warad-tu) to (the city of) Basra but I have not entered it. So wurood means to pass on the
Sirat (bridge)."

Abu Bakir Al-Anbari stated that there were some men of learning who followed the
teachings of Al-Hassan and cited the verse of Allah (Surah 21:101) „Those for whom the
Good (Record) from Us has gone before, will be removed far from there (hell),‟ as proof
for their belief. They said that no person can enter hell if Allah has guaranteed to protect
them from it. They used to change the pronunciation of the word „Then" (Thumma) to
(Thama) in the verse (Surah 19:72), „But then We shall save those who guarded against
evil.‟

Others objected to what these people said by stating that the meaning of (Surah 21:101)
„will be removed far from there (hell),‟ is that the righteous will be removed from the
torment and burning found in hell. They also said that whoever enters hell and does not
feel ache or pain because of it, he is in reality removed from it. They then confirm this
teaching by pronouncing the word „Then‟ as (Thumma) in the verse (Surah 19:72), „Then
we will save those who avoided (evil).‟ So the word „Then‟ (Thumma) illustrates that
there is A CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER of events; first the entry into hell then being
saved from it.

In Sahih Muslim it is related that the prophet said, "The bridge will be brought on
judgment day and placed in the center of hell." We asked, "O prophet, what is the
bridge?" He replied, "A slippery slope on which are placed catchers and shackles and
flattened fish bones that have raised thorns called Sa‟dan. The believer will pass on it like
a glance, lightning, wind, running horses and riders. Then there will be rescued Muslims,
scratched Muslims all compacted IN HELL."

Some used this hadith as evidence that the meaning of (wurood) is to walk on the Sirat
(bridge) as opposed to mean entry into hell. Others said that wurood means to behold,
look at and approach hell, for the place of judgment will be near hell. So people will see
it and look at it during the judgment then Allah will save those who have sought refuge
from what they saw and usher them into paradise.

The verse (Surah 19:72) „and We shall leave the wrong-doers therein,‟ means that the
evil doers will be commanded into hell fire for Allah the exalted says (Surah 28:23) „And
when he arrived at the watering (place) in Madyan,‟ means that Moses approached the
water but did not enter in it.

Hafsa narrated that the prophet -pbu- said, "Those who participated in the battles of Badr
and Hudaibiyah will not enter hell." Hafsa then asked, "O apostle of Allah, what about
Allah‟s saying (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but will pass through (Waridu-ha) it?‟" The
prophet then replied, (Surah 19:72) „Then we will save those who have avoided (evil) and
compact the evil doers in it.‟ Imam Muslim brought forth this hadith as narrated by Um
Mubshir who heard the prophet say it while at Hafsa‟s house.

Al-Zujaj also supported this opinion by (Surah 21:101) „Those for whom the Good
(Record) from Us has gone before, will be removed far there from (hell).‟ Mujahid said,
"Entry (wurood) into hell for the believers is to have a fever on this earth; for it is every
believer‟s portion of hell fire but he will not enter it."

Abu Huraira narrated that the prophet -pbuh- visited a man with illness and fever and said
to him, "Rejoice! For Allah the blessed and exalted says, „It is My fire that I impose on
my believing servant, that it may be his portion of fire in the afterlife.‟" Abu Umar also
supported this hadith by narrating that Abdel Warih Ibn Sufyan, narrated by Kasim Ibn
Asbagh, narrated by Muhammad Ibn Ismail Al-Sa‟igh, narrated by Abu Usama, narrated
by Abdel Rahman Ibn Yazid Ibn Jabir, narrated by Ismail Ibn Ubaid Allah Al-Ash‟ari
(from Abu Salih), narrated by Abu Huraira who reported the hadith about the prophet
going to visit a sick man and then mentioned that, „Fever is the believer‟s portion of hell
fire.‟

Another group stated that wurood means to look at hell from the grave; where the winner
will be saved from it and those destined to enter it will do so, but they also will exit from
it through intercession or by Allah‟s mercy. These people use a hadith of Ibn Umar as
evidence, „If one of you dies, he will be offered a seat noon and evening time.‟

