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					                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:              Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             I. Read aloud
Read aloud                    Read the following passage aloud, making a pause between sense
Audiovisual supplements
                              groups.
                                                     Principles Are Lighthouses
                                                                               By Stephen R. Covey
                                   It was a dark and stormy night./ The officer on the bridge/ came
                              to the captain and said,/ ―Captain,/ Captain,/ there is a light in our
                              sea lane/ and they won‘t move.‖/
                                   ―What do you mean they won‘t move?/ Tell them to move./ Tell
                              them starboard right now.‖/
                                   The signal was sent out,/ ―Starboard,/ starboard./‖ The signal
                              came back,/ ―Starboard yourself.‖/
                                   ―I can‘t believe this./ What‘s going on here?/ Let them know
                              who I am./‖ The signal was sent out,/ ―This is the mighty Missouri,
                              /starboard./‖ The signal came back,/ ―This is the lighthouse.‖/
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                 My friends,/ correct principles are lighthouses,/ they do not
Read aloud                   move./ They are natural laws./ We cannot break them./ We can only
Audiovisual supplements      break ourselves against them./ We might as well learn them,/
                             accommodate them,/ utilize them and be grateful for them. /Then it
                             enlarges us/ and emancipates us/ and empowers us./
                                 T.S. Eliot once said something/ I think is appropriate/ as we
                             come to the conclusion of our visit together./ He said,/ ―We shall
                             never cease from striving,/ and the end of all of our striving/ will be
                             to arrive where we began/ and to know the place for the first time.‖/
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading      Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             II. Audiovisual supplements
Read aloud
                                              Film episode: American Beauty
Audiovisual supplements
                             Questions:

                                1. What‘s Ricky describing?
                                2. Do you think it is a kind of beauty? Why?

                             Answers for reference:
                              1. He is describing a kind of beauty — a plastic bag dancing in the
                                 wind.
                              2. Open answer.
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Ricky: It was one of those days where it‘s a minute away from
Read aloud
                                    snowing, and there was this electricity in the air. You can
Audiovisual supplements             almost hear it. Right? And this bag was just dancing ...
                                    with me, like a little kid begging me to play with it, for 15
                                    minutes. That‘s the day I realized that there was this entire
                                    life behind things and this incredibly benevolent force that
                                    wanted me to know that there was no reason to be afraid ...
                                    ever. Video‘s a poor excuse, I know, but it helps me
                                    remember. I need to remember. Sometimes there‘s so
                                    much … beauty … in the world. I feel like I can‘t take it …
                                    and my heart … is just going to … cave in.
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




Read aloud

Audiovisual supplements




                                                                       ■
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             I. Text analysis
Text analysis                      The text is a letter to a B student. In the letter the author
Structural analysis           analyzes what the grade means and doesn‘t mean, and tells the
Cultural background
                              student the way we should regard grades. In the end the author
                              illustrates the importance of learning and gives encouragement to
                              the student.
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:           Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading      Detailed Reading         Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             II. Structural analysis
Text analysis

