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					Attribution

              Week 2




                       1
Attribution
   Why use quotes in your stories?
       Add credibility
       Add color
   Direct quotes are personal
   Quote marks tell the reader that
    something special is coming
   [Don’t disappoint them]

                                       2
Attribution
   What goes between those quotation
    marks?
       The kernel of the comment in the speaker’s
        own words
       Striking statements
       Something significant
       Dialogue that “shows rather than tells”
       Quotes are for reaction and interpretation,
        not facts
                                                  3
Attribution
   Someone says something unique
       You’ve never heard it said that way before
       Clever
       Colorful
       Colloquial




                                                     4
Attribution
   Someone important says something
    important
       Adds credibility
       Adds interest




                                       5
Attribution
   Accuracy
       Exact words
       Verify
           Just because it is a quote doesn’t release you
            from making sure it is correct.
           People lie
           People mislead on purpose



                                                             6
Attribution
   Paraphrasing
       Clarify speaker’s statements
       Rephrase more clearly, usually with fewer
        words
       Paraphrases must be attributed, but they
        do not get quote marks.
       The speaker’s comments in your words


                                                    7
Attribution
   Partial quotes
       Better to paraphrase than to use partial
        quotes
       Use with phrases of special significance
            “evil empire”
            “axis of evil”




                                                   8
Attribution
   Partial quotes
       Ellipses (. . . )
            Readers are suspicious of what you omitted
            Easy to take things out of context and change
             the meaning




                                                             9
Attribution
   Dialect or Accent
       Don’t
       Exceedingly difficult to do effectively
       Can carry unintended prejudices




                                                  10
Attribution
   Correcting quotes
       Should you?
       Grammar
            Usually correct it
       Equal treatment




                                  11
Attribution
   Remove redundancies
       Paraphrase is your best bet
   Delete obscenity, profanity and
    vulgarity
       Must be a compelling reason to use them,
        even in a direct quote.



                                                   12
Attribution
   Avoid made up quotes
       Paraphrase
       PR exceptions




                           13
Attribution
   When to attribute
       Always on direct quotes
       Should be attributed to a person (a name)
            Avoid “authorities,” “officials,” “sources”
       Always when the statement expresses an
        opinion



                                                           14
Attribution
   You DO NOT need to attribute:
       Items that are public record
       Generally known information
       Information available from several sources
       Information that is easily verifiable
       Information that makes no assumptions
       Information that contains no opinions
       Noncontroversial information
                                                 15
Attribution
   Use “said or “says”
       “said” for past events
            If the source may not say the same thing again
             now
       “says” for coming events
            If the source is likely to say the same thing
             now
       Whichever one you use, be consistent
        through the story
                                                             16
Attribution
   Where does the attribution go?
       In a multiple-sentence direct quote, it goes
        at the end of the first sentence.
       Put attribution first only if it is necessary to
        help the audience be clear on who is being
        quoted.
       Don’t follow a fragment quote with a
        continuing quote that is a complete
        sentence
                                                       17
Attribution
   Source identification
       The first time a source is quoted, include
        full identification
            College Station Mayor Larry Ringer
       Can break long or detailed identification
        information into multiple segments if there
        is only one source quoted.


                                                     18
Attribution
     Put the person’s name or the personal
      pronoun before “says” or “said.”
     If the identification is long, you may put
      the “says” or “said” first
     Do not attribute direct quotes to more than
      one person




                                               19
Attribution
   Off the record
       Information may not be used
   Not for attribution
       May use the information but without
        attribution
   Deep background
       May use the information, but not indicate
        any source
                                                    20

				
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Description: Attribution Quote