dua before starting any presentation Du‟aa of Prophet Musa (A.S.) From Surah Taha Rabbi Ishrah Li Sadry, Wayassir Li Amry, Wahlul „Uqdatan Min Lisany, yafqahu Qawly. (My Lord, I ask you to expand my breast, make my task easy, undo the knot in my tongue so that my speech will become comprehensible) (Moses‟ prayer) Rabbi - My Lord Ishrah - Expand Sadry - My breast Yassir - Make easy Li - for Amry - My affair/situation „Uqdatan - knot Lisaany - my tongue Yafqahu - become comprehendible Qawly - my word/speech IMPORTANCE OF ABSTAINING FROM SIN Source: How to Live as a Muslim ( Hayaatul Muslimeen) by Maulana Ashraf Ali THANAVI and Fear of Hell by Maulana Ahmad Saeed Dehlvi It is of vital importance for a true believer( Mu'min) to abstain from all sin. This is essential of developing his Imaan. Sin darkens Imaan and creates weakness in it. On the assumption that there will not be punishment for sins, then too, it is necessary for the Mu'min lo abstain from sin, for sin is disobedience which is the cause of Allah's displeasure. No man wishes to displease even a worldly benefactor (boss) . The favors of Allah on man are innumerable. Allah Ta'ala is man's greatest and true Benefactor. How can the Mu'min then displease Him? Besides this consideration, there is also the danger of punishment for the commission of sin. Such punishment may be both in this' world as well as in the Hereafter. One form of worldly punishment is that a man given up to sin engrosses himself fully, body and heart, in the world to such a degree that he becomes fearful of the AKHIRAH and thus detests it. He loses firmness of heart and Imaan. The Mu'min Should therefore, not venture near to sin, no matter what type of sin it may be, whether the sin pertains to Huqooqullah (Rights of Allah) or Huqooqul Ibaad (Rights of creation). Some views on minor and major Sins Source: Fear of Hell by Saahibul Hind Maulana Ahmad Saeed Dehlvi There are different views of religious scholars about minor and major sins. Some of them have denied the classification of sins into minor and major. According to them, all sins in nature are major sins. Hence they have totally denied to accept any sin as minor. But such strict views are non-acceptable. The main purpose of such views is only to shows the Sublimity of God, Whom to disobey even in minor acts, is a major sin. However little an act of sin may be, when it is compared to God's Dignity and Sublimity, it is really a major disobedience. The religious Scholars who have described such views are less in number and the majority has opposed them. Those who hold contradictory views, have classified the lawful into minor and major. I think that such opinion of majority is more conforming with holy Quran and hadith. The study of holy Quran and hadith shows such kind of classification and according to the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) the sins differ in their nature. As the holy Quran speaks of it in the fifth chapter: "If ye (but) eschew the most heinous of the things which you are forbidden to do, We shall expel out of you all the evil in you. and admit you to a gate of great honor . " The holy verse of Hujrat narrates: "And He has made hateful to you, unbelief, wickedness, and rebellion, such indeed are those Who walk in righteousness." Similarly the 27th chapter (of holy Quran) describes: "Those who avoid great sins and shameful deeds only (falling into) small faults verily the Lord is ample in forgiveness." There may be no need of repentance, as the minor sins are only forgiven by virtuous deeds as the Shahi 'Muslim' relates the story of a date-seller who committed every crime with a woman except intercourse. He used to incite her for good dates and commit the act of kissing and embracing. While the matter was put before the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), he remained silent. The more the sinner was worried and anxious, the less heed was paid to him by the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). At last the time of prayer arrived and the sinner offered the prayer. The holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam) consoled the sinner after salaam (prayer), saying that his sin was forgiven by the prayer. The holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), in regard to this matter recited the verses of holy Quran: "Verily the virtues wash off sins." When the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wasallam) was asked whether the happy tiding of forgiveness concerned to that very person or it was meant for all Muslims. He (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) reported that the happy news was in favor of all Muslims. Every minor sin is forgiven by virtuous deeds. Thus those who commit minor sins should act upon virtuous deeds in abundance. Allah, the Most Merciful will forgive the minor sins. Definitions and Opinions on Major Sins: There are different views of learned people in regard to the definition of major sin after this classification of sins. According to Rosa's writer, the major sin is one for which there is disapproval and warning in the holy Quran. According to Bagwi, the major sin is one on which any restriction has been imposed in Islamic code of conduct. Some religious scholars are of opinion that a major sin is one which is proved by the holy Quran or a declared unlawful act. According to Ibne Qaseeri, the major sin is one which is committed fearlessly and negligently. Some learned scholars of the later period have also appreciated this view. Maturidi says that where there is a reproach and warning against any sin is a major sin. According to Alimi a thing which has been forbidden by itself is a real unlawful thing and to commit it is a major sin. Some are of opinion that those sins which have been proved by holy Quran as unlawful are really major sins. As for instance: "He hath forbidden you dead meat." According to Wahedi, the major sins are so small in nature that they can neither be limited nor defined. Allah has secreted them into minor sins, so that His Obedient Subjects may remain far away from all sins. According to Hasan Basri, Ibne Zuhar and Zuhak, the major sin is one which has been warned against the fire of Hell. Ibne Abdul Salam says that if the evil of any sin is lesser than the description of holy Quran is minor otherwise it is a major sin. According to Ibne Sulah the major sin is one whose defaulter is reproached and cursed. And according to Ibne Abbass, the major sin is one which has been expressed with threat and warning of Hell fire, reproaches and punishments. Number of Major Sins As there is a difference in the definitions of major sins, the numbers of the same also differ. According to some religious scientists there are only major sins the others extend its number up to fourteen and some upto fifteen. According to one saying of Ibne Mas'ood, the major sins are only three in number but he has also described ten types of sins in his another saying. And according to Ibne Abbass the major sins are seventeen seventy in number. To Saeed bin Jubair the major sins extend up to seven hundred in number. Shaikhul Islam Alaei has given only twenty five sins as major in number after a thorough study and search of all ahadith. To Abu Talib Makki they are seventeen. To Waleemi they are forty in number. There is a difference in the definitions of major sins, hence in number. However, it is not the number of major sin that is counted, it is its treatment. True repentance with firm resolution firm resolution and determination and not to commit sin in future is only its remedy. Proper treatment of Major Sins Spiritual remedy of major sins as the holy Quran provides, has been described in different places. True repentant have been promised by God, not only the promotion of health but the bright future also. "But those who repent and believe in God and act upon righteousness, God will replace their vices with virtues." In addition to this verse, there are many verses Quran) that give the happy news of repentance and forgiveness to the sinners. It has been clearly described clearly described that true repentant are forgiven. The seventh chapter of the holy Quran speaks of the message of God for His obedient Muslims, giving a hopeful, declaration as follows: Tibrani has related the story of a person who went to inquire of the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) whether such a criminal who committed every sin and even plundered the caravans of holy pilgrims could also express his penitence (wrong doing) and if it might benefit him. The holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked him if he had embraced Islam. The person recited kalimah declaring that there is no God save Allah and Mohammed (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is the true holy Prophet of Allah. Then he (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) advised him to abandon the evil deeds and act upon righteousness, Allah would forgive his all sins. He again asked him (sallallahu alayhe wasallam) respectfully if all his major and minor sins would be forgiven and thereupon he was responded- in positive. Having heard it, he raised a slogan Allah Akbar — (Allah is Great, Almighty and Powerful). In book of Tirmizi" are such that on the Day of Judgment God would declare to derive such person from the fire of Hell, who feared Allah in committing any unlawful deed or called Him in fear at any day. In the words of Ibne Habban, Allah-fearing people would be rewarded with peace secure on the Day of Judgment and those who do not fear Allah would get no peace on the Day of Resurrection. Syyedna Ibne Abbass quoted a verse: "O, believers of Allah, save yourself and your kinsfolk form the fire of Hell." When this verse was heard by a young man, he was much impressed that he fell down senseless. While the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) put his hand on heart, it was beating. He (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) told him to recite kalimah. The young man recited: "There is no God save Allah." The holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) gave him happy news of Paradise. Thereupon the Sahaabah inquired of him (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) if the happy reward of Paradise was common for all Muslims in that case. And the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wasallam) related the verse of Holy Quran in response: "And for such a person who fears Allah in all respects." The author of Sairul Mawanis describes that in the days of Syyedna Umar (R.A.) a young man went to a lady with evil intention but as he reached her he heard this holy verse from a qaari who was reciting: "Verily the righteous persons get startled at the time of any evil danger form the Devil and their eyes open abruptly." The young man heard it and fell down senseless. The woman left him on the very gate and thereafter he was taken to his house by his father who happened to be there by chance. While the young man came into his senses, he recited the same verse of Holy Quran and breathed his last. Consequently he was buried into his grave. When Syyadna Umar came to know about his death in that way, he went to his grave and recited this verse of Holy Quran: "But for such as fear the time when they will stand before (the judgment seat of) their Lord, there will be two gardens." The young man responded form his grave that Allah blessed him with tow gardens in Paradise. Hence the humble writer has quoted some verses of Holy Quran and references of hadith in the end of the book so that if ever a true Muslim commits any minor or major sin by way of human nature, he must repent over it and seek Allah's forgiveness instantaneously. And the last of my prayer is: "All praise be to Allah, the Sustainer worlds. " The readers of this book are humbly requested not to forget me (the author) in their prayers. PUNISHMENT FOR SINS Various types of punishment for different sins have been mentioned in the ahadith. Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "When the Mu'min sins, a black spot forms on his heart. If he makes (asks for forgiveness) Istighfaar and taubah, the black mark is removed and his heart is purified. If he increases his sin, the black mark increases. This is the corrosion of the heart spoken of by Allah Ta'ala (in the Qur'aan) (Ahmad! Tirmizi, Ibn Majah) Muaaz (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Guard yourselves against sin because the Wrath of Allah descends in the wake of sin." (Ahmad) Anas Bin Malik (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Should I not show you your sickness and its remedy? Your sickness is sinning and your remedy is to seek forgiveness (istighfaar)." (Baihaqi) Anas (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "The hearts too become corroded (by means of sin). Its polish is istighfaar." (Baihaqi) Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Verily, man is deprived of rizq (his provision) because of the sins which he perpetrates." (Ahmad) 6.Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallahu anhu) narrates that once ten of them were in the company of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) when he said: "I seek the protection of Allah from five things which may overtake you. When-immorality becomes rampant in a people, they will be overtaken by epidemics and such diseases which never existed before. When a people are involved in giving short- weight and measure, they will be overtaken by famine, hardship and oppression of the authorities. When a people stops paying poor dues (Zakaat,) rain is withheld from them. If it were not for the animals in their midst, never would there have fallen rain for them. When people violate pledges and promises, Allah will overwhelm them with their enemies from other nations. Thus the enemy will take by force their wealth." (Ibn Majah) 7. Ibn Abbass (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "When khiyaanat (abuse of trust) becomes rampant in a people, Allah Ta'ala overwhelms their hearts with fear. A nation perpetrating injustice will be overpowered by its enemies." (Malik) 8.Thaubaan (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "There will soon come a time when all the nations (of the kuffaar) will unite against you (Muslims).. ."Someone asked: 'Will we be less in numbers at that time?" Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: 'In fact, you will be numerous, but useless... Allah Ta'ala will remove your respect and fear rom the hearts of your enemies (who will then despise you) and Allah will instill weakness in your hearts." Someone asked: 'What is the cause of the weakness?' Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Love of the world and detestation for (Death) Maut."- (Abu Dawood, Baihaqi) 9. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "When Allah Ta'ala desires to punish people (for their sins) he causes their children to die in abundance and makes their women barren. "(Jazaaul A'maal) 10. Abu Darda (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Allah Ta'ala says: 'I am the King of kings. their hearts are in My control. When servants (i.e. Muslims) are obedient to Me, I make the rulers merciful to them. When the servants are disobedient to Me, I cause the rulers to oppress them and be cruel to them..." (Abu Nuaim) 11 Wahab (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Allah Ta'ala said to Bani Israeel: "When I am obeyed, I become pleased; when I become pleased I bestow limitless blessing (barkat). When I am disobeyed, I become Wrathful and I curse (the disobedient ones). the effect of My La'nat (Curse) extends to even generations." (Jazaaul A'maal, Ahmad) This does not mean that the Curse which descended on the wrongdoers, settles on the future generations "Hear! Do not be unjust. Hear! A man's wealth is not permissible ( halaal) (for another) without his voluntary consent." (Baihaqi, Daar Qutni) This hadith brings within its scope of warning all forms of injustices in which the rights of others were usurped and violated. Examples of such violation of rights are: Incurring debt and not paying. Depriving the rightful Shar'i (legal) heirs of their inheritance. Extracting funds for charitable purposes by exercising pressure whether direct or indirect on people. People are sometimes put to shame and contribute towards the charitable project what they cannot afford. Prominent people make use of their influence to extract contributions. This is in fact a form of exertion. Saalim (radiallahu anhu) narrates on the authority of his father that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "A man who usurps even one cubit of land belonging to another, will be garlanded with the (weight) of that land as far as it extends into the seven earths." (Bukhari, Ahmad) Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) cursed the taker and giver of bribery (Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Tirmizi) In another narration by Thu'baan (radiallahu anhu) it is said that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) cursed the agent who arranged the bribe as well. (Ahmad, Baihaqi) In the case of bribery too, are exceptions. Where one is not able to escape the oppressions and injustice of an oppressor, but by giving a bribe, it will not be sinful to give a bribe in such circumstances, but it will always remain not permissible (haraam) for one to accept a bribe. 6. Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) prohibited liquor and gambling. (Abu Dawood). All forms of intoxicants are covered by this hadith. Insurance, lotteries, etc., all forms of qimaar (gambling) which are prohibited. 7. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said. "My Rabb has commanded me to destroy all musical instruments. .." (Ahmad) 8. Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "The fornication of the eyes is to look with lust; the fornication of the tongue is to speak lustful things; the fornication of the hands is to touch with lust; the fornication of the feet is to walk towards lust; the fornication of the heart is to desire evil;... (Muslim) These forms of 'fornication' are stepping stones to the final act of zina (fornication). Intermingling with the opposite sex gives rise to such acts which lead to fornication. 9. Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "The major sins are: to commit shirk with Allah Ta'ala, disobedience to parents, killing an innocent person, and to take a false oath." (Bukhari) Shirk means to associate any created being or object in the worship or in the specific attributes of Allah Ta'ala, such attributes which belong to Him exclusively. Among the practices of shirk prevalent in our time are: Worshiping of graves of the (Friends) Auliya of Allah Ta'ala. The Auliya are the created beings and servants of Allah Ta'ala. Worshiping their graves by means of sajdah, ruku, tawaaf of the graves is among the worse acts of shirk. Kissing the graves of the Auliya and adorning the graves with bed-sheets also are linked to the practice of shirk. Taking a vow in the name of some Wali of Allah Ta'ala. Vows (Minnat) can only be taken in the Name of only Allah Ta'ala. Believing that Allah Ta'ala has assigned the affairs of the universe to created beings in such a way that the created beings act independently of the Will of Allah. The belief that the Auliya are able to grant children, wishes and prayers (dua). in consequence of this belief of shirk people direct their dua directly to the Auliya instead of directly to Allah Ta'ala. Disobedience to parents applies to all such things which are not in contradiction to the Law of Allah Ta'ala. Obedience to parents is of paramount importance, but obedience to parents is not permissible in such things which are haraam. It is not permissible to obey parents if their wishes conflict with the Wishes of Allah Ta'ala. 13.Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "(Among the major sins are): to (1) devour the wealth of orphans, (2) to flee from the battlefield of Jihaad and (3) to slander innocent and chaste women (to accuse them of fornication and immorality)." (Bukhari, Muslim) In another hadith Abu Hurairah also mentions among the great sins, stealing, banditry and fornication. (Bukhari, Muslim) 13.Abdullah Bin Umar (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Four qualities in man render him a total munaafiq (hypocrite). If one (of there four) exists in him, a share of nifaaq (hypocrisy) is found in him; such nifaaq will remain in him as long as he retains that quality. (These four qualities of nifaaq are): (1) Abuse of trust when trust is reposed in him (2) When he speaks. he lies. (3) When he promises, he violates his promise. (4) When he argues. he becomes abusive. Safwaan Ibn Assaal (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Do not deliver an innocent person to the authority so that he be executed (or oppressed) and do not practice magic " (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nisaai) All forms of injustices committed with the aid of the authorities in the land and all forms of evil satanic practices such as witchcraft. fortune telling, etc., come within the scope of this hadith's prohibition. The following are some evil acts prohibited in Islam and for which grave warnings of punishment have been sounded by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam): To mock at someone. To taunt a person. To call a person by a degrading nick-name. To cast suspicion against someone. To search for the faults of others. Gheebat (scandalizing /Backbiting). To gossip. To revile a person for no proper reason. Double-talk, to be two-faced. To slander. To deceive. Pride, vanity. Cruelty and oppression Refraining from aiding one in hardship Inspite of having the means. To create loss for another in his wealth. To cast aspersions against a person thereby ruining his reputation. To be unkind to juniors and disrespectful to seniors. To break ties with a Muslim for some worldly motive. Pictures of living things-people and animals. Shaving or cutting the beard. Imitating the kuffaar and fussaaq in dress. For women to imitate men in dress and for men to imitate women in dress. Besides the above, there are many other sins and it is essential to abstain from all sin. Involvement in sin stunts spiritual development and the (Light) Noor of Imaan does not glitter. Sin darkens the heart. Sin hardens the heart and creates a detestation for Allah Ta'ala and for all pious men associated with Allah Ta'ala. Constant indulgence in sin creates in one an aversion for pious company. The consequence is that the one given up to sin recedes further and further from the (Blessing) Rahmat of Allah Ta'ala. He then loses all hope in rectitude and in the mercy and forgiveness of Allah Ta'ala. When overcome by this structure condition, the Believer will be standing on the threshold of kufr. It is essential to continuously resort to taubah and seek the forgiveness of Allah Ta'ala. Taubah and Istighfaar do not allow the darkness flowing from sin to engulf and permanently settle on the heart. Taubah secures forgiveness for all sins of violation of Allah's Rights. However, if the sin involves the huqooq (rights) of others as well, a requisite for obtaining forgiveness is to rectify the rights of those whose rights were violated. This is to be done by either discharging the actual object if the haqq is in tangible form, e.g. money, etc. or by obtaining pardon if the right is intangible, e.g. slander, abuse, violence against the person. 