Structural analysis           Paragraph 1              —            introduction
Cultural background           Paragraphs 2 – 5         —            purpose of writing: to put your
                                                                    disappointment in perspective by
                                                                    considering exactly what your grade
                                                                    means and doesn‘t mean
                              Paragraphs 6 – 8         —            distinction between the student as a
                                                                    performer in the classroom and the
                                                                    student as a human being
                              Paragraphs 9 – 10        —            perspective: the way we should regard
                                                                    grades
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             III. Cultural background
                                   American Education System versus Asian Education System
Text analysis
                                 America is the land of opportunity, which is famous for its
Structural analysis          democratic society and unique culture. People in America like to be
Cultural background          free, to do whatever they want to do without any restrictions. This
                             belief is reflected in the American educational system. In American
                             schools, teachers and students are at the same social level. Students are
                             encouraged to exchange their own opinions with the teacher. From an
                             early age, students in the American educational system have been
                             taught that they have the ability to achieve whatever they want to be,
                             but rarely been told how they can achieve their goal. Because of this
                             belief in natural born ability in the land of opportunity, students receive
                             very little pressure in school, so whatever they do in school is totally
                             based on their personal beliefs. The advantage of this kind of
                             educational system is that, it really develops student‘s individual
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                             thinking skills, and they are encouraged to try out different options to
                             achieve their goal.
Text analysis                    In Asian countries, the cultures and social standards are totally
Structural analysis          different from the U.S. In those countries most of their values are
Cultural background
                             based on Confucius which heavily stresses education and group
                             values. One‘s social status is based on his/her education level.
                             Starting from elementary school, students have been taught that if
                             you want to be successful in life you must have a good education,
                             and any other way is considered inappropriate. In the Asian school
                             systems, educators rank students by their scores. So, if your rank is
                             high you are a good student and you will have a good chance to get
                             into a good school. If your rank is low then you are a bad student
                             and it is a sign that you are going to be a loser. Nobody cares if you
                             are talented or not. Under these pressures, students compete hard
                             with other students. They study five hours a day just trying to gain
                             more
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             points in a test so they can get a higher rank. Through these efforts of
Text analysis                setting high standards it‘s no surprise that Asian students rank top in
Structural analysis
                             the academic achievement. The advantage of this kind of system is
                             that the school systems can provide the society year after year with
Cultural background
                             high quality personnel of the same academic standard.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                                Letter to a B Student
                                                                                          Robert Oliphant
                             Your final grade for the course is B. A respectable grade. Far
                         superior to the ―Gentleman‘s C‖ that served as the norm a couple of
                         generations ago. But in those days A‘s were rare: only two out of
                         twenty-five, as I recall. Whatever our norm is, it has shifted upward,
                         with the result that you are probably disappointed at not doing better.
                         I‘m certain that nothing I can say will remove that feeling of
                         disappointment, particularly in a climate where grades determine
                         eligibility for graduate school and special programs.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                             Disappointment. It‘s the stuff bad dreams are made of: dreams of
                         failure, inadequacy, loss of position and good repute. The essence of
                         success is that there‘s never enough of it to go round in a zero-sum
                         game where one person‘s winning must be offset by another‘s losing,
                         one person‘s joy offset by another‘s disappointment. You‘ve grown up
                         in a society where winning is not the most important thing — it‘s the
                         only thing. To lose, to fail, to go under, to go broke — these are deadly
                         sins in a world where prosperity in the present is seen as a sure sign of
                         salvation in the future. In a different society, your disappointment might
                         be something you could shrug away. But not in ours.
                             My purpose in writing you is to put your disappointment in
                         perspective by considering exactly what your grade means and doesn‘t
                         mean. I do not propose to argue here that grades are unimportant.
                         Rather, I hope to show you that your grade, taken at face value, is apt to
                         be dangerously misleading, both to you and to others.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             As a symbol on your college transcript, your grade simply means
                         that you have successfully completed a specific course of study, doing
                         so at a certain level of proficiency. The level of your proficiency has
                         been determined by your performance of rather conventional tasks:
                         taking tests, writing papers and reports, and so forth. Your performance
                         is generally assumed to correspond to the knowledge you have acquired
                         and will retain. But this assumption, as we both know, is questionable;
                         it may well be that you‘ve actually gotten much more out of the course
                         than your grade indicates — or less. Lacking more precise
                         measurement tools, we must interpret your B as a rather fuzzy symbol
                         at best, representing a questionable judgment of your mastery of the
                         subject.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                             Your grade does not represent a judgment of your basic ability or of
                         your character. Courage, kindness, wisdom, good humor — these are
                         the important characteristics of our species. Unfortunately they are not
                         part of our curriculum. But they are important: crucially so, because
                         they are always in short supply. If you value these characteristics in
                         yourself, you will be valued — and far more so than those whose
                         identities are measured only by little marks on a piece of paper. Your B
                         is a price tag on a garment that is quite separate from the living,
                         breathing human being underneath.
                             The student as performer; the student as human being. The
                         distinction is one we should always keep in mind. I first learned it years
                         ago when I got out of the service and went back to college. There were
                         a lot of us then: older than the norm, in a hurry to get our degrees and
                         move on, impatient with the tests and rituals of academic life. Not an
                         easy group to handle.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             One instructor handled us very wisely, it seems to me. On
                         Sunday evenings in particular, he would make a point of stopping in
                         at a local bar frequented by many of the GI-Bill students. There he
                         would sit and drink, joke, and swap stories with men in his class,
                         men who had but recently put away their uniforms and identities:
                         former platoon sergeants, bomber pilots, corporals, captains,
                         lieutenants, commanders, majors — even a lieutenant colonel, as I
                         recall. They enjoyed his company greatly, as he theirs. The next
                         morning he would walk into class and give these same men a test. A
                         hard test. A test on which he usually flunked about half of them.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                              Oddly enough, the men whom he flunked did not resent it. Nor
                         did they resent him for shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a
                         coercive one. Rather, they loved him, worked harder and harder at
                         his course as the semester moved along, and ended up with a good
                         grasp of his subject — economics. The technique is still rather
                         difficult for me to explain; but I believe it can be described as one in
                         which a clear distinction was made between the student as classroom
                         performer and the student as human being. A good distinction to
                         make. A distinction that should put your B in perspective — and your
                         disappointment.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Perspective. It is important to recognize that human beings,
                         despite differences in class and educational labeling, are
                         fundamentally hewn from the same material and knit together by
                         common bonds of fear and joy, suffering and achievement. Warfare,
                         sickness, disasters, public and private — these are the larger
                         coordinates of life. To recognize them is to recognize that social
                         labels are basically irrelevant and misleading. It is true that these
                         labels are necessary in the functioning of a complex society as a way
                         of letting us know who should be trusted to do what, with the result
                         that we need to make distinctions on the basis of grades, degrees,
                         rank, and responsibility. But these distinctions should never be taken
                         seriously in human terms, either in the way we look at others or in
                         the way we look at ourselves.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Even in achievement terms, your B label does not mean that you
                         are permanently defined as a B achievement person. I‘m well aware
                         that B students tend to get B‘s in the courses they take later on, just
                         as A students tend to get A‘s. But academic work is a narrow, neatly
                         defined highway compared to the unmapped rolling country you will
                         encounter after you leave school. What you have learned may help
                         you find your way about at first; later on you will have to shift to
                         yourself, locating goals and opportunities in the same fog that
                         hampers us all as we move toward the future.
                                                                                   1,052 words
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                                Letter to a B Student
                                                                                          Robert Oliphant
                             Your final grade for the course is B. A respectable grade. Far
                         superior to the ―Gentleman‘s C‖ that served as the norm a couple of
                         generations ago. But in those days A‘s were rare: only two out of
                         twenty-five, as I recall. Whatever our norm is, it has shifted upward,
                         with the result that you are probably disappointed at not doing better.
                         I‘m certain that nothing I can say will remove that feeling of
                         disappointment, particularly in a climate where grades determine
                         eligibility for graduate school and special programs.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                             Disappointment. It‘s the stuff bad dreams are made of: dreams of
                         failure, inadequacy, loss of position and good repute. The essence of
                         success is that there‘s never enough of it to go round in a zero-sum
                         game where one person‘s winning must be offset by another‘s losing,
                         one person‘s joy offset by another‘s disappointment. You‘ve grown up
                         in a society where winning is not the most important thing — it‘s the
                         only thing. To lose, to fail, to go under, to go broke — these are deadly
                         sins in a world where prosperity in the present is seen as a sure sign of
                         salvation in the future. In a different society, your disappointment might
                         be something you could shrug away. But not in ours.
                             My purpose in writing you is to put your disappointment in
                         perspective by considering exactly what your grade means and doesn‘t
                         mean. I do not propose to argue here that grades are unimportant.
                         Rather, I hope to show you that your grade, taken at face value, is apt to
                         be dangerously misleading, both to you and to others.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             As a symbol on your college transcript, your grade simply means
                         that you have successfully completed a specific course of study, doing
                         so at a certain level of proficiency. The level of your proficiency has
                         been determined by your performance of rather conventional tasks:
                         taking tests, writing papers and reports, and so forth. Your performance
                         is generally assumed to correspond to the knowledge you have acquired
                         and will retain. But this assumption, as we both know, is questionable;
                         it may well be that you‘ve actually gotten much more out of the course
                         than your grade indicates — or less. Lacking more precise
                         measurement tools, we must interpret your B as a rather fuzzy symbol
                         at best, representing a questionable judgment of your mastery of the
                         subject.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                             Your grade does not represent a judgment of your basic ability or of
                         your character. Courage, kindness, wisdom, good humor — these are
                         the important characteristics of our species. Unfortunately they are not
                         part of our curriculum. But they are important: crucially so, because
                         they are always in short supply. If you value these characteristics in
                         yourself, you will be valued — and far more so than those whose
                         identities are measured only by little marks on a piece of paper. Your B
                         is a price tag on a garment that is quite separate from the living,
                         breathing human being underneath.
                             The student as performer; the student as human being. The
                         distinction is one we should always keep in mind. I first learned it years
                         ago when I got out of the service and went back to college. There were
                         a lot of us then: older than the norm, in a hurry to get our degrees and
                         move on, impatient with the tests and rituals of academic life. Not an
                         easy group to handle.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             One instructor handled us very wisely, it seems to me. On
                         Sunday evenings in particular, he would make a point of stopping in
                         at a local bar frequented by many of the GI-Bill students. There he
                         would sit and drink, joke, and swap stories with men in his class,
                         men who had but recently put away their uniforms and identities:
                         former platoon sergeants, bomber pilots, corporals, captains,
                         lieutenants, commanders, majors — even a lieutenant colonel, as I
                         recall. They enjoyed his company greatly, as he theirs. The next
                         morning he would walk into class and give these same men a test. A
                         hard test. A test on which he usually flunked about half of them.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                              Oddly enough, the men whom he flunked did not resent it. Nor
                         did they resent him for shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a
                         coercive one. Rather, they loved him, worked harder and harder at
                         his course as the semester moved along, and ended up with a good
                         grasp of his subject — economics. The technique is still rather
                         difficult for me to explain; but I believe it can be described as one in
                         which a clear distinction was made between the student as classroom
                         performer and the student as human being. A good distinction to
                         make. A distinction that should put your B in perspective — and your
                         disappointment.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Perspective. It is important to recognize that human beings,
                         despite differences in class and educational labeling, are
                         fundamentally hewn from the same material and knit together by
                         common bonds of fear and joy, suffering and achievement. Warfare,
                         sickness, disasters, public and private — these are the larger
                         coordinates of life. To recognize them is to recognize that social
                         labels are basically irrelevant and misleading. It is true that these
                         labels are necessary in the functioning of a complex society as a way
                         of letting us know who should be trusted to do what, with the result
                         that we need to make distinctions on the basis of grades, degrees,
                         rank, and responsibility. But these distinctions should never be taken
                         seriously in human terms, either in the way we look at others or in
                         the way we look at ourselves.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         ... winning is not the most important thing — it‘s the only thing

                         Paraphrase:
                          Winning is of primary importance; nothing could be more important
                          than winning.

                              胜利不是最重要的,而是唯一重要的。
                         Explanation:
                            This is a special type of negation. The author is not negating the
                            importance of winning; rather, with the sentence that follows
                            the negative one, the author gives the utmost emphasis to the
                            importance of winning.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         e.g. To improve your oral English, practicing is not the most
                              important thing — it’s the only thing.
                         e.g. Ours is a time of information explosion; to keep up with the times,
                              updating our knowledge is not the most important thing — it’s
                              the only thing.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         To lose, to fail, to go under, to go broke — these are deadly sins in a
                         world where prosperity in the present is seen as a sure sign of
                         salvation in the future.

                         Paraphrase:
                          Being unsuccessful in one‘s life and career and financially
                          disadvantaged is regarded as shameful or even sinful because in this
                          world people tend to think that only those who are successful now
                          can be saved from evil in the future.
                              失利失败,倾家荡产是很可怕的过错,因为在当今世界,人
                              们认为眼下的兴隆发达预示着将来必能从困境中脱身。
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:      Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading      Detailed Reading    Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         ... when I got out of the service ...


                          Paraphrase:
                               ... when I got out of the army ...
                              ……当我退伍时……

                         Explanation:
                              Usually the plural form ―services‖ is used to refer to the three
                              armed forces, i.e. the army, the navy, and the air force.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         ... men who had but recently put away their uniforms and identities:
                         former platoon sergeants, bomber pilots, corporals, captains,
                         lieutenants, commanders, majors — even a lieutenant colonel ...
                              那些学生只是在不久以前脱下军装,变成普通人。他们曾经
                              是下士、中士、轰炸机驾驶员、中尉、上尉、指挥官、少校
                              或者中校……
                          Explanation:
                              Here ―men who had ... and identities‖ refers to former GIs, who,
                              like the author himself, had taken off their army uniforms and
                              changed their identities from servicemen to civilians. Many of
                              these men had been officers of various ranks.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         ... shifting suddenly from a friendly gear to a coercive one .

