Using Quotations Quote

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            By Deborah Long;
            Modified by D. Owen
   General Guidelines for
        Quotations
Use quotations to support a point
 you have made.
Avoid using too many quotations
 or unnecessarily long ones.
Make sure that your quotes have
 substance and give credibility to
 your points.
Do Not Use Quotations that. . .
come from an unacceptable source.
Ex. According to my mother,
   “Frankenstein is a wonderful horror
   story.”
Ex. Cliff’s Notes say, “Frankenstein
   has stirred the imagination of
   generations of readers (16).”
All quotes must be introduced or
           integrated.
 ►Introduced Quote:
  Critic Richard Horne asserts, “The
  monster created by Frankenstein is
  also an illustration of the embodied
  consequences of our actions” (261).
 ►Integrated Quote: More than
  anything else the novel functions as
  “an illustration of the embodied
  consequences of our actions” (Horne
  261).
Quote That Is Not Introduced
   or Integrated (error)

Frankenstein shows what happens when man
  forgets his responsibility to his fellow
  man. “The monster created by
  Frankenstein is also an illustration of the
  embodied consequences of our actions”
  (Horne 261).
Incorrect use of the quote—not introduced or
  integrated.
   Introducing Quotes--1
 You may introduce a quote with a verb
  such as “says,” but you should also look
  for other verbs that add variety (i. e.
  “comments,” “notes,” “asserts,” “claims”).
Example:
  Robert Walton claims, “I had rather die
  than return shamefully,--my purpose
  unfulfilled” (Shelley 160).
Note: If you introduce with a verb, you must
  put a comma after the verb.
   Introducing Quotes--2
You may also introduce a quote with a
 sentence and a colon.
Example:
  Robert Walton reveals his unbridled
 ambition when he discusses the prospect
 of abandoning his journey: “I had rather
 die than return shamefully,--my purpose
 unfulfilled” (Shelley 160).
Caution: Do not use a colon unless the
  words before it constitute a complete
  sentence and the quote is a logical
  support for that sentence.
      Capitalization Rules for
       Introducing Quotes
☀ Capitalization rules require that all introduced
  quotes begin with a capital letter. If your
  quote does begin with a capital letter, you do
  not have to change anything.
☀ If your quote does not begin with a capital
  letter and you are introducing it, you must
  change lower case to upper case. Anytime
  you make any changes to a direct quotation,
  you must use brackets [ ] to show that you
  have made a change. (See examples on next
  slide)
                   EXAMPLES
Elizabeth Nitchie observes, “The monster
 himself is the earliest creation of Mary’s
 and is probably her best, most subtle, most
 perceptive characterization” (275). (Quote
  began with a capital letter.)
Elizabeth Nitchie observes, “[T]he
 earliest creation of Mary’s . . . is probably
 her best, most subtle, most perceptive
 characterization” (275).
• Note: We will discuss the ellipses later in the presentation.
     Integrating Quotes
 Integrating the quote means making
 the quoted material part of your own
 writing.

Example: The novel illustrates “the
 embodied consequences of our
 actions” in the form of the monster
 himself (Horne 261).
Mechanics for Integrating
        Quotes
When you integrate a quote, you are
 making it part of your sentence; as a
 result, you may have to make some
 changes in the quote itself. The next
 2 slides show changes that are
 sometimes necessary when the quote
 is integrated.
          1. Capitalization
Integrated quotes may require that a capital letter be
   put in lower case.

Example: He evokes our sympathy because
“[t]he monster has the perception and desire
  of goodness, but . . . is delivered over to evil”
  (Birkhead 266).
Note: The position of “the” in the sentence does not
  require a capital letter, but it was capitalized in the
  original quote.
    2. Change in Verb Tense or
            in Person
Because the integrated quote is part of your own
  sentence, you may have to change verb tenses
  and/or person in order to maintain
  consistency.
Quote: “The forms of the beloved dead flit
  before me, and I hasten to their arms” (Shelley
  162).
Integrated: Victor confides to Walton that “[t]he
  forms of the beloved dead flit before [him],
  and [he] hasten[s] to their arms” (Shelley
  162).
 Parenthetical Documentation
• If the author of the quote is not identified in the text, place
  author and page number of the quote in parenthesis after
  the sentence but before the period.