13.Abdullah Ibn Mas'ood (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi asallam) said: "A sincere repentance of sins is like one who has not committed sins." (Baihaqi) 14.Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Discharge the rights of the brother (Muslim) today-whether such rights pertain to his honor or wealth before there comes the time (AKHIRAH) when there will be neither gold or silver." (Bukhari) If arrangements are not made here to fulfill usurped or un-discharged huqooq (rights), the demand for discharge will be made in the AKHIRAH. But, there, man will have no means of paying his rights and fulfilling what he had cast aside here. Thus, he will be made to pay and discharge the rights of others in Qiyaamah by means of his accepted virtuous deeds. His deeds (the sole capital of the Believer in Aakirah) will be taken and in proportion to the right usurped will be handed over to the Saahibul Haqq (the one who is entitled to the rights). Asma ul-Husna – The Most Beautiful Names Asma – names Al-Husna – the Most Beautiful Ones “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allâh , so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” (Araf : 180) This statement – Allah has the Asma ul-Husna is mentioned in 5 places in the Qur‟aan in different forms. He has many names which are all Husna (most beautiful). The Prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam taught a dua to the Sahabah in which it mentions many of Allah‟s names, (feminine): “Allahumma innee „amatuka, bintu „abdik, bintu amatik Naasiyatee biyadik, Maadhin fiyya hukmuka, „adlun fiyya qadhaa‟uka As alooka bikulli ismin huwa lak, sammayta bihi nafsak aw anzaltahu fee kitabik, aw „allamtahu „ahdan min khalqik Awista tharta bihi fee „ilmil-ghaibi „indak An tajalal Qurana rab‟eea qalbee, wa noora sadree Wa jalaa‟a huznee, wa zhahaaba hammee” “Oh Allah! Indeed I am Your slave Son of Your male abd (my father) and female abd (my mother) My forehead is in Your Hand (i.e. You have control over me) And Your Judgement upon me is assured, and Your Decree upon me is just I ask you with every name that You have named Yourself with Or revealed in Your Book (Quran), or taught to any of Your creation Or kept with Yourself in the knowledge of the unseen that is with You That You make the Quran the life of my heart, and the light of my chest And the banisher of my sadness and the reliever of my distress.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad] - Dua mentions many of the names *********************** seen meem waw – sumuw- sama‟ - ism is an identification of a person – relation to elevation – it‟s what distinguishes a person (whenit‟s high you can distinguish it) waw seen meem - wasm- to brand – a name becomes your label / branding Asm – Ism - Names Husna – Ahsan – best, superlative of Hasan – that which is good / beautiful That which is very good/very beautiful Asma ul-Husna - names which are most beautiful, perfect, most majestic, glorious Why study it? Sunnah: *********** Qur‟aan: Know that there is no God except Him – you should know about Allah, it‟s mandatory for us to know about Allah. When a person wants to deal with another, you find out about his name/Qunya – then you ask about his little and great matters – all the details you want to know because you are about to have a dealing with him. – Allah is the one who has created/provided for us- we wish for His mercy and fear His anger. We have something between Allah and us, therefore it is imperative that we know His names and their meanings as well. He is our Khaliq, Malik, He gives us risq, we expect His mercy and fear His anger, so we should know what pleases Him, what disbliepalise him, what brings mercy and averts anger. We have to know about Allah, and the way in which to know about Allah is through His names. ******* Can you love what you don‟t know about? – So in order to love Allah we have to know Him. Tawheed Asma was-Sifat is a major part of Aqeedah. We have to know the names to have Allah‟s Ma‟rifa – and can only by done by His Speech and His names/Attributes because his names describe Him. hashr – don‟t those people who forgot about Allah and as a result Allah made them forget themselves They didn‟t know about Allah, they had no interest in knowing, or if they did know they ignored Him. The names of Allah tell us who Allah is and remind us about Allah. Someone comes to you and does Gheebah – you know He‟s listening and He knows reality and the haqq and how you going to be called to account, the names tell about Allah and remind about Allah as well. And if we don‟t know and we ignore Allah – we forget ourselves. A person doesn‟t know Allah has no taqwa – thus he wont care what goes in his record of deeds. The names make us to take care of ourselves, reminds that we have a hereafter to go to, and an account is taken. It tells us about our reality and teaches us. It shows how insignificant we are and how depended we are of Allah by His names. One who is ignorant of Allah‟s name is ignorant of everything. How many names does Allah have? - 99 Names Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Allah has ninety-nine names, one hundred less one. Whoever ahsaha will enter Paradise. (Recorded by al- Bukhari and Muslim) - Nobody who memorizes and guards in mind and heart except enter paradise ahsaaha – ha suad ya – enumerate - person who learns them / memorizes them will enter Jannah - hasa intellect/understanding (dictionary) – whoever understood the names – is it just the one who has a good knowledge of it, what it says in Quran or Sunnah? – No, it must be followed by actions –understand & act When one knows Allah hears the Dua‟ then one who makes dua should know that Acting has 2 aspects: 1. Do what is required of you – on your part if Allah has this attribute what should we do? - acting on it – ex: if He is as-Samee‟ then we should make dua to Him 2. Emulate them as well – be merciful ourselves (not all of the names but some of them) 3. Make dua to Allah through through them (fa‟duhu biha) Why 99? Why not 1 or 10 – because that which is special has a lot of names Qur‟aan/ Prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam / Jannah – has many names Allah is the most special so He has many names – and each name is perfect and describes Him and tells us about Him. Which are these 99 names? – They have not been found in a list form in Qur‟aan/Sunnah – except a weak Hadith (some of which are not correct), but the names are found in the Qur‟aan and Sunnah (but no list form) Lists we usually see are based on the Hadith but some are not authentic: ex: Ad-daar – the one who Harms a lot - the name is not correct, we know Durr is from Him, but that does not mean it is His name Scholars have studied Qur‟aan and Sunnah set up rules for deriving names of Allah. One said that every name that starts with “Al” – details/lists have been made. Some of the names are very similar – so when studying we will see different forms. Some scholars put them together, while others separate them. Rules we must know about when learning about Allah: Tawheed Asma was-Sifat – A person believes in his names/attributes as Allah has stated in His book or through His messenger – also in the way He has intended. We take it on the surface – we do not go into the details ex: as-Sami‟ means He has an ear – No we don‟t go into details! We take how Allah said in Qur‟aan or the Prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam mentioned in his Sunnah – also we cannot compare His name with anything else, like Al-Aleem – comparing that with someone else who knows, humans /otherwise – we don‟t strike any comparisons Ash-Shafii‟ – “I believe in Allah and in what has come from Allah, how Allah has intended, (no interpretations as to how) I believe in the Messenger of Allah and what has come from the Messenger of Allah, how the Prophet of Allah intended” Don‟t need to say anything because you don‟t know about it. Delving into these details leads to shirk at times. Imam ash-shawkayti – “Know that indeed delving into the names of Allah (how does Allah see, how does he hear, how much knowledge does he have – going into details) – this is an argument and debate in them- and asking too many questions on His names is bid‟ah (innovation) – the salaf did not like this Imam Malik – when a man came to him and asked him how Allah „iswtiwa „alal arsh” He replied, “Al-istiwa ma‟loom (we know Allah rose above His arsh) – wal-kayfiya majhoom (the how-ness of it we do not know - the same with every sifa of Allah. We are unaware of the how-ness and we have to take and believe in it as it is) – was- uala‟u anhu bi‟dah (questioning on this is bid‟ah) 3 Rules when studying the Names of Allah – 1. Each name of Allah - He is not similar to His Khalq – even though the names meaning is like that it doesn‟t mean He‟s like a human who knows, hears, sees, knows a. Shura – “laysa ka milthilihi shay – there is none like Him” b. Nahl – “do not strike examples for Allah” 2. We believe in what Allah has described Himself as – As it is, and how the Prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam described Him as, a. Allah knew best about Himself b. The Prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam was told everything from Allah 3. We must cut off the hope of fully comprehending the name of Allah – we cannot know in complete detail a. Ta-Ha – “they do not encompass Him in knowledge” - Of the opinions that Allah does not just have 99 names Benefits of knowing the names of Allah 1. Main benefit: You get Allah‟s ma‟rifah – you get to know Allah properly. Is there a reason to know about Him? Or is it ok to just believe He is one? - Sometimes a person feels that they are not affected by the Qur‟aan, or in Salaah we are distracted, or we hear a Hukm and we don‟t obey it – because we don‟t know Allah as we should know Him. 2. It‟s one of the ways to entering Jannah We will start studying from surah Hashr: 22-24 First three Names: Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Raheem. Allah This is Ismul Jalaalah, Allah‘s Grand Name. His Personal Name. His Identifying Name. This Name only belongs to Allah. Allah is the Title of the One True Ilaah. There is no plural, there is no feminine. This Name appears more than 2000 times in the Qur‘an. The root a-li-ha is mentioned many times. Lafdhul Jalaalah, is used when to describe the Name ―Allah‖ linguistically. There are 4 opinions of the linguistic meaning of lafdhul Jalaalah: 1. It is Allah‘s Proper Name and it is not derived from any root, and has no meaning to it. This opinion is the minority opinion. 2. It comes from hamza-laam-ha, and the verb from the root is a-li-ha and it means to astonish, surprise and amaze someone. So Allah is the One who Astonishes and Amazes His Creation. How? Firstly through His Attributes, He is Ar Rahmaan, and Al Azeez and Al Jabbaar at the same time. When you know about the Names and Attributes, you are astonished and impressed. Another way is through His creation. Also, He amazes through His Decisions, Words, Ahkaam, Actions and Planning for us, when things link up together and there are coincidences. When we practice the ahkaam, we realize how much benefit there is in them. Truly He is the One who should be submitted too. 3. The third meaning is that it is from the same root, hamza laam ha, and the noun is al-la-ha (not li as the second opinion) and it means to worship, be humble and show dedication to someone. Allah is Ma‘looh, One who is shown dedication too, One who everyone is humble too, One who is worshipped. (When Allah created the heavens and the earth, Allah said come: tau‘an aw karhan) Al- Mulku yauma ithin lir-Rahman. Allah is the Only One we should show humbleness too, we should be ‗ebaad to Allah. Ayah in surah Furqan: those who take their desires as their ilaah. It meant that they gave their desires the utmost priority and everything else became unimportant and secondary. It became what they loved and feared the most. Allah is the One we should love most, fear most and give the most importance too. According to some linguists (author of sibawyh) this opinion is the strongest. When you attach al with ilaah, you get Allah, The One Only Worthy of worship. Even His Name has tawheed in it. 4. This word is from wow-laam-ha, the noun wilaah comes. Wilaah means to turn to for protection. Allah is the One Whom everyone turns to for help and protection. The One whose help and assistance is sought by the creation. This teaches us in times of difficulty and hardship, we turn to Allah azza wa jal. Ismul Allahil ‗Adham: mentioned in hadeeth in Sunan Tirmidhi (saheeh): "To Allah belongs a Grand Name, that, if you make du'a with it, it will be responded to. And if you plead or request with it, it shall be answered." Several opinions on what this Name is. Majority of opinions say it is the Name ―Allah‖ itself. When a person makes duaa through this Name, it will be responded too. Ar-Rahman: The Entirely Merciful, Ar-Raheem: The Especially Merciful Root is Ra-ha-meem, these names are similar so they require a parallel explanation. What is Rahmah? In the dictionary it means: ar-rifqa wa ta‘attu, compassion, kindness and gentleness. Ar-Rahman and Ar- Raheem, The One who has a lot of Rahmah, He expresses a lot of Rahmah. There are two Names of Allah with the same root, to emphasize that Allah is really the MOST Merciful. Ar-Rahman is structure of fa‘laan, Ar-Raheem is structure of fa‘eel. They both have mubaalagah. Rahman is more mubaalagah than Raheem. Rahmaan indicicates the One who has extensive and great mercy. Ar Raheem has extensive and great mercy but He expresses it on the ones whom He chooses. Ar-Rahman extends to all of His creation, and Ar- Raheem extends to Allah‘s special mercy only for the believers. 20: 5 Ar Rahman ‗alal ‗arsh istawaa‘. Shows Mercy towards all. 55:1-5 Ar Rahman, ‗alamal Qur‘an, khalaqal insaan. This mercy is not just for the believers, but for everyone (insaan). 33:43 wa kaana bil mu‘mineena raheema. One who is especially merciful to the believers. 2:37 Innahu huwa at-Tawwaabur Raheem. Tawwaab is for those who turn to Allah, ie the believers. Combinations of these Names: First example, the basmalah, and second verse of Fatihah. They appear together to express a lot of Mercy. Ar-Raheem with other Names: At-Tawwaab, Ar-Raouf, Ghafoor, Al-Azeez. Ar-Rahman Appeared many times in surah Maryam and Furqan. Why so many times? These surahs were makkee surahs and they were introductions to the deen, so one of the first ways of how Allah Introduces Himself is by the attribute of Rahmah, that is why the Qur‘an opens up with these Attributes as well (Basmalah and Fatihah). Allah is Ready to accept people and forgive people. Of the first ways to introduce Allah ta‘ala in da‘wah is by His Mercy. For the believers, they should remember His Mercy then they should astain from wrong actions. Think: ‗If Allah is SO Merciful to me, why should I disobey Him and do wrong? Allah is so Rahman and I am so disobedient.‘ The siffah of Rahman and Raheem remind the believers that they should remain firm on Allah‘s Obedience. Hadeeth in Bukhari: Allah‘s Mercy has 100 parts. There are 99 parts for the hereafter. (Verily Allah created Mercy. The day He created it, He made it into one hundred parts. He withheld with Him ninety-nine parts, and sent its one part to all His creatures.) 23:108 Allah will say to the disbelievers: do not even speak to Me. Why? Because they do not deserve the rahmah of Allah. They did not benefit from His Mercy in this dunya, so they do not receive in the aakhirah. To benefit is not to just receive it in this dunya, but to accept the guidance and stay away from disobedience. Rahmah in the Qur‘an Creation of mankind is Rahmah (55:1-3) The knowledge of Qur‘an is His Great Mercy, expression of His Kindness if He gives this knowledge to someone. (55:1-2) The revelation of the Qur‘an (16:89) hudan, wa rahmatan, wa bushraa lil mu‘mineen. Jannah is Rahmah. Hadeeth Qudsi in Bukhari, Allah will say to Jannah: anta rahmatee, you are My Mercy.(So Allah said to paradise, 'You are My Mercy,' and said to Hell, 'You are My Punishment which I inflict upon whom I wish, and I shall fill both of you.'") How do we get Allah‘s special Mercy? (Raheem) Obedience to Allah and His Messenger. 3:132 wa ‗attee ul Allah war Rasool la‘alkum turhamoon. Taqwa of Allah ta‘ala, fear and consciousness of Allah. 6:155 wattaqoo la‘alakum turhamoon. 7:156 wa rahmatee wasiat kuli shayy, fa sa aktubuhaa lil latheena yataqoon. I will Write it for those who have taqwa. Doing ihsaan towards Allah and the creation. 7:156 inna rahmat Allahi qareebun min al muhsineen Having rahmah towards the creation of Allah. Hadeeth in Musnad Ahmad: irhamoo turhamoon, waghfiroo yaghfirullahu lakum. Note: some of the Names of Allah are restricted to Allah only, like Allah, Rahman, Khaaliq, Raaziq/Razzaaq, but Raheem, Ra‘oof is allowed to be given as a name because Allah calls the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam as Ra‘oof and Raheem. Tomorrow: Malik, Al-Quddoos, As-Salaam, Al-Mu‘min. Malik Allah has three Names that are similar to Malik: Maleek and Maalik. The meaning for all three names is: One who possesses the attribute of mulk. What is Mulk? Kingdom, dominion, power, authority..has three meanings: 1) possession and ownership (Mulk as samawaati wal ardh) 2) Control and authority (lakum al mulkul yaum) 3) Ability and power (la yamlikoona lakum) Words for the same root: Milaak used for marriage, one person will have authority over the other. He does not own her but he has a degree above her. Maalik used for an owner, when they possess something. Malik used for a king, he possesses and has authority. These three names show different levels of authority, power and ownership. Malik is the One who executes His command in His possession. Every malik is not able to execute their amr. Malik is the one who owns and also has authority and command. The one to whom the amr and nahy belong too. Only Allah has the power to command and forbid, He has the action and the word (kun, fa yakoon). According to ibn Qayyim, Malik is the One who rules by His fi‘l, words, command and the One who gives the hukm. These three names from the Qur‘an and Sunnah Al Malik appears in the Qur‘an 11 times and 5 times it was used for Allah azza wa jal. Ex: 20:114: fa ta‘aala Allahul maalikul Haqq 23:118: fa ta‘aala Allahul Malikul Haqq. Al-Maleek only once, 54: 55 : ‗inda maleekin muqtadir. Al-Maalik not mentioned in the Qur‘an, but used in a sunan duaa in Bukhari, La Maalik il Allah. How about surah Fatihah? Maaliki yaumid deen? When the Name of Allah is used in a mudhaf case (meaning blank OF something, Maalik OF yaumid deen) Malik and Maleek have the similar meanings, Sovereign, King. The different one is Maalik. What is the difference between Malik and Maalik? Maalik is just the owner, and Malik is the one who owns and executes his command. For example, one can be a maalik of their house but they cannot control how much the bills are. Al Malik is the One with Supreme Authority whose Command is executed. Allah is The Malik, The Maalik and The Maleek, what does this mean? It means Allah is One of Incomparable Greatness. No one is like Him in His Greatness, He is Al Malikul Haqq. He is the One who possesses the absolute disposal of affairs. He can command, make, and do whatever He Wants. It also means that Allah ta‘ala gives Mulk to whoever He wants, because Mulk belongs to Him. What should we know about Allah ta‘ala from these names? 1. There is no Maalik except Allah ta‘ala. From the hadeeth, La Maalik il Allah and from the ayah 3:26: You Give kingdom to Whom You will and take it away (tanzi‘u) from whom You will. He is Maalik al Mulk. In His Hand is the Power. 2. He does whatever He wants. 36:82: kun fa yakoon. He doesn‘t even have to explain the command, just ‗be‘ and it is. Example, 2:66 : Allah ta‘ala 3. Allah the kings and all the owners are humble in the sight of Allah and they are lower. No matter how great a king may be, like Dhul Qarnayn or Sulayman alayhi sallam—whether just or unjust, they are humbled and lowly compared to Allah. The unjust owners will be the worst on the Day of Judgment. Even the owners of animals will be punished if unjust (lady who owned the cat who did not feed it). This shows us that if a person is maalik in one way or another, they will be accountable for what he owns and what he is responsible for, but only Allah ta‘ala will not be accountable, He is the Just. In a hadeeth in saheeh Bukhari narrated by Abu Hurayrah radi Allahu anhu, Allah ta‘ala will hold the earth on the Day of Judgment and He will roll up the skies in His Right Hand and He will say, ‗an al Malik‘, I am the King, ‗ayn almuluk al ardh?‘, where are the kings of the earth? No one will speak, because Allah ta‘ala is THE King on that day. All the kings of earth will be humbled on the Day of Judgment near Allah azza wa jal. 4. Prohibition of naming yourself great names. Only Allah is Al Malik, Maalik and Maleek. Hadeeth in Saheeh Bukhari, the worst name near Allah ta‘ala on the Day of Judgment is one named: Maalikul Mulk, King of Kings. According to Ibn Hajr, he says: from this we learn it is haraam to name oneself or others with these names. It does not befit a human being to call oneself with this name. 5. We should be humble in front of The King. Anyone who realizes that Allah is Malikul Haqq, they can only be humbled in front of Allah, he will not raise himself above the level of an ‗abd. He will consider himself as an ‗abd, which is why the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam was called ‗abd many times in the Qur‘an. In a hadeeth in Musnad Ahmad, Rasul Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam chose to be an ‗abd over a king. A‘ishah radi Allahu anha narrated after this that he never even ate reclining. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam used to say, ana a‘kulu kama ya‘kulul abd, wa ana ajlisu kama yajlisul abd, I eat as a slave eats and I sit as a slave sits. So this shows us that humility is not just in the heart, but also in a person‘s posture and body language. How do the ebaadur Rahman (surah Furqan) walk? Hawnan, humbly and gently. 