                               ……他突然从友善的样子变成严酷的模样儿。

                          Explanation:
                               The word ―gear‖ originally means a device in a vehicle which
                               controls the rate at which the energy being used is converted
                               into motion (排挡). While driving, a driver sometimes shifts or
                               changes gear (换挡). In our sentence, the shifting of gear refers
                               to the change in the instructor‘s manner of dealing with his
                               students. When drinking with the students in the pub, he was
                               easy-going and friendly; but in the classroom, he became stern
                               and severe.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                         It is important to recognize that human beings, … Warfare, sickness,
                         disasters, public and private — these are the larger coordinates of life.
                         Paraphrase:
                            It is important to see the fact that although they differ in their
                            class status and educational background, human beings are
                            essentially the same. First of all, they are, biologically speaking,
                            constructed in the same way, and then they all share the feelings
                            of fear and joy, and also the common experience of suffering
                            and achieving. This commonality has bound them together. All
                            of them will regard wars, diseases, and disasters, both private
                            and public, as unfortunate big events in their lifetime.

                              尽管社会阶级和教育背景不同,但是人们都由相同的物质构
                              成,被恐惧、快乐、痛苦、和成就这些人类共同的纽带联系
                              在一起。承认这一点非常重要。
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading      Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         norm n.
                         Explanation:
                             1) level of achievement most students are expected to reach;
                                what is considered as standard.
                          e.g. terrorists who violate the norms of civilized society

                              2) the usual or normal situation, way of doing something etc.
                          e.g.     Joyce’s style of writing was a striking departure from the
                                   literary norm.
                          e.g.     Short term contracts are now the norm with some big
                                   companies.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Practice:
                              Translate the following sentences into English:
                              1)犯罪行为似乎是这一带的正常现象。
                               Criminal behavior seems to be the norm in this neighborhood.

                              2)在社会中生活就要遵循社会行为准则。
                              You must adapt to the norms of the society you live in.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading      Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                          shift v.
                         Explanation:
                              1) to move or change from one position or direction to another
                          e.g.     The teacher shifted the chairs around in the classroom.
                          e.g.      The tools shift around in the boot every time we turn a corner.
                          e.g.      The wind shifted from east to north.
                           e.g.     You’ll have to shift yourselves to another room. I want to
                                    clean in here.
                             2)    transfer something
                           e.g.     He shifted the load from his left to his right shoulder.
                           e.g.     The president is shifting the focus of the debate to foreign
                                    policy issues.
                           e.g.    This simply shifts the cost of medical insurance from
                                   employer to employee.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         Explanation:
                             3) change (gear) in a vehicle
                          e.g. Shift up when you reach 30 mph.
                          e.g. Learn to shift gear at the right moment.
                              4) move quickly
                          e.g. You’ll have to shift if you want to get there by nine o’clock.

                         Collocation:
                            shift sth. (from A to B)
                         e.g. She shifted her gaze from me to Bobby with a look of suspicion.
                         e.g. Under these new arrangements, the emphasis has shifted
                              from state provision to personal responsibility.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:              Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Derivation:
                              shifty adj.
                         e.g. a shifty-looking person
                              shiftless adj.
                         e.g. a shiftless individual who never works and constantly borrows
                              from others
                           Practice:
                             Translate the following sentences into English:
                             1)观众在座位上不安地动来动去。
                                The audience shifted uneasily in their seats.

                               2)别想把责任推给别人,你得自己干这件事。
                               Don‘t try to shift the responsibility onto others: you must do the
                               job yourself.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading      Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         eligibility n.
                         Explanation:
                              the qualifications or abilities required for doing something

                         Collocation:
                            eligibility for sth.

                          Derivation:
                             eligible adj.
                           e.g. eligible to join a club
                          e.g. eligible for promotion
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Practice:
                              Translate the following sentences into English:
                              1) 她的资历和经验决定她适合做这项工作。
                               Her qualifications and experience confirm her eligibility for the
                               job.
                              2) 任何年满十八岁的公民都有选举权。
                              Anyone over the age of 18 is eligible to vote.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         inadequacy n.
                         Explanation:
                             1) being too low in quality or too small in amount
                          e.g. the inadequacy of local health care
                             2) fault or failing; weakness
                          e.g. the inadequacies of the present voting system
                          e.g. realize one’s personal inadequacy
                         Derivation:
                            inadequate adj.
                         e.g. An inadequate supply of vitamin A can lead to blindness.
                         e.g. The parking facilities are inadequate for such a busy shopping
                              center.
                         e.g. The teacher made us feel inadequate and stupid if we made
                              mistakes.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Practice:
                              Translate the following sentences into Chinese:
                              1) Unemployment can often cause feelings of inadequacy and
                                  low self-esteem.
                              失业常使人感到自信不足、自尊心受挫。
                              2) I always feel inadequate when faced with a difficult problem.
                              面对难题我总是觉得力不从心。
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         repute n.
                         Explanation:
                             reputation
                         e.g. a man of good repute
                         e.g. a hotel of some repute
                          Derivation:
                              reputed adj.
                         e.g. She is reputed to be extremely wealthy.
                              reputedly adv.
                         e.g. The committee had reputedly spent over $3000 on “business
                              entertainment”.
                  Letter to a B Student
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                             disrepute n.
                            e.g. Since the scandal, the school has rather fallen into disrepute.
                            e.g. The use of drugs is bringing the sport into disrepute.

                          Practice:
                              Translate the following sentences into English:
                              1) 他是个名不见经传的大学教师。
                               He has little repute as an academic.
                              2) 安迪在他的家乡臭名昭著。
                              Andy is a man of bad repute in his hometown.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         offset v.
                         Explanation:
                             to counterbalance or compensate for
                          e.g. In 1992 the cost of the layoffs was offset by the savings on
                               the payroll.
                          e.g. He was able to offset his travel expenses against tax.
                          e.g. Streaks of blond in his hair offset his deep tan.
                         Collocation:
                            be offset by
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Practice:

                              Translate the following sentences into English:
                              1) 他提高了售价以补偿材料成本的增加。
                               He put up his prices to offset the increased cost of materials.
                              2) 抵押贷款利率的提高,其中一部分可因免税额增加而相抵
                                 消。
                               Higher mortgage rates are partly offset by increased tax
                               allowances.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         go under
                         Explanation:
                             to fail; to be overwhelmed
                          e.g. The filling station went under because there were too many
                               others on the street.
                          e.g. His business went under because of competition from the large
                               corporations.
                          e.g. Poor Donaldson had no head for business, and it was not long
                               before he went under.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Practice:
                              Translate the following sentences into English:
                              1) 生意若无起色,公司非垮不可。
                              The firm will go under unless business improves.
                              2) 很多餐厅在第一年就倒闭了。
                              Many restaurants go under in the first year.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          go/be broke
                         Explanation:
                             to become penniless; to go bankrupt
                         e.g. I was flat broke in a strange town with nowhere to turn for help.
                         e.g. It is no use asking me for a loan of $5; I’m broke myself.
                         e.g. The business kept losing money and finally went broke.
                          Practice:
                           Translate the following sentences into Chinese:
                           1) A lot of small businesses went broke in the recession.
                           经济不景气,很多小公司都倒闭了。
                           2) The inventor went broke because nobody would buy his machine.
                             由于没有人愿意买那个发明者的机器,他最终破产了。
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                         shrug … away/off
                         Explanation:
                             to treat something as unimportant
                          e.g. She can shrug away her troubles and keep smiling.
                          e.g. He had a way of shrugging away criticism as though it were
                               beneath his notice.
                          Practice:
                            Translate the following sentences into Chinese:
                            1) I asked her where Sam was, but she just shrugged her
                                shoulders, i.e. to show she didn‘t know or didn‘t care.
                            我问她萨姆在哪儿,她只是耸了耸肩(表示不知道或与自己无
                            关)。
                            2) We can‘t just shrug these objections off.
                            我们不能轻视这些反对意见。
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         perspective n.
                         Explanation:
                            1) a way of regarding situations, facts, etc.
                         e.g. a distorted perspective of the man’s true intentions
                         e.g. That battle is of great significance when viewed in the perspective
                              of the progress of the war.
                         e.g. We must keep these minor details in perspective and not waste too
                              much time on them.
                         e.g. From a white male perspective, it’s hard to understand oppression.
                             2) a method of drawing a picture that makes objects look solid
                                 and shows distance and depth, or the effect this method
                                 produces in a picture
                         e.g. Children’s drawings often have no perspective.
                         e.g. The background is all out of perspective.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         Collocation:
                          in/out of perspective
                            showing the correct/incorrect relationship between visible objects
                         e.g. draw the buildings in perspective
                         e.g. That tree on the left of the picture is out of perspective.
                            in a way that does not exaggerate any aspect/that exaggerates some
                               aspects
                         e.g. get things badly out of perspective
                          Practice:
                            Translate the following sentences into English:
                            1) 他父亲的过世让他对生活有了全新的认识。
                            His father‘s death gave him a whole new perspective on life.
                            2) 作者是站在孩子的视角去写这部小说的。
                            The novel is written from the perspective of a child.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         put/see/view … in perspective
                         Explanation:
                            to judge the real importance of something by considering it in
                            relation to other things
                         e.g. You must put the story in its right perspective.
                         e.g. to see problems in their true perspective
                          Practice:
                            Translate the following sentences into English:
                            1) 他观察事物很正确。
                            He sees things in their right perspective.
                            2) 你应该用历史的观点看待这些事件。
                            You should see the events in their historical perspective.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         take … at face value
                         Explanation:
                            to accept something for what it appears to be
                         e.g. If you take his remarks only at their face value you will not
                              have understood his full meaning.
                         e.g. She took his stories at face value and did not know he was joking.
                          Practice:
                              Translate the following sentences into English:
                              1) 她好像够亲切的,可是我不应该信以为真。
                              She seems friendly enough but I shouldn‘t take her at her face
                              value.
                              2) 你不应该总是对他的话信以为真。
                              You shouldn‘t always take his remarks at their face value.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
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                         be apt to
                         Explanation:
                            to have the tendency to
                         e.g.    apt to be forgetful
                         e.g.    apt to be quick-tempered
                         e.g.    Some of the staff are apt to arrive late on Mondays.
                         e.g.    A Frenchman talked very rapidly, and was apt to become excited.
                         e.g.    Days in summer are apt to linger.
                          Practice:
                                Translate the following sentences into English:
                                1) 我的钢笔易漏墨水 。
                                My pen is rather apt to leak.
                                2) 粗心的人容易犯错误。
                                A careless person is apt to make mistakes.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         transcript n.
                         Explanation:
                         1) an official record of a student‘s school progress and achievements
                         e.g. Jane was in tears, holding her college transcript in hand.
                          2) written or recorded copy of what has been said or written
                         e.g. A transcript of the tapes was presented in court as evidence.
                         e.g. I was not present at the meeting — I’d like a transcript of her
                                speech.
                         Derivation:
                          transcribe v.
                         e.g. She jotted down a few notes, and later transcribed them into an
                              exercise book.
                         e.g. A secretary transcribed the witnesses’ statements.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
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                         transcription n.
                         e.g. errors made in transcription
                           Practice:
                             Translate the following phrases into Chinese:
                             1) the transcript of court testimony
                             法庭证词的纪录
                             2) an academic transcript
                             学生成绩报告单
                             3) transcript card
                             录制卡片
                             4) a transcript of the trial
                              审讯记录的文字本
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         proficiency n.
                         Explanation:
                          skill; ability
                         e.g. a high level of proficiency in grammar
                         e.g. a test of proficiency in English
                         e.g. There are ten tests, each of which corresponds to the listening
                               comprehension test of the proficiency examination.
                         Collocation:
                         proficiency in
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
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                         Derivation:
                         proficient a.
                         e.g. proficient in the use of radar equipment
                         e.g. proficient at operating a computer terminal
                         e.g. Martha’s proficient in Swedish.
                         Practice:
                            Translate the following sentences into Chinese:
                            1) Jack shows his proficiency in operating a switchboard.
                            杰克操作配电板十分熟练。
                            2) Proficiency viewed in the way I have been talking about is
                               often called achievement.
                            我一直提到的熟练,从这个角度来看就是常说的成就。
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
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                          correspond to
                           Explanation:
                           to match; to be similar or equal to
                          e.g. This word in English version corresponds to that phrase in the
                               French one.
                          e.g. The wing of a bird corresponds to the arm of a man.
                          e.g. In this engine the rotary section corresponds to the cylinders of
                               a conventional level.
                          Derivation:
                           corresponding a.
                          e.g. The corresponding chromosome in the other parent was found to
                               be defective.
                          e.g. All rights carry with them corresponding responsibilities.
                  Letter to a B Student
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                          Derivation:
                          e.g. The yield per unit area has risen steadily with a corresponding
                               increase in the income of members.
                           correspondingly adv.

                          Practice:
                            Translate the following sentences into English:
                            1) 美国的国会相当于英国的议会。
                            The American Congress corresponds to the British Parliament.
                            2) 第一季度的进口额与去年同期相比增长了百分之十。
                             Imports in the first three months have increased by 10 per cent
                             compared with the corresponding period last year.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:      Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading    Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                         retain v.
                         Explanation:
                          1) to keep; to continue to have
                         e.g. A copy of the invoice should be retained by the Accounts
                              Department.
                         e.g. It’s important that the elderly should retain a sense of dignity.
                         e.g. The police retained control of the situation.
                         e.g. He is 90 but still retains the use of all his faculties.
                          2) to keep facts in one‘s memory
                         e.g. She retains a clear memory of the incident.
                         e.g. She retained the tune but not the words of the song.
                  Letter to a B Student
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                          3) to make sure that you will have someone‘s help or services, by
                              paying for them before you actually have them
                         e.g. They decided to retain their own expense.
                         e.g. He retained the best lawyer in the state to defend his case.
                          Derivation:
                          retainer n.
                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1)我们装修房间时保留了原有的壁炉。
                                  We retained the original fireplace when we decorated the room.
                               2) 他虽然失去了工作,但仍然享有养老金。
                                  Despite losing his job he retains his pension.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                         assumption n.
                         Explanation:
                          1) what is thought to be true or will happen, without any real proof
                         e.g. A lot of people make the assumption that poverty occurs only in
                              the Third World.
                         e.g. I’m working on the assumption that the money will come
                              through.
                         e.g. the underlying assumption that scientific progress is always a
                               good thing
                          2) act of displaying (insincere feelings, etc)
                         e.g. Their assumption of an air of confidence fooled nobody.
                         e.g. She bustled about with an assumption of authority.
                  Letter to a B Student
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                          3) the act of starting to have control or power
                         e.g. the assumption of responsibilities
                         e.g. her assumption of supreme power
                         e.g. The new governor’s assumption of office takes place next Tuesday.
                          Derivation:
                          assume v.
                         e.g. A witness in a murder trial is assumed to know the facts in the
                               case.
                         e.g. He assumes a well-informed manner but in fact he knows very
                              little.
                         e.g. He himself is to assume the direction of the business.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                         Practice:
                            Translate the following sentences into English:
                            1) 我们假定明年通货膨胀率不再上升。
                                We are working on the assumption that the rate of inflation will
                                not increase next year.
                            2) 这一理论是以一系列错误的设想为根据的。
                               The theory is based on a series of wrong assumptions.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                         fuzzy a.
                         Explanation:
                          1) not clear
                         e.g. She gave a rather fuzzy account of what had happened.
                         e.g. Some of the photos were so fuzzy that it was hard to tell who
                              was who.
                          2) having short hair, fur etc. that stands upright
                         e.g. I stroked the kitten’s fuzzy back.
                         e.g. fuzzy hair
                         e.g. a fuzzy teddy bear
                          Derivation:
                             fuzzily adv.
                             fuzz v. & n.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1) 这些照片照得都不清楚。
                                  These photographs have come out all fuzzy.
                               2) 桃上有一层细毛。
                                  A peach skin is covered with fuzz.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                          humor n.
                         Explanation:
                          1) disposition, temperament
                         e.g. a boy of sullen humor
                         e.g. be in excellent humor
                         e.g. Danny reacted to these criticisms with his usual good humor.
                          2) the quality in something that makes it funny
                         e.g. Mr. Thorne failed to see the humor in the situation.
                         e.g. a story full of humor
                          3) ability to appreciate things, situations or people that are comic;
                              ability to be amused
                         e.g. She lacks humor.
                         e.g. He has a good sense of humor.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
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                          Derivation:
                          humorous a.
                         e.g. see the humorous side of a situation
                         e.g. good-humored
                         e.g. ill-humored
                           humorless adj.
                         e.g. a humorless style of writing
                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1) 我心情好的时候就去做。
                                  I‘ll do it when the humor takes me.
                               2) 其中的幽默不是一下子能领会的。
                                  The humor of it is not to be absorbed in a hurry.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                          ritual n.
                         Explanation:
                          1) fixed ways of doing things
                         e.g. The children performed the bedtime ritual of washing and
                               brushing their teeth.
                          2) a ceremony that is always performed in the same way, in order to
                             mark an important religious or social occasion
                         e.g. the ritual of communion in the Christian Church
                         e.g. The shaman performed the ritual on the young boy.
                         e.g. the ritual of the Japanese tea ceremony
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:        Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
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                          Derivation:
                             ritualism n.
                             ritualize v.

                         e.g. The old man’s birthday celebrations were ritualized over the
                              years by his many relatives.