Also, narrated by Waki, narrated by Sha‟ba, narrated by Abdallah Ibn Al-Sa‟ib, narrated
by Rajul, narrated by Ibn Abbas that he stated that (Surah 19:71), „Not one of you but
will pass through it,‟ is addressed to the infidels. It is also reported that he used to read
the words, „Not one of them‟ (instead of one of you) belonging to (Surah 19:68-70), „So,
by thy Lord, without doubt, We shall gather them together, and (also) the Evil Ones (with
them); then shall We bring them forth on their knees round about Hell; Then shall We
certainly drag out from every sect all those who were worst in obstinate rebellion against
(Allah) Most Gracious. And certainly We know best those who are most worthy of being
burned therein. Not one of you but will pass over it,‟ as referring to the infidels
referenced in those verses. Ikrimah also said likewise.
Another group said that the words (in Surah 19:71) „Not one of you‟ refers to the infidels
and implies the meaning, „O Muhammad tell the infidels…‟ and this explanation is easily
reached when considering (Surah 76:21-22), „Upon them will be green Garments of fine
silk and heavy brocade, and they will be adorned with Bracelets of silver; and their Lord
will give to them to drink of a Wine pure and Holy. Verily this is a Reward for you, and
your Endeavor is accepted and recognized,‟ where the believers here are addressed in a
similar manner.

However, THE MAJORITY (of scholars) say that ALL THE PEOPLE OF EARTH are
being addressed in (Surah 19:71) and it is necessary FOR ALL PEOPLE TO ENTER
HELL. This is where disagreements have occurred about the meaning of wurood. We
have shown the sayings of the scholars AND IT IS APPARENT THAT wurood MEANS
ENTRY INTO HELL, for the prophet says (when the fires of hell touch him). The sense
of touch is a reality in the (Arabic) language, SO THE FIRE WILL TOUCH THE
BELIEVERS but it will be cool and pleasant on them and thus they will be delivered
from it safely.

Khalid Ibn Ma‟dan who related, "The people of paradise said after they entered paradise,
„Didn‟t our Lord promise THAT WE WILL ENTER HELL?‟ and they will be told, „You
ENTERED IT and found it ashes.‟"

This hadith gathers the meaning of the various sayings; for the believers who enter hell
are not hurt by its flames and heat but are (eventually) removed and saved from hell; may
Allah save us all from it by His kindness and make us of those who entered hell
peacefully and existed from victorious. If it is asked, „Do the prophets enter hell?‟ we
respond, „That is not what we are saying." However, we do say that all of humanity will
enter hell as the hadith of Jabir demonstrated. Those of ancient times followed by the
transgressors will enter with their crimes, then the overlords and the joyful (will enter) for
their intercession, and between each group is a gap.

Ibn Al-Bari stated, WHILE OBJECTING TO UTHMAN‟S VERSION OF THE QURAN
AND THE WAY IT WAS RECITED IN THE PUBLIC, that it is permissible in the
(Arabic) language to switch from addressing the absent to addressing the present hearers
as found in (Surah 76:22), „Verily this is a Reward for you, and your Endeavor is
accepted and recognized.‟ So he switched a letter in that verse to convey that meaning.
This same argument was also given by Yunus.

{Side Note: Ibn Al-Bari‟s complaint against Uthman‟s recension of the Quran
demonstrates that the Qurans which were in circulation were not uniform, but contained
major differences, and that not all Muslims approved of the Uthmanic version.}

The third issue:

The petition in the saying of the prophet (until he is saved by the oath) may be an
intermitted petition but the (divine) oath will nevertheless save the person. This is a
common expression among the Arabs and the meaning is that the fires of hell don‟t even
touch the person because the oath has to be fulfilled. When Allah says, „Not one of you
but shall pass through it,‟ it could mean to walk on the Sirat (bridge) or to look upon hell
or to enter it safely. In all these cases, there is no contact with the flames for the prophet
says, „There shall not die three children for any of you, but will then be counted for you
as a paradise from the fire.‟ This is in reference to the preventative paradise or the
protective curtain that will prevent the fire from touching a person in the first place, or if
it did touch then it will not be hot…

Al-Nakash related about those who claimed that verse (Surah 19:71) „Not one of you but
will pass through it,‟ was abrogated by the verse (Surah 21:101) „those who have
received a foretime goodness from Us, those will be removed from it (hell).‟ But this is a
weak saying because Surah 19:71 has no abrogation. We have demonstrated that if the
person is not touched by the fire, then it has been removed from him.

