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					Intel x86 Microcomputer CPU Characteristics
                                   8086
16 bit                         Expansion Bus
16 bit                         External Bus
8 bit                          Internal Bus
20 bit                         Memory Address
                  20
                 2 = 1,048,576 = 1024 Kb Physical Memory

Real                                Address Modes Supported
July 1981 - IBM introduces its first desktop computer, the Datamaster.
It uses a 16-bit 8086, and is a dedicated data processing machine.

                               8088
8 bit                      Expansion Bus
8 bit                      External Bus
8 bit                      Internal Bus
20 bit                     Memory Address
              20
             2 = 1,048,576 = 1024 Kb Physical Memory
4.77 to 10Mhz              Clock Speeds
Real                       Address Modes Supported
August 1981 - IBM announces the IBM 5150 PC Personal Co mputer, featuring a
4.77-MHz Intel 8088 CPU, 64KB RAM, 40KB ROM, one 5.25-inch floppy drive, and
PC-DOS 1.0 (Microsoft's MS-DOS), for US$3000.
A fully loaded version with color graphics cost US$6000.
Eight months after the introduction of the IBM PC, 50,000 units have been sold

                                80286
16 bit                       Expansion Bus
16 bit                       External Bus
16 bit                       Internal Bus
24 bit                       Memory Address
              24
             2 = 16,777,216 = 16,384 Kb Physical Memory
6 to 20Mhz                   Clock Speeds
Real, Protected              Address Modes Supported
80287                        Math Co-Processor
August 1984 - IBM announces the PC AT, a 6M Hz 80286 co mputer using PC-DOS 3.0,
a 5.25-inch 1.2M B floppy drive, with 256KB RAM, for US$4000, which doesn't
include hard drive or monitor/card.
With a 20MB hard drive, color card and monitor: US$6700.




                                                    1
September 1986 - Co mpaq Co mputer introduces the first 16-MHz Intel 80386-based PC,
the Co mpaq Deskpro 386.

Little-known co mpany ALR - Advanced Logic Research also announces the first 386-based PC,
the Access 386.

April 1987 - IBM introduces the IBM Personal System/2 (PS/2) line, with IBM's first 386 PC, and 3.5 -inch
floppy drives as standard. The PS/2 Model 30 uses a 8-MHz 8086, the Model 50 and 60 use the 10-MHz
80286, and the Model 80 uses a 20-M Hz 80386.

                                 80386 SX
16 bit                          Expansion Bus
16 bit                          External Bus
32 bit                          Internal Bus
32 Bit                          Memory Address
       232 = 4,294,967,296 = 4,194,304 Kb = 4GB Physical Memory
16 to 20Mhz                     Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Real Address Modes Supported
80387                           Math Co-Processor


                               80386 DX
16 bit                        Expansion Bus
32 bit                        External Bus
32 bit                        Internal Bus
32 Bit                        Memory Address
        32
       2 = 4,294,967,296 = 4,194,304 Kb = 4GB Physical Memory
16 to 33Mhz                   Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Real Address Modes Supported
80387                         Math Co-Processor

April 1989 - Intel introduces the 33-MHz version of the 80386 microprocessor and
80387 numeric co-processor.




                                                    2
April 1989 - Intel introduces the 80486 microprocessor at Spring Co mdex in Chicago, Illinois.
It integrates the 80386, 80387 math coprocessor, and adds a primary cache.
It uses 1.2 million transistors. Initial price is US$900.

June 1989 - Apricot Co mputers announces the first 486-based PC, in London, England.
The VX FT system uses the 25-MHz Intel 80486 chip, IBM's MCA bus, and is priced starting at
US$18,000.

The 80486 (1989) added full pipelines, single on chip 8K cache, integrated FPU (based on the eight
element 80-b it stack-oriented FPU in the 80387 FPU), and clock doubling versions (like the Z-280). The
Pentium (late 1993) was super scalar (up to two instructions at once in dual integer units and single FPU)
with separate 8K I/D caches.