                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1) 他照例填满烟斗,然后点着了。
                                  He went through the ritual of filling and lighting his pipe.
                               2) 有的宗教举行仪式时特别注重礼则。
                                  Some religions employ ritual more than others.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          frequent v.
                         Explanation:
                          to visit frequently
                         e.g. Many foreign ships frequent the new port.
                         e.g. The bar was frequented by actors from the nearby theater.
                          Derivation:
                          frequency n.
                         e.g. Fatal accidents have decreased in frequency over recent years.
                          frequent a.
                         e.g. His visits became less frequent as time passed.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1) 他从前常去镇上的酒吧和夜总会。
                                 He used to frequent the town‘s bars and night-clubs.
                               2) 游客们常去城郊的古庙游览。
                                 Tourists frequent the old temple at the suburbs of the city.
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:       Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                          flunk v.
                         Explanation:
                          1) to fail an exam, a course or a student
                         e.g. flunk biology
                         e.g. Tony flunked chemistry last semester.
                          2) give a failing mark to sb.
                          e.g. be flunked in chemistry
                          Collocation:
                           flunk out
                  Letter to a B Student
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                          resent v.
                          Explanation:
                           to feel bitter or indignant at
                         e.g. He resents having to get my permission first.
                         e.g. She greatly resented her brother’s refusal to help.
                            Derivation:
                              resentful a.
                         e.g. He was deeply resentful of her interference.
                         e.g. His daughters became increasingly resentful of his authority.
                              resentfully a.
                         e.g. “You should have told me,” said Marion resentfully.
                              resentment n.
                         e.g. bear no resentment towards anyone
                  Letter to a B Student
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                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1) 我对你的批评十分反感。
                                 I bitterly resent your criticism.
                               2) 她讨厌我呆在这里吗?
                                 Does she resent my being here?
                  Letter to a B Student
Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                         gear n.
                          Explanation:
                          1) the machinery in a vehicle that turns power from the engine into
                              movement
                         e.g. The car started with a crashing of gears.
                         e.g. Don’t turn off the engine while you’re still in gear.
                          2) a piece of machinery that performs a particular job
                         e.g. The landing gear of a plane has jammed.
                          3) a set of equipment or tools you need for a particular activity
                         e.g. He’s crazy about photography — he’s got all the gear.
                         e.g. We’ll need camping gear when we go away.
                         e.g. We’re only going for two days; you don’t need to bring so much
                               gear.
                         e.g. During this period, Japan’s export industries were in top gear.
                         e.g. The Republican’s propaganda machine moved into high gear.
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                          Compound words:
                          gearbox (车辆的)变速箱,变速器
                          gear-change 换档;变速
                          gear-lever/gear-stick/gearshift 变速杆
                          gearwheel 齿轮
                          Collocation:
                          gear sth. down (to sth.)
                         e.g. The period of exercise was geared down to ten minutes a day
                               for men over 60.
                          gear sth. to/towards sth.
                         e.g. Our effort is geared to a higher level of production.
                         e.g. Industry must be geared to wartime needs.
                          gear up (for /to sth.); gear sb./sth. up (for/to sth.)
                         e.g. The company’s gearing up for the big export drive.
                         e.g. I was all geared up to go on holiday, and now it’s been cancelled.
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                         Practice:
                            Translate the following sentences into English:

                            1) 那汽车有四个前进挡和一个倒挡。
                               The car has four forward gears and one reverse gear.
                            2) 离合器使用不慎可能损坏传动装置。
                               Careless use of the clutch may damage the gears.
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                          coercive a.
                          Explanation:
                           using force to persuade people to do what they are unwilling to do
                         e.g. coercive methods
                         e.g. coercive measures to reduce absenteeism
                            Derivation:
                              coerce v.
                         e.g. coerce sb. into submission
                         e.g. The rebels coerced the villager into hiding them from the army.
                              coercion n.
                         e.g. Andy said he had been under coercion when he confessed.
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                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1) 他被迫付了钱。
                                  He paid the money under coercion.
                               2) 他们被迫签了合同。
                                  They were coerced into signing the contract.
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                          hew v.
                          Explanation:
                           to shape or carve from some material
                         e.g. roughly hewn timber
                            Collocation:
                              hew sth. across/through
                         e.g. They hewed a path through the jungle.
                              hew sth. away/off
                         e.g. hew off dead branches
                              hew sth. out
                         e.g. hew out a career for oneself
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                          knit v.
                          Explanation:
                           1) to make things such as clothes by using two long needles to
                               connect wool or other kinds of thread into joined rows
                         e.g. She’ s knitting me a sweater.
                         e.g. Do you know how to knit?
                           2) (in knitting instructions) make a plain (i.e. not a purl) stitch
                         e.g. knit one, purl one
                           3) to join people, things or ideas more closely, or to be closely
                               connected
                         e.g. Wherever they live, the Jewish people are knit together by a
                               common faith.
                         e.g. a closely knit community
                         e.g. a closely knit argument
                         e.g. The broken bones have knit together well.
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                          Derivations:
                           knitter 编织者
                           knitting 编织物
                          Compound words:
                           knitting-machine 编织机
                           knitting-needle 编结针
                          Practice:
                               Translate the following sentences into English:
                               1) 这两集团因有共同利益而联合在一起。
                                  The two groups are knit together by common interests.
                               2) 她给儿子织了一件毛衣。
                                  She knitted her son a sweater.
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                          coordinate n.
                          Explanation:
                           1) (usu. pl.) one of a pair of numbers and/or letters that show the
                               exact position of a point on a map or graph
                         e.g. the x and y coordinates on a graph
                         e.g. coordinates of latitude and longitude
                           2) (pl.) matched items of women‘s clothes
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                               Vocabulary analysis
Vocabulary analysis

Grammar exercises               I. Word comparison
Translation exercises           II . Prefix
Exercises for integrated        III. Collocation practice
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                               Word comparison
                                Group 1: A. look like      B. play the role of C. regard sb./sth. as
Vocabulary analysis
                                           D. be wonderful for E. serve as
Grammar exercises               Explanation:
Translation exercises           A. Look like means to have the appearance of sb./sth.
Exercises for integrated        e.g. That photograph doesn’t look like her at all.
skills
                                B. Play the role of means to function.
Oral activities                 e.g. Such strikes have played an important role in the development
Writing practice                     of the trade union movement.
Listening exercises             C. Regarded sb./sth. as means to consider or think about sb./sth. in
                                   the specified way.
                                 e.g. I regard that movie as one of the worst I’ve ever seen.
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Vocabulary analysis              D. Be wonderful for means causing wonder or very surprising
Grammar exercises                e.g. The child’s skill is wonderful for his age.
Translation exercises            E. Serve as means to satisfy a need or purpose.
Exercises for integrated         e.g. This room can serve as a study.
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                               Group 2: A. set loose                 B. level off                C. cause to happen
                                        D. reduce in degree          E. offset
Vocabulary analysis

Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises            A. Set loose means to release sb./sth.
Exercises for integrated         e.g. Just close you eyes and let loose your imagination.
skills

Oral activities
                                 B. Level off means to become level after rising or falling.
Writing practice                 e.g. House prices show no sign of leveling off.
Listening exercises              C. Cause to happen means to cause to occur or take place.
                                 e.g. What caused this to happen?
                                 D. Reduce in degree means to make something smaller in degree.
                                 e.g. If the pressure is not reduced, the cylinder is likely to fracture.
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                                 E. Offset means to compensate for something or balance
Vocabulary analysis
                                    something.
Grammar exercises                e.g. He put up his prices to offset the increased cost of materials.
Translation exercises

Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                               Group 3:         A. translation          B. manuscript                 C. written text
                                                D. cassette tape        E. transcript
Vocabulary analysis
                               Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                                A. Translation means the product of rendering from one language
Translation exercises              to another.
Exercises for integrated        e.g. A literal translation doesn’t mean a good translation.
skills

Oral activities                  B. Manuscript means a written or typewritten composition or
                                    document as distinguished from a printed copy.
Writing practice
                                 e.g. He showed me the manuscript of his new play.
Listening exercises

                                 C. Written text means written or printed part of a book or page.
                                 e.g. This is the full written text of the Prime Minister’s speech.
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                                 D. Cassette tape means a plastic cartridge containing magnetic tape
Vocabulary analysis
                                    with the tape passing from one reel to another.
Grammar exercises
                                 e.g. I have lent her three cassette tapes during five days.
Translation exercises