The fifth issue:

For Allah‟s saying (Surah 19:71) „This is, with thy Lord, a Decree which must be
accomplished,‟ the decree is an affirmative judgment meaning that this will be done with
certainty. A „decree‟ means that Allah has ordered it to be so and Ibn Masud calls it an
obligatory oath. (Arabic source)

A Commentary Attributed to Ibn Abbas

(There is not one of you but shall approach it) there is not a single one of you, to the
exclusion of prophets and messengers, save that he will enter it, i.e. Hell. (That is a fixed
ordinance of your Lord) it is a decree that must necessarily take place. (Source)

(Then We shall rescue those who kept from evil) those who ward off disbelief, idolatry
and indecency, (and leave the evil-doers) the idolaters (crouching) all gathered for
eternity (there) in Hell. (Source)

A brief note at this point. This commentary says that only prophets and messengers are
exempted from entering hell which presupposes that everyone else will indeed enter,
including believers.

A Modern Commentary

This more recent commentator, although believing that the text states that believers will
go across hell, nonetheless still admits that:

This means that everybody - be he believer or an infidel - will go across Hell. However,
this does not mean that they would go to stay in it; they would only go across it. But even
if the word means "entry", then the pious believers on entry into Hell will feel no
discomfort because its fire will cool down and will do no harm to them. Sayyidna Abu
Sumayya has related that The Holy Prophet once said that:
"Everybody whether is a pious man or a sinner will initially enter Hell, but for the pious
believers the fire will cool down just as the fire of Namrud cooled down when Sayyidna
Ibrahim was cast into it. Thereafter, the believers will be taken to Paradise."

This view is confirmed by the next sentence which means then We will save those who
feared Allah - 19:72. A similar view has also been expressed by Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas,
thus even if the word ... occurring in the Qur'an is taken to mean ... (entry) then the word
... will be interpreted as synonymous with the word ... (going across). Thus, there is no
contradiction in the meaning of the word. (Mufti Shafi Uthmani, Maariful Quran,
Volume 6, p. 66; source)

Summary Analysis

The traditions and comments presented by some of Islam‟s leading exegetes conclusively
show that the view that every person entering hell is the correct one, being held by the
majority of Muslims. As the above scholars clearly articulated, the majority of Muslims
historically accepted the fact that every Muslim would enter hell, but weren‟t certain
about coming out. In fact, certain Muslims were so frightened by this passage that they
would weep over the uncertainty of whether they would be taken out of the hellfire!

Some of these Muslims believed that the fire would not harm the believers, a view
nowhere supported by the Quran itself. It seems that these Muslims were really troubled
by the thought of having to enter hell and so came up with the interpretation that the fire
will not affect the believers. Be that as it may, the point is clear that Muslims traditionally
understood and interpreted surah 19:71 to mean that believers must of necessity enter
hell.

What a vast difference there is in following Allah and in following the Lord Jesus. Christ,
not Allah, promises and guarantees all his followers that they would never see death,
meaning hell:

"Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has
eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life." John
5:24 NASB

"Jesus said to her, „I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me will live
even if he dies, and everyone who lives and believes in Me WILL NEVER DIE. Do you
believe this?‟ She said to Him, „Yes, Lord; I have believed that You are the Christ, the
Son of God, even He who comes into the world.‟" John 11:25-27 NASB

"He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. He who overcomes
will not be hurt by the second death." Revelation 2:11 NASB

"Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the
lake of fire. And if anyone's name was not found written IN THE BOOK OF LIFE, he
was thrown into the lake of fire." Revelation 20:14-15
The Lord‟s resurrection from the dead proves that Christ can and will do all that he says
and promises.

5. A Contradiction

In light of the foregoing data which state that Muslims shall indeed enter hell, the
following verse becomes quite interesting.