6. Every owner/king has his own space. I.e., they have their own limitations that no one should trespass, or do anything that would degrade, insult or disrespect him in anyway. We learn this from a hadeeth in Bukhari and Muslim (one of the 40 hadeeth), the halaal is clear and the haraam is clear… like the one who grazes his animals near the himaa’. (the himaa‘ is the grounds that a king has set aside only for his animals, the kings private property) Then the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, every king has a himaa’ and the himaa‘ of Allah is what He has prohibited. So if we commit that which is haraam, we will be accountable for it, but we must also remember that this is disrespect to Allah and it does not befit a slave to disrespect his Master in any way. This teaches us that we must remain within our bounds, so when Allah is Malik, we should remain as a servant near Allah and not do anything that he does not approve us. 7. Making duaa to Allah by this Name. There is a hadeeth in Bukhari and Muslim, whoever says: la ilaha il Allahu waHadu, la shareeka lahu, lahul Mulk, wa lahul Hamdu, wa huwa ‗alaa kuli shayyin Qadeer, 100 times he will receive the reward of freeing ten slaves. Al-Quddoos Al-Quddoos has two meanings linguistically. It is on the structure of fu‘ool, a form of mubaalagah. The One who is Very Pure, Absolutely Pure, He is far and above anything that does not befit Him. 1. Qaf-daal-seen: quds, from taharah. The verb qadasa is from the same root and it is used for the movement of a bucket. Why is it called qadasa? Because from the bucket that has water, you will obtain purity and cleanliness. Taqdees means taTheer, to purify and wash. taTheer is the highest form of cleanliness. There are three levels of cleanliness (as shown in the sunnah duaa): a. Distancing (O Allah, distance me and my sins as between the east and west) Moving far away from dirt. Remove from ‗ayb. b. Remove Dirt/Filth (kama yunaqa-thawbul abyadu min ad danas) To remove the dirt, and make the place clear and empty of anything that is not clean. No naqs (fault) remains. c. Washing (waghsilnee min khatayaa‘ bil maa‘I wa thalji wal barad) What‘s the purpose of washing at the end? So that there is absolutely nothing that remains that is unpure. So at the end you have something pure and clean. The angels said to Allah azza wa jal: 2:30, wa nahnu nasabbihu laka wa nuqaddisu lak. According to Zujaaj, this ayah means: nuTahiru anfusana lak, we purify ourselves for You. What does that mean? There is no feeling of shirk in our hearts for You, no bad thought about You. This is why Baitul Maqdis is Baitul MuTahhar, when you go there, your sins are removed. According to, Farra‘, another linguistic, Ardhul Muqaddasah means Ardhul Taahirah, land that is pure and clean. Similarly, Rooh al Quddus, Angel Jibreel. Why is he called Rooh al Quddus? He was made from purity and cleanliness. Also because he brings down the Quddus from Allah, the Qur‘an, and through the Qur‘an we clean ourselves, our character, our actions, and our intentions. 2. Second meaning is Barakah. Ardhul Muqaddasah also means Ardhul Mubaarakah, 17:1 il al masjid al aqsaa: al-latee baaraknaa hawlahu. So with this meaning, Al Quddoos means: The One who is Blessed, the One who is the Source of All Good, The One with a lot of Khayr. This root means, to be or go far away. So Allah ta‘ala is far from any impurity or imperfection. The root Qaf-daal- seen (not the Name, just the root) appears 10 times in the Qur‘an: for Allah azza wa jal, for angel Jibreel and for Ardhal Muqaddasah. The Name Al Quddoos appears twice in the Qur‘an. (Hashr :23, Jumu‘ah: 1) Statements of the Scholars Ibnul Qayyim states Al Quddoos means the One who is Free from and Above any sharr (evil), any naqs (deficieny) and any ‗ayb (fault). In other words, He is High Above what does not befit Him. He is THE Pure One. He doesn‘t have any deficiency or fault. Ibn Katheer states Al Quddoos means the One free from any naqaa‘is (deficiences). He also says Al Quddoos refers to the One who is attributed with the attributes of Perfection, for example: the attribute of Ihsan, of Knowledge, of Creation. Al Bayhaqi states Al Quddoos is the One who is Taahir, and Uluww. The One who is Pure from having any children or partners. To summarize: He is the One who is far from any imperfection, error, fault, shortcoming and far from everything that is derogatory. When we look at Allah ta‘ala as Al Quddoos, what does it entail? He is Free for the fault of shirk, or having any shareek. He is Perfect. Who needs a partner? The one who needs help and cannot manage himself. Allah says in the Qur‘an: Allahu laa ilaha ila Huwa, no one but Him. He is Free from having any spouse or child. He is Free from death. He does not die, He does not sleep. The creation sleeps for energy and due to tiredness, all of creation will die. Furqan: 58 wa tawakal ‗al Al Hayyil lathee laa yamoot. 55: 26-27 kulu man ‗alayhaa faan, Wa yabqaa wajhu Rabbika dhul jalaali wal ikraam. Allah is free from the fault of sleep, of dying and of perishing. There is a hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim that states: inAllaha laa yanaamu, indeed Allah does not sleep, wa la yantahu lahu an yanaam, and it does not befit Him that He sleeps. Ayatul Kursi sleep nor slumber over takes Him. So if He is Al Quddoos, He does not get tired, He does not need to sleep, He does not need to die—He is free from these faults. He is Free from committing dhulm or injustice. When do people commit dhulm? When they are overcome by their desires and wishes. Allah is Quddoos, even if people do dhulm to Him, He does not do dhulm on people. In a hadeeth Qudsi in Saheeh Muslim (one of the 40 hadeeth): ya ebaadi, innee haramatu dhulmu alaa nafsee, wa ja‘latahu baynakum muharraman, falaa tudhaalimoo. O My servants, I have made dhulm haraam upon Myself, and I have made it haraam for you all, so do not commit dhulm. Suratun Nisaa:40 InnAllah la yadhlimu mithqaala dharratin, Allah does not wrong a person even to the amount of an atom‘s weight, wa in taku hasanatan yudaa‘ifha, and if there is a good deed, He multiplies it (He does so much good, so much ihsaan, because He is Al Quddoos, if there is one small good deed, He multiplies it) wa yu‘tee min ladunhu ajran adheema, and He gives from Himself a great reward. He is Free from lying. He is so Pure, He does not lie, or say anything that is untrue. Suratun Nisaa:8 wa man asdaqu min Allahi hadeetha, and who is truer than Allah in narration? Suratun Nisaa:122 wa‘dAllahi haqqan, wa man asdaqu min Allahi qeela, this is a promise on Allah that is true, and who is more truthful than Allah in speech? He is Free from dhalaal or nisyaan. He does not forget or make a mistake. Those who have faults and are imperfect forget and make mistakes. What is the proof? When Fir‘awn asked Musa alayhi sallam about the previous nations in surah Taha, he said: la yadhillu Rabbee wa la yansaa, Allah does not make a mistake and He does not forget. He is Free from faqr and bukhl. What is the proof? Allah says in Ma‘idah: 64 The jews say Allah‘s Hands are tied (ie, bukhl), but Allah responds: bal yadaahu mabsootataan, rather His Hands are Spread, yunfiqu kayfa yashaa, He spends however He wills. Another proof: lahu Mulk as samawaati wal ardh, for Him is the Sovereignty of the heavens and earth…how can the One who owns the heavens and the earth be poor? In the hadeeth Qudsi, if all man and jinn asked Allah for every wish, it would not reduce His kingdom. Another hadeeth in Bukhari states: yadullahi mal‘a, Allah‘s Hands are Full, Allah spends during the night and day, but it does not reduce His Wealth. In another hadeeth, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, have you seen all that Allah has spent since the creation of the heavens and the earth? Allah‘s Spending does not reduce His Wealth, He is So Rich, He is free from the fault of running out of His Wealth…He is Al Quddoos, He is free from the fault of being poor or being stingy. He is Free from having a shabeeh, one who is similar to Him. Allah is free from this imperfection. None is like Him, in anyway. Allah says in surah Maryam: hal ta‘lamu lahu samiyya, do you know anyone who is like Allah? In Surah Shura: laysa kamithlihi shayy‘un, there is nothing like unto Him. In surah Ikhlaas: wa lam yakulahu kuffuwan ahad, and there is no one who is like Him. What are we supposed to do now, if Allah is Al Quddoos? This is a quality we should try and emulate, how? If Allah is the Pure, and His Kalaam is Pure, how should our hearts be? Dirty? Filthy? Should we be unclean in our body, in our actions, in our intentions, in our ‗aqeedah? If Allah is Al Quddoos and everything that comes from His is Pure, the first requirement is: a. ‗Aqeedah We must have the right tawheed and the right emaan. In a hadeeth in Bukhari, Abu Hurayrah radi Allahu anhu narrates that someone asked the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam which action is the best? And he replied: emaan billahi wa rasoolihi. The worst sin is ascribing a partner to Allah subhanahu wa ta‘ala. In a hadeeth Qudsi in Bukhari, Allah ta‘ala says: The son of Adam denied Me, and he has no right to do so. And he has insulted Me, and he has no right to do so. And as for his right of denying Me, it is his saying that Allah will not resurrect me. As for his insulting Me, it is his saying that Allah has taken to Himself a son, while I am the One, the Everlasting. b. Having clean hearts Allah looks at our hearts, intentions and actions. Hadeeth: Allah looks at your hearts (yathuru ila quloobikum). Be clean from shirk, from nifaaq, from lies, from jealousy and all such vices. Emaan in Allah is clean, and He will only help the one who is clean. It can only be in a qalb that is saleem, sound. c. Clean in our actions first we should have taharah, we should clean ourselves. InAllaha jameelun, uhibul Jamaal, Allah is Beautiful and Loves beauty. We should do taharah of our bodies so that we are fit to do ibaadah, because if we are not clean we cannot pray, read Qur‘an etc. Then we have to perform salah so that we clean ourselves from the past sins. Proof? The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam asked the sahaba, if someone bathes in a river outside of his house five times a day, will there be any impurity left on him? This is the example of salah. Salah also prevents from future sins, in surah Ankaboot: in as-salaata tanhaa ‗an al fahshaa‘i wal munkar, indeed the salah prevents from the indecency and evil. Also we should give zakaah. In giving zakaah and giving sadaqah for the sake of Allah ta‘ala, Allah is Al Quddoos, He deserves that which is good. Which is why the sahabah, when they would give sadaqah, it was the best sadaqah they could give. A‘ishah radi Allahu anha would clean the sadaqah she gave and perfume it, and she would say: it goes in the Hand of Allah before it goes in the hand of the one who is asking. Allah deserves those actions that are pure. Our actions and intentions should be good. In a hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim we learn: InnAllah Tayyibun, la yaqbalu ila tayyiba, Allah is Pure and He only accepts that which is pure. When to Make Duaa with this Name / Duaas with this Name 1. Subhaanal Malikil Quddoos said after witr prayer three times. 2. Suboohun Quddoosun Rabb ul Malaa‘ikati war Rooh said in ruku and sajdah. Subooh : the One who is Praised a lot, Quddoos : the One who is very Pure, Rabb ul Malaa‘ikati war Rooh : Rabb of the angels and of Jibreel. Why do we say this in ruku and sajdah? It is humility and you acknowledge Allah‘s Purity and that He is Rabb, Rabb is Khaaliq and Maalik and it reminds you how small we are. 3. We can also make duaa to Allah with the Name Al Quddoos. i. When you want barakah in your time, energy, the second meaning of Al Quddoos is Al Mubaarak. ii. When you want to develop sincerity, call upon the Pure to purify your intentions. As Salaam There are two meanings of the Name As Salaam: a) The Perfection. b) The Giver of Peace and Security. Linguistic Meaning When we look at the word as Salaam linguistically, salaam and salaamah mean baraa‘ah: immunity, to be free of something and to be unblemished. According to ibn Al Arabi, salaamah means aafiyah: well being, to be safe and good. When we look at this meaning, we see in the Qur‘an in surah Furqaan that ebaadur Rahmaan say ―salaama‖ to the ignorant, meaning they don‘t want anything to do with their conversation. Also, Jannah is called Dar us Salaam, it is free all grief, death, worries, tensions, fatigues, enmities, hatred, it is a place of safety. Also when we say ―assalaamu alaykum‖, it means, you are safe from me and you will not receive any sharr from me. To summarize the meanings of salaam: a) to be peaceful, to be friendly , to be in a good state b) to be free from imperfections c) to be safe and secure Other words we have read from the same root: a) saleem: a qalbun saleem is a heart that is sound, unblemished, in a state of aafiyah (well being) b) islaam: state of submission Proof that Allah‘s Name is As Salaam The root of seen laam meem appears 170 times in the Qur‘an. The Name Salaam in the Qur‘an appears once, end of suratul Hashr. From the sunnah we learn the Name As Salaam: the duaa after salaah (Allahumma anta Salaam, wa minkas Salaam, tabarakta ya dhal Jalaali wal Ikraam) What does it mean that Allah is As Salaam? The Scholars say: Ibn Katheer As Salaam is the One who is Free from all imperfections and deficiencies, because of the Perfection of His Being, of His Attributes and His Actions. He is So Perfect, He does not have any imperfections. For example, He is Living is free from the imperfection of death. His Knowledge is free from the imperfection of forgetfulness. His Attributes are free from the imperfection of being similar to any creation. His Actions are perfect, whatever He does there is Hikmah behind it. So to summarize the statement of ibn Katheer: As Salaam is the One who is Perfect, He has no decificiences which is why As Salaam has been translated as The Perfection. Al Qurtubi As Salaam is the One who is safe from all deficiencies. He explains as Salaam in three ways: 1) The One free from ever fault, and He is absolved of every deficiency. 2) He gives Salaam to His ebaad in Jannah. We learn from the Qur‘an that the dwellers of paradise will be greeted with salaam, by Allah, by the angels and by each other. In surah Yaseen, Allah ta‘ala says: salaamun qawlun min Rabbir Raheem. People in Jannah will be told Salaam, a statement from their Rabb, the Most Merciful. 3) The One whose creation is free from His dhulm. He keeps His creations safe from any injustice on His part. His creation is free from injustice from Him. (subhanAllah!) What does this tell us? If Allah is As Salaam, there is no way He can be unjust. Many times we read in the Qur‘an: wa ma kaana Allaha li yadhlimahum, Allah did not wrong them by destroying them, they did dhulm on themselves. What does this mean? In a hadeeth Qudsi, Allah ta‘ala says: Ya ebaadi, I have made oppression haraam upon myself, and I have made it haraam between yourselves, so do not wrong each other. So this teaches us that if we want Allah‘s Protection, we cannot do dhulm. Those who did not receive the protection of Allah, they did not receive the Salaam of Allah, they did dhulm: wa laakin kaanu anfusahum yadhlimoon. What is the lesson for us? If you want Allah‘s Security and Protection do not commit dhulm upon yourself, upon others and upon Allah. What is dhulm upon yourself? Committing sins. What is dhulm upon others? Transgressing their rights. What is dhulm upon Allah? Shirk, inn ash shirka la dhulmun ‗atheem. If we do dhulm, we do not deserve Salaam from Allah. The difference between Al Quddoos and As Salaam The difference is very slight and both Names emphasize eachother. Al Quddoos means that Allah is free from any defects in the past and in the present, and when we say He is As Salaam, His attribute of Perfection is eternal; meaning He is forever Perfect. Quddoos refers to past and present and Salaam refers to future. Both of these Names negate any imperfection and when imperfection is continually negated, that only leaves perfection. Connection between the words: Salaam, Muslim, Islaam There is a connection between these words. Who is Allah‘s Salaam towards? The one who does not do dhulm upon himself and others. Also, Allah gives Salaam to the people who get to Jannah, the people who are Allah‘s Chosen servants, they are the ones who get Allah‘s Salaam. In Suratun Naml ayah 59: qul alhamdulillah, wa salaamun ‗alaa ‗ebaadihil lathee nastafaa. Say Alhamdulillah, and there is salaam upon Allah‘s servants, those whom He has chosen. Istafaa‘ is to be chosen based on purity, so when you are pure and have purified yourself, and made yourself saleem for Allah, you receive Allah‘s Salaam. This shows us we need to work on ourselves, clean ourselves and be khaalis for the sake of Allah, we submit—we do Islam, and then we get Allah‘s Salaam. If we do not submit, we do not get His protection. When the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam would offer Islaam to others, he would say to them: itha sallamta nafsaka lillah, salimta, when you submit yourself to Allah, you will be safe. This shows us that when we do not submit to Allah, we will not be protected. Lesson: submit to Allah so that you can be secure. Also we learn that such people who get Allah‘s Salaam, they will be in Dar us Salaam, home of the peace. Who does Allah send Salaam upon? a) 6:54: when you meet those who believe in our ayaat, say salaamun alaykum to them. When you believe, you receive Allah‘s security. b) 20: 49 : was salaamu ‗alaa man ittaba al huda, salaam be upon the one who follows the guidance. So it‘s not just believing, but follows the guidance and does the actions. c) 25: 75 : people who are patient, the ebaadur Rahman, Allah says they will receive gurfah bi ma sabaroo, because of their patience they get salaam from Allah which is why you see people who are suffering so much but they are calm, because they have this serenity and peace inside that Allah has given them. d) Also, as mentioned previously, salaam upon those people whom Allah has chosen. Important Note: When we say Salaam, for example, upon the Prophet, upon the righteous people, say salaam to each other, don‘t go on to say salaam upon Allah. We do not say jazak Allah, Allah is the One who gives jazaa‘, or to say salaamu ‗al Allah, because He Himself is As Salaam. There is a hadeeth narrated by ibn Mas‘ood radi Allahu anhu that the companions used to say: assalaamu ‗al Allah instead of at-Tahyaatu lillahi in the tashahud. At-Tayhyaatu lillahi means Greetings for Allah. The Prophet sal allahu alayhi wa sallam told them do not say assalaamu ‗alal Allah because is He is Al Maalik and He is Al Mu‘tee, He is the Possessor of Salaam and He gives Salaam. He does not need security and safety, He Himself is Salaam and Perfect. Also we learn once that Angel Jibreel came to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam and said, Allah sends His Salaam to Khadijah radi Allahu anha. Her reply was: innAllaha huwas Salaam, indeed Allah, He is Salaam, wa ‗alaa Jibreelas Salaam, and upon Jibreel be Salaam, and upon you, O Prophet of Allah. She did not say, and salaam upon Allah. How to make duaa by Allah‘s Name as Salaam 1) We say salaam in the dhikr after salaah, Allahumma antas Salaam, wa minkas Salaam, tabarakta ya dhal Jalaali wal Ikraam. Why do we say this after salaah? What do you want protection, safety and security from? From the mistakes committed during my salaah. A salaah in which there is no khushoo‘, it is struck back on the person and not taken. So O Allah, if my salaah was not proper, if there was anything You did not like, keep me safe from its consequence. This is the benefit of following the sunnah, you are secure from things that you do not even imagine. Who would have imagined that you would suffer consequences after praying salaah?! But the sunnah teaches us that, so we say Allahumma antas salaam wa minkas salaam, so O Allah protect me from the shortcomings of my salaah. 2) We can make duaa by this Name when we want security, safety and peace. Sometimes we are very worried, very nervous, sad, anxious, say: O Allah antas Salaam, give me security and protect me from this. You can also say, O Salaam, give me Your Salaam in the hereafter, and guide me to subul as Salaam. Also when you want your heart to be saleem, ask As Salaam, and He will give you a saleem heart. 3) We should send salaam upon eachother and upon the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam and upon the Prophets alayhim assalam. In surah Saffaat, Allah mentions salaam after each prophet (salaamun alaa nuh, salaamun alaa ibraheem, salaamun alaa ilyaaseen), so when we hear or write their name, we should say alayhi salaam. Note: we should write tasleem for the Prophets, if Allah sends salaam upon them, we should as well. Al Mu’min There are several meanings to this Name. When we look at this Name linguistically, it gives us two primary meanings: 1) From emaan, it means One who gives emaan. Emaan is tasdeeq: affirmation. Mu‘min is One who has emaan, One who gives emaan and One who believes. Emaan is the opposite of taktheeb, denial. When we have emaan in something, we affirm that is true. In surah Yusuf, the sons of Ya‘qub alayhi sallam said to him: ‗you will not believe in us‘, meaning you will not affirm our truthfulness, even if we are truthful. Mu‘min is one who believes, gives emaan and affirms the truthfulness of something. 2) From aman, meaning safety, security and freedom from fear. The haram is aaminan, safe and secure. Mu‘min from aman would mean: One who gives Peace, One who gives security. The opposite of security is ikhaafah, so Mu‘min is the One who removes the fear and In surah Quraysh we learn: wa aamanahum min khawf, He gave them security from fear. From the same root is amaanah, so in this context Mu‘min would mean one who is ameen, faithful. Connection between these meanings? When you have emaan, you are at aman in dunya and aakhirah, and a person who has aamaanah, people have emaan in him and people have aman from him. Where this Name is mentioned: In the Qur‘an, this Name is mentioned only once, in surah Hashr :23. If Allah is Al Mu‘min, what does this mean? 1) Mujaahid rahimahullah says Al Mu‘min is the One who affirms and believes His Oneness. He affirms it in the Qur‘an, 3: 18 : shahidAllahu annahu laa ilaaha ila huwa wal malaa‘ikatu wa ‗ulul ‗ilmi qaaiman bil qist. Allah Himself bears witness to His Oneness, He is a Mu‘min and Musaddiq in His Existence and Oneness. Several places in the Qur‘an we learn this. So if Allah believes in His Oneness, what is expected of us? We must affirm His tawheed and His existence, and also we should believe in whatever Allah commands us. Whatever He informs us, He is Mu‘min, so it is true and we must follow and believe in it. It‘s not just limited to His Oneness and His Existence, but everything in its entirety. 2) If Allah is Al Mu‘min, it also means He is a Musaddiq, One who Affirms the truthfulness of His Messengers and Prophets. Allah sends them with messages and miracles, and through those ayaat, the truthfulness of the messenger is clear. 