Exercises for integrated
                                 E. Transcript means a written, printed, or typed copy especially a
skills                              usually typed copy of dictated or recorded material.
Oral activities                  e.g. I was not present at the meeting — I’d like a transcript of her
Writing practice                      speech.
Listening exercises
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                               Group 4: A. acquire a new identity B. sink in the sea of business
                                        C. become bankrupt D. fail in the exam E. go under
Vocabulary analysis
                               Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                                 A. Acquire a new identity means to get a new personality of an
Translation exercises
                                    individual.
Exercises for integrated
skills                           e.g. The murderer tried to acquire a new identity.
Oral activities
                                 B. Sink in the sea of business means to be engaged in business.
Writing practice
                                 e.g. John sank in the sea of business and he spent little time with
                                      his families.
Listening exercises
                                 C. Become bankrupt means unable to pay one‘s debts.
                                 e.g. The company became bankrupt because it couldn’t sell its
                                      products.
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                                 D. Fail in the exam means to be unsuccessful in the exam.
Vocabulary analysis              e.g. I passed in math but failed in French.
Grammar exercises
                                 E. Go under means to become bankrupt or fail.
Translation exercises
                                 e.g. The firm will go under unless business improves.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                              Prefix
Vocabulary analysis           1. inter-
Grammar exercises                Explanation:
Translation exercises            1) between, among, in the midst
Exercises for integrated         e.g. intercrop, interpenetrate, interstellar
skills
                                 2) reciprocal
Oral activities                  e.g. interrelation
Writing practice                 3) located between
                                 e.g. interstation
Listening exercises
                                 4) carried on between
                                 e.g. international
                                 5) occurring between
                                 e.g. interborough
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Vocabulary analysis              6) shared by, involving, or derived from two or more
Grammar exercises
                                 e.g. interfaith
                                 7) between the limits of, within
Translation exercises
                                 e.g. intertropical
Exercises for integrated         8) existing between
skills
                                 e.g. intercommunal, intercompany
Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                              2. trans-
Vocabulary analysis               Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                                 1) on or to the other side of, across, beyond
Translation exercises            e.g. transatlantic
Exercises for integrated         2) beyond (a specified chemical element) in the periodic table
skills                           e.g. transuranium
Oral activities                  3) through
Writing practice
                                 e.g. transcutaneous
                                 4) so or such as to change or transfer
Listening exercises
                                 e.g. transliterate, translocation, transamination, transship
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                              3. circum-
Vocabulary analysis              Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                                around, about
Translation exercises
                                 e.g. circumpolar
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                              4. mis-

Vocabulary analysis
                                 Explanation:
Grammar exercises                1) badly, wrongly
Translation exercises            e.g. misjudge
                                 2) unfavorably
Exercises for integrated
skills                           e.g. misesteem
Oral activities
                                 3) in a suspicious manner
                                 e.g. misdoubt
Writing practice
                                 4) bad, wrong
Listening exercises
                                 e.g. misdeed
                                 5) opposite or lack of
                                 e.g. mistrust
                                 6) not
                                 e.g. misknow
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                              5. con-
Vocabulary analysis              Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                                 with, together, jointly
Translation exercises
                                 1) com- before b, p, or m
Exercises for integrated         e.g. commingle
skills
                                 2) col- before l
Oral activities                  e.g. collinear
Writing practice                 3) con- before other sounds
                                 e.g. concentrate
Listening exercises
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                              6. anti-
                                Explanation:
Vocabulary analysis
                                 1) of the same kind but situated oppositely, exerting energy in the
Grammar exercises
                                    opposite direction, or pursuing an opposite policy
Translation exercises            e.g. anticlinal
Exercises for integrated         2) one that is opposite in kind
skills                           e.g. anticlimax
Oral activities                  3) opposing or hostile to in opinion, sympathy, or practice
Writing practice                 e.g. anti-Semite
Listening exercises
                                 4) opposing in effect or activity
                                 e.g. anti-acid
                                 5) serving to prevent, cure, or alleviate
                                 e.g. antianxiety
                                 6) combating or defending against
                                 e.g. antiaircraft, antimissile
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                               Collocation practice
Vocabulary analysis            1. essence
Grammar exercises             Explanation: inner nature; indispensable quality; the most important
Translation exercises                      part
Exercises for integrated      Examples:
skills
                              1) The essence of his argument is that capitalism cannot
Oral activities                  succeed.
Writing practice                 他的论点的核心是资本主义不能成功。
Listening exercises           2) She was the essence of kindness.
                                 她本性善良。
                              3) The essence of his religious teaching is love for all men.
                                   他宣扬的宗教教义要旨是爱天下人。
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Vocabulary analysis            2. deadly sins
Grammar exercises              Explanation: The phrase specifically refers to ―the seven deadly
Translation exercises                       sins‖: pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy
Exercises for integrated
                                            and sloth.
skills
                               Examples:
Oral activities               1) Andy confessed his sins to a priest.
                                 安迪向神父认罪忏悔。
Writing practice
                              2) Being late is an unforgivable sin round here.
Listening exercises
                                 迟到在这儿是一种不可原谅的过错。
                              3) It‘s a sin to stay indoors on such a fine day.
                                 这样的好天气呆在家里实在是罪过。
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                               3. misleading
Vocabulary analysis            Explanation: making you think or act wrongly
Grammar exercises
                               Examples:
Translation exercises
                              1) Misleading advertisements are prohibited by law.
Exercises for integrated
skills
                                 法律禁止有误导性的广告。
                              2) Some films are misleading.
Oral activities
                                 有些电影是具有欺骗性的。
Writing practice              3) The witness made a misleading description to the police.
Listening exercises              证人的描述误导了警方。
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                               4. conventional tasks
Vocabulary analysis            Explanation: tasks traditionally required of students
Grammar exercises
                              Examples:
Translation exercises
                              1) He made a few conventional remarks about the weather.
Exercises for integrated
skills
                                 他说了几句关于天气的客套话。
                              2) The conventional wisdom is that high wage rises increase inflation.
Oral activities
                                 人们普遍认同的看法是工资增长过快会加剧通货膨胀。
Writing practice
                              3) She‘s so conventional in her views.
Listening exercises              她的观点太保守。
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                               5. in short supply
Vocabulary analysis
                               Explanation: far from enough
Grammar exercises

Translation exercises
                              Examples:
                              1) These goods are in short supply.
Exercises for integrated
skills
                                 这些商品缺货。
                              2) Water is in short supply during summer days in this area.
Oral activities
                                 这个地区夏季缺水。
Writing practice
                              3) Teachers are in short supply in this town.
Listening exercises              这个城镇教师短缺。
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                               Grammar exercises
Vocabulary analysis
                                I.Definition
Grammar exercises

Translation exercises
                                II. Relative pronoun and relative clause
Exercises for integrated        III. Compound relative pronoun
skills
                                IV. ... not the most ... it‘s the only thing.
Oral activities
                                     ... enough ... Nor ... Rather
Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                                Definition
Vocabulary analysis             Nouns are naming words. They give titles to people, places,
Grammar exercises               things, and ideas.
Translation exercises
                                In English there are different types of nouns. First, nouns can either
                                be common or proper.
Exercises for integrated
skills                          i) Common nouns are general nouns. They do not begin with
                                    capital letters unless they start sentences.
Oral activities
                                ii) Proper nouns are nouns that refer to specific people, places, or
Writing practice
                                    things. They always begin with capital letters.
Listening exercises                 Nouns can also be concrete or abstract.
                                i) Concrete nouns are used to refer to physical objects.
                                ii) Abstract nouns are used to refer to a quality or idea.
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                               Practice:
                               Define the following nouns after examples.
Vocabulary analysis
                               Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                                 a glass A glass is a utensil that/which you can drink out of.
Translation exercises
                                 a surgeon A surgeon is a doctor who/that performs operations.
Exercises for integrated
skills                         1) a vacuum cleaner
Oral activities               Definition:
Writing practice                 A vacuum cleaner is a machine that cleans floors by sucking up
Listening exercises
                                 the dirt from them.
                              2) a jockey
                              Definition:
                                 A jockey is a person who rides horses in races.
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                               3) a chauffeur
Vocabulary analysis           Definition:
Grammar exercises                A chauffeur is someone whose job is to drive a car for someone
Translation exercises
                                 else.
Exercises for integrated
                              4) a thermometer
skills                        Definition:
Oral activities                 A thermometer is a piece of equipment that measures the temperature
Writing practice
                                of the air or your body.
Listening exercises
                              5) a teetotaller
                              Definition:
                                 A teetotaller is someone who never drinks alcohol.
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                               Relative pronoun and relative clause
                               Relative pronouns perform two functions at the same time. They take
Vocabulary analysis            the places of nouns as normal pronouns would, but they also connect
Grammar exercises              those replaced nouns to subordinate clauses. Briefly, a subordinate
Translation exercises
                               clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate, but that
                               does not make sense on its own. When a subordinate clause begins
Exercises for integrated
skills                         with a relative pronoun, we call it a relative clause or a nominal
                               relative clause. The relative pronouns are: who, which, that, what,
Oral activities
                               when, where, and why. They do not change form with gender,
Writing practice
                               person, or number. Only who changes form with case:
Listening exercises                        Nominative       who
                                           Objective        Whom
                                           Possessive       whose
                               Each relative pronoun refers to a certain type of noun — a person,
                               a place, or a thing — or some combination of the three.
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                               Who and its accompanying forms only refer to people.
                               e.g. The people who climbed that mountain are crazy.
Vocabulary analysis
                                    The people whom we saw earlier looked concerned.
Grammar exercises                   I saw the woman whose book won the literary award.
Translation exercises          Which refers to animals and things, never to people.
Exercises for integrated
skills
                                 e.g. The dog which tipped over my garbage needs a shorter leash.
                                      The crowd cheered as the plane which had flown around the world
Oral activities
                                      landed.
Writing practice
                                 That refers to people, animals, or things.
Listening exercises
                               e.g. The woman that witnessed the shooting will testify tomorrow.
                                    The camel that carried us through the desert has died.
                                    The explorers found the cave that hid the treasure for so many
                                    years.
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                               What refers only to inanimate objects, never to people or animals.
                               e.g. I saw what happened to your wallet.
Vocabulary analysis
                                    The expert mountaineer knew what he was talking about.
Grammar exercises
                                What is interchangeable with the pronoun phrase that which.
Translation exercises
                               e.g. I saw that which happened to your wallet.
Exercises for integrated
skills                              The expert mountaineer knew that which he was talking about.
Oral activities                 When refers to time.
Writing practice               e.g. Do you remember the time when we filled the pool with lime
Listening exercises                 jello?
                                    The day when I will have my revenge is coming soon.
                                Where refers to places or locations.
                               e.g. We returned to the place where we fell in love.
                                    This is the spot where he was last seen.
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                               Why refers to reasons.
                               e.g. No one knows the reason why the boss blew his top.
Vocabulary analysis
                                    I cannot tell you the reason why they behaved as they did.
Grammar exercises