Our Lord! surely whomsoever Thou makest ENTER the fire, him Thou hast indeed
brought to disgrace, and there shall be no helpers for the unjust: S. 3:192 Shakir

… Truly Thou coverest with shame… Y. Ali

According to the Quran, entering the fire is a sign of a person being shamed, humiliated,
disgraced by Allah. Since the Quran says that Muslims shall enter hell, this means that
Allah has decreed that all Muslims must experience shame, humiliation, and disgrace!

Note the implications here:
Entering hell is a sign of disgrace, humiliation and shame.
Allah has decreed that all Muslims will enter hell.
Therefore, all Muslims will be disgraced, humiliated and shamed by Allah.

Allah obviously delights in humiliating his followers since he has decreed their descent
into hell.

But this introduces an additional problem, namely a contradiction, since elsewhere the
Quran says:

O you who disbelieve! do not urge excuses today; you shall be rewarded only according
to what you did. O you who believe! turn to Allah a sincere turning; maybe your Lord
will remove from you your evil and cause you to enter gardens beneath which rivers
flow, on the day on which Allah will not abase the Prophet and those who believe with
him; their light shall run on before them and on their right hands; they shall say: Our
Lord! make perfect for us our light, and grant us protection, surely Thou hast power over
all things. 66:7-8 Shakir

… the Day that God will not permit to be humiliated the Prophet and those who believe
with him… Y. Ali

… the day God will not disgrace the Prophet nor those who believe with him… Palmer

Allah says that neither Muhammad nor the believers will be abased, disgraced,
humiliated etc., contradicting surah 19:71 which says that believers shall enter hell and
therefore will be disgraced.
These passages aren't the only ones contradicting surah 19:71, but this following hadith
contradicts it as well:

Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "No Muslim whose three children died will go to the Fire except for
Allah's oath (i.e. everyone has to pass over the bridge above the lake of fire)." (Sahih Al-
Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 23, Number 342)

The preceding hadith was even mentioned by our commentators as one of the reasons
some Muslims didn‟t believe that every believer was going to enter hell. Yet others took
this to mean that a believer, once in hell, would not suffer harm which to them implied
that a believer wasn‟t really in hell.

In fact, this is the very narration which, according to Hilali-Khan, refers to Allah‟s oath in
surah 19:71 that everyone must enter hell. What this hadith is basically saying is that the
person who has lost three children will have to spend some time in hell since Allah must
fulfill his oath, which means that this report actually substantiates the fact that even
Muslims shall enter Hell per 19:71!

Whatever the meaning, it is rather apparent that Muhammad was confused about the fate
of Muslims and in the process left his companions confused as well.

Now, contrast the difference between following Allah and following the true God of the
Holy Bible:

"Why? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as if it were based on works. They
have stumbled over the stumbling stone, as it is written, „Behold, I am laying in Zion a
stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense; and whoever believes in him will not be put to
shame.‟" Romans 9:32-33 ESV

"because, if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that
God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes and is
justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved. For the Scripture says,
„Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.‟" Romans 10:9-11

True believers in the risen and immortal Lord Jesus will never be put to shame or
humiliated, unlike the Muslims who follow Allah. Will all Muslims go to Hell?

Sam Shamoun

We continue our discussion of surah 19:71 by addressing a Muslim‟s response to the
initial article on this passage. Moiz Amjad published a response to Jochen Katz‟s analysis
of whether or not the Quran teaches that all Muslims will enter hell. Mr. Amjad‟s
response, even though intended to refute our argument, actually serves to reinforce the
points made in Part 1 as we shall shortly see here.
Mr. Amjad begins:

In one of his articles[1] Mr. Jochen Katz has pointed out a contradiction in Aal Imraan 3:
157 -- 158, 169, Al-Taubah 9: 111 and Maryam 19: 71.

Elaborating upon the contradiction in the stated verses, Mr. Katz writes:

According to Sura 19:71 every Muslim will go to Hell (for at least some time), while
another passage states that those who die in Jihad will go to Paradise immediately.