3) He is also Musaddiq of His Promises, He fulfills His promises. We must believe that whatever promise Allah has made, He will fulfill it, He will never go against it. We learn in suratun Noor ayah 55: Allah promises to give the believers succession on the earth, and He will give them abode on the earth, and He will change their khawf from aman very soon. This promise was promised to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, and it came true. Allah promised in the beginning of suratur Room that the romans will be given victory, this promise came true. In surah A‘raaf, Allah tells us that the dwellers of Jannah will say to the dwellers of Hellfire, we found the promise of Allah true (that He will give us Jannah if we did such and such) did you find the promise that Allah promised you true as well? And they will say yes. What does this teach us? We should never have the slightest doubt ever that the promise will not come true. Allah promises that sadaqah does not reduce wealth, so when we give sadaqah, we should believe it will not reduce our wealth with conviction and certainty—He is Al Mu‘min and He is Al Musaddiq. Also we learn in Surah Zumar ayah 75, the believers will say when taken into Jannah: wa qaalu alhamdulillahil lathee sadaqanaa wa‘dahu, All praise due to Allah, the One who made His promise true, He fulfilled His promise to us. If Allah is Al Mu‘min we should believe in this and when the time for action comes, we should have certainty and do what Allah commands us. Allah will give us benefit through what He commanded us, because He knows what is good and bad for us. We should have certainty when following His commands, He will fulfill His promise and word. 4) If Allah is Al Mu‘min, it means that He is the One who gives aman, security. And He gives it to whomsoever He wills. Who gets Allah‘s aman? We learn from the Qur‘an, 6: 28 : al latheena aamanu wa lam yalbisoo emaanahum bi dhulmin ulaa‘ika lahum al amnu, wa hum muhtadoon. What is dhulm over here? It is shirk primarily (inna ashirka la dhulmun ‗atheem), and also other injustices. So those who have emaan and do not mix it with other things that will corrupt their emaan, they are the ones who will have aman/ security, so the believers. When will they have aman? In the dunya, at times of difficulty and distress as well as the aakhirah. Remember when the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam was hiding in the cave with Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu, people wanting to kill them and the people who were looking for them were right above them, he said to Abu Bakr: la tahzan, innAllaha ma‘anaa. If we were in that situation, we would have screamed and cried, and lost our faith in Allah! But Allah gave the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam peace, he has peace in his heart. Also in the Qur‘an, Allah says: inna latheena aamanu thumma istiqaamu, tatanazala alayhimul malaa‘ika allaa takhaafoo wa la tahzanoo, those people who have emaan and then they become firm, the angels descend upon them and tell them not to fear and grieve and have good news in Jannah. It is the aman, the peace that Allah gives the believers that causes them to be composed. This shows us in difficult situations, when our heart is about to come out, ask Al Mu‘min for aman, ask the One that gives aman that He should give you aman, peace. In Suratul Ahzaab, when the companions were digging the trench and the enemy was right outside, the ayah says it was like their hearts were coming out and reaching their throats. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam taught them to say: Allahumma astur ‗awraati wa aamin raw‘aati, o Allah cover my ‗awrah and give me peace. So in difficult situations, we should not just panic and vent, we should pray to Allah to give us peace and ta‘meenah in our hearts. Also on the Day of Judgment, the believers will have aman. How do we know? We learn in Suratul Naml ayah 89: man jaa‘a fil hasanah, wa lahu khayrun minha, whoever brings a good deed will have better than it (ie, a better reward), wa hum min faza‘in yauma ithin aaminoon, and they will be, on that day, at peace during the terror. How will they be at peace? When everyone is running around, nafsee nafsee, to one Prophet after the other, they will be tama‘meenah in their hearts and have security. Also they will be told they have such and such reward. At the time of death, the angels will tell the believers of their reward, so on the Day of Judgment they will have aman. 5) Allah is Al Mu‘min, He gives aman so His creation is saved from His injustice. We learned this with the name As Salaam. We know that we commit so many sins all the time, yet Allah pardons us. If Allah were to account everyone for all their sins, not a single creature would be living. In the dunya, we only suffer very slight consequences and if Allah were to inflict retribution for all of our bad deeds, not a creature would remain. So Allah does not do dhulm upon His creations, not even the slightest. And moreover, wa ya‘foo an katheer, and He pardons much--many, many sins. If this is Al Mu‘min, then the believer should not commit dhulm either. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: wallahi la yu‘min, three times, and the companions said man? And he said, the one whose neighbor is not safe from his actions. Our neighbors are the ones who sit with us, whose room is next to us, the one who lives by us, the one who is sitting in the car/bus with us, the who works by us, the one who is in the next line with us, they are our neighbors…so the one whose neighbor is not safe from his sharr, such a person has not believed and he is not a believer. From another hadeeth we learn, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: allaa ukhbirukum bil mu‘min, shall I not inform you of the believer? The companions said of course, and he said: al mu‘min man aminahu naas ‗alaa amwaalihim wa anfusihim, the believer is one for whom people are safe with regards to their wealth and lives. That person is a believer. When we talk about their wealth, how is their wealth safe? When a person does not come and ruin your things if they borrow it, or they never give it back. Such a person is not a believer who harms the other with regards to their wealth and lives. The hadeeth continues, wal muslim, man salimal muslimu min lisaanihi wa yaddihi, and as for the muslim, other muslims are safe from his tongue and hand. Summary: if Allah is Al Mu‘min, we are supposed to believe in Him, in His messengers and what they brought and we follow what He commands because what He believes in, we follow. If He is Al Mu‘min, we should ask Him for aman, in the dunya and aakhirah, if we don‘t have aman, we cannot live properly. If Allah is Al Mu‘min, we should learn and not to dhulm upon others at all. Making duaa by this Name There isn‘t a duaa that has this Name specifically. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam told the companions as mentioned before: Allahumma astur ‗awraati wa aamir-rawaati. When your emaan is low, ask Al Mu‘min to give the characteristics of the believers to you. The beauty of the Names of Allah is that when you are making duaa, the Name comes to your mind and then your duaa will be more sincere and you will be attentive. We learn that the duaa from an inattentive heart is not accepted, so when we are attentive and conscious and we mention the Names of Allah with feeling in our heart, inshaAllah Allah will respond to your duaa. Al Muhaymin The Protector, the Overseer. Linguistically, Al Muhaymin has several meanings. 1) It said to mean Al Ameen, the Trustworthy One and the One whom others are safe. 2) Muhaymin is also understood to be Mu‘aymin, the ha is hamza. This was done by the arabs at times that the hamza would be replaced by ha. Mu‘aymin means One who offers Peace and Security. 3) Another meaning is said to be Ar Raqeeb, the Watcher, and Al Haafidh, the One who protects and Guards. 4) The fourth meaning is Ash Shaahid, the Watchful One, the One who Observes. Muhaymin is from the root, hayminah, ha-ya-meem-noon. The Qur‘an has been called muhaymin and we understood two meanings from this: a) The one who watches and looks after. Literally this verb is used for when a hen spreads her wings and covers her chicks. So protecting, guarding, completely covering and controlling. b) It also means haakim, to judge. In the Qur‘an: this Name is mentioned only once, in surah Hashr. Otherwise, the meanings that come under Muhaymin appear several times in the Qur‘an. For example: in surah Yunus ayah 46: Allah is a shaheed, He observes the actions of the people. Similarly, in suratun Nisa ayah 1, innAllaha kaana alaykum Raqeeba, Allah watches over everyone. If Allah is Al Muhaymin, what does it mean? 1) Ibn Katheer says quoting ibn Abbass radi Allahu anhu: Al Muhaymin is the One who observes His creation with regards to their actions. He is watching whatsoever they are doing and He is ash Shaahid. We learn from surah Ra‘d ayah 33: He is qaaiman over every nafs, and in surah Burooj, wAllahu ‗alaa kuli shayyin Shaheed. Allah is Watching you. We read this in surah Yunus ayah 61, a long ayah in which Allah says: you are not in any state, and you are not reciting any part of the Qur‘an, and not are you doing any action, ila kunaa alaykum shuhoodan, We are a Witness over you. So Allah is Watching every person‘s actions. It same for Allah if we do something in public or private, He knows what we are doing. 2) If Allah is Al Muhaymin it means He will not reduce the deeds at all. He will not reduce the good deeds of the good doer and He will not reduce or increase the sins of the sinful, He will keep the deeds exactly as they are. 3) If Allah is Al Muhaymin it means that He knows what is saalih and what is faasid, He knows what is harmful for you and what is beneficial for you. Whatever Allah has told us is true. The One who Watches over everything knows what is good and bad, so His criteria is what is to be followed. He determines what is haqq. As mentioned before, haymin means haakim, so Al Haakim, He determines what is true and what is false. 4) If Allah is Al Muhaymin it means He protects His creations and creation. Remember the literal meaning of this word, the hen covering its chicks with its wings, similarly Allah covers us with His Mercy and Protection. Whatever Allah commands us is for our protection. To summarize: the Name al Muhaymin has several other meanings. Such as: Samee‘, Baseer, Shaheed, ‗Aleem, Hafeedh, and Qadeer. So if Allah is Al Muhaymin, what are we expected to do? a) We must be mindful of Allah, and be aware of the fact that He is Watching us. We should be considerate of this fact, He is Observing us. And in every state, in secret, private, in our thoughts or actions, Allah knows what we are doing. No hijaab bars Allah from Watching us. There is a hadeeth where the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, be mindful of Allah and Allah will protect you. Protect you from what? From harm, and also in particular, when you are mindful of Allah, He protects you from committing sins. Allah has told you what is right and wrong, so how can you disobey Allah? If someone told you not to do this or that, would you do this in front of them? You would do it when they are not watching. But Allah is Watching you no matter what state you are in, HOW can we disobey Allah? What type of audacity it takes, Allah knows what is in my heart and what I have done. How can we commit sins? There is no place where Allah is not Watching you. Out of respect for Him, we should not commit sins. Allah says in surah Ibrahim ayah 42: wa la tahsabban Allaha ghaafilan ‗amaa ya‘malu dhaalimoon, don‘t think that Allah is heedless and unaware of what the wrong doers are doing, innamaa u‘akhirahum, He is only delaying and deferring them. So if Allah does not catch us immediately with our sins, don‘t think that you‘ve gotten away with it and that Allah is Ghafoor and Raheem, we are only shown part of the consequence. We should avoid committing sins out of respect for Allah. b) If Allah is Al Muhaymin, He knows what is good and bad for us, then we should accept His amr/commands for us, because He will only tell that which is good and beneficial for us. Also because Allah knows what is saalih and faasid for you, pray istikhaarah to Him, because He knows what is better for you. c) If Allah is Al Muhaymin, we should have contentment with what He has decreed for us. If I look a certain way, if my height is a certain height, if my appearance is how Allah made it for me, if something I want is not happening—this is Allah‘s Qadr. We should have contentment in what He decreed. He says in the Qur‘an, alaa ya‘lamu man khalaqa, the One who created, does He not know? wa huwa Lateeful Khabeer, and He is the Kind and All Aware. Only when you accept it, then things will be easy for you. If Allah has decreed something and you don‘t like it, will things change? No. Will you benefit? No. But if you accept it, you can change it and benefit and use what Allah decreed for you. When we say the duaa: Radheetu billahi Rabban, I am content and happy with Allah as my Rabb. Rabb is Maalik, Khaaliq, Mudabbir it is part of His tadbeer that He decreed this for me, and radheetu means I am content, happy and satisified. d) We should know that He keeps everyone like the example of the hen that covers its chicks. So when we want help or need assistance, call upon Al Muhaymin, He will give it to you. Make the duaa when you cannot make enough ibaadah and dhikr: Allahumma a‘innee ‗alaa dhikrika wa shukrika wa husni ebaadatika. When we learn the qualities of the believers and we do not find those qualities within us, don‘t think they are too great to reach but rather make duaa to Allah to assist you to reach them. e) Allah has called the Qur‘an, Muhaymin, Surah Maa‘idah 48, so we should use this Muhaymin. Right after the ayah that this is mentioned, Allah says: fahkum baynahum bi maa anzal Allah, so judge between them with what Allah has sent down. We need to use and implement the Qur‘an, not just use it to study for our tests and let it sit on our shelves. Duaa with Al Muhaymin When we make duaa to Allah by His Names, there are two ways: 1) Duaa ath thinaa : praising Allah ta‘ala. 2) Duaa talab al masalah : duaa by asking/seeking something from Allah. With regards to Al Muhaymin, there isn‘t a duaa with this Name. The meaning of Muhaymin is found in many duaas just as the meanings of Muhaymin are throughout the Qur‘an. a) In one duaa the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam taught the companions to say before going to sleep with wudu to turn on your right side and say: Allahumma aslamtu nafsee ilayk, and the duaa goes on to say I give myself to You under Your protection and I seek refuge in You. So when you go to sleep, seek protection from Allah. b) A Bedouin came to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam and said: teach me a duaa in which Allah will benefit me. He taught him: Allahumma lakal hamdu kulu, wa ilayka uraj‘ul amru kulu, O Allah all praise is for You and all matters return to You. In it is the mention is that Allah knows that which is good from bad and He judges, this duaa is in bayhaqi. There are several duaas where you find the meaning that Allah gives protection, and mention that Allah knows everything, so all of those duaas come under this. c) A salaf, Yahya ibn Mu‘adh, used to make a duaa, a praise which is poetry with the Name Muhaymin. He says: Jalaaluk ya Muhaymin laa yadeek, O Muhaymin, Your Jalaal never ends, wa Mulku daa‘imun abadan, And your kingdom is eternal, wa Hukmuka naafidun fee kuli amr, and your Decision is implemented in every matter, wa laysa yakoonu ila ma tureed, and nothing happens except that which You Want, and he continues, thunoobi la taduruka ya Ilaahee, my sins do not harm You my God, wa ‗afwuka naafiun, Your Pardon is beneficial, wa bihi tajoodu and Your pardon is Your generosity. He begins with Ya Muhaymin, and he talks about Allah‘s Mulk, his own sins and this shows us that making duaa with His Names should be in our every day regular duaas, whatever we are feeling and a Name is relevant, mention what you‘re feeling, praise Allah through that and say that duaa. When you are far away from your family/parents, you feel that you are not that well protected, imagine the picture of the hen—Allah ta‘ala will protect you, ask Him for His protection and read your morning and evening duaas. Al ‘Azeez Said to be from three verbal forms: a) ‗azza, ya‘izzu (kasrah) means nobility. When Allah is ‗Azeez in this form, it means One who is Noble, One who is Distinguished, there is none like Him, He is so Dear, Respected because He is Malik and Maleek. Laysa ka milthlihi shay. b) ‗azza, ya‘uzzu (dhummah) means to prevail, to be dominant. In this form, when Allah is Al ‗Azeez, it means He is Ghaalib, Dominant, Prevailing and there is no one who could prevail over Him, no one who could dominate Him, He is unconquerable and undefeatable. The verb ‗azza appears in surah Saad ayah 23, when the two people came to Dawood alayhi sallam to judge between them, one man said: wa ‘azzanee fil khitaab, he overpowered me in speech. Allah says in the Qur‘an that there is no one to conquer Him. c) ‗azza, ya‘azzu (fathah) means to be powerful, to be mighty. He is the One who is Most Powerful, Most Mighty. From this we learn He is Al Shadeed, Al Qawiyy, He is the One who is very Strong, very Firm. Also another meaning of ‗Azeez from this is He is Al Muntani‘, (mana‘ means to stop) He Stops, He Prevents meaning nothing can go against Him, none can fight Him and push Him back. Allah ta‘ala says in Surah Faatir: wa thaalika ‗al Allahi bi ‗azeez : it is easy for Allah ta‘ala to bring about a new creation. d) To summarize these three meanings: One who is Distinguished, Respected, there is none like Him. He is undefeatable. He is Mighty. None can prevent Him from fulfilling what He wills. Proof for this Name This Name appears 92 times in the Qur‘an. This repetition shows us something, we must remember that Allah is Al ‗Azeez, He is the One who is Mighty, we can never go against His Will. In Surah Shu‘ara we read many times: Al ‗Azeezur Raheem, why? To show us that Allah ta‘ala is Mighty against those who disobey Him. Combinations with other Names in the Qur‘an: a) Al ‗Azeezul Hakeem This combination of Names appears 47 times together. What is the relation between Al Hakeem: The Wise, Al ‗Azeez: The Mighty? When someone in ‗azeez, they are dominant, they have a lot of power, they misuse their power, but Allah ta‘ala when He is Al ‗Azeez, at the same time He is Al Hakeem. If He has shown us His power and might in some way, like the destruction of a people, He is Hakeem and He knows what to do, where to do it and when to do it. Another place in the Qur‘an, 3:6 : huwal lathee yusawwirkum fil arhaami kayfa yashaa la ilaha ila huwa al ‗Azeezul Hakeem. b) Al ‗Azeezul ‗Aleem This combination appears 6 times. Allah says in suratul Qasas: 78 : inna Rabbaka yaqdee baynahum bi hukmihi wa huwal ‗Azeezul ‗Aleem, Allah will decide between them with His judgment and He is the Mighty, the All Knowing. He is the Mighty, He is able to call them to account, and He is Knowledge of what they were doing. c) Al ‗Azeezul Ghafoor This appears twice in the Qur‘an. Suratul Mulk:2 : wa huwal ‗Azeezul Ghafoor. When we learn about tests, Allah has ghalbah over us, He can call us to account but at the same time He tells us He is Ghafoor because He can forgive our sins. d) Al ‗Azeezur Raheem This appears 12 times. In Surah Shu‘ara, after each story of the nation that was destroyed, these Names appear. He is Mighty against those who disbelieve, and He is Raheem to the believers. e) Some other combinations: Al ‗Azeezul Ghaffaar, Al ‗Azeezul Hameed. What does it mean that Allah is Al ‗Azeez? One who is Distinguished, the One who is Ghaalib. a) ibn Jareer says about the meaning of Ghaalib: He is Shadeed when He takes revenge. In surah Burooj, Allah says, wa ma naqamoo minhum ila liyuminu billaahil Azeezil Hameed, then He says in the next ayah, those people have: athaabu jahannama wa lahum athaabul hareeq. It is not appropriate to make Allah angry. No matter who you are, Allah is Al ‗Azeez and you cannot get away from Him. Remember the story of Yunus alayhi salaam, when he left without the order of Allah he was stuck in the whale and Allah says in the Qur‘an: if he had not been of the musabbiheen, he would have stayed in the stomach of the fish until the day of Judgment. He was a prophet of Allah but he went against the command of Allah. No matter how pious you are, no matter who you are, Allah is Al ‗Azeez and think you can sin and get away from Him. Allah says in the Qur‘an that if the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam added verses to the Qur‘an, Allah would cut his jugular vein. The punishment is harsh to show that if you sin, you cannot get away from Al ‗Azeez. Allah ta‘ala also says, if you do shirk, la yahbattana ‗amaluk, your deeds will be destroyed. We should remember that Allah is Al ‗Azeez, if we do something wrong, He is not going to leave me alone because we learn that whoever does an evil deed, yujza bihi, he will be recompensed for it. This is the first lesson of this Name, we need to recognize that we are abd, we are faqeer/needy, no matter how good we think we are, we can never get away from Allah ta‘ala and we should avoid disobeying Him. b) If Allah ta‘ala is Al Ghaalib, and we are on His Way (meaning we are working for His deen, doing something for His Sake) and we face a lot of challenges/difficulties, we should remember that Allah is Al ‗Azeez, Al Ghaalib, He is Victorious, Dominant so we should seek help from Him. We should not be shaky, we should be confident, Allah will give you the ability to do it. So the Name Al ‗Azeez increases our tawakkul in Allah ta‘ala. It gives us hope, He is Al ‗Azeez, He can help me. When Musa alayhi salaam was at the sea and firawn behind him, his nation said they are captured but Musa alayhi salaam said: inna ma‘ya Rabbee sayahdeen: with me is my Rabb, soon He will guide me. Firawn tried to kill all the boys so Musa alayhi salaam would not come, but Allah is Al ‗Azeez and Musa came. Similarly, the brothers of Yusuf alayhi salaam tried to kill him but he became the minister of Egypt, He says in surah Yusuf: wallahu ghaalibun ‗alaa amrihi, Allah is ghaalib over His matters, He can make it happen. So when in the way of Allah, you should be hopeful of Allah‘s Help, His Assistance and hopeful that Allah will never leave you as long as you are on His way. The same happened with the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam went through a lot too, but he prevailed and Allah ta‘ala says this deen will prevail wa law karihal kaafiroon, even if the disbelievers hate it. c) We should seek ‗izzah/ honor from Allah subhanahu wa ta‘ala alone. We learn that Umar radi Allahu anhu, when he was the khaleefah and they were going into town, Abu Ubaydah said why don‘t you wear nicer clothes and he replied: ‗we received ‗izzah from Allah and if we try to get ‗izzah from somewhere else, Allah will humiliate us.‘ ‗Izzah belongs only to Allah. Allah ta‘ala says at the end of Suratus Saffaat: subhaana Rabbika Rabbil ‗Izzah, He is the Rabb of ‗Izzah, Rabb of the Might, the Honor, the Prestige, the Respect. If you desire it, do something for Allah and He will give it to you. What can we do? Rasul Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: whoever lowers himself for Allah, Allah raises him. Similarly, the one who works for Allah‘s deen, Allah has promised that He will give them khilaafah and power on the earth. Allah ta‘ala also says in Suratul Munaafiqoon: wa lillahil ‗izzati wa li rasoolihi wa lil mu‘mineen. So if you want ‗izzah, don‘t fake it, be a true mu‘min and Allah will grant you ‗izzah. If you really want honor, Allah will give it to you, provided you are a mu‘min. Duaas with Al ‗Azeez a) duaa of Ibrahim and Isma‘eel alayhuma salaam in Baqarah: Rabbana wabath feehim rasoolan minhum… innaka antal ‗Azeezul Hakeem. They are praying for the future, they‘ve done something and they want it to continue…so if you do something and you want your deed to last, call upon Al ‗Azeez and He can make it happen, none can overpower Him. b) One of the meanings of ‗Azeez is Maani‘, One who stops/restricts. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam used to pray: Allahumma la maani‘a li ma ‗atayta, O Allah there is none who can stop what You give, wa la muti‘ li ma mana‘ta, and what You have stopped, no one can give. With the consciousness in mind that Allah is Al ‗Azeez, make this duaa. The Name Al ‗Azeez should guide us throughout our lives, we should remember that whatever happens to us by Allah‘s Command, we cannot go against Him, so accept it. c) Another duaa, not sure if masnoon (from the sunnah), but it is said: Allahumma a‘izzal islaama wal muslimeen. O Allah give honor to Islam and the Muslims. Al Jabbaar The Compeller, The Restorer. It is on the structure of fa‘aal, a structure of mubaalagah/intensification. Jaabir is one who compels or restores, but Jabbaar is the Compeller, the complete Restorer. Jabbaar is from the root: jeem ba ra/jabr, and this root has several meanings: a) The first meaning is to pressurize, to compel and force someone to do something. From this, it is understood to mean to tyrannize someone and be tyrannical. We learn from the Qur‘an that: wa itha batashtum batashtum jabbaareen: and when you attack, you oppress people. Similarly in surah Maryam, Esa alayhi salaam says: wa lam yaja‘lnee jabbaaran shaqiyya: and He (Allah) has not made me an oppressive person. b) Secondly, Jabr also means to be strong, tall and great. nakhlatun Jabbaarah is used for a tall date palm tree that is very strong and gives a lot of fruit. Also in the Qur‘an, 5:22, when Bani Isra‘eel were told to enter the city they said: inna feeha qaumun jabbaareen, indeed in there are a people who are very strong and powerful. The second meaning is to be powerful, to be strong, huge and tall. Another meaning is kibriyaa‘ which means greatness, Jabaroot is used for Allah ta‘ala. c) The third meaning of Jabr is to repair the broken. Also when something is incomplete and you complete it that is also called jabr. Also when there is a deficiency and you make up for it that is called jabr. The third meaning is to restore, to fix, to do islaah of something. From the same root is algebra, you ‗fix‘ the equation. Jabeerah is used for a splint, to help broken bones. Proof for this Name The word Jabbaar appears 10 times in the Qur‘an, but only once for Allah ta‘ala. So nine times it is used for people who are oppressive, who do dhulm, who compel, who force and are strong. The last time it is used in the Qur‘an in Suratul Hashr, it is used for Allah ta‘ala. If Allah is Jabbaar, what does it mean? a) According to al Khattaabi, it means: He is the One who forces His creation upon what He commands and upon what He has forbidden. In other words, whatever Allah wills, His will is executed. The first meaning of Jabbaar is Compeller, so whatever He wills is what happens. He is the One who implements His will. b) Secondly, it means al ‗aali fawqa khalqihi, the One who is Exalted, High above His creation. In other words, He is the Greatest One. Just as nakhlatun jabbaarah is the tallest tree in the orchard, Allah ta‘ala is the Greatest and there is no one else who is greater than Him. He is the One who is Qawwiy, ‗Atheem. He is the One who has tawl, He owns a lot and can give a lot. The Supreme Power and Authority belongs to Allah ta‘ala. c) Thirdly, Jabbaar means Al Muslih, the One who Reforms, the One who fixes the situation for His creation. When we find our resources to be incomplete, Allah ta‘ala makes them complete. When we are unable to reach our goals, Allah ta‘ala assists us. He is the One who amends the affairs of His creation. It means if a slave is unable to reach His goal, Al Jabbaar will enable Him and provide Him with the sources to reach this goal. Difference when Jabbaar is used for people and for Allah ta‘ala When Jabbaar is used for people, it is in a negative sense, because there is no right that they can be tyrannical and oppress other people. If Jabbaar is used for humans as one who restores, it is negative again because they use their oppressive nature to fix things. Example: a government moving families out of their old homes, they want to fix things but it is oppression in a way. When Allah ta‘ala fixes things, it is not in an oppressive nature, it is in a positive sense. Jabr does not befit or suit human beings, they are supposed to be ‗abd. If Allah is Al Jabbaar what are we supposed to do? 1) We must know that HE is Al Jabbaar, and we cannot imitate Him. Allah is Ar Rahmaan and we should have rahmah, but because Allah is Al Jabbaar doesn‘t mean we become jabbaar. Why? Because He has told us to not be Jabbaar, He doesn‘t like the arrogant. We learn from surah Ibrahim we learn: wastaftahoo wa khaaba kulu jabbaarin ‗aneed: when the prophets and believers asked for victory, every oppressive, every rebellious, every stubborn opposer of the Prophet was lost. So if we become jabbaar on the earth, we are the ones who are going to lose. Similarly, in surah Mu‘min: 35, kathaalika yatba‘u Allahu ‗alaa kuli qalbin mutakabirin jabbaar, Allah puts a seal on the hearts of every mutakbir and jabbaar person. So whoever is jabbaar, it leads to their heart being sealed because a person becomes so arrogant and oppressive that nothing comes in to his heart or goes out. Also in a hadeeth in Saheeh Bukhari, we learn that hellfire is for the jabbaareen, because Paradise and Hellfire had an argument and Hellfire said: I have been given the privilege of receiving the arrogant and the tyrants. We might think that we are not oppressive, only the rulers who kill people are oppressive, but we are also jabbaar sometimes. In the context of Esa alayhi salaam, he says: wa barran bi waalidatee wa lam yaj‘alnee jabbaaran shaqqiya, he was barr towards his mother and he was not a jabber, disobedient. So jabbaar means one who is forceful against his parents in this context, their parents tell them to do something and the child doesn‘t listen. So jabbaar is not just a mighty tyrant ruler, jabbaar can be any person who refuses to obey, harms and hurts other people and doesn‘t listen to the authority. The first lesson for us is that we are ‗abd, we should recognize ourselves as ‗ebaadAllah, if we don‘t, the consequences are very severe because Allah does not like those who do jabr. 2) The second lesson we learn is that if someone is unable to reach their goals, find constriction in time, ability, we should ask Al Jabbaar to fix our deficiencies. When we are unable to achieve a goal and find ourselves weak, ask Al Jabbaar who will make up all of the deficiencies. When you find yourself in a mess, and unable, ask Al Jabbaar. Duaas with this Name a) Between the two sajdahs, we make the duaa: Allahumma-ighfirlee wahdini warhamnee wajburnee –jabr here doesn‘t mean compel, it means fix my situation, in the meaning of muslih. b) There is a saheeh hadeeth in Abi Dawood that mentions a duaa that the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam would recite in sujood and ruku: subhana dhil jabaroot wal malakoot wal kibriyaa‘i wal ‗athamah, Glorified is the the One who possesses jabaroot- which means greatness here, wal malakoot is all of His dominion, wal kibriyaa‘ and the greatness, wal ‗athamah, and the grandness. Note: write these duaas down and try and memorize them, so we benefit from them. Why are these duaas mentioned in sajdah? We are most close to Allah in sujood and mentioning His Greatness expresses our humility. Al Mutakabir and Al Kabeer Al Mutakabir – the Superior, the One who has takabur Al Kabeer- The Grand, The Great Root is kaaf ba ra, which means greatness, and is the opposite of sughr/sagheer, smallness. Meaning 1) Greatness. In surah Yusuf, when the women saw Yusuf alayhi sallam: akbarnahu, they thought great of him. 2) Al Kibriyaa‘, which means mulk, dominion and power. It means power literally but having power by being the king and ruler. How do we learn that? We learn that Firawn said to Musa alayhi sallam: you want to evict us from our land wa takana lakum al kibrayaa fil ardh, and that you have greatness upon the earth. Greatness here means supreme power and to become the king. Proof of these Names Mutakabir appears once in the Qur‘an, in Surah Hashr ayah 23. The Name Al Kabeer appears six times in the Qur‘an. a) In Surah Luqman ayah 30: wa anna Allah huwal ‗Aliyyul Kabeer, this ayah also appears in surah Hajj ayah 62. Similarly in Surah Ra‘d ayah 9, Allah says: ‗Aalimul ghaybi wa shahaadah Al Kabeerul Muta‘aal: Knower of the unseen and seen, The Great, the Most High. Surah Saba ayah 23: wa huwal ‗Aliyyul Kabeer, surah Ghaafir ayah 12: al ‗Aliyyul Kabeer. Suratun Nisaa: inAllah kaana Aliyyan Kabeera. b) In the Qur‘an, Kabeer appears with ‗Aliyy or Muta‘aal, which also give the meaning of Greatness. When two Names of Greatness are mentioned, it gives the meaning of the One who is THE Highestest, THE Greatest One. The purpose of mentioning both together is to give emphasis and to express Supreme Greatness of Allah ta‘ala. If Allah is Al Mutakabir, what does it mean? Note: Takabur to a person is not a good thing because the person thinks great of themselves and greater than others. So when Takabur is used for Allah ta‘ala it means He is the Greatest One, there is no one greater than Him. If people think of themselves as great, they‘re not really great because there is someone greater than them. When He is described as Al Mutakabir, it is a lot of praise because He has Supreme Power. 1) Firslty it means, takabara ‗an kuli soo‘in wa dhulmin wa sharr, that Allah is Greater and Far Above any evil, any oppression. He is High and Exalted than any of these deficiences. 2) Secondly, He is Greater than the attributes of the creation and resemebling them. He has no faults, nothing can harm Him. If Allah is Al Kabeer, what does it mean? 1) According to At Tabari Nothing is like Him, and everything else is small and little compared to Him. He is the Most Grand One. 2) Secondly, that Allah ta‘ala has kibriyaa‘, He has the Mulk of the heavens and the earth. If Allah is Al Mutakabir and Al Kabeer, what are we supposed to do? a) We should regard Him as the Greatest One, give Him the Greatest importance in your life. How does we give Him importance? When we hear the adhaan, Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar, we express this by repeating the response of the adhaan and leaving everything to go for salaah. If Allah is really the greatest One in your life, how is it we hear Allahu Akbar and we don‘t pray right away. If Allah is the Greatest One, we will prove it by our actions. Also when we are in salaah, we say Allahu Akbar several times, but what is in our minds when we are praying? Something in the dunya, that doesn‘t even have the value of a wing in the Eyes of Allah ta‘ala. If Allah has given us a hukm or command, take Him as the Greatest One and follow it. Prove it by our actions, how much importance we give to Allah‘s Kalaam, His dhikr and His commands. b) Don‘t be arrogant, be humble. In a hadeeth qudsi, Allah ta‘ala says: Al Kibriyaa‘ ridaa‘i, Greatness is my Mantle, wal ‗athamatu izaari, and greatness is My wrap, Whoever exalts himself against Me, I will destroy him completely then I will cast him into the Fire. Allah hates the arrogant people, whoever tries to be arrogant; Allah ta‘ala will crush him and throw him into the fire. The arrogant will be like ants on the Day of Judgment, being trampled by people‘s feet. Arrogance means: batrul haqq wa ghamtun naas, denying the truth and belittling people, thinking small of them. A person who is arrogant imitates Iblees, because iblees: abaa wastakbar, he refused and became arrogant. Allah ta‘ala said to him: wa laka an tatakabara, you are not allowed to be arrogant. So arrogance is refusing to obey Allah. In suratul Jaathiyah ayah 31, the people of hell fire will be told by Allah: a fa lam takun ayaatee tutlaa ‗alaykum fastakbartum, My verses were recited upon you but you were arrogant, arrogance here means that they heard the ayaat but they denied, didn‘t obey, refused to believe, they didn‘t care. We should all check ourselves what our reaction is when we hear the ayaat of Allah, do we obey them or become arrogant and say we cannot do them? c) Thirdly, if Allah is Al Mutakabir, Al Kabeer it means that when we have greatness, remember His Greatness. All of us are given some greatness in our life, a younger sibling, someone who looks up to us, we have some superiorty some way or another. There is a good example of this in the Qur‘an, Allah ta‘ala says in Suratun Nisa ayah 34: that men are qawwaam over women, and in the same ayah Allah mentions if the women are rebellious to separate from them, admonition them and beat them with conditions, and at the end of this ayah Allah says: inAllah kaana ‗Aliyyan Kabeera. It‘s a reminder to the men that they have this authority today over their wives, and may do whatever they please in this case, but they must remember Allah‘s Greatness because when we have power, we may oppress people, wa fawqa dhi ilmin ‗aleem, and above every knowledgeable person is one who is more knowledgeable. The more greatness one has, the more accountable they are. So whatever greatness we have been given in any capacity, we should not misuse it. Duaas with this Name a) Allahu Akbar Kabeera : many duaas with takbeer. b) In salaah, nearly all of the positions except for two, we say Allahu Akbar. We must remember the Greatest One, not ourselves or petty things. Even after salaah we say Allahu Akbar, astagfirullah. c) When we go up the stairs or descending to a high place, the sunnah is to say Allahu Akbar, to remember that Allah is Greater. Reminder: A person who has the tiniest spec of arrogance will not enter paradise, because it is very easy for one to become arrogant, so Allah and His Prophet have taught us several ways to counter this arrogance. Even while going up the stairs, we remind ourselves Allahu Akbar because we may be higher than some people, but Allah is Greater. d) During Hajj, Allahu Akbar is repeated a lot to remind the hujjaj not to be arrogant because it is easy to become prideful. e) In the last 10 days of dhul Hijjah, it is sunnah to say takbeer a lot. -Takbeer is a major part of the believer‘s life, at all times they are saying Allahu Akbar and I am small. If you find arrogance in yourself, pray to Allah to remove it, pray to Al Jabbaar to remove it from your heart. Al Hakam and Al Haakim Hakam and Haakim mean the same thing, The Judge or The True Judge. Al Hakeem means the Perfectly Wise. What is the difference between Hakam and Haakim? Hakam is the more intensified form of Haakim. Hakam: A judge, the one to whom matters are taken for judgment. It comes from the root hukm, which gives us two meanings: 1) First meaning is ilm, knowledge and fiqh, understanding/comprehension. Proof of this meaning: in surah Maryam ayah 12, Allah says about Yahya alayhi salaam, wa aataynaahul hukma sabiyya, and we gave him hukm as a child. Hukm here can mean prophethood or knowledge/comprehension/understanding. When Yahya alayhi salaam was a child, he would not engage in play but engage in more useful activities like learning. 2) Second meaning is Qadaa‘, decision, to give a ruling, to make a judgment. Proof of this meaning is surah Nisa ayah 58: wa itha hakamtum bayna an naas an tahkumaa bil adl, tahkumaa means to judge, that you give a ruling. So who is Hakam or Haakim? One who gives a ruling, decree or judgment based on his knowledge or understanding. The judge has to understand the whole situation then they give a final ruling, which is why proof is present to a judge in a court room. So Allah ta‘ala is The Judge. Hikmah also shows the same root, so His Hakm is not only based on knowledge and understanding, but also with wisdom. Proof for these Names Al Hakam this Name is only found in the sunnah. There is a hadeeth in Abu Dawood, ibn Yazeed narrates to his people that a man went out to his people and he was called by his kunyah, Abul Hakam. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam asked him why he has this kunyah, and he said, when my people are in a disagreement they come to me and I make a decision. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: innAllaha huwal Hakam, indeed Allah is The Judge, wa ilayhil Hukm, and to Him Judgment belongs. The man explained again that his people gave him the name because he gives them judgment, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: Ma ahsanu haatha, how good is this that people come to you and they like your judgment. It was a good quality and the Prophet appreciated that. Then the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam told him his kunyah will be Abu Shurayh not Abul Hakam. Look at the wisdom of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, he didn‘t say you have a wrong name but he said, innAllaha huwal Hakam, Allah is Al Hakam and he gave him another kunyah of his children. (Note: we need to approach people with wisdom when correcting them) Hakaman appears in the Qur‘an, surah An‘aam ayah 114: should I seek besides Allah a hakaman, as a judge. Hakam has appeared in the nakirah form (no ‗al‘). There are certain rules on the basis of which a description is considered as the Name of Allah ta‘ala, and of those rules is that the Name should not appear in a nakirah form (it should be Al Hakam and not Hakaman), or in a muraqqab form (Maaliki yaumid deen, Muhyil ardha) but if we find a description of Alah ta‘ala in this form but elsewhere (like the hadeeth above) it is mentioned in the proper form, then we can take it as a Name of Allah ta‘ala. If Allah ta‘ala is Al Hakam or Haakim, what does it mean? 1) Allah ta‘ala is the One who decides and judges in all matters. In surah An‘aam ayah 62, Allah says: alaa lahul hukm, to Him belongs al Hukm. Meaning He is the One who gives the Decree concerning all matters. Similarly in surah Qasas ayah 70: wa lahul Hukm, to Him belongs the Decision. 2) When He Judges or Decides, He does what He wills. We learn this in the first ayah of surah Ma‘idah: InnAllah yahkumu maa ureed, Allah Decides what He wills. 3) Allah ta‘ala will Judge with perfect justice between His slaves in dunya and aakhirah, He doesn‘t even do wrong the size of an atom‘s weight. When Allah makes a Judgment, it is based on His Justice. 4) When Allah gives a hukm, it is beneficial for us; there is some kind of benefit in one way or another. 5) Allah‘s Judgment is based on His Ilm, His Complete Knowledge. 6) His Hukm is implemented, because He has the Power to implement His Decision and Ruling. There are two kinds of Hukm a) Hukm al Kawnee Allah‘s ta‘ala Decree in creation, it is all of the commands and decrees pertaining to the creation of Allah ta‘ala. (things that mistakenly call ―mother nature‖) Allah says in surah A‘raaf ayah 54: alaa lahul khalqu wal amr, unquestionably for Him is the creation and command. He is the One who gives the rulings and decree. Firstly, this hukm can be by kalimah ―kun‖, as Allah says in the Qur‘an many times that when He does something He just says kun and it is, like the creation of Esa alayhi salaam or the heavens and the earth. Secondly, it can also come into existence by His Will, He wills something and it is. In surah Yaseen ayah 82 Allah says, ithaa araada shayin an yaqoola lahu kun fa yakoon, when He intends something then it is. Thirdly, by His amr and qawl, to the angels or to other creation like human beings. It is not necessary that Allah loves or hates what He allows. People wonder why there are hurricanes or other evils, it is not that Allah wants evil for us but we must know that everything that Allah allows to happen is in His Knowledge and there is some goodness in it. For example, in surah Room we read: thaharal fasaada fil barri wal bahr, fasaad has appeared on land and sea; does it mean that Allah loves fasaad? No, because He says: innAllahu la yuhibul fasaad, it is based on His Wisdom so there is some benefit, so what is the benefit? Allah tells us at the end of the ayah: la‘alahum yarji‘oon, so that they may return, the goodness is that the people will return/repent to Allah. We have to learn that not everything that Allah has allowed in the universe pertaining to His creation, it is not necessary that Allah loves it but it is in His Knowledge firstly and there is some aspect of goodness in it. Also we have to learn that when Allah judges or gives a decree pertaining to His creation, there is none that can alter it or change it, we learn this from surah Ra‘d ayah 41: wAllahu yahkumu la yu‘aqqaba fee hukmihi, Allah Judges and no one can alter His Judgment. None can be ghaalib over His amr, Allah is the One who sends the rain and He is the One who destroys people. b) Hukm ash Shar‘ee this is the hukm that Allah has given to His creation, the creation that has freedom of will, which is jinn and humans. This hukm is takleef (mukallif is one who is answerable to someone), meaning when Allah gives a hukm to someone and they have to follow it and if not, they are answerable. Whoever does it receives reward and if it‘s not done, there is punishment. Allah has given these ahkaam to the creation overtime by several messengers, we learned from the Qur‘an, wa innal qaryata khaala feeha natheer, there is no qaryah except that a natheer came to those people. The messenger gave the hukm shar‘ee to people, of them was: ‗ubud Allah, worship Allah. Examples of Allah‘s ahkaam that are shar‘ee: Laws pertaining to the will, laws of inheritance. How to worship Allah. This is the first hukm. In the Qur‘an we learn that when Allah gives an amr, like aqeemoo, it is a hukm shar‘ee and it has to be followed. The fuqahaa look for amr form in the Qur‘an to derive rulings. For example we learned in surah Israa ayah 23, we learned several ahkaam over there: 1) wa qadaa Rabbuka alaa ta‘budoo ila iyaah, Allah has commanded that you worship none but Him, 2) then the next hukm is to do good to parents, and to lower your wings of mercy on them 3) Say the duaa: rabbirhamhuma kamaa rabbayaanee sageera 4) Give to the orphans 5) Don‘t be extravagant 6) Don‘t kill your children etc Throughout the Qur‘an we learn ahkaam that are shar‘ee, we have to observe and follow them and we cannot go against them because Allah is the One who is Al Hakam, He has given this Decree. When we learn that Allah being Al Hakam means that His Will is implemented, but we see that Allah has given all of these commands but not many follow them, so what does that mean? If one doesn‘t do them in the dunya, in the aakhirah they will be questioned. He is Ad Dayyaan and Al Haakim; In the dunya we are supposed to follow them and if we don‘t, Al Hakam is going to take our hisaab on the Day of Judgment. Also we learn that when Allah gives a commandment, they are not just for the Prophet sal Allahu alahyi wa sallam (ex: be patient over what they say) they are for us too and we must follow them. What is required for us, what is the share of a believer in the Name Al Hakam? 1) We have to accept Allah‘s kawnee ahkaam, all the universal laws and we shouldn‘t accept them. For example if it rains or snows, we shouldn‘t say: how come it rained again. This is objecting to Allah‘s ahkaam that are kawnee. 2) We have to follow Allah‘s ahkaam that are shar‘ee, our manhaj/way of life should be these commands. Out of respect for Allah ta‘ala, we should observe these ahkaam. For example when you‘re told the rules of a place, and you don‘t follow them, it is disrespect that you‘re going against the rules. This is Allah‘s Mulk, His Dominion; we have to follow His rules. Just as if you‘re living in Canada, you have to follow the rules of the land. Even in one‘s own room, people have rules. These are Allah‘s rules and we have to follow them. 3) We have to refer to Allah and His Messenger sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam for judgments and decisions. When we have a problem we go to the shar‘eeah that Allah has given. We learn this in Suratul Maa‘idah: wa man lam yahkum bi ma anzala Allah, ulaa‘ika humul kaafiroon. Those who do not judge according to Allah‘s Hukm, they are kaafiroon. In the next ayah, ayah 45, Allah says they are dhaalimoon and in the next ayah Allah says they are faasiqoon. So those people who do not follow the judgment that Allah has given they are kaafiroon, dhaalimoon and faasiqoon. When we have an issue, we turn to the Qur‘an and Sunnah. 