Translation exercises

Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                                    Relative Pronouns in Relative Clauses
                                    Many of the subordinate clauses that relative pronouns
Vocabulary analysis
                                introduce modify the antecedents of these same relative pronouns.
Grammar exercises               Contemporary grammarians refer to subordinate clauses that
Translation exercises           modify nouns, pronouns, or other nominal as relative clauses.
                                Relative pronouns used in relative clauses always have antecedents.
Exercises for integrated
skills                              The guy who took our tickets gave me the creeps.
Oral activities
                                    We saw the plane that broke the air speed record.
                                    In the first example, the relative pronoun who introduces the
Writing practice
                                relative clause who took our tickets. The relative clause describes
Listening exercises
                                the subject of the sentence, the guy. That ticket-taker is creepy.
                                    In the second example, the relative pronoun that introduces the
                                relative clause that broke the air speed record. The relative clause
                                modifies the direct object plane in the main clause. The plane is a
                                record-breaker.
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                              Practice

Vocabulary analysis           Fill in each blank with a proper relative word. Use ―preposition +
                              relative word‖ if necessary.
Grammar exercises

Translation exercises          1. The element ________ writers may spend a majority of their time
                                              on which
Exercises for integrated          is development.
skills
                               Explanation:
Oral activities
                                    Each relative pronoun refers to a certain type of noun — a
Writing practice
                                    person, a place, or a thing — or some combination of the three.
Listening exercises                 Which refers to animals and things, never to people, while
                                    spend time on something is a phrase. The proposition on can be
                                    placed before the relative word which.
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                               2. Mr. Ford still talks like the man _____ he was ten years ago.
                                                                     that
                               Explanation:
Vocabulary analysis
                                   Each relative pronoun refers to a certain type of noun — a person,
Grammar exercises                  a place, or a thing — or some combination of the three. That
Translation exercises              refers to people, animals, or things. The relative pronoun that
                                   introduces the relative clause that he was then years ago.
Exercises for integrated
skills                         3. A ―goldbrick‖ is a person _____ will make all sorts of excuses for
                                                                 who
Oral activities                    not wanting to work.
Writing practice
                               Explanation:
Listening exercises
                                   Each relative pronoun refers to a certain type of noun — a person,
                                   a place, or a thing — or some combination of the three. Who and
                                   its accompanying forms only refer to people. The relative pronoun
                                   who introduces the relative clause who will make all sorts or
                                   excuses for not wanting to work. The relative clause describes the
                                   subject of the sentence.
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                               4. If I write a scene ______ somebody is hungry, I feel hungry. Or
                                                       where
                                   angry, I feel angry.
Vocabulary analysis            Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                                   Each relative pronoun refers to a certain type of noun —
Translation exercises
                                   a person, a place, or a thing — or some combination of the three.
Exercises for integrated           Where refers to places or locations.
skills
                                                           for whom
                               5. James Russell is a man _________ I have the greatest respect.
Oral activities
                               Explanation:
Writing practice
                                    Each relative pronoun refers to a certain type of noun —
Listening exercises
                                   a person, a place, or a thing — or some combination of the three.
                                   The relative pronoun whom introduces the relative clause whom I
                                   have the greatest respect for. The clause modifies the noun man,
                                   the antecedent of whom while have respect for somebody is a
                                   phrase. The proposition for can be placed before the relative word
                                   whom.
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                               Compound relative pronoun

Vocabulary analysis                The expanded form of the relative pronouns — whoever,
Grammar exercises
                               whomever, whatever — are known as indefinite relative pronouns.
                                   whatever or what ever:
Translation exercises
                                   You can use either whatever or what ever in sentences such as
Exercises for integrated       Whatever (or What ever) made her say that? Critics have
skills
                               occasionally objected to the one-word form, but many respected
Oral activities
                               writers have used it. The same is true of the forms whoever, whenever,
Writing practice               wherever, and however. However, you must use the one-word form
Listening exercises            when whatever is used as an adjective: Take whatever (not what ever)
                               books you need.
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                               1. whatever and commas:
                                  When a clause beginning with whatever is the subject of a
Vocabulary analysis
                                  sentence, do not use a comma:
Grammar exercises
                                  Whatever you do is right. Otherwise, a comma is fine: Whatever
Translation exercises             you do, don’t burn the toast.
Exercises for integrated       2. never with that:
skills
                                  When the phrase preceding a restrictive clause is introduced by
Oral activities
                                  whichever or whatever, that should not be used in formal
Writing practice                  writing. It is regarded as incorrect to write whatever book that
Listening exercises               you want to look at; instead you should write: Whatever book
                                  you want to look at will be sent to your office or Whichever book
                                  costs less (not that costs less) is fine with us.
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                               [1] Who or whoever is the nominative form. Use it whenever he (or
                               she, they, I, we) could be substituted in the who- clause. (If in no
Vocabulary analysis            doubt, mentally rearrange the clause as is done in parentheses after
Grammar exercises              each of the following examples.)
Translation exercises
                                [2] Whom or whomever is the objective form. Use it whenever him
Exercises for integrated       (or her, them, me, us) could be substituted as the object of the verb
skills
                               or as the object of a preposition in the whom- clause.
Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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                               e.g. Whoever wins the primary will win the election. (He wins the
Vocabulary analysis                 primary.)
Grammar exercises                   I will hire whoever meets our minimum qualifications. (He
Translation exercises
                                    meets our minimum qualifications.)
                                    I will speak to whoever answers the phone. (He answers the
Exercises for integrated
skills                              phone.)
                                    Please write at once to whoever you think can supply the
Oral activities
                                    information desired. (You think he can supply the information
Writing practice
                                    desired.)
Listening exercises
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                               e.g. Whomever you designate will get the promotion. (You
Vocabulary analysis                 designate him.)
Grammar exercises                   I’ll give the job whomever you think can safely recommend.
Translation exercises
                                    (You think you can safely recommend him.)
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                              Practice
                              Complete the following sentences with the appropriate words in the box.
Vocabulary analysis
                                 whoever wherever whatever however whenever whichever
Grammar exercises

Translation exercises
                               1.     ________ problems you may have, we will help.
                                      Whatever
Exercises for integrated
skills                         Explanation:
Oral activities                  Whatever in this sentence refers to regardless of what.
Writing practice               2.     ________ you go, I will follow you.
                                      Wherever
Listening exercises
                               Explanation:
                                 Wherever in this sentence refers to in any place,
                                 regardless of where.
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                               3. Take _________ book you like best.
                                       whichever
Vocabulary analysis            Explanation:
Grammar exercises                   Whichever in this sentence refers to regardless of which.
Translation exercises
                               4. He offered a reward to ________ should restore the lost ring.
                                                         whoever
Exercises for integrated
skills                         Explanation:
Oral activities                     Whoever in this sentence refers to regardless of who.
Writing practice
                               5. I may go ________ I please. You may come _________ you please.
                                           whenever                         whenever
Listening exercises
                               Explanation:
                                    Whenever in this sentence refers to at any time, regardless of
                                    when.
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                               ... not the most ... it’s the only thing.