Before analyzing the stated contradiction, I would first like to inform my readers that it is
not merely the martyrs in the way of God, who have been promised complete immunity
from hellfire, but, in fact, all the God-fearing believers have been promised to be kept in
protection from the slightest of evil. Al-Zumar 39: 60 -- 61 declares:

And on the Day of Resurrection, you will see those, who blasphemed against God, their
faces turned black -- Is not in the hellfire [a most suitable] abode for the arrogant? And
God shall deliver the righteous with salvation, no harm shall [even] touch them, nor shall
they grieve.

According to Al-Anbiyaa 21: 98 -- 103 the pious shall not only be saved from all evil, but
shall be kept so far away from the burning fire that they shall not even hear the horrifying
sounds of the growling fires. The verses read as:

You and whatever you worship except God shall be the fuel of hellfire, to which, all of
you shall surely come -- had these truly been gods, they would not have reached this
[end] -- all [burning] in it, forever. In it, for them shall be painful groans of anguish and
in they shall be bereft of hearing. Indeed, those, for whom We have already promised the
good, they shall be kept away from this [hellfire]. They shall not even hear the slightest
sound of the growling fire; and they shall be among all that their souls shall desire,
forever. They shall not be grieved by the great terror. And the angels shall receive them
[saying]: 'This is the day, of which you were promised'.

It is clearly stated in the aforementioned verses that all pious, God-fearing and righteous
people shall not be even touched or brought close to the encompassing flames of the
hellfire. Thus, it is not merely the martyrs, but all those, who do not deserve to be thrown
in the burning fires of hell, who shall remain completely immune from even the slightest
of pains and tortures of hellfire.

RESPONSE:

Mr. Amjad, by mentioning these passages, has only compounded the problem. We
showed in the first part of our paper that the contextual evidence points to everyone,
including Muslims, entering hell. Even the Muslim commentators admitted that the
majority of Muslims held this view. Hence, Mr. Amjad‟s appeal to passages that deny
that Muslims will suffer in hell only reinforces Mr. Katz‟s claim that the Quran is
contradicting itself. In one place it says ALL shall enter hell, in other places it says that
believers will be kept from even hearing the sound of the growling fire, a blatant
contradiction.

Furthermore, as was also noted in the first part, surah 21:98 provides evidence for
understanding the Arabic word wurood in surah 19:71 as implying a literal entrance into
hell. Even Mr. Amjad realizes this fact. More on this later.

Mr. Amjad continues:

Keeping the foregoing clarification in perspective, now let us take a close look at the
relevant verses of Surah Maryam. The verses cited by Mr. Katz (verses 71 -- 72), with a
few of its preceding verses are reproduced below:

And [yet, disregarding the power of God,] this [rejecting] man says: 'When I am dead,
would I really be raised again?' Does this man not remember that before this, We created
him, while he was nothing? Thus, by [the providence of] your Lord, indeed We shall
gather them as well as [all] the devils and then We shall bring them forth, around the
hellfire, squatting. Then, of each group, We shall separate the one, who was most
obstinate in his rebellion against the Most Merciful. And We are indeed aware of those,
who are most deserving of burning in it. And each one of you, shall surely come to this
[fire]. This is a promise of your Lord, that must come to pass. Then, we shall save the
righteous [from all suffering] and We shall abandon the wrong-doers in it, squatting.

In the context of the verse, it is quite clear that the words "Each one of you..." are
addressed to the rejecters of the Prophet's call. The addressees of this verse are, in fact,
the same people who are being warned and admonished in the immediately preceding
verses. Thus, seen in the correct perspective, the referred verses of Surah Maryam are,
more or less, similar in meaning to the cited verses of Surah Al-Anbiyaa. Thus, Al-
Raaziy has also mentioned the foregoing opinion about the referred verse in his
commentary. He writes:

Some of them are of the opinion that the addressees in this verse are the same rejecters,
who are mentioned in the preceding verses. They are first addressed in the third person
and then admonished in the second person. The adherents of this opinion say: 'It is not
correct to assume that the believers shall enter hellfire, on the basis of the following:
Firstly, the Qur'an has declared in Al-Anbiyaa 21: 101 that "Indeed, those, for whom We
have already promised the good, they shall be kept away from this hellfire", being 'kept
away' from hellfire cannot be spoken for those who shall enter it. Secondly, the Qur'an
says: "They shall not hear its slightest sound". Were they to enter the hellfire, the
believers would then most certainly hear its sounds. And thirdly, the Qur'an says: "They
[i.e. the believers] shall that day be secure from all panic".

