Lunar Exploration by suchenfz

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									Lunar Exploration:
The Next Frontier
 Lunar exploration timeline
                                                  1990-2006 AD
    500 BC
                             1800 AD
                                                    Chemical
  Naked eye
                          Photographic             composition,
observations;
                              maps;                  Magnetic
 Size, Orbital
                             Origin of            characteristics,
characteristics,
                         craters & maria           Presence of
 Composition
                                                      water




           1600 AD
                                 1957 – 1976 AD                  2007 AD
        Telescopic                                            Multinational
                                  US & USSR
       observations;                                            effort to
                                    Landings
          Physical                                            return to the
                                 Composition of
       characteristics                                           moon
                                 lunar surface
                    Greeks

• Anaxagorus, c. 450 BC -
  Moon reflects Sun‟s light
• Democritus, c. 400 BC -
  Markings were mountains
• Aristarchus and
  Hipparchus, c. 200 BC -
  Measurements for size and
  distance
        Early Understanding
• Distance to Moon
  – Greeks: 375,000 – 460,000 km
  – Present: 384,400 km
• Circumference:
  – Greeks: 14,000 km
  – Present: 10,916 km
• Orbital Period: 27.3 days
• Nature
  – Stone sphere with an irregular surface
The 17th Century
       • Galileo Galilei – Started
         telescopic observation
         of the sky in 1610
       • Robert Hooke -
         Experimentally modeled
         lunar craters
       • Cassini - Best map of
         moon at the time
         Pre-Space Program
• Grove Karl Gilbert – In
  1893 correctly stated origin
  of craters and nature of
  maria, later proved by
  Ralph Belknap Baldwin
• Better maps thanks to
  photographry, culminating
  in 1935, with Fred E
  Wright‟s lunar globes
        Telescopic Discoveries
•   Lunar surface marked by craters and maria.
•   No water and no discernable atmosphere.
•   Impact origin of craters.
•   Basalt composition of maria.
•   Photographic plates increase accuracy of maps.
         Space Age Begins
• Sputnik 1, launched
  October 4, 1957, was
  the first artificial
  satellite
• Yuri Alekseyevich
  Gagarin
  – On April 12, 1961
    became the first man
    in space aboard the
    Vostok 1
  – Spent 1 hour, 48
    minutes in space
America’s First Steps
        • Project Mercury
          – Ran from 1959 to 1963
          – On May 5, 1961, put Alan
            Shepard into space for 15
            minutes and 28 seconds,
            the first American in space
          – Later John Glenn became
            the first American to orbit
            Earth
        • On Sept 12, 1962,
          President Kennedy rallied
          the American public
          behind the “space race”
Soviet Lunar Contact
      • January of 1959, the Soviet
        Union sent their first mission
        to the moon - Luna 1 did not
        impact as intended, and was
        instead the first lunar flyby
      • Luna 2 crashed as planned
        near Archimedes in Sept.
      • Luna 3 returned the first
        photos (very poor) of the far
        side in October.
     American Lunar Contact
• Ranger 4, launched in
  April,1962, is the first
  and still only contact
  with far side (intended
  to hit nearside!)
• Ranger 7 successfully
  crash landed in July,
  1964; sent real-time
  high resolution photos
  of Mare Cognitum
                Soft Contacts
• Luna 9
  – Feb, 1966
  – First soft landing
• Surveyor I
  – June, 1966
  – First study of lunar rocks
    and soils from a US soft
    lander.
           New Perspectives
• Lunar Orbiter 4
  – May, 1967
  – Most widely used lunar
    images ever obtained
• Surveyor 6
  – Nov, 1967
  – First spacecraft to take off
    from Moon (hopped 8 ft for
    stereo views)
         The Apollo Program
• Apollo 1
  – Jan 27, 1967
  – Fire kills three astronauts


 Program continues
 cautiously, using first
 unmanned and later
 manned missions
 from 1967-69 to test
 all the moon landing
 technology.
                   Apollo 11

• Apollo 11
  – July 20, 1969
  – Neil Armstong, Buzz Aldrin,
    and Michael Collins
  – "One small step for (a) man,
    one giant leap for mankind."
            The End of an Era
• Apollo missions continued landing men on the
  moon, closing with Apollo 17 in 1972. The Soviets
  never sent a manned mission to the moon.

• Luna 24
  – USSR
  – 1976
  – last lunar probe for
    25 years. Brought
    back samples of
    lunar soil.
               New Insights
• Astronauts experienced no atmosphere and low
  gravity
• Seismic stations installed – crust about 10%
  volume
• 382 kg of rock and soil from Apollo and Luna
  missions
• Regolith consists of mineral dust and rock
  fragments; the marias are basalt
• Old rocks allow study of Solar System history
Current Programs
       • Hiten
         – Jan, 1990
         – Japanese Lunar Orbiter
         – Failed to send back data.
       • Clementine
         – US Lunar Orbiter
         – 1994
         – Multi-spectral imaging of
           the entire lunar surface.
Current Programs
      • Lunar Prospector
        – US, 1998
        – Global mapping of
          radioactivity and elemental
          composition
        – Discovered polar water ice
      • Smart 1
        – Europe, 2003
        – Tested the solar-powered
          ion thruster
    Future: 2007 and beyond

• SELENE, LUNAR-A – Japanese projects to
  study the Moon‟s origin, evolution and
  tectonics.
• Chang„e 1 - Chinese
  lunar orbiter
• Chandrayaan 1 - Indian
  lunar orbiter and
  impactor
  The Vision for Space Exploration
• The US plans to return to the
  moon.
• The Lunar Reconnaissance
  Orbiter, developed at
  Goddard Space Flight
  Center, is to be launched in
  2008.
• A new Crew Exploration
  Vehicle is being designed,
  with new boosters to get it
  and additional payloads to
  the moon.
          Future for the US
• In the next year:
   – Orbital research using Lunar Reconnaissance
     Orbiter satellite
   – Develop Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)
   – Carry out robotic exploration of lunar surface
• Complete ISS by 2010
• First crewed flights by 2014
• Extended human missions as early as
  2015
• Human exploration no later than 2020

								
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