                           80486 DX/DX2/DX4
32 bit                          Expansion Bus
32 bit                          External Bus
32 bit                          Internal Bus
32 Bit                          Memory Address
       232 = 4,294,967,296 = 4,194,304 Kb = 4GB Physical Memory
25 to 100Mhz                    Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Real Address Modes Supported
Integrated FPU in CPU           Math Co-Processor

April 1991 - Intel debuts the i486SX chip, initially at 20-M Hz, and the i487SX math coprocessor. The
i486SX is like the 486, but without the math coprocessor.

                               80486 SX
32 bit                        Expansion Bus
32 bit                        External Bus
32 bit                        Internal Bus
32 Bit                        Memory Address
        32
       2 = 4,294,967,296 = 4,194,304 Kb = 4GB Physical Memory
25 to 100Mhz                  Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Real Address Modes Supported
80487                         Math Co-Processor

July 1993 - IBM introduces its clock-trip led 25/75MHz Blue Lightning 486-based processor.

January 1995 - Advanced Micro Devices and Intel settle all outstanding processor related legal issues.
Advanced Micro Devices pays Intel US$58 million in damages, and Intel pays US$18 million fo r breach of
contract damages. Advanced Micro Devices retains full rights to microcode in Intel386 and Inte l486 chips.




                                                     3
A 32-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1993. It contains 3.3 million transistors, nearly triple the
number contained in its predecessor, the 80486 chip. Though still in p roduction, the Pentium processor has
been superseded by the Pentium Pro and Pentiu m II microprocessors.

                                 Pentium
64 bit                          Expansion Bus
64 bit                          External Bus
64 bit                          Internal Bus
32 Bit                          Memory Address
       232 = 4,294,967,296 = 4,194,304 Kb = 4GB Physical Memory
60 to 200Mhz                    Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Real Address Modes Supported
Integrated FPU in CPU           Math Co-Processor

The Pentiu m was the name Intel gave the 80586 version because it could not legally protect the name "586"
to prevent other companies fro m using it - and in fact, the Pentiu m co mpatible CPU fro m NexGen is called
the Nx586 (early 1995). Due to its popularity, the 80x86 line has been the most widely cloned processors,
fro m the NEC V20/ V30 (slightly faster clones of the 8088/8086 (could also run 8085 code)), AMD and
Cyrix clones of the 80386 and 80486, to versions of the Pentium within less than two years of its
introduction.


                  Manufacturer        Intel

                  Family Name         Pentium

                  Code name           "P5"                "P54C"

                  Processor
                                      Fifth
General           Generation
Information
                  Motherboard
                                      Fifth
                  Generation

                  Version             P60       P66       P75      P90    P100   P120    P133     P150       P166   P200

                                                          Oct.                   March June       Jan.       Jan.   June
                  Introduced          March 1993                   March 1994
                                                          1994                   1995  1995       1996       1996   1996

                  Memory B us
                                      60        66        50       60     66     60      66       60         66     66
                  Speed (MHz)

                  Processor
Speed
                  Clock               1.0                 1.5                    2.0              2.5               3.0
Specifications
                  Multi plier

                  Processor
                                      60        66        75       90     100    120     133      150        166    200
                  Speed (MHz)

                  Packaging Style     273-Pin PGA         296-Pin SPGA
Packaging         Motherboard
                                      Socket 4            Socket 5, Socket 7                      Socket 7
                  Interface




                                                      4
                             Pentium MMX
64 bit                         Expansion Bus
64 bit                         External Bus
64 bit                         Internal Bus
32 Bit                         Memory Address
        32
       2 = 4,294,967,296 = 4,194,304 Kb = 4GB Physical Memory
166 to 233Mhz                  Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Real Address Modes Supported
Integrated FPU in CPU          Math Co-Processor

MMX (init ially reported as Multimed ia eXtension, but later said by Intel to mean Matrix Math eXtension)
is very similar to the earlier SPA RC VIS or HP -PA MAX, or later M IPS MDM X instructions - they
perform integer operations on vectors of 8, 16, or 32 bit words, using the 80 b it FPU stack elements as eight
64 bit registers. The P55C Pentiu m version (January 1997) is the first Intel CPU to include MMX
instructions, follo wed by the AMD K6, and Pentiu m II. Cyrix also added these instructions in its M2 CPU
(6x86M X, June 1997), as well as IDT with its C6.