4) We are supposed to pray to Al Hakam to decide in our favor, that which is good for us, in the dunya and aakhirah. Duaas with this Name (fad‘oohu bihaa) a) Surah Zumar ayah 36: qul Allahumma faatir as samawaati wal ardhi ‗aalimul ghaybi wash shahaadah anta tahkumu bayna ‗ebaadika fee maa kaanu feehi yakhtalifoon, when there is a difference, we ask Allah: judge between the people. b) In the night prayer, the duaa istiftaah, when the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam would start tahajjud he would say: Allahumma Rabb Jibra‘eela wa Meeka‘eela wa Israfeel, Faatir as samawaati wal ardh, aalimal ghaybi wash shaadahah anta tahkumu bayna ‗ebaadika feema kaanu feehi yakhtalifoon. c) Duaa that the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam told us to read to relieve anxiety and anguish: Allahumma inne ‗abduk, ibn ‗abduk, the duaa continues, madhin feeya hukmuk ‗adlun feeya qadaa‘uk, Your position concerning me is ‗adl, in other words, Allah You are Al Hakam and whatever decision You make for me is Your judgment concerning me, it is adl, just so I accept it. d) *Focus on this duaa.* Allahumma inne asalukal jannah, wa ma qaraba ilayhaa min qawlin aw ‗amal, O Allah I ask You for Jannah and everthing that will bring me closer to it by word or action, wa ‗audhubika min an naar wa ma qaraba ilayha min qawlin aw „amal, the opposite, I seek refuge in You from the fire, wa asaluka ‗an tajala kuli qadaa‘in qadaytahu lee khayra, and I ask You to make every judgment concerning me is good. This duaa is very comprehensive; we should say it at least once a day. e) Duaa istikhaarah, we ask towards the end: make me happy with it and if it not good for me, grant me better for it. Al Hakeem The Most Wise. It is on the structure of fa‘eel, mubaalagah, which gives an intensified form of what is being said. It is from ha-ka-meem, from hukm or hikmah. The Name of Allah ta‘ala Al Hakeem gives us three meanings: 1) Haakim or Hakam: The One who Judges, the One who gives judgment. 2) Dhoo Hikmah: The One who has Hikmah/Wisdom, if Allah is Al Hakeem then it means He is the Most Wise. 3) Muhkim: the One who is Firm, Perfect. Proof of this Name Al Hakeem appears 97 times in the Qur‘an. Examples: Baqarah: 32The angels said: Subhaanaka la ‗ilma lana ila ma ‗alamtanaa innaka antal ‗Aleemul Hakeem. Al e Imran: 6 huwal lathee yusawwirkum fil arhaami kayfa yashaa‘ la ilaha ila huwal ‗Azeezul Hakeem Surah Fussilat: 1-2 min la dun Hakeemin Khabeer Noor: 10 wa law la fadlullahi ‗alaykum wa annAllah Tawwaabul Hakeem It appears with several other Names a) Al ‗Aleemul Hakeem: He is the Most Wise, the One who Judges but He also has complete knowledge. b) Al ‗Azeezul Hakeem: He is the One who Judges, at the same time He is Ghaalib, His wisdom and His power go hand in hand. c) Hakeem and Khabeer: He is All Aware, yet Hakeem d) Tawwaabul Hakeem: He knows who to accept tawbah from. We learn that Allah‘s Wisdom and Decision go hand in hand with His Power. One attribute perfects the rest. If Allah is Al Hakeem, what does it mean? 1) His every decision is based on wisdom 2) His is the final judgment 3) Allah is the One who gives Hikmah wa man yu‘til hikmah, whoever is given Hikmah, wa laqad aataynaa luqman al hikmah, and We gave Luqman Hikmah. When it is said, Allah does everything with His Hikmah, what does it mean? it gives us three meanings: (Whether His Hikmah is Shar‘ee or Kawnee) 4) in the ijaad of that thing, there is Allah‘s Hikmah. Ijaad means to come in to existence, its presence. For example, the trees, the stars, the flowers, plants, soil, there is Allah‘s Hikmah behind it. Also in hukm shar‘ee, for example to kill the person who kills (qisaas), in the existence, wujood, of this hukm there is hikmah. 5) The soorah, the appearance or the form of that Hukmah. For example in hukm al kawnee: if the stars were too bright the night would not be night, so in their appearance is Allah‘s Wisdom. Similarly if we had three fingers instead of five, it would be difficult for us, there is Allah‘s Wisdom behind it. Similarly, in hukm shar‘ee, for example how to carry out a will, we know there are certain rulings. There is hikmah behind these ahkaam. 6) In the end result, consequence or purpose, there is Hikmah behind it. Duaas with Hakeem a) Hukm is like rushd, there is a duaa: Allahumma alhimnee rushdee wa ‗aidhnee min sharri nafsee, O Allah give me hidayah/hikmah/wisdom and protect from the evil of my soul. Al Ghafoor and Al Ghaffaar Al Ghafoor, the Forgiving. Al Ghaffaar, The Perpetual Forgiver. Both Names are form ghayn fa ra. Two opinions on the masdar/meaning: 1) from ghafr, with a sakoon on the fa. It means satr and taghtiyah, meaning to cover, to conceal, putting a shield over something. It is said, GhafarAllaha dhunoobahu, meaning satarha, He covered the sins, Allah did ghafara of his sins. Similarily it is said, ghafara shaybin bil ghitaab, he covered the gray hair with some color. From the same word is nighfar, a helmet, it covers your head and shields your head—if you fall, your head is protected. 2) From ghafar, with a fathah on the fa. Ghafar is used for a plant with which wounds are healed, so it is said that sins are like an ailment, a disease or a wound on a person, and maghfirah is a cure that Allah gives us to heal the wounds that are all over us. We have injured ourselves by the sins we commit and Allah gives us maghfirah, the cure to cure these injuries. Ghafoor is on the structure of fa‘ool, and Ghaffaar is on the structure of fa‘aal. They are both on intensified forms (mubaalagah). It‘s not just that Allah forgives sins and covers them. a) Ghafoor denotes quality, indicates that He forgives sins, and He forgives sins that are small and also big, those that are minor and major. b) Ghaffaar denotes quanity, and the repetition of the act. Ghaffaar means He forgives a lot of sins, many many sins everyday. Imagine when people go for hajj and they do istighfaar, if everyone‘s hajj is accepted, how many sins are being forgiven? So many. Ghaffaar denotes that He forgives many sins. The repetition of the act shows that He doesn‘t forgive only once, it means that He forgives repeatedly, again and again. You pray one salah, Allah forgives you, then you pray again and He forgives the sins between the salaahs. Agan and again, Allah ta‘ala forgives the sins. Proof of these Names Al Ghafoor appears in the Qur‘an 91 times. Appears 72 times with the Name Ar Raheem. The link between these two Names is that it is out of His mercy that He forgives the sins, over and over again. Appears six times with the Name Al Haleem. Al Haleem is The One who is very tolerant and forbearing, we sin day in and day out, and He forgives those sins we do again and again. Appears four times with the Name Al ‗Afuww. Al ‗Afuww is The One who erases the sins. Appears three times with Name Ash Shakoor. Ash Shakoor is The One who is Appreciative, when you seek forgiveness, He forgives you and He appreciates your act of forgiveness. Appears two times with the Name Al ‗Azeez. He is the Most Powerful, the Very Mighty, yet He still forgives. People who have power, they don‘t want to forgive, but Allah is Al ‗Azeez, He forgives. Appears one time with Al Wadood. The One who is Very Loving. The One who loves His creation. Al Ghaffaar appears five times in the Qu‘ran. Why only five times? Because the meaning is included in Al Ghafoor, and when Allah says Al Ghaffaar it is an extreme form of how He forgives sins. Appears in Surah Taha: 82 wa inna la-ghaffaarun li man taaba wa aamana wa ‗amila saalihaa. I forgive repeatedly to the one who repents and he believes and he does good deeds. Similarly in surah Nooh, Nooh alayhi salaam said to his people Innahu kaana Ghaffaara, He forgives again and again. If Allah is Al Ghafoor and Al Ghaffaar, what does it mean? 1) Allah covers the sins of the sinner; He does not expose the sins. A scholar said to his students, if you knew my sins, you would pelt me with stones. How many sins do we commit? Day in and day out, Allah knows what is in our hearts, He knows what did this morning and what is in our minds, but Allah conceals and He covers the sins. 2) He does not inflict punishment immediately. If the punishment was inflicted right away, then the sin would be exposed. He does not inflict retribution right away, because the sin would be exposed. 3) He shields us and protects us from the consequence of our sins. We commit so many sins; imagine if Allah was to inflict punishment right away, none of us would survive on the earth. He shields us from the consequences in the dunya and also in the aakhirah. We commit sins yet we receive food, we get rain, water, air to breathe, He doesn‘t take it away from us, He protects us from the harmful consequences of the sins. He covers us with His ‗atf and ra‘fah, with His kindness and compassion and He doesn‘t expose our sins. 4) He forgives people when they ask for forgiveness and also forgives them when they don‘t ask for forgiveness. How many times did you do istighfar today? Allah has appointed actions when one does them, it wipes away sins automatically and Allah forgives you. Such as praying, thinking good of Allah, they are all a source of forgiveness. 5) He covers sin while fully being aware of the sin. Sometimes we don‘t say anything to someone because we don‘t know what they‘ve done, like a mother not knowing what her child has done. If people know the details of what was done, they don‘t leave the person alone. Allah is the One who forgives while knowing the sins of a person. He knows the sins of the person, yet He still forgives them. If Allah is Al Ghafoor and Al Ghaffaar, what belief should we have? What should we know? (The effect on our emaan) 1) We learn that La yaghfiru adh dhunooba il Allah, there is none Who forgive sins except Allah. We learn this from Surah Al e Imran: 135 wa mayn yaghfirudh dhunooba il Allah, Allah asks us, who forgives sins except Allah? Similarly there is a hadeeth in musnad ahmad, a man was caught and he was brought to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam and the man said: Allahumma inne atooba ilayka wa la atooba ila Muhammad, O Allah I turn to You in forgiveness and not to Muhammad sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. The Prophet sal Allahu alahyi wa sallam replied: ‗arifal haqq li ahlihi, he knows whose haqq this is, because only Allah forgives sins. Also in the duaa sayyid al istighfaar, wa aboo‘u bi dhanbee faghfirlee wa la yaghfirudh dhunooba ila ant. 2) We learn that Allah is Waas‘iul Maghfirah, He is vast in HisForgiveness. We learn this from surah Najm: inna Rabbaka waasi‘ul maghfirah. Also in a qudsi hadeeth in Tirmidhi: O son of Adam, as long as you invoke Me and plea to Me, I will forgive you for what you have committed and I will not make much of it. O son of Adam, if your evil deeds reach the borders of the sky and then you ask Me for forgiveness, I will forgive you. O son of Adam, if you bring the earth full of sins and you come to Me without doing shirk with me, I will bring you that much forgiveness. He forgives again and again, repeatedly so long as you have not angered Allah by doing shirk. He forgives all sins so do not despair. We must be aware that Allah forgives all sins. He says in Surah Zumar: O My servants who have done wrong, do not despair in the mercy of Allah, Indeed Allah forgives all sins and He is The Most forgiving the Most Merciful. Ibn Abbass radi Allahu anhuma says in the commentary of this ayah, Allah has invited to forgivness those people who claim that Maseeh is the son of Allah (in surah Maryam, it is near that the skies rent asunder that they claim to Allah a son, yet Allah is saying I will forgive you) and He is inviting those who say Uzair is the son of Allah, and He is calling those who say He is faqeer (the jews), and He is calling those who claim that Allah‘s Hands are tied (the jews), and He is calling those who claim that He is one of three—in other words, Allah is calling those who have committed major sins. Allah says to them: afalaa yatooboona il Allah wa yastaghfirlahu, don‘t they turn to Allah and seek forgivness from Him? Ibn Abbass continues, and Allah is inviting to tawbah the one who claim ―anna rabbakum al ‗alaa‖ (fir‘awn), Allah ta‘ala is even inviting the one who said ‗I do not know of a God for you besides me‘, Allah even invitied him. Then Ibn Abbass said, whoever makes the slave of Allah despair in His forgivness after this ayah, he has denied the book of Allah. There is a hadeeth in saheeh Muslim: if the kuffar knew how much Rahmah Allah has in Jannah, not even one person would despair of His Jannah. We just don‘t realize that Allah is Forgiving, which is why we never seek forgiveness from Allah, which is why we are deprived of so much good. 3) Allah covers the sins of the sinner in the dunya and the aakhirah. Where do we learn this from? There is a hadeeth in bukhari, a person will be brought on the Day of Judgment to Allah ta‘ala and Allah will begin listing his sins and asking him if he did such and such, until the person thinks they are doomed and then Allah says: I have covered your sins in the dunya, and I will cover them today. What does this teach us? If we have committed a sin, we do not need to advertise it. Similarly, if a person has committed a sin of a person, we should not broadcast it. There is a hadeeth, whoever covers the sins of a muslim, Allah will cover his sins on the Day of Judgment. The prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said in another hadeeth in Ahmad, he warned the people severly: O group of people who have believed with their tongues and emaan has not entered your hearts, don‘t do backbiting of the Muslims and do not go after their faults. Whoever goes after the faults of other people, Allah goes after his faults. Whoever Allah goes after, Allah disgraces him in his own home. If we know someone has committed a sin, we do not have the authority to mention it. If someone does so, then Allah is against them…if Allah is against you, then how can you be saved? So we do not broadcast our sins, or other people‘s sins. 4) Allah loves those people who repent and who do tawbah, we learn this from Suratul Baqarah: 222 inna Allahu yuhibut- tawaabeen wa yuhibul mutatahhireen. Allah loves those who do tawbah and those who purify themselves. Why does Allah love them? Because they are cleaning themselves and they are turning to Allah. Also in a hadeeth in saheeh muslim: by the One in Whose Hand is my soul, if you people did not commit sins, Allah would do away with you and bring about another people who do sins and they would seek forgiveness and Allah will forgive them. Allah loves the act of forgiving, and He loves to forgive. It doesn‘t mean we commit sins deliberately, but that we seek forgiveness for our sins that we know of and those that we do not know of. 5) Allah laughs and rejoices when a person seeks forgiveness. In a hadeeth in saheeh Bukhari, Allah is happier then a man who looses his camel in the desert then finds it and out of extreme happiness he says: O Allah I am your Rabb and you are my servant, without realizing what he saying, Allah is happier than that person when a person repents to Allah ta‘ala. 6) When a person seeks forgiveness from Allah ta‘ala, He forgives him, and He will do things that are not done normally to forgive that person. We know of the hadeeth of the man who killed 100 people, and he died while traveling to the other city, and the angels were told to measure and Allah commanded the earth to shrink so that the person could be forgiven. Imagine the earth was reduced for him, because he was sincere. If we are sincere in our repentance, and we seek forgiveness, Allah will forgive us. It is only our arrogance that is holding us back, yet Allah is reading to forgive. 7) We should hasten to forgiveness, we should not delay it, we learn from Surah Al e Imran: 133 wa saari‘oo ila maghfiratin min Rabbikum wa janaah, ardhuhas samawaati wal ardh. Hasten, run, rush to forgiveness from your Rabb, and to Jannah whose width is the heavens and the earth. Run to forgiveness from Allah ta‘ala, don‘t delay. 8) Forgive so that Allah will forgive you. We learn this from a hadeeth in Ahmad: irhamoo turhamoo, be merciful so Allah will be merciful to you, ighfiroo yaghfirullahu lakum, forgive others so Allah will forgive you. We learn about Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu from Surah Noor do you not love that Allah should forgive you? Seek forgiveness from Allah, and at the same time, forgive other people. Al Ghafoor and Al Ghaffaar Cont Signs of Forgiveness 1) Person does complete tawbah. Tawbah is not about apologizing but it‘s about changing your ways and promising you won‘t commit the sin again. 2) One should feel regret in their heart for having committed the sin. Umar radi Allahu anhu would cry years after he buried his daughter, even after he accepted Islam and all of his sins were forgiven. Regret doesn‘t mean you become depressed, you seek forgiveness and you realize you did wrong and have hope in His Mercy. 3) The person who seeks change is happy for having left sin and having made the change in his life. Some people miss doing the wrong they used to do. 4) He cries from the fear of Allah, everytime he remembers the sin he committed, and he is regretful. This shows us that after seeking forgiveness, we should never become content. Yes Allah is Al ‗Afuww, but if you become content, you may fall into the sin again. The memory of this sin holds one back. When Allah forgives a person, what does it mean? The result is that the sins are removed, the person is not accountable for them and Allah forgives/covers them. In surah Furqan, ayah 70 we learn: Allah says: "Except those who repent and believe and work righteous deeds, for them Allah will change their evil deeds to good deeds, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Sûrah al-Furqân: 70] ―yubadillulu sayyiaatihim hasanaant‖, Allah will change their bad deeds to good deeds. What does change mean? It means that they are written as good deeds. If there are ten sins, it is written as ten good deeds, the records are changed. What prevents the forgiveness of Allah? A person may do istigfar, and do actions which should be cause of forgiveness (eg. wudu), but at that same time the person does things which prevent forgiveness. 1) Shirk with Allah – if they do Allah does not forgive them Verily, Allâh forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allâh in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin. (An-Nisa 4:48) 2) Disclosing ones sins – talking about ones sins himself then Allah does not forgive the person Prophet Muhammad sallahu alayhi wa sallam said in a Qudsi Hadith: "My entire nation is safe, except al-Mujahirin (those who boast of their sins). Among the Mujaharah is that a man commits an (evil) act, and wakes up in the morning while Allah has kept his (sin) a secret, he says: "O so-and-so! Last night I did this and that." He goes to sleep while Allah has kept his (sin) a secret but he wakes up in the morning and uncovers what Allah has kept a secret!" [Sahih al-Bukhari] Jahr – openly do something Allah covered him and he exposed himself and he removed the veil, so Allah does not forgive him – showing we should not talk / expose our sins If Allah covers it is his rahma and others because they are not negatively influenced to others – because people then think it is fine to follow. When sins are common, openly done then shyness goes away and people become bold in doing it and following the sin. Shaytan then beautifies the sin – then you speak of it when you see it as beautiful. August 20, 2008 Al- Hakeem - The Most Wise (Samiha version notes) On the structure of fa‟eel – the structure for mubalagha – intensified form of what is being said Root – ha kaaf meem – hukm / hikmah – judgement / wisdom Name gives 3 meanings: 1. Haakim / Hakm – one who judges, gives judgment 2. Hakeem – „thu hikmah – one who has wisdom/hikmah one who is wise/ most wise 3. Muhkim – one who is firm / perfect Daleel – 97 xs in the Qur‟aan o Baqarah: 32 o Ali Imran: 6 o Alif Laam Raa hakeemin khabeer – fussilat o Nur: 10 Mentioned together with several other names: Hakeemul Aleem – most wise one who judges but has complete knowledge, judgment is based on complete knowledge Azeezul hakeem – one who judges / is wise – one who is ghaalib – over powers, His wisdom and power go hand in hand Hakeem + khabeer – khabeer He is aware, and hakeem Tawwabur – he knows and is wise who to take repentance from , Decision goes along with His power, people have knowledge, but his one attribute perfects the rest Means: Every decision based on his wisdom one who gives judgment one who gives hikmah / knowledge Allah says “wa may yu‟tal hikmah‟ “wa laqad ataynal hikmah‟ –gave hikmah to luqman means to place somethingh where it belongs in ahkmaam – in ijaad of that thing is Allah‟s hikmah – ijaad – wujud come into existence, it‟s presence, being there, is Allah‟s hikmah – stars, trees, plants, Allah‟s hikmah/wisdom is behind it Hukm Shar‟I – to kill the murduerer, Qisaas – in existence of hukm is wisdom Suraah – form or appearance of the Hukm – how it is has Allah‟s hikmah – qawnee – stars there, not too bright – if they were as bright for us then night would not be night – their appearance has hikmah – shape/form ex: hand – if only 3 fingers, would be difficult trees – are not red, grass not blue/purple Hukmush-shari‟ – how to carry out a will, do a certain action – ex: lashing the one who deserves to be – cant do as they die, stoning a person – cant rebuke them Gha‟ith – end result/consequence/purpose – there is hikmah behind it Al-Hakeem Call Upon Him with It – Fad’uhu biha Duas about hukm, asking Allah for hikmah “Allah give rushd/ guidance, hikmah” Ghafur / Ghaffar Al-Ghaful – the forgivig the perpetual forgiver Both from Ghayn fa ra – 2 opinions of masdar 1. comes from Ghafr – Ghayn far a w/ sukoon on fa – Satar and tartiya – Ghitaa‟in „an thikri – covering – to cover, conceal, shield something Ghafarallahu thunubahu – meaning he did ghafara – he covered the sins ghafara shayba bil thithaar – covered gray hair with color Mighfar – helmet – covers your head and shields/protects head – for if you fall, you‟r head is protected, safe, covered 2. Ghafar – fatha on fa – a plant with which wounds are healed a. Sins are like an ailment, disease, wound on a person Maghfira is a cure Allah gives us to heal our wounds around us we are injured by, we injure by sins we commit, Allah forgives & gives cure to cure wounds all over us – if look at the names, on the structure of Fa‟ool – Fa‟aal – both mubalagha – intensified not just forgive / cover sins Ghafur – denotes quality – meaning he has the amazing quality of forgiving sins, in particular when forgiving sins, they are great sins, he forgives sins, quality of – and the sins that are small / big fa‟aal– denotes quanitity and repetition of the verb – fa‟aal – forgives a lot of sins in a day – people go for hajj, do istigfar – if all ppls sins are forgiven, lot of sin forgiven, he forgives many sins He doesn‟t just forgive once, again and again – say astagfirullah – pray Salaah + in between them, again and again he forgives the sins, Al-Ghafur – 91 xs in the Qur‟aan baqarah : 72 - what we can eat – no sin if he compelled – most forgiving Ghaffar – 5xs in the Qur‟aan – meaning is included in Al-Ghafur – Al-Ghaffar is like extreme quality of forgiving sins Al-Ghafur 72xs witih Ar-Raheem – he forgives and is merciful – ot of his mercy he forgives sins again and again, Allah‟s rahma 6xs with AL-Haleem – the very tolerant, very forbearing – we do sins day in / out and seek forgiveness and do it again but Allah tolerant and he forgives 4xs w/ Al-Afuw – one who wipes out / erases the sins 3xs w/ As-Shukur – the one who is appreciative, seek forgiveness, and he appreacatings your act of seeking forgiveness 2xs al-Azeez – very mighty/powerful – he is al azeez and yet al –ghafur people of power don‟t 1xs – Al wadud – loving – loves his creation with the very names it comes with shows compassion Ta-Ha : 82 – Ghaffar perpetual forgiver – forgive repeatedly Nuh: Nuh said to people when calling to Allah‟s Ibadah – seek forgiveness from your Rabb – perpetually forgiving – if he is al ghafur / al ghaffar means: 1. Understand Allah covers the sin of the sinner – He does not expose the sins. One scholar told the other scholar „if you knew my sins you would pelt me with stones‟ we commit sins day in and day out – Allah knows what is in our hearts, what we do and is in our minds, Allah conceals and covers to preserve our dignity – he gives us another chance after chance, does not expose to people 2. He does not inflict punishment immediately / right away – if he did, then the sin would be exposed – if we lied and nose grew – we would have huge noses a. he does not inflict retribution right away – he covers sin 3. he protects us from consequence of our sins – we do so many , if we do wrong and see consequences right away – the nobody live, in Dunya and akhirah – we do sins but we get rain, water, air to breathe, we are saved from harmful consequences 4. with Atf / Ratfa – kindness and compassion – covers and soesd expose 5. He forgives when they ask for forgiveness and when they don‟t ask for forgiveness – we don‟t always ask forgiveness, but He appt certain actions which automatically remove sins, doing Salaah etc – means of getting forgiveness 6. He covers the sin while fully being aware of the sin- sometimes we don‟t say about someone because we don‟t know completely what they‟ve done – if we do know the detail of what they „ve done, they dotn leave the other person – Allah forgives knowing state of sinner What belief should we have? what should we know? What is the effect of name on our Imaan? 