As should be clear from the foregoing explanation, the Qur'an does not, at any instance,
declare that the true believers shall be made to enter hellfire. Such an end is promised
only for those whose arrogance and pride drove them to reject the truth even after having
clearly recognized it.

RESPONSE:

Mr. Amjad presumes that his proposed interpretation that 19:71 refers to Muhammad‟s
rejecters is "quite clear", whereas this isn‟t necessarily the case. First, notice that ar-Razi
doesn‟t give any contextual reasons from surah 19 to deny that every one will enter hell.
Instead, ar-Razi simply mentions some Muslims who denied that believers would enter
hell on the basis of other Quranic verses! But this is precisely the problem we had raised,
namely, that the Quran is contradicting itself on the fate of Muslims. One can‟t simply
quote verses that deny that believers will go to hell and somehow assume that this solves
the problem, since the only thing these other passages show is that there is a substantial
error within the Quran.

Second, a careful look at the overall context of the passage demonstrates that several
different groups are in view:

And says man, `What! when I am dead, shall I be brought forth alive?' Does not man
remember that WE created him before, when he was nothing? And, by thy Lord, WE
shall assuredly gather them together, and the satans too; then shall WE bring them on
their knees around Hell. Then shall WE certainly pick out, from every group, those of
them who were most stubborn in rebellion against the Gracious God. And surely, WE
know best those deserving to be burnt therein. And there is not one of YOU but will
come to it. This is an absolute decree of thy Lord. S. 19:66-71 Sher Ali

Note carefully the shift in referents. The passage speaks of the unbelievers by referring to
them in a collective sense ("man", "them"), then to the satans, and then changes from
third person usage to second person plural (YOU). Now a change in address doesn‟t
necessarily imply that there is a change in referent. But when the passage mentions and
interjects a different group within the discussion, namely satans, then a case can be made
that more than one entity is being addressed. It is quite easy to see three groups here,
specifically unbelievers, satans and believers. The text is therefore implying that:
Unbelieving man enters hell and remains there.

Satans (jinns) will also be brought down to hell.

The believers, too, will enter hell (v. 71) but will then exit by the mercy of Allah (v. 72).

It may even be that "man" (singular) refers to the disbelief that all the pagan Arabs in
Mecca initially had regarding the resurrection, whether believers or unbelievers. The text
then moves on from there to distinguish between those who choose to believe from those
who remain doubtful about the possibility of an actual general resurrection of the dead.
The text would therefore be understood to mean that:
The pagan Arabs in their entirety at some point doubted the resurrection.
Some of them chose to overcome such doubts and believe that God has the ability to raise
the dead back to life.

Others chose to remain in disbelief.

Allah sends all men, both believers and unbelievers, into hell (including satans).

Once there, Allah will then separate the believers from the unbelievers by taking out the
former and leaving in the latter to hobble there.

Third, as we had mentioned in Part 1, the majority of Muslims agreed and settled on the
interpretation that surah 19:71 is not limited to those who rejected Muhammad, but
believed that everyone would enter hell. That they believed that everyone will enter hell,
whether believer or unbeliever, righteous or unrighteous, shows that even these Muslims
didn‟t think that the group entering hell was limited to only those that rejected
Muhammad‟s call. They saw nothing in the context which limited the discussion to
unbelievers.

Even Mr. Amjad‟s own source, ar-Razi, implies that many other Muslims agreed that
19:71 refers to every person entering hell. Do note ar-Razi‟s comments carefully:

SOME OF THEM are of the opinion that the addressees in this verse are the same
rejecters, who are mentioned in the preceding verses…

Ar-Razi‟s SOME OF THEM implies that not all shared the same opinion, but that there
were other Muslims who held to a different view from the one proposed by Mr. Amjad.
We are currently working on translating ar-Razi‟s comments and will post them here for
all to read.

