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					APA Style--Review

College of Business and Organizational
Zelda says…..
Why APA style?
 Allows readers to cross-reference sources
 Provides a consistent standard across
 Gives the student credibility as a writer and
  protection from plagiarism
 Help students be more critical consumers of
  the information they read and select
Format basics
 Margins: One inch on all sides (top, bottom, left,
 Font Size and Type: 10-12-pt. font (Times Roman,
  Courier, or Arial are acceptable typefaces)
 Spacing: Double-space throughout the paper,
 Alignment: Flush left (creating uneven right
 Paragraph Indentation: 5-7 spaces
 Pagination: The page number appears one inch
  from the right edge of the paper on the first line of
  every page
  Level 1:
         Centered Upper- and Lowercase Heading
 Level 2:
    Centered, Italicized, Upper and Lowercase Heading
 Level 3:
Flush Left, Italicized, Upper and Lowercase Side Heading
 Level 4:
       Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading
   ending with a period.
Example of 2 levels:
                Management Styles

Example of 3 levels:
                Management Styles

      Taylor’s Carrot vs. Stick Method
Citing summaries

   Summarizing: condensing and restating
    another’s ideas in your own words
   Example:
    – Smith has written an entire book on how much
      she enjoys using APA format.
          Smith (2003) explains that APA is fun.
          APA is fun (Smith, 2003).
   Summarized information needs to be cited
    in both the text and the reference page
Citing paraphrases

   Paraphrasing: restating another’s ideas in
    your own words
   Example:
    – Smith’s direct quote on page 28 is as follow:
      “Using APA is great fun.”
          Smith (2003) explains that APA is fun (p. 28).
          APA is fun (Smith, 2003, p. 28).
   Paraphrased information needs to be cited
    in both the text and the reference page
Citing quotes
   Use block quotes when citing 40 or more words in a
    – Wu (2002) has found self-fulfillment through APA:
           APA citations have solidified my purpose and direction in life.
            Reading the Publication manual has helped me find structure
            and order in my chaotic, postmodern existence. As an
            instructor, one of my greatest joys is sharing this sense of
            order with others. (p. 174)
   WARNING: Avoid over-using block quotes in
    papers. Keep quotations, especially block quotes,
    to a minimum. Instead, use summaries and
    paraphrases whenever possible.
 In-text citations
A direct quote…                  (Bradley, 1998, p.276).

Paraphrasing with one author     (Bradley, 1998).
   …with two authors…            (Bradley & Calhoun, 1998).
   …with three to five authors
   (1st time only)               (Bradley, Calhoun, Davis & Fitch, 1998).

  …with three to five authors
  (following the 1st time)       (Bradley et al., 1998).

   …with six or more authors     (Bradley et al., 1998).
With no author, use the first
identifying words of the title   (“The Journey,” 1998).

   Bibliography: contains sources listed in
    the paper plus sources consulted in
    writing the paper
   References: contains only sources
    listed in the paper
   Use reference pages
Drucker, P. F. (1990). Managing the non-profit organization: Practices

    and principles. New York: Harper-Collins.

Herrington, J., Bonem, M., & Furr, J. H. (2000). Leading congregational

    change: A practical guide for the transformational journey. San

    Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

   Title: only first word of title, subtitles, & proper nouns in caps
   City, state: publisher
   Colon between place of publication and publisher
   Certain cities, no state or country needed
From Electronic Database:

Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H.,Puklakos, E. D., &
  White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisor performance.
  Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved
  October 23, 2000, from PsycArticles Proquest database.


Wilson, J. (1996). Direct mail: How to reduce your costs &
   increase your results. Evangelism, 10(4), 121-126.
Web Pages vs. Web Sites

   Web sites
    – Summarized information obtained through
      reviewing an entire web site
    – Cite the information within the text, but not in the
    – The APA Activists (
      website explains how students and professors
      can become more effective in promoting APA
      standards within academia.
Web Pages
Web Page
   National Consumers League. (1999). Helping
        seniors targeted for telemarketing fraud.
        Retrieved January 23, 2001, from

   Avoid passive voice
    – The fly ball was caught by Hernando
    – Hernando caught the ball
    – The transformer was struck by lightning,
      plunging us into darkness
    – Lightning struck the transformer,
      plunging us into darkness
   Avoid “be” verbs (wordy)
    – Burying nuclear waste in Antarctica would
      be in violation of an international treaty
          Use “would violate”

   Writing Center:
 A writer’s reference book

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