          He evokes our sympathy because “[t]he monster has
          the perception and desire of goodness, but . . . is
          delivered over to evil” (Birkhead 266).

• If the author is identified in the text, you need put only the
  number of the page on which you found the quote.

       He evokes our sympathy because, according to
   Birkhead,
       “[t]he monster has the perception and desire of
   goodness, but . . . is delivered over to evil” (266).
      No Author? No Page
           Number?
• You MUST always give parenthetical
  documentation for every source even if no
  author is given.
• When no author is given, abbreviate the
  next piece of information. For example, if
  the citation begins with a title, use an
  abbreviated title:
     Title: “Romeo’s Quest for Love in
     Romeo and Juliet.” = (“Romeo’s Quest”
     13).
Note: Internet Sources DO NOT have page
  numbers; therefore, you must use an
  author’s name or, if the author isn’t given,
  an abbreviated title in the citation.
          Using Ellipses
Sometimes it is desirable to leave out
 part of a quote. When you do so, you
 must use an ellipses to show where
 you have left out the words.
“The monster . . . is also an illustration
 of the embodied consequences of our
 actions” (Horne 271). (See Whole Quote)


                           More on Ellipses
     “The monster created by
      Frankenstein is also an
     illustration of the embodied
      consequences of our actions”
     (Horne 261).
    In the previous slide the ellipses take
    the place of “created by Frankenstein,”
    the words left out.
                        More on Ellipses
         More about Ellipses
 Ellipses are typed with a space between
  each period (. . .)
 Ellipses are not necessary at the beginning
  of your quote.
 Ellipses are necessary if you take words
  out of the middle of the quote and if you
  end the introduced quote before the end of
  a sentence.
 If what you are leaving out includes more
  than one sentence, you will use four
  periods in the ellipses in addition to the
  final period after the citation.
•   Note: MLA no longer requires brackets around your inserted
    ellipses, but they may be used if you wish or if your teacher
    requires them.
        Long Quotations
           Setting In
• In general you should avoid long
  quotations, but if you do use a
  quotation longer than 4 lines (on your
  page), you must indent (2 tabs).
• When you indent a quotation, you do
  not use quotation marks unless the
  quote is a quote within a quote.
 Avoiding Long Quotations
Paraphrase the material: You might decide
 that you want to use the ideas of the critic
 but want to put the ideas in your own words.
 The paraphrase is the same length or longer
 than the original.
Summarize the material: You might
 summarize the material when you need to
 say in a sentence or two what the author has
 said in a paragraph or two. The summary is
 shorter than the original.
 With a paraphrase or a summary you do not use
  quotation marks; however, the information must be
  introduced and must have documentation
  afterwards.
              Caution

Separating your sentence with a quotation
longer than three or four words confuses
your reader.

Example of Awkward Separation
When Robert Walton says, “Great God! what
a scene has just taken place! I am yet dizzy
With the remembrance of it,” he is referring
to his first sight of Frankenstein’s creature
(Shelley 162).
             Quoting Poetry
Quoting poetry is somewhat different from
    quoting prose.
If you quote more than two or three lines of
    poetry, you need to use a slash mark (/)
    to show where the line breaks are.
Example: Lady Capulet says, “By my count, / I
    was your mother much upon these years /
    That thou art a maid” (1. 3. 78-80).

Punctuation is space / space.   act, scene, lines
      Quoting Poetry
When you are quoting more than
three lines of poetry, you indent
(2 tabs). When you set the lines
in, you type the poetry exactly
as it appears on the page;
therefore, you will not need the
slash marks because you are
showing the line breaks.
        A Final Word
Sources are used for support of
points you are making. Make sure
that they do, indeed, support the
points and that they (quotes,
paraphrases, summaries) are
smoothly woven into your writing.
You may need to follow the source
with some explanation, but do not
insult your reader by simply
repeating what your source has just
said.

				
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