                   Manufacturer        Intel

                   Family Name         Pentium with MMX Technology

                   Code name           "P55C"
General            Processor
Information                            Fifth
                   Generation

                                       Pentium with        Pentium with         Pentium with
                   Version
                                       MMX 166             MMX 200              MMX 233

                   Introduced          Jan. 1997                                June 1997

                   Memor y B us
                                       66
                   Speed (MHz)

                   Processor Clock                                              3.5 (ju mper as
                                       2.5                 3.0
Speed              Multi plier                                                  1.5)
Specifications     Processor Speed
                                   166                     200                  233
                   (MHz)

                   Transistors
                                       4.5
                   (millions)

                   Packaging Style     296-Pin SPGA
Packaging          Motherboard
                                       Socket 7 with 2.8V Core
                   Interface




                                                      5
Interestingly, the old architecture is such a barrier to improvements that most of the Pentium co mpatib le
CPUs (NexGen Nx586/Nx686, AMD K5, IDT -C6), and even the "Pentium Pro" (Pentiu m's successor, late
1995) don't clone the Pentium, but emulate it with specialized hard ware decoders like those introduced in
the National Semiconductor Swordfish, wh ich convert Pentium instructions to RISC-like instructions
which are executed on specially designed superscalar RISC-style cores faster than the Pentium itself. Intel
also used BiCM OS in the Pentiu m and Pentiu m Pro to achieve clock rates competit ive with CMOS load -
store processors (the Pentium P55C (early 1997) version is a pure CMOS design).

                              Pentium Pro
64 bit                         Expansion Bus
64 bit                         External Bus
64 bit                         Internal Bus
36 Bit                         Memory Address
    236 = 68,719,476,736 = 67,108,864 Kb = 64GB Physical Memory
150 to 200Mhz                  Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Pro. Address Modes Supported
Integrated FPU in CPU          Math Co-Processor

        5.5 million transistors
        Not MMX capable
        66 Mhz System B oard



                  Manufacturer        Intel

                  Family Name         Pentium Pro

                  Code name           "P6"

                  Processor
                                      Sixth
General           Generation
Information
                                                                         Pentium     Pentium
                                                                                                Pentium
                                      Pentium     Pentium    Pentium     Pro 200     Pro 200
                  Version                                                                       Pro 200
                                      Pro 150     Pro 166    Pro 180     (256        (512
                                                                                                (1 M B)
                                                                         KB)         KB)

                                                                                                Jan.
                  Introduced          Nov. 1995                                      1996
                                                                                                1997

                  Memory B us
                                      60          66         60          66
                  Speed (MHz)

Speed             Processor Clock
                                      2.5                    3.0
Specifications    Multi plier

                  Processor
                                      150         166        180         200
                  Speed (MHz)

                  Packaging Style     387-Pin Dual SPGA
Packaging         Motherboard
                                      Socket 8
                  Interface




                                                       6
                              Pentium II
64 bit                        Expansion Bus
64 bit                        External Bus
64 bit                        Internal Bus
36 Bit                        Memory Address
      36
    2 = 68,719,476,736 = 67,108,864 Kb = 64GB Physical Memory
233 to 333Mhz                 Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Pro. Address Modes Supported
Integrated FPU in CPU         Math Co-Processor

       7.5 million transistors
       MMX capable
       66 and 100 Mhz System B oard

                 Manufacturer      Intel

                 Family Name       Pentium II

                 Code name         "Klamath"                                   "Deschutes"
General          Processor
Information                        Sixth
                 Generation

                                   Pentium      Pentium
                 Version                                   Pentium II 300      Pentium II 333
                                   II 233       II 266

                 Introduced        May 1997                                    February 1998

                 Memory B us
                                   66
                 Speed (MHz)