Fourth, Mr. Amjad‟s attempt of trying to connect the passage with the verses that
mention those who rejected the message introduces additional problems. The verse right
after 71 says:

Then We shall rescue those who kept from evil, and leave the evil-doers crouching there.
Pickthall

Thus, according to 19:72, Allah will take out of hell those who were righteous, which
implies that if Mr. Amjad‟s understanding is correct then:
Some of those who rejected Muhammad were actually righteous.

Or, those evildoers who reject Muhammad have a chance of exiting hell.

This implies that the evildoers had a change of heart while in hell and became righteous;
otherwise they couldn‟t be classified as righteous.
This further implies that Allah will even grant repentance to the inhabitants of hell, to
those who rejected Muhammad while on earth, giving them an opportunity to become
righteous.

Yet this last point contradicts the following passage:

The forgiveness is not for those who do ill-deeds until, when death attendeth upon one of
them, he saith: Lo! I repent now; nor yet for those who die while they are disbelievers.
For such We have prepared a painful doom. S. 4:18 Pickthall

Mr. Amjad cannot avoid accepting the above conclusions since they are the natural result
of both the context of the passage and of his preferred interpretation. Note how Mr.
Amjad himself renders the text:

Then, we shall save the righteous [from all suffering] and We shall abandon the wrong-
doers in IT, squatting.

Mr. Amjad‟s own interpretation of the verse doesn‟t disprove that believers will enter
hell, but rather proves our position; it proves that believers WILL ENTER hell, even
though Mr. Amjad‟s rendering implies that they will be spared any suffering while there.
To put it in another way, Mr. Amjad‟s rendering implies that the righteous, or those who
kept themselves from doing evil, will not experience any suffering while in hell, but they
will still enter in hell nonetheless, precisely what some Muslims of the past believed. See
Part 1 for the details. Hence, irrespective of whether believers suffer pain or not, this
point is still clear: Mr. Amjad‟s own proposed translation inevitably leads to the fact that
Muslims will definitely enter hell.

Mr. Amjad‟s preferred translation even proves our point that the Arabic word translated
"shall surely come to this" (wariduha from wurood), implies a literal entrance into hell.
Note, again, how he rendered 19:71:

And each one of you, shall surely come to this [fire]…

Mr. Amjad understands the text to be saying that people will come to the fire,
demonstrating our case that the passage does refer to a literal entrance into hell. Realizing
this, Mr. Amjad is then forced to find a way of differentiating between those who come to
it from the righteous who are saved. His translation therefore implies that there are two
groups in view, not one. We already saw why his reconciliation causes him more
problems than solutions.


Be that as it may, Mr. Amjad acknowledges that the text does speak of people
actually entering INTO hell, and not simply passing over it as some suggest.
Thus, even his own exegesis lends further support to what we have been saying.
It demonstrates that the natural reading of the text points in the direction of
everyone having to go down into hell, which means that every Muslim must
spend some time there as well. Mr. Amjad has been trying hard to deny this last
fact, but to no avail. What is the proper understanding of the fate of Non -
Muslims in the afterlife?

Answer:

Assalamu alaikum,


Sheikh Nuh Keller dealt with this in the attached article [from:
http://www.masud.co.uk, a brilliant site], a refutation of the idea of the 'universal validity
of all religions,' saying:
5. The Fate of Non-Muslims in the Afterlife


The reason that contemporary writers affected by the writings of Gunon and Schuon,
such as Chittick and Gai Eaton (or such as Martin Lings, Titus Burckhardt etc.), seem to
want the universal validity of all religions at any price, even to the extent of attributing it
to masters like Muhyiddin ibn al-`Arabi ("in principle") or Emir `Abd al-Qadir ("he
protected the Christians against massacre by taking them into his own home because he
understood" [as if other scholars considered massacring them halal]) would seem to be
the emotive impalatability of followers of other religions going to hell. Where is the
mercy? Would Allah put someone in the hellfire merely for worshipping in another
religion besides Islam? This question is answered by traditional Islam according to two
possibilities:


(1) There are some peoples who have not been reached by the message of the Prophet of
Islam (Allah bless him and give him peace) that we must worship the One God alone,
associating nothing else with Him. Such people are innocent, and will not be punished no
matter what they do. Allah says in surat al-Isra',


"We do not punish until We send a Messenger" (Koran 17:15).