1. We get to know Allah – certain things about His Name a. None who forgives sins except Allah – you can go and ask of a person, “I haven‟t prayed Salaah – forgive me” but has not gotten from Allah i. Imran : 135 ii. Ahmad – person caught and brought to sallahu alayhi wa sallam so he said that „ I turn to you for forgiveness and don‟t turn to Alah for forgiveness sallahu alayhi wa sallam said he knows whose right it is iii. Wa la yaghfiruthunaba illa anta 2. Learn that Allah is wasi‟ul maghfirah – vast in forgiveness, forgives many sins/ again and again a. Najm : 32 b. Tirmidhi – Allah says oh son of Adam as long as you invoke/pray to me I will forgive you for what you have commited, and I will not make much of it, oh son of Adam if your evil deeds reach the borders of the sky and you ask for forgiveness, I will forgive you, if you bring forth earth full of sins and you meet not doing shirk – Allah says he will forgive that much c. forgives again and again – no matter how much as long as not anger by doing shirk 3. Allah forgives all sins – do not despair a. someone has committed many sins – but if you do tawbah Allah will forgive, must have this knowledge so we don‟t despair b. Qur‟aan – oh my servants who have done wrong – do not despair – c. Ibn Abbas in commentary of Ayah – Allah invited to forgiveness those people who claim that maseeh is the son of Allah – shirk – he is calling them to forgiveness d. Surah maryam – near that skies rent asunder that he has son e. And he is calling those who claim Uzair is the ons of Allah and calling those who claim Allah is faker, and those who say Allah is stingy and those who say he is one of three, he is calling them to forgiveness and he says to them do they not repent to Allah and seek forgiveness of him- don‟t they turn to Allah and seek forgiveness – and he is invited to tawbaah – to the one who said he is the highest rabb- even the phraorah and one who says I don‟t know any god aside from me – the one who despairs for mercy of Allah after this has denied the book of Allah – Allah says will forgive all sins f. Muslim – had the kuffar known what Allah has of Rahmah in Jannah – then not even one people despair of hope of Jannah g. we don‟t realize Allah is forgiveness and so we don‟t seek forgiveness – ibn Abbass is calling this/that person – what holds you back and prevents from going back to Allah h. Allah covers the sin of the sinner in dunya / akhirah i. Hadith in bukhari – person brought on DOJ to Allah – Allah ask if he‟s done such – such – he will say yes he did it, until the person thinks will go to hell – Allah says I covered in dunya – so will forgive for yout he sins today – cover in dunya/today ii. once we have done sin we should not advertise iii. if one has done sin/ fault – should not expose them iv. whoever covers a Muslim, Allah conceal him on DOJ – v. sallahu alayhi wa sallam warned the people “those people who have believed with the tongues but imaan has not entered heart, do not backbite Muslim and go after their faults. – do not go after the faults – whoever does, Alalh goes after his faults, he is forgiveing – he is protecting – doesn‟t like when follow and expose sins – whoever faults Allah goes after, Allah disgraces the person in his own home / house he is disgraced i. if someone does wrong and we know – we should not talk of it – if we do then Allah is against us – severe warning 5. Allah loves those who repent baqarah : 222 – Allah loves those who do tawbah – Sahih Muslim – if do not sin would do away and bring a people who would commit sins and seek forgiveness and Allah wold forgive them – Allah loves the act of forgiving – loves to forgive – does not mean we do sins deliberately but we seek forgiveness from known and unknown sins 7. Allah happy w / those who seek forgiveness, he laughs/rejoices a. bukhari and Muslim – Allah is most happy when one loses camel, finds and out of extreme happiness and he says – Allah is happier than that person when the person repents to Allah – he is happy w/ it 8. when they seek forgiveness Allah will forgive him and do things not done normally to forgive that person – the man who killed 100 people, he died on the way and was told to measure the distances wherever closer – then there reside – the good side was longer – Allah commanded it to reduce so that the person could be forgiven, his repentance was so sincere – what is holding us back? arrogance/ignorance – Allah is ready to forgive we should run to tawbah after sinning – think will do sallah sayyidul istigfar but our breath could be our last imran 133 – rush to forgiveness – run / hasten to forgiveness – don‟t delay – forgive so that Allah will forgive you – Hadith in Ahmad – be merciful so that Allah will be merciful to you – forgive so that Allah will forgive you Abu bakr – don‟t you want Allah to forgive, seek forgiveness so that Allah will forgive you signs/means to seek forgiveness 41 actions you can do and Allah will forgive / without saying – our fault in the end if we are not forgiven – he is ready and calling everyone to forgiveness – only our arrogance/ignorance holds us back sallahu alayhi wa sallam seek forgiveness more than 70xs a day August 21, 2008 Recap: Al-Ghafur/ Al-Ghaffar Root ghayn fa ra – from two words: - Ghafr – to cover / conceal / shield - Ghafar – Plant used for curing wounds o Forgiveness is like a cure Signs of Forgiveness – we are encouraged to seek forgiveness. Allah tells everyone to seek forgiveness and Allah is willing to forgive What are the Signs someone is forgiven? Like when a person does something wrong, then seeks forgiveness: 1) A person does complete tawbah and changes his ways. Tawbah is not just saying sorry, but changing yourself and your ways, promising you‟ll never do the same thing again or repeat the mistake / sin again. As humans if we make a mistake again, it is human nature but the person should have the determination to not do it again. 2) The person has regret in his heart, he is never content. A person might say they used to do wrong and they did tawbah, then they will tell friends, “I used to do this” – “I used to do that, I was so bad” – but if there is regret a person will never do that Even after years after forgiveness he has regret in his heart for doing the sin – the regret doesn‟t ever leave Umar bin Al-Khattab would cry over burying his daughter alive after many years, even though after accepting Islam all sins are gone he would have that regret in his heart The Sahabah never forgot sins of past This doesn‟t mean you despair / become depressed – you seek forgiveness and ask for mercy, but you acknowledge the fact that you did wrong and that you are still needy of Allah‟s mercy 3) The person who seeks forgiveness is happy with the change – happy for having left that sin. Some people miss doing the wrong that they have left / used to do. Saying for example they can no longer do that wrong because they have become „good‟ now A person who is sincere in repentance has the sign he is happy with change in life and doesn‟t miss the wrong 4) The person cries from the sin he committed to Allah Every time he remembers the sin he is regretful and cries Shows that after seeking forgiveness one should never be content Doing istigfar does not mean you become content and get over it, because it still occurred and is written. Allah is Al-Afuw and He will erase it but if you are content then it‟s easy to do the sin again. Being weary of past hold you back from doing the wrong again. When Allah forgives person what does it mean? What happens – what is the result? The sins are removed; the person is not called to account for them. Allah covers the sins and He changes the sins to good deeds. Allah says: "Except those who repent and believe and work righteous deeds, for them Allah will change their evil deeds to good deeds, and Allah is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Sûrah al-Furqân: 70] - What does the change mean? – they are written as good deeds – if they are 10 sins now they become 10 good deeds - the records are changed What is it that hinders/stops forgiveness? A person may do istigfar, and do actions which should be cause of forgiveness (eg. wudu), but at that same time the person does things which prevent forgiveness. 1) Shirk with Allah – if they do Allah does not forgive them Verily, Allâh forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allâh in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin. (An-Nisa 4:48) 2) Disclosing ones sins – talking about ones sins himself then Allah does not forgive the person Prophet Muhammad sallahu alayhi wa sallam said in a Qudsi Hadith: "My entire nation is safe, except al-Mujahirin (those who boast of their sins). Among the Mujaharah is that a man commits an (evil) act, and wakes up in the morning while Allah has kept his (sin) a secret, he says: "O so-and-so! Last night I did this and that." He goes to sleep while Allah has kept his (sin) a secret but he wakes up in the morning and uncovers what Allah has kept a secret!" [Sahih al-Bukhari] Jahr – openly do something Allah covered him and he exposed himself and he removed the veil, so Allah does not forgive him – showing we should not talk / expose our sins If Allah covers it is his rahma and others because they are not negatively influenced to others – because people then think it‟s fine to follow when sins common / openly done – then shyness goes away and people become bold in doing it and following the sin - shaytan beautifies the sin – then you speak of it when you see it as beautiful Depends on who you are and why – some people like to show that they were bad, and the wrong things they did – people lose respect for you – that they were bad. Or children tell parents that they were bad, however sometimes you want to explain that it is not diff to change, that it is possible – and you say same thing and you do not describe in detail – do not present it in a good way. Careful how, why and who you are telling – do not confess to others, but to Allah – you do not need to degrade yourself in front of other people Can come under spreading of Fahishah this way. If you are in such a place where you can get punishment then you are supposed to do that. If your sin is covered, then there is no reason to expose your sins. ex- girls getting married in times of jahiliyah had a boyfriend – and would tell man marrying that – should not tell so that the other has bad thoughts - do not speak of and tell – but the person who has repented from sin as if never continued. still seek forgivness in heart Rising of Sun from the west – when it rises nom at al gharghara – when on death bed then seek forgivness and is choking then he seeks forgiveness – must seek forgivness as soon as realize is wrong when two Muslims abandon each other – they have a fight and do not speak “deeds are presented every mon and thurs, Allah forgives every person who does not do shirk with Allah – Allah forgivnes his sins for him except for a person there is between him and his brothers a fight and they have left each other so Allah says „leave them until they solve the problem‟ their sins are not forigiven – they are forgiven until you have a dispute with a person Max are 3 days – if you go past it then they are to be left until they reconcile – for major sins a person has to seek forgiveness sallahu alayhi wa sallam a group of people go somewhere everyone bring stick until huge bonfire what actions / things wwe can do or what things in our lives are a cause of forgivness 41 points – Allah is Ghafur and Ghaffar – we must be very sinful and do a lot of sins. What kind of sins do we commit? Lying, Shirk, Zina, Backbiting, Killing – major things, but these things are not committed by good people much so there must be other sins we do all the time – ex: not having Ikhlaass, saying a statement that hurts the other, raising ones voice, being rude, not following the rules, little sins which gather up – we must be very sinful that Allah is such and he gives so many things so that on the day of judgement we are forgiven effects everyone the sins that we do. We should keep a check on ourselves and what is our part – we have to seek forgivness and be alert of what sins we commit / do. Sins are a disobedience to Allah – we should see if there is something we are doing that we are not supposed to do. If we don‟t learn the Qur‟aan we don‟t know what sins are and realize it. Many times people don‟t even know what they are doing wrong. We should examine and see where we do wrong. Cauases of forgivness 1. Accepting Islam a. Bukhari – when a person is a Muslim all previous sins fogivne 2. Dying on Tawheed a. Dying we/out doing shirk b. Tirimidhi – Qudsi – oh son of Adam if you come to me with equivilant with earth of sins I will bring equvilant in forgivness as long as not do shirk with me 3. Following the prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam a. Surah Ali Imraan – if you believe Allah then follow the prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam and Allah will love you and forgive your sins b. cause of forgivness is following sallahu alayhi wa sallam 4. Giving Adhaan a. Musnad Ahmad – Allah and angels give blessings to who stand in front row of sallah and muathin is forgiven sins so far as his voice goes 5. Dhikr – remembering Allah after the Adthaan a. the one who does and asks forgivness 6. Doing wudu properly a. Muslim – the one who does poperly sins leave him even the one under his nails 7. Walking to masjid a. One step sin removed the other darajah is raised until reach 8. waiting for the Salaah in masjid 9. Praying Salah a. sallahu alayhi wa sallam asked if there was a reiver and pseron bathed five times a day same when pray salaah 10. Salaatul jumu‟ah in congregation a. sahih Muslim - one who does bath and goes to masjid and prays w/ imam and is silent in khutbah sins between 2 jumuah and 3 days forgiven 11. praying two rakah after wudu a. none who does wudu and performs 2 rakah and his heart and mind are both in it except it is obligatory for jannah and to forgive sins 12. Person‟s Ameen at same time as Imam a. if ours is same time as the imam then our sins are forgiven b. sometimes we just stand instead of saying amen with the imam – should say it out so that if it is at the same time our sins are forgiven c. sometimes we are distracted and we say amen only when we take notice 13. Sajdah a. no sajdah you do for Allah aceept Allah raise darajah and wipe out a sin 14. Remembering Allah after every Salaah a. saying 33 times each and then etc b. Source of forgivness even if it equivlant to the foam on the sea c. It does not take a long time and in comparison to how many sins we have commited and we don‟t know shows this is all of Allah‟s mercy 15. Praying at night - ahmad 16. Sadaqah 17. Fasting in Ramadhan 18. Stnading in prayer in Ramadhan 19. Qiyaam laylatul qadr 20. Fasting on Arafah 21. Fasting on Ahsoorah 22. Hajj Mabroor 23. Umrah 24. Touching the black stone 25. Dying in Way of Allah 26. Saying subhan‟allahi wa bihamdihi 100xs a day 27. Salah on sallahu alayhi wa sallam – Durood on him 28. After majlis saying subhanallahukkmma 29. Forgiving people 30. Being easy in a bargain / trade / transaction – when a person is such a way Allah forgives him a. if you give in hope that you hope that Allah is easy with you 33. visiting the sick 34. bathing a Muslim who has died tabarani – whoever gives ghusl to a dead person Allah will cover his sins, and whoever has given him the kafan Allah will clothe him in silk (clothing of jannah) – very honorable deed 35. A person on whom 100 people pray on him when he has died tabarani – when a person dies and 100 pray his janazah then he is forgivnen. Not easy, only when good to them, you know them they will come to your janazah 36. Shaking hand with the Muslims Hadith – no two people when they meet and they shake their hands, their sins fall until their hands separate 37. trial – a person has diff and he is paitent even a thorn that pricks 38. Fever do not curse / abuse the fever because it takes away the sins of th sons of Adam 39. Epilepsy – when A person is patient Allah forgives the sins you might suffer from something others are not suferening from but if you are patient 40. kind to Allah‟s creation / animals dog thirst and the prostitute woman gave water 41. Having good thought about Allah I am as my servant thinks I am. You hope for his forgivness he will be forgiving to you August 22, 2008 What do we do if Allah is Al-Ghafur / Al-Ghaffar?? - Be forgiving yourself – if you want to be forgiven then be forgiving - Don‟t delay seeking forgiveness, as soon as we realize we‟ve done something wrong we should then seek forgiveness - Seek forgiveness many times a day – 70xs or more - Don‟t expose our faults; if Allah covered ours, then we should do it also. Also we should cover the faults of other people. Even conversationally we should not expose them or casually mention them. (Can occasionally be used for Ibrah, but must watch intentions) - Don‟t despair in the Mercy of Allah, no matter whatever we have done, always room for change. The responsibility is on us, if we want a change we should do it ourselves. - Be grateful for the actions which automatically cause forgiveness and try to do them. - Encourage other people to turn to Allah for forgiveness - Should not take advantage of Mercy of Allah and deliberately do wrong - Hadith Musnad Ahmad: A man once committed and error and said o lord I committed an error so o Each time a person made a mistake he sought forgiveness. it may be that you made a promise, and you are trying and you still fail, then some people become hopeless of Allah‟s mercy, believing they are bad/evil and can never be forgiven, but the Hadith exemplifies each time we do wrong we should turn to Allah. Muneed person – every time you realize you did wrong you turn to Allah. Fadu’hu bi-ha Many Hadith which mention forgiveness: Dua between two sajdahs sayyidul istifaar: alhumma anti rabbi --- authobika sharri ma sana‟ath Sahih Muslim: Allhummaghfirlee – laa illaha illa anta Allah forgive the sins I did before and now in secret and public, and the sins you know better of them than me subhanallahi wa bihammdiihi / atheem rabbighfirlee wat-tub alayni – abu dawud laa illaha illa anta – 100xs innee kunta minathalemeen Al-Khaaliq – The Creator | Al-Khallaaq – The Supreme Creator - Two different nambes of Allah and both of them are mentioned in the Qur‟an – Most people know Al-Khaaliq but are not aware of Al-Khallaq. There is a slight difference between the two in Grammar. Al-Khaaliq is Fa‟il and Al- Khallaaq has exaggeration and is an intensified form. - When we we look at them they are from Khalq – One who creates. One who does Khalq. If you look at it, it is based on and is basically about three things: 1. ibda‟ – ba daal ayn, Ba‟da‟a from Bid‟ah that which is an innovation, invent something in a way it did not exist before. So „Ibda is to create something for the very first time, it did not exist before. Eg. When Allah created Adam, no human existed before, so that was „ibda 2. Ijaad – an invention meaning create something, to bring something into existence from non-entity. That particular thing did not exist before. eg. You did not exist 100 years ago. It also includes to modify something. When something is made – thinking about elements, when something is made and you break it down it comes down to elements. Who made the elements? Who mate them the very first time? Allah. So it includes both things to: 1. Create something from matter that did not exist before – Heavens and earth did not exist before, Allah made them and brought into existence. 2. Create something from matter that existed before – like humans were made from matter that existed before. 3. Taqdeer – planning, when something is created in stages. Like human beings were created in stages. We weren‟t human beings in one day, we went through several stages, and after all that taqdeer we become humans. Proof of His Names: Al-Khaaliq appears 11xs in the Qur‟an in different forms – of them is in Surah Hashr رّب َ ه َ ٌخّال ُ ٌعٍ م Al-Khallaaq appears 2xs in the Qur‟an – „ُ َُِ ْ َ َه ُى ا ْ َ َق ا َإ – ‟ِّنHe is the Supreme Creator, the One who is very knowledgeable (15:86) What does it mean that Allah is Al-Khaaliq? It means, if Allah is Al-Khaaliq it means He is the one who created everything. م ذ خل َ َذ َ م د نه َذ خ ُ ل ف ر …ِ ِ ه َا َلْق الَهِ َأَ ُونِي َا َا ََق ال ِين ِن ُو This is the creation of Allah. So show Me that which those (whom you worship), besides Him have created… (31:11) **Note in audio it was said it was from Surah Rum – but it is really from surah Luqmaan - There is nothing like that, everything we have, and everything we see is created by Allah. One might say that this table is made by the carpenter (made atIkea), but where did the wood come from? Who gave the Aql? Who gave the nails? The materials with which to create this? It was from Allah. 