“ “ “ “ “ “ “ By Deborah Long; Modified by D. Owen General Guidelines for Quotations Use quotations to support a point you have made. Avoid using too many quotations or unnecessarily long ones. Make sure that your quotes have substance and give credibility to your points. Do Not Use Quotations that. . . come from an unacceptable source. Ex. According to my mother, “Frankenstein is a wonderful horror story.” Ex. Cliff’s Notes say, “Frankenstein has stirred the imagination of generations of readers (16).” All quotes must be introduced or integrated. ►Introduced Quote: Critic Richard Horne asserts, “The monster created by Frankenstein is also an illustration of the embodied consequences of our actions” (261). ►Integrated Quote: More than anything else the novel functions as “an illustration of the embodied consequences of our actions” (Horne 261). Quote That Is Not Introduced or Integrated (error) Frankenstein shows what happens when man forgets his responsibility to his fellow man. “The monster created by Frankenstein is also an illustration of the embodied consequences of our actions” (Horne 261). Incorrect use of the quote—not introduced or integrated. Introducing Quotes--1 You may introduce a quote with a verb such as “says,” but you should also look for other verbs that add variety (i. e. “comments,” “notes,” “asserts,” “claims”). Example: Robert Walton claims, “I had rather die than return shamefully,--my purpose unfulfilled” (Shelley 160). Note: If you introduce with a verb, you must put a comma after the verb. Introducing Quotes--2 You may also introduce a quote with a sentence and a colon. Example: Robert Walton reveals his unbridled ambition when he discusses the prospect of abandoning his journey: “I had rather die than return shamefully,--my purpose unfulfilled” (Shelley 160). Caution: Do not use a colon unless the words before it constitute a complete sentence and the quote is a logical support for that sentence. Capitalization Rules for Introducing Quotes ☀ Capitalization rules require that all introduced quotes begin with a capital letter. If your quote does begin with a capital letter, you do not have to change anything. ☀ If your quote does not begin with a capital letter and you are introducing it, you must change lower case to upper case. Anytime you make any changes to a direct quotation, you must use brackets [ ] to show that you have made a change. (See examples on next slide) EXAMPLES Elizabeth Nitchie observes, “The monster himself is the earliest creation of Mary’s and is probably her best, most subtle, most perceptive characterization” (275). (Quote began with a capital letter.) Elizabeth Nitchie observes, “[T]he earliest creation of Mary’s . . . is probably her best, most subtle, most perceptive characterization” (275). • Note: We will discuss the ellipses later in the presentation. Integrating Quotes Integrating the quote means making the quoted material part of your own writing. Example: The novel illustrates “the embodied consequences of our actions” in the form of the monster himself (Horne 261). Mechanics for Integrating Quotes When you integrate a quote, you are making it part of your sentence; as a result, you may have to make some changes in the quote itself. The next 2 slides show changes that are sometimes necessary when the quote is integrated. 1. Capitalization Integrated quotes may require that a capital letter be put in lower case. Example: He evokes our sympathy because “[t]he monster has the perception and desire of goodness, but . . . is delivered over to evil” (Birkhead 266). Note: The position of “the” in the sentence does not require a capital letter, but it was capitalized in the original quote. 2. Change in Verb Tense or in Person Because the integrated quote is part of your own sentence, you may have to change verb tenses and/or person in order to maintain consistency. Quote: “The forms of the beloved dead flit before me, and I hasten to their arms” (Shelley 162). Integrated: Victor confides to Walton that “[t]he forms of the beloved dead flit before [him], and [he] hasten[s] to their arms” (Shelley 162). Parenthetical Documentation • If the author of the quote is not identified in the text, place author and page number of the quote in parenthesis after the sentence but before the period. He evokes our sympathy because “[t]he monster has the perception and desire of goodness, but . . . is delivered over to evil” (Birkhead 266). • If the author is identified in the text, you need put only the number of the page on which you found the quote. He evokes our sympathy because, according to Birkhead, “[t]he monster has the perception and desire of goodness, but . . . is delivered over to evil” (266). No Author? No Page Number? • You MUST always give parenthetical documentation for every source even if no author is given. • When no author is given, abbreviate the next piece of information. For example, if the citation begins with a title, use an abbreviated title: Title: “Romeo’s Quest for Love in Romeo and Juliet.” = (“Romeo’s Quest” 13). Note: Internet Sources DO NOT have page numbers; therefore, you must use an author’s name or, if the author isn’t given, an abbreviated title in the citation. Using Ellipses Sometimes it is desirable to leave out part of a quote. When you do so, you must use an ellipses to show where you have left out the words. “The monster . . . is also an illustration of the embodied consequences of our actions” (Horne 271). (See Whole Quote) More on Ellipses “The monster created by Frankenstein is also an illustration of the embodied consequences of our actions” (Horne 261). In the previous slide the ellipses take the place of “created by Frankenstein,” the words left out. More on Ellipses More about Ellipses Ellipses are typed with a space between each period (. . .) Ellipses are not necessary at the beginning of your quote. Ellipses are necessary if you take words out of the middle of the quote and if you end the introduced quote before the end of a sentence. If what you are leaving out includes more than one sentence, you will use four periods in the ellipses in addition to the final period after the citation. • Note: MLA no longer requires brackets around your inserted ellipses, but they may be used if you wish or if your teacher requires them. Long Quotations Setting In • In general you should avoid long quotations, but if you do use a quotation longer than 4 lines (on your page), you must indent (2 tabs). • When you indent a quotation, you do not use quotation marks unless the quote is a quote within a quote. Avoiding Long Quotations Paraphrase the material: You might decide that you want to use the ideas of the critic but want to put the ideas in your own words. The paraphrase is the same length or longer than the original. Summarize the material: You might summarize the material when you need to say in a sentence or two what the author has said in a paragraph or two. The summary is shorter than the original. With a paraphrase or a summary you do not use quotation marks; however, the information must be introduced and must have documentation afterwards. Caution Separating your sentence with a quotation longer than three or four words confuses your reader. Example of Awkward Separation When Robert Walton says, “Great God! what a scene has just taken place! I am yet dizzy With the remembrance of it,” he is referring to his first sight of Frankenstein’s creature (Shelley 162). Quoting Poetry Quoting poetry is somewhat different from quoting prose. If you quote more than two or three lines of poetry, you need to use a slash mark (/) to show where the line breaks are. Example: Lady Capulet says, “By my count, / I was your mother much upon these years / That thou art a maid” (1. 3. 78-80). Punctuation is space / space. act, scene, lines Quoting Poetry When you are quoting more than three lines of poetry, you indent (2 tabs). When you set the lines in, you type the poetry exactly as it appears on the page; therefore, you will not need the slash marks because you are showing the line breaks. A Final Word Sources are used for support of points you are making. Make sure that they do, indeed, support the points and that they (quotes, paraphrases, summaries) are smoothly woven into your writing. You may need to follow the source with some explanation, but do not insult your reader by simply repeating what your source has just said.