These include, for example, Christians and others who lived in the period after the spread
of the myth of Jesus godhood, until the time of the prophet Muhammad (Allah bless him
and give him peace), who renewed the call to pure monotheism.
The great Muslim scholar, Imam Ghazali, includes in this category those who have only
been reached with a distorted picture of the Messenger of Islam (Allah bless him and give
him peace), presumably including many people in the West today who know nothing
about Allah's religion but newspaper stories about Ayatollahs and mad Muslim bombers.
Is it within such people's capacity to believe? In Ghazali's view, such people are excused
until after they have had an opportunity to learn the undistorted truth about Islam
(Ghazali: "Faysal al - tafriqa," Majmu'a rasa'il al-Imam al-Ghazali, 3.96). This of course
does not alter our own obligation as Muslims to reach them with the da'wa.


(2) A second group of people consists of those who turn away from God's divine message
of Islam, rejecting the command to make their worship God's alone; whether because of
blindly imitating the religion of their ancestors, or for some other reason. These are
people to whom God has sent a prophetic messenger and reached with His message, and
to whom He has given hearing and an intellect with which to grasp it but after all this,
persist in associating others with Allah, either by actually worshipping another, or by
rejecting the laws brought by His messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace), which
associates their own customs with His prerogative to be worshipped as He directs. Such
people have violated God's rights, and have accepted to go to hell, which is precisely
what His messengers have warned them of, so they have no excuse:


"Truly, Allah does not forgive that any be associated with Him; but He forgives what is
less than that to whomever He wills" (Koran 4:48).


In either case, Allah's mercy exists, though for non-Muslims unreached by the message, it
is a question of divine amnesty for their ignorance, not a confirmation of their religions
validity. It is worth knowing the difference between these two things, for one's eternal
fate depends on it.

Abdullah bin Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him)
reported: There were, about forty of us with Messenger
of Allah (PBUH) in a camp when he said, "Aren't you
pleased that you will constitute one-fourth of the
inhabitants of Jannah?'' We said, "Yes". He again said,
"Aren't you pleased that you will constitute one-third of
the inhabitants of Jannah?". We said: "Yes.'' Upon this
he (PBUH) said, "By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad's
soul is, I hope that you will constitute one-half of the
inhabitants of Jannah; and the reason is that only
Muslims will be admitted into Jannah; and you are no
more compared to the polytheists than as a white hair
on the skin of a black ox, or a black hair on the skin of a
white ox.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:

This Hadith reveals the following two points:

1. As compared with the believers and the faithful, there
will be a large number of infidels in Hell.

2. As compared with the followers of other Prophets,
there will be a larger number of Muslims in Jannah, to
the extent that half of its occupants will be Muslims.
This Hadith has glad tidings for the Muslim Ummah and
bestows great respect and honour on them. (May Allah
include us among them.)

Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (May Allah be pleased with him)
reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "On the Day
of Resurrection, Allah will deliver to every Muslim, a Jew
or a Christian and say: `This is your ransom from Hell-
fire.'''

Another narration is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said,
"There would come people amongst the Muslims on the
Day of Resurrection with sins as heavy as a mountain,
and Allah would forgive them".
[Muslim].

Commentary:

"This is your ranson'' is interpreted by the Hadith of Abu
Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him):
"There is a place for everyone in both Jannah and Hell.
When the believer occupies his place in Jannah, an
infidel will take his place in Hell on account of his
infidelity. This also means: "You believers were exposed
to Fire, but this infidel is your ransom. Because Allah
has prepared a number of His creature for Hell, so when
the infidels occupy it on account of their sins and
infidelity, they are considered as ransoms for the
believers. Allah knows best.'' (Editor's Note)

Commentary:

This Hadith tells us about the auspicious end of the
believers and a bad one of disbelievers.

				
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