                 Processor
Speed
                 Clock             3.5          4.0        4.5                 5.0
Specifications
                 Multi plier

                 Processor
                                   233          266        300                 333
                 Speed (MHz)

                 Packaging Style   242-Pin SEC

                 Motherboard
                                   Slot 1
                 Interface
Packaging
                 Level 2 Cache
                                   116 M Hz     133 M Hz   150 M Hz            166 M Hz
                 Bus Speed

                 Multi processing Dual (SMP) with compatib le motherboard

                 Instruction Set   x86 p lus Pentium and Pentiu m Pro extensions

Internal         MMX Support       Yes
Architecture
                 Processor
                                   Real, Protected, Virtual Real
                 Modes



                                                  7
                                Celeron
64 bit                        Expansion Bus
64 bit                        External Bus
64 bit                        Internal Bus
36 Bit                        Memory Address
      36
    2 = 68,719,476,736 = 67,108,864 Kb = 64GB Physical Memory
333 to 533Mhz                 Clock Speeds
Real, Protected, Virtual Pro. Address Modes Supported
Integrated FPU in CPU         Math Co-Processor

      19 million transistors
      MMX capable
      66 Mhz System B oard




                                      8
Technical Specifications

                 Introduction Clock    Bus   Number of Addressable Virtual Brief
                 Date         Speeds   Width Transistors Memory    Memory Descripti on
                             5 MHz                                                    10X the
                                           29,000
8086             6/8/78      8 MHz 16 bits             1 Megabyte                     performance of
                                           (3 microns)
                             10 MHz                                                   the 8080
                                                                                      Identical to
                             5 MHz              29,000                                8086 except for
8088             6/1/79                8 bits
                             8 MHz              (3 microns)                           its 8-bit
                                                                                      external bus
                             8 MHz          134,000                                  3-6X the
                                                              16            1
80286            2/1/82      10 MHz 16 bits (1.5                                     performance of
                                                              Megabytes     gigabyte
                             12 MHz         microns)                                 the 8086
                             16 MHz
                                                                                      First X86 chip
Intel386(TM)DX               20 MHz         275,000                         64
               10/ 17/ 85           32 bits                   4 gigabytes             to handle 32-b it
Microprocessor               25 MHz         (1 micron)                      terabytes
                                                                                      data sets
                             33 MHz
                                                                                      16-bit address
Intel386(TM)SX               16 MHz         275,000                         64        bus enabled
               6/16/88              16 bits                   4 gigabytes
Microprocessor               20 MHz         (1 micron)                      terabytes low-cost 32-bit
                                                                                      processing
                                            1,200,000
                             25 MHz
Intel486(TM)DX                              (1 micron, .8                   64        Level 1 cache
               4/10/89       33 MHz 32 bits               4 gigabytes
Microprocessor                              micron with                     terabytes on chip
                             50 MHz
                                            50 MHz)
                                                                                      identical in
                             16 MHz                                                   design to
Intel486(TM)SX               20 MHz         1,185,000                       64        Intel486(TM)
               4/22/91              32 bits                   4 gigabytes
Microprocessor               25 MHz         (.8 micron)                     terabytes DX but without
                             33 MHz                                                   math
                                                                                      coprocessor
                             60M Hz
                             66M Hz                                                   superscaler
                             75M Hz                                                   architecture
                             90M Hz                                                   brought 5X the
Pentium®                                     3.1 million                    64
                 3/22/93     100M Hz 32 bits                  4 gigabytes             performance of
Processor                                    (.8 micron)                    terabytes
                             120M Hz                                                  the 33-M Hz
                             133M Hz                                                  Intel486 DX
                             150M Hz                                                  processor
                             166M Hz
                                                                                      dynamic
                                                                                      execution
                             150M Hz
Pentium® Pro                                 5.5 million                    64        architecture
                 3/27/95     180M Hz 32 bits              4 gigabytes
Processor                                    (.32 micron)                   terabytes drives high-
                             200M Hz
                                                                                      performing
                                                                                      processor




                                                9

				
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