Information Literacy by wulinqing


									Columbus State University
       CSU Libraries
   Information Literacy
       Spring 2007

     Session Two
        Objectives for this session
   You will learn how to:
       Conduct the steps of the research process
       Evaluate materials for relevancy to your
        research goals
       Determine the validity of web sites
          The Research Process
   First, determine your information needs
       What is the type and length of the
       How many sources are needed? books,
        articles, Internet, etc.
       At what level of professional language does
        the assignment require?
          The Research Process
   Does the assignment require current
       Current topics require current information
       Retrospective projects sometimes require a
        balance or older and newer published
          The Research Process
   Second, analyze your topic
       Determine what large subject area your
        topic falls under.
       What aspect of the topic are you
       Under which discipline does your topic fall?
       Are there any other disciplines under which
        your topic falls?
          The Research Process
   Identify relevant subject headings
       Use paper tools such as the Library of
        Congress Subject Headings for a listing of
        standardized subject headings.
       In the library’s catalog, search for a known
        item in the author and subject headings
         The Research Process
   Identify keywords
       What are some synonyms for the subject
        you are searching?
       Are there any other words that closely
        describe your subject?
             The Research Process
   Boolean searching
       Combine the subject headings with the
        keywords to narrow or broaden your
        search. Use the following operator to
        narrow or broaden your search results
            “AND” to narrow
            “OR” to broaden
            “NOT” to narrow
               The Research Process
              How to Use Boolean Operators
          The Research Process
   Third, select the proper resources to use
       Search the library’s catalog for books, journals in
        print, or media available on your topic
       Search GALILEO for indexes, abstracts, and full-
        text articles on your topic
       Ask a reference librarian for assistance
       You will cover GALILEO more in Session Three
          The Research Process
   The final step in the research process is
    to evaluate your search results
       Are the search results relevant to your
        research topic?
         If no, then:
       Modify your search strategy of keywords
        and subject headings to broaden or narrow
        your results list.
         Evaluation of Materials
   Evaluate the content of your results list.
   Within your results list, some items will
       Primary and secondary sources
       Popular and scholarly sources
         Evaluation of Materials
   What are primary sources?
       Defined = manuscripts, records, or
        documents providing original research or
        documentation  (

       Example = someone’s original text, such as
        a diary, or actual scientific research
         Evaluation of Materials
   What are secondary sources?
       Defined = materials or sources that contain
        information that has been cited, translated,
        or based upon another--primary or original
        source (

       Example = criticism of a literary work or
        encyclopedic description of someone’s
         Evaluation of Materials
   What are popular sources?
       Defined = works written for a general
        audience by someone who is NOT an
        authority or expert in the field
       Example = Newsweek, Time magazine,
        Sports Illustrated, etc.
         Evaluation of Materials
   What are scholarly sources?
       Defined = works written for a specific or
        professional audience by someone who IS
        an authority or expert in the field
       Examples = journals that are “peer-
        reviewed” such as Journal of Accounting
        Research, Journal of Advertising, etc.
   Evaluation of Materials
The terms popular and scholarly do not
just apply to magazines and journals.
These terms can also be applied to
books, Internet sites, and other
resources as well.
   Evaluation of Web Sites
Evaluating web sites can be tricky. If
you use free Internet web sites, you
must determine if a site is intended as a
hoax or spoof or if it contains valid
   Evaluation of Web Sites
To properly evaluate a web site, follow
the steps provided on these next few
        Evaluation of Web Sites
   Step One: Who is the author of the
       Is the author identified?
       Are the author’s credentials listed on the
       Does the site indicate if the “author” is an
        organization or association?
            Evaluation of Web Sites
   Step Two: What type of site is it?
       Look at the domain name to determine the
        type of web site.
       The type of site will help indicate to you the
        purpose or validity of a web site.
       Use the following two slides to analyze the
        meanings of the web site domain names.
        Evaluation of Web Sites
   What do the domain names mean?
       .edu – supported by an educational
        institution (i.e.
       .org – created by any person or entity (i.e.
       .gov – produced by United States
        governmental institutions, agencies, and
        bureaus (i.e
        Evaluation of Web Sites
   Meanings of domain names, continued:
       .net – created by any person or entity (i.e.
       .mil – produced by a United States military
        agency (i.e.
       .com – created by any person or entity (i.e.
        Evaluation of Web Sites
   Step Three: When was the site created
    or last updated?
       Is the site current? (Note: an automated
        date does not mean the information was
       How long ago was the site last updated?
       Are the links from the site still active?
        Evaluation of Web Sites
   Step Four: Where can more information
    be found?
       Does the site provide a method to contact
        the author?
       Are factual statements documented in
        another source?
       If applicable, are links provided to other
        Evaluation of Web Sites
   Step Five: Why was the site created?
       Is the intention of the author to:
            Sell a product?
            Advocate an agenda?
            Inform the public?
       Are advertisements included? Are they
        relevant to the site?
        What have you learned?
   You should now be able to:
       Analyze your research topic and determine
        your information needs.
       Follow the steps of the research process to
        secure the most relevant information.
       Evaluate the materials found on your topic
        for a best fit to your research goals.
             What’s next?
    Expectations for Session three:
   In the next session you will learn to:
       Use available catalogs by CSU students,
        faculty, and staff
       Find physical items from the catalogs
       Operate a common database found in

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