1. Allah is Khaaliq of everything – So many places in the Qur‟an it is mentioned, He is the one who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them two, meaning Allah is the Creator. When Dhul Qarnayn made the wall, people said they would pay him for it, but after completion he said this is from the Fadl/Rahma of Allah and Allah will fnishi it whenever He wants. Whatever is on the earth if it is made, then who made the Earth? Who provided you with the aql/resources? Who subjected all of this? 2. Second thing we learn is that Allah is Khaaliq and Qayyum of all His creatures – What does Qayyum mean? - The one who sustains all His creation. ِ ٍ ٍوم م د ّبت ف ألر ِ ِ َ ع We learn from the Qur‟an, “ َ َب ِن َآ َ ٍ ٍِ ا َ ْض إّال ًََ اٌّه ر له “ – ” ِسْ ُ َبAnd no (moving) living creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah.” (11:6) Allah gives rizq to everything that He has created. ٌذ أعط وً ٍَء خٍم ُ ث َ هذ Also we learn that He is “ – ”اَ ٌِ َ ْ ًَ ُ َ ش ْ ٍ َ ْ َه ُم َ َي “Tthe one who created everything and then He guided it (20:50) – He gave everything its form then guided to its rizq/its function - He is Khaaliq and Qayyum 3. He has created everything with a purpose, everything „bil haqq‟ – Everything has a function, nothing exists that does not have a function. One may think that what purpose do bugs serve/what is the reason? There must be a purpose, without bugs you would not realize your house was dirty, or that you are not taking care. If these things are not there, then we would not know. Everything there is Allah has created has a maqsad, a reason and a cause behind it. Nothing is created without a reason. 4. He has created all based on His „Ilm and His Hikmah – on His knowledge and إ َ رّب َ ه َ ٌخّال ُ ٌعٍ م wisdom. As in the ayah mentioned before, „ُ َُِ ْ ‟ِّن َ َه ُى ا ْ َ َق اHe is Al-Khallaq and Al-Aleem, that‟s also why His creation is so perfect. 5. Allah creates by His Hand and His Kalima „kun‟ As there is a Hadith Qudsi that Allah made Jannatul Adn by His Hand Also He created many things by kun – be and it is! 6. Allah does not get tired after creating something. We know that Allah created everything in 6 days, and in the Qur‟an it mentions He did not get tired, because He is al-Qadeer 7. Allah is Al-Khaaliq – The Creator and He is Ghayr Makhlooq – He is not created What does it mean by this? It means that His Attributes / Abilities are uncreated – ex. Qur‟an is Allah‟s Kalam, but it is not created. Similarly, all his Abilities are ghayr makhlooq Hadith tells us, people question – who created this and that until they finally question who created Allah? The Hadith said that at this point stop and seek refuge from shaytan, as these are waswasas from Shaytan and know Allah is Khaaliq and Ghayr Makhlooq 1. (( I added these two points)) The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Shaytaan will come to one of you and say, „Who created such and such?‟ until he says to him, „Who created your Lord?‟ When it reaches that stage, let him seek refuge with Allaah [say A‟oodhu Billaahi min ash- shaytaan ir-rajeem = I seek refuge with Allaah from the accursed Shaytaan] and stop thinking about it.” 2. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Shaytaan will come to a person and say, „Who created such and such…‟” and he narrated the whole report. (Imaam Muslim, 134). If Allah is al-Khallaaq – What does that mean? As there has to be a difference … 1. He creates whatever He wills, because He is the Supreme Creator. He can create whatever He wills, however and whenever He wills a. Faatir – إ ش ْ َ ه ى و ث ِخ ك جذ ذ ٍ َِ َ ٍ ٍَْ ِّن َ َأ ُذْ ِبْ ُمْ َ َأْ ِ ّب b. If He wills he can just do away with you and bring about a new creation - He is all able to do this 2. Kathra/Abundance is indicated – eg. Khallaaq, Fa‟aal, Ghaffar - the one who forgives again and again, repeatedly a. He created many things, He created things in abundance. Think of your own body. It is one body but how many parts, cells, veins, arteries, bones, muscles you have in there; just one thing has so much in it! – How many human beings are there? Trees, seeds, grass blades, grains, leaves, how much hair on your head? We don‟t know, He is Al- Khallaaq, He creates in abundance, we cant count His creation Which os why when you praise Allah you say “Addada Khaliqihi” - the number of His creation 3. He creates with Idqaan – with perfection, whatever He creates is perfect/solid. a. وحز ٌجب َ ححسبه ج مذ ً و ِ َ حمز م َ سح ة We learned- “ِ ” َ َ َي ا ْ ِ َبي َ ْ َ ُ َب َب ِ َة َهٍ َ ُ ُ َز اٌ َ َب “You see the mountains and think that they are firm, but they (will) move like the clouds move on the Day of Judgment” b. Then comes: ص ع ٍ ِ ٌذ أ م َ ًُ َ ٍ إّنه خب ز ّبم ح ٍَ ّن “َ ” ُنْ َ اٌَه اَ ٌِ َحْ َن و َ شٍْء ِ َ ُ َ ُِ ٌ ِ َب َفْعُى (27:88) Atqana is to make something in a solid/firm way it is solid/firm and perfect 4. Fourth meaning of Al-Khallaq is that He can re-create. It is not difficult for Him to recreate His creation (on the Day of Judgment). a. ٍأوٌ َ ٌذ خٍ َ سم و ِ و أ ض ّبم د ٍ عٍ َ ْ ٍك م ٍه ّب ًََ َ ََُْس اَ ٌِ ََك اٌ َ َب َاث َاٌْ َرْ َ ِ َب ِر ًََ أّن َخُْ َ ِثَْ ُم وه َ خ ٍ ُ ع ٍ م ُ َُِ ٌْ)18:63( – َ ُى اٌْ ََبق ا “Is not He, Who created the heavens and the earth Able to create the like of them? Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Supreme Creator.” The one who created the heavens and the earth, is it not possible for Him to create another heavens/earth? Of course it is possible. b. Several times in the Qur‟an we are told to look at the dead earth that He has brought back to life. Over and over in several ways we are told to never doubt resurrection, Allah can re-create. c. Hadith: „As bin Wa‟il he came to the Prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam and he had a bone with him that was decaying. He brought the bone in front of him and crumbled it to pieces saying, “Oh Muhammad is Allah going to re-create this?” And the Prophet sallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Na‟am” – Yes of course He will resurrect this. Then he warned him, “Allah will make you die, then He will bring you back to life, then He will enter you into hellfire.” (Haakim) d. He said it outright, shows different ways of Da‟wah, sometimes you have to say it outright. If Allah is Al-Khaaliq/Al-Khallaaq, what are we supposed to do? If He created so much, what is expected of us? - We should not be arrogant with what we do. o We do one little thing, we make one small thing, or put make up on sometimes and think we did so well, but then we should see Allah‟s creation and not be proud, as His creation is better than what we could ever do. - We should be grateful and obey Him – Be grateful for the khalq He has given us o What is Shukr? – Shukr bil qalb / lisaan / jawarih By Jawarih, you should do what you are supposed to do. If Allah gave this beautiful body then we should use it in the best manner, not sit idly, or waste it all by sleep but use it in a good way. Just by sleeping 8 hours a day you end up sleeping 1/3 of your life - Accept the way He made us. If you do not like some aspect, maybe your height, ears, hair, fingers, nails, figure, eyes – You wish it was like someone else‟s, then you should remember it was Allah who gave you that khalq by His decision according to His knowledge, so we should accept it as it is and do shukr to Allah for it o It‟s Shaytan that wants us to change creation of Allah - When we see creation of Allah we should never say it is ugly – whether it is a person or otherwise. o When we do this, it‟s as if criticizing Allah - Never be too arrogant of the khalq Allah has given you, as you did not make yourselves. All of it is given by the Fadl of Allah - When you look at other people you should not disdain them, think low of them, because they are not as fair/beautiful etc. - Similarly you should not praise people that they are so pretty / beautiful. Because the same way, they did not create themselves. Rather you should say „Masha‟Allah la quwwata illa billah‟ – so they are not affected by the „ayn. Dont put people in such a situation in which you over praise them, but simply praise Allah and say Masha‟Allah etc. When we see a mirror we should make a dua: “Allahumma kama hasantha khalqi” – Oh Allah like you have made my Khalq beautiful, make my Khulooq beatuful as well We should not be obsessed with our looks; one should be clean but should not obsess about their bodies. - You should be grateful for a good khalq – this helps the blessing stay, increases it and you get reward for your gratefulness. Even your traits or good habits are from Allah. - When you look at the creation of Allah Don‟t just look at the apparent of creation. Don‟t be superficial Allah has given the Khalq and the Khulooq, especially in human beings. A person should not judge just by apparent. o Eg. When people go for marriage, they criticize just based on looks, but -appearances change so quickly that people do not realize. Inner beauty counts. When getting married should look for the Deen. - If Allah is Al-Khaaliq we are not supposed to emulate this Characteristic and become Khaliqeen ourselves. We should not imitate and draw pictures of living beings, making sculptures of His creation. o Forbidden in many ahadeeth o The worst people on the Day of Judgement, the worst punishment is for Al-Musawwiroon, those people who draw pictures/make sculptures – Musnad Ahmad / Bukhari o Ahmad – it will be told to give life to what you made. (( The pictures you made, give life to it now)) Similar Hadeeth (The following 3 hadith I added): o It was reported from „Aa‟ishah Umm al-Mu‟mineen that Umm Habeebah and Umm Salamah mentioned a church which they had seen in Ethiopia, in which there were images. They told the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) about it, and he said: “Those people, if there was a righteous man among them and he died, they would build a place of worship over his grave and put images in it. These will be the most evil of creation before Allaah on the Day of Resurrection.” (narrated by al-Bukhaari, 417; Muslim, 528) o „Abd-Allaah ibn Mas‟ood said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: The people who will be the most severely punished before Allaah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image makers. (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5606; Muslim, 2109). o It was reported from „Abd-Allaah ibn „Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Those who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, Give life to that which you have created! (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5607; Muslim, 2108). o Some ask why? – That they have been given these artistic abilities, they should be able to use them. Allah has a lot of gheerah – meaning He is possessive of something and is jealous if someone else has it. He does not like some things for people to have. He also has kibr, if someone tries to take it away Allah will crush him and throw them into Hellfire. This is unique to Allah. He does not like that people do this. You may draw other inanimate things, but not humans etc. What is the ruling on drawing in Islam? Praise be to Allaah. Drawing is of two types: One is drawing pictures of animate beings. It says in the Sunnah that this is forbidden. It is not permitted to draw anything that depicts animate beings, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, according to the saheeh hadeeth: “Every image maker will be in the Fire.” And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The most severely punished of people on the Day of Resurrection will be the image-makers, those who tried to imitate the creation of Allaah.” And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The makers of these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection, and they will be told, „Give life to that which you have created.‟” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed those who consume riba (interest, usury) and those who pay it, and he cursed the image-makers. This indicates that making images is forbidden. The scholars interpreted that as referring to images of animate beings such as animals, people and birds. With regard to drawing inanimate objects – which is the second type of drawing – there is no sin in that, such as drawing mountains, trees, planes, cars and the like. There is nothing wrong with that, according to the scholars. With regard to forbidden kinds of pictures, an exception is made in cases of necessity, such as drawing pictures of criminals so that they will be known and caught, or pictures for identity cards which are essential and which cannot be obtained otherwise** and other cases of necessity. If the ruler decides that producing images of criminals is necessary, because of the seriousness of their crimes and to protect the Muslims from their evil when they are known, or for other reasons, there is nothing wrong with that. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “…He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity …” [al-An‟aam 6:119] Fataawa Noor „ala al-Darb by Shaykh Ibn Baaz, p. 302. ** They have included drawing pictures and taking pictures, like with digital cameras. Allowed only for necessity, like for ID cards, Drivers license, Passport, this is allowed. o What about for Wedding days? Parties etc… ? For need it is ok, but to take them, frame them and put them on your walls so that Angels do not سمعن come, this is not allowed. And believers accept Allah‟s Hukm ( َ ِ ْ َب وأط ن ) ََ َعْ َبand there has to be good in every decision Allah has made for you. In a limited manner it is acceptable, but to do this habitually all the time, and of others for no purpose etc, this is not allowed. o If this ban was implemented, things such as pornography etc, would never come about. We have to be aware of these issues. - If Allah is Al-Khallaaq He can also alter the Creation o Several times there is a warning in the Qur‟an that Allah can replace you with a new creation, this is called istibdaal o Another way He can do istibdaal is that He can alter the creation also, like with Bani Israel when they were turned into apes/pigs و ّن ا لزد ً خ سئ ن “َ ُِ ِ )661:7( – ” ُى ُى ْ ِ َ َة َب o We should Fear Allah and never be arrogant of the freedom we‟ve been given or of the beautifl forms, He has power and control and can later easily, no point in being arrogant at all, We should be humble towards Allah for this. - If Allah is Al-Khaaliq we should do Tafakkur, we should reflect on His creation. We reflect on paintings, gadgets, etc – what about Allah‟s creation? We are told in the Qur‟an to look at the creation of Allah, praise Allah for it, do thikr. - Must accept what Allah has not created, like when some people are not able to have children etc… Dua to Allah by this: ** One thing to be aware is that the name appears as it is, or the verb is mentions eg. Khalaqa means He is Khaaliq, but that does not mean that from every verb that He mentioned for Himself we derive names for it, only when there is a Daleel. Ali Imraan: بة ٌ إّن ف خ ِ سم و ِ و أل ض و خّال ِ ٍ ِ و نه ِ َ ٍ ٌأ ِ ِ َ ٍِ ٍَْك اٌ َ َب َاث َا َرْ ِ َاخْ ِ َف اًٌَُْ َاٌ َ َبر ِ َبث ُِوٍِْ األٌْ َب لع د وعٍ َ جن ّبه ْ و خفىز َ ف خ ِ سم و ِ و أل ض ٌُذ َ وز َ ٍه ل ِ ْاَ َِن َذْ ُ ُوّن اٌّ َ ِ َبمًب وَ ُ ُى ًا َ ًََ ُ ُى ِ ِم َ َ َ َ َ ُوّن ٍِ ٍَْك اٌ َ َب َاث َا َر ِ ََ َب مَب ََمْج َذا َب ِ ً ُبْ َب َ َ َ ِنَب َ َاة اٌ َب رّبن خٍ َ ه ّب طّال س ح ّنه فم عذ َ ن ر “Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding. Those who remember Allah (always, and in prayers) standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and the earth, (saying): "Our Lord! You have not created (all) this without purpose, glory to You! (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners). Give us salvation from the torment of the Fire.” (3:190-191) - They look at creation, realize it is not in baatil and make a dua to be saved from the fire. Dua of Thana – you praise Allah by His sifa that He created all perfectly/beautifully Sayyidul Istigifar The Prophet ( )صٍٍ اهلل عٍُه وسٍمadded, "If somebody recites it during the day with firm faith in it and dies on the same day before the evening, he will be from the people of Paradise and if somebody recites it at night with firm faith in it and dies before the morning he will be from the people of Paradise." [Sahih Al-Bukhari] - In this dua you are acknowledging that you are the khalq of Allah. That Allah has created you and you have done wrong and you seek forgiveness. - Many duas the mention creation of a person Dua before sleeping " " “O Allah, You have created my soul and You take it back. Unto You is its death and its life . If You give it life then protect it , and if You cause it to die then forgive it. O Allah, I ask You for strength.” [Muslim 4/2083 and Ahmad 2/79] - We acknowledge we are Allah‟s Abd - Also Surah Falaq Al-Baari’ – The Inventor | Al-Musawwir – The Fashioner (the one who created) - Both give the meaning that Allah is the creator - There are slight differences, but on the whole they mean the same thing – the one who created Al-Baari – is from Bara‟a – Ba ra hamza – to be free; to be absolved of something Suratul Bara‟a – Allah is free from/absolved from and has nothing to do with this - Bari‟a – to cure, to be free of an illness - Baraa‟ash-shay – Qat‟a‟ahu wa fasalahu – Cut/divide and separate something, meaning division and separation. - From the same root comes Bar‟ (with sukoon) – Clay (also can be called Bara) - Bara – to create something, make something, bring something from non- entity to existence Proof of His Name: - Appears three times in three places in the Qur‟an o Suratul Hashr o Suratul Baqarah: 54 – when Bani Israel made the calf Appears twice in that ayah If Allah is al-Baari’ – What does that mean? - Firstly it gives the meaning that He is Al-Muwjid and Al-Mubdi‟ The One who creates/ The One who invents o As one of the meanings of Bar‟ is to create and bring into existence from non entity o Khalq meaning khalaqahu meaning He created it, that‟s why the translation is “the inventor” of Al-Baari - Another meaning is that He has made different kinds/forms of creation o Another meaning is to divide / separate o Every creation is separate, it is distinguished from the other creation No two people look alike, even twins don‟t look alike o Each person is different, each creation is different. He has made so many kinds of species. Taking just ants, there are so many different kinds of ants. o He has created a division in His creation - He has made the human being from Turaab – Clay o Because Bar‟ means Clay o Al-Baari is used specifically in context of the creation of human beings o Taha: 55 منه خٍمن وم وف ه ّنع ذوم ومنه ّنخزجىم ح ر ً أخز ِ ْ َب ََ ْ َب ُ ْ َ ُِ َب ُ ُِ ُ ُ ْ َ ِ ْ َب ُ ْ ِ ُ ُ ْ َب َة ُ ْ َي “Thereof (the earth) We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.” - The creation is Bari‟a from inconsistencies o Bari‟a – to be free from o The creation that Allah has made is free from inconsistencies o Mulk beginning – look at the sky, you do not see any inconsistency in it ف رج ِ ٌبص َ ًَ حز م فط ر ٍ َب ْ ِع ا ْ َ َز ه ْ َ َي ِن ُ ُى “…you can see no fault in the creations of the Most Beneficent. Then look again: "Can you see any rifts?"” Looking at your hands/fingers/trees – there is perfection in His creation These are the four meanings of Al-Baari Al-Musawwir – the one who gives Surah - from Suad waw ra - Surah means the shape/form of something - Allah has given everything its particular shape, make, image, own unique form - Khalq/Khaaliq is General, Baari – means the inventor, so Al-Musawwir is the next step and final stage of being given its own unique form. Proof of His Name: - Only once mentioned in Surah Hashr, “Khaaliqul Baari‟ul musawwir” - But the verb sawwara comes many times in the Qur‟an o Allah says, Allah is the one who gives you form in wombs of your mother however He wills ٌذ خٍمه فسى ن فعذٌه o َ ََ َ َ َ اَ ٌِ ََ َ َ َ َ َا o Infitar: 6-7 – The one who created you, proportioned you and balanced you o Allah created, gave form/balance/shapes and proportion means sawwara If Allah is al-Musawwir – What does that mean? - He creates various forms / shapes. - He gives it a certain shape. Human beings are not just skeletons walking around; Allah has clothed us with skin. And that skin is not one kind of skin, different kinds/colors, even on one body. And that skin stems into different features – so it includes different features Allah has made. - One thing we must learn if he is this then it means that we should accept our Surah as He has made it. o Khalq – is like the height o Surah is like how the eyes, nose, lips are – the appearance of the particular form everyone given. Accept as you have been made, as Allah has made you by His will. And he has created humans in the best of moulds/forms o Difference between taking a quality and objecting to it, developing these feelings because of being told by others, because they do not accept Allah‟s Khalq as it is. Even little children are made fun of – for being overweight, larger hands, bigger eyes etc – Allah made them as they are, so others should not make fun of them. o In some areas people have disabilities and others make fun of them. You don‟t just make fun of them but object to the creation Allah has made. o First thing if Allah is al-Khaaliq, al-Musawwir, al-Baari then accept the creation as it is and do Shukr to Allah for how He has made you. o Such bullying has led to suicide, psychological disability, they don‟t social with other people as well and develop inferiority complex etc… so long ago racism, discrimination was banned, and we still bring it up again. o For purposes of health if you change something it is different, like braces if a person has difficultly with their mouth they can get their teeth fixed. Same with exercise to lose weight – as these are necessities. Out of reason – with a necessity Other types are without necessity you just want to be more beautiful / attractive – like plastic/cosmetic surgery. Changing the color of eyes, hair, etc… - If Allah has given this beautiful form/bodies so much different khalq o Many animals, trees etc – we should be grateful to Allah o Infitaar: 6-8 َ أ ُه إ س ُ م َ َن ِز ِ َ ْ َز م ِ َِ َب ََ َب اٌْ ِّن َبّن َب غز َ ّب َّبه اٌى ٌذ ٍَ َ َ َسى َ َعذَه َ ٌَ َ اَ ٌِ خَمه ف َ َان ف ف أٌ ص ر ٍ م ش َو َه َ ٍِ َ ِ ُى َة َب َبء ر َب “O man! What has made you careless concerning your Lord, the Most Generous? Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion; In whatever form He willed, He put you together.” o How can you not pay attention Him? How come you don‟t obey Him? How come you disobey and forget him? Then Allah says the one who has created/balanced you – He gave such a beautiful form, but not to display to others and be arrogant and boast. Use it, don‟t disobey Allah with the limbs that He has given you. On the Day of Judgment these very hands/eyes/ears will turn against is if we don‟t use them in the proper way. – As gratitude, we are supposed to use it in the right way. - Also as women we should be aware that we are given these forms not to be a decoration piece, or for advertising or pleasing other people. He gave us these forms, and we are pearls, and something precious is not displayed all the time. It is not cheap so that everyone looks at it. Similarly we are not cheap and we do not display the beauty we have been given. o Dua of Sajdah Tilawa Here you say Allah made us, a form of gratitude to Allah.
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