Vocabulary analysis                This is a special type of negation. It is not negating the
Grammar exercises
                               importance of something; rather, with the sentence that follows the
                               negative one, it gives the utmost emphasis to the importance of that
Translation exercises
                               thing.
Exercises for integrated
skills
                               ... enough ... Nor ... Rather
Oral activities
                                  This special sentence pattern is to introduce a sharp transition.
Writing practice               The emphasis is placed on the part which is preceded by ―Rather…‖.
Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                              Practice
Vocabulary analysis           Translate the following sentences, keeping the sentence pattern above-
                              mentioned.
Grammar exercises

Translation exercises         1. 为了提高你的英语口语,练习不是最重要的事情,而是唯
Exercises for integrated         一重要的事。
skills                           To improve your oral English, practicing is not the most
Oral activities                  important thing — it‘s the only thing.
Writing practice              2. 我们的时代是信息爆炸的时代,为了跟上时代的步伐,不
                                 断更新我们的知识不是最重要的事,而是唯一重要的事。
Listening exercises
                                 Ours is a time of information explosion; to keep up with the times,
                                 updating our knowledge is not the most important thing — it‘s the
                                 only thing.
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                                3. 对一些教师来说,把他们的学生送进最好的大学不是最重
                                   要的事情,而是唯一重要的事情。
Vocabulary analysis
                                   For some teachers, sending their students to the best
Grammar exercises
                                   universities is not the most important thing — it‘s the only
Translation exercises              thing.
Exercises for integrated
skills                        4. 令人吃惊的是,他从未出过国,也没有当地人指导过他,
Oral activities                  但是他却通过模仿练就了一口当地口音。
Writing practice                   Surprisingly enough, he has never been abroad. Nor has he ever
                                   had a teacher who is a native speaker. Rather, he has obtained the
Listening exercises
                                   native-like accent by imitating.
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                               Translation exercises
                               Translate each of the following sentences into English, using the
Vocabulary analysis            word or phrase given in the bracket. Inflect the word or phrase where
Grammar exercises              necessary.
Translation exercises          1. 他因急性阑尾炎住院治疗,结果连期末考试都没考上。(with
Exercises for integrated          the result that)
skills
                               Notes:
Oral activities
                                 ―With the result that‖ usually refers to an effect or outcome of
Writing practice                something. And ―acute‖ here often describes an illness coming
Listening exercises             quickly to the most severe or critical stage. The opposite word is
                                ―chronic‖ which is used to depict a disease lasting for a long time or
                                continually recurring.
                                   He was hospitalized with acute appendicitis, with the result that
                                   he missed the final examination.
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                              Chinese-English translation:
Vocabulary analysis           1) 我在沐浴,没有听到电话声。
Grammar exercises
                                 I was in the bath, with the result that I didn‘t hear the telephone.
                              2) 我迟到了,没能赶上火车。
Translation exercises
                                 I was late, with the result that I missed my train.
Exercises for integrated
skills
                              3) 我不舒服,没有参加昨天的会议。
                                 I was sick, with the result that I didn‘t attend the meeting yesterday.
Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               2. 前来听讲座的人数远远超出原来的估计,分发给大家的讲义
                                  不够了。(go round)
Vocabulary analysis
                               Notes:
Grammar exercises

Translation exercises
                                ―More … than …‖ means a greater or additional number or amount
                               of sth./sb. Or it is used to emphasize that one thing is truer, more
Exercises for integrated
skills                         important etc. than something.
Oral activities                    As many more people came to the lecture than expected, there
Writing practice                   were not enough handouts to go round.
Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               Chinese-English translation:
Vocabulary analysis
                               1) 椅子不够坐。
Grammar exercises                 There aren‘t enough chairs to go round.
Translation exercises          2) 食物够每人一份吗?
Exercises for integrated
                                  Is there enough food to go round?
skills                         3) 食物不够这么多人吃的,女主人不知如何是好。
Oral activities
                                   The hostess didn‘t know what to do, as she hadn‘t got enough
Writing practice                   food to go round so many people.
Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               3. 不管一天工作有多忙,他在睡觉前总要看一下电子信箱里有
Vocabulary analysis
                                  没有新邮件。(make a point of)
Grammar exercises               Notes:
Translation exercises            ―Make a point of doing sth.‖ means to do something because one
Exercises for integrated        considers it important or necessary. No matter how/where/what etc.
skills
                                means that something is always the same whatever happens, or in
Oral activities                 spite of someone‘s efforts to change it.
Writing practice                   No matter what a long day he may have, he makes a point of
Listening exercises                checking his email box before going to bed.
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                               Chinese-English translation:
Vocabulary analysis
                               1) 我出门前总是要检查所有的窗户,看是否都关好了。
Grammar exercises                 I always make a point of checking that all the windows are shut
Translation exercises             before I go out.
Exercises for integrated       2) 我总是把新的成员介绍给董事长。
skills                            I always make a point of introducing new members to the chairman.
Oral activities                3) 珍妮总是要在睡觉前把所有的工作做完。
Writing practice                  Jane always makes a point of finishing all the work of the day
                                  before she goes to bed.
Listening exercises
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                               4. 世界各国都有失业问题,但各国政府处理这个问题的方法不尽
Vocabulary analysis                相同。(handle)
Grammar exercises               Notes:
Translation exercises            ―Vary‖ refers to be different in size, volume, strength, etc. The
Exercises for integrated        sentence ―Opinions vary on this point.‖ means that people have
skills
                                different opinions about this issue.
Oral activities
                                   Unemployment is found in all countries in the world, but the
Writing practice
                                   governments vary in their way to handle the problem.
Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               Chinese-English translation:
Vocabulary analysis
                               1) 演说者受到暴民的粗暴对待。
Grammar exercises                 The speaker was roughly handled by the mob.
Translation exercises          2) 这家商店不经营这类商品。
Exercises for integrated
                                  This shop doesn‘t handle such goods.
skills                         3) 我觉得她对此事的处理很了不起。
Oral activities                   I was impressed by her handling of the affair.
Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               5. 医生的一番话消除了他对手术的恐惧感。(remove)
Vocabulary analysis            Notes:
Grammar exercises                ―Remove‖ here means to cause something to disappear or eliminate
Translation exercises           something.
Exercises for integrated           The doctor‘s words removed his fears about the operation.
skills

Oral activities                Chinese-English translation:
Writing practice               1) 裁员的危险顿时消除了。
Listening exercises               The threat of redundancy was suddenly removed.
                               2) 母亲的话消除了她对约翰的疑虑。
                                  Mother‘s words removed her doubts about John.
                               3) 她用纸巾擦掉了脂粉。
                                  She removed her make-up with a tissue.
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                               Exercises for integrated skills
                               Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE word you think
Vocabulary analysis
                               appropriate.
Grammar exercises
                                    Student life at American universities is chaotic during the first
Translation exercises
                              week of each quarter or semester. Registering        (1) _____ classes,
                                                                                         for
Exercises for integrated      becoming (2) _______ with the buildings on campus, buying books,
                                               familiar
skills
                                (3)_______ and dropping classes, and paying fees are (4) ________
                                    adding                                                    confusing
Oral activities
                              for everyone. During this busy period there is     (5)_____ time for
                                                                                      little
Writing practice              students to anticipate (6) ______ they will later encounter in the
                                                            what
Listening exercises           classroom.
                                   International students, (7) __________ to their countries‘
                                                               accustomed
                              education expectations, must adapt to new classroom norms in a
                                 (8)_______ college or university. Whereas in one country prayer
                                     foreign
                              may be acceptable in a classroom, in another it may be (9) ________ .
                                                                                             forbidden
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                                In some classrooms around the world students must humbly         (10)
                                 ____ their teacher‘s commands and (11) ______ absolutely
                                 obey                                          remain
Vocabulary analysis
                                silent during a class period. In (12) ______ , students may talk, eat,
                                                                      others
Grammar exercises
                                and smoke during lectures as well as criticize a teacher‘s methods or
Translation exercises           even (13) _________ his or her statements. It is not always (14)
                                             contradict
Exercises for integrated        _____ to understand a new educational system.
                                 easy
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               for
Vocabulary analysis
                               Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                               Register for something means formally record a name, an event, a
Translation exercises          sale, etc. in a list.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               familiar
Vocabulary analysis
                               Explanation:
Grammar exercises
                               Familiar with something means having a good knowledge of
Translation exercises          something.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               adding
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Add here means to come together or unite by addition.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               confusing
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Confusing means difficult to understand or puzzling.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               little
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Little means not much, existing only in a small amount or to a
                               slight degree.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               what
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          What clause functions as the object of the verb ―anticipate‖.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
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Vocabulary analysis
                               accustomed
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Accustomed to means adapted to existing conditions.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               foreign
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Foreign here means related to or dealing with other nations. In this
                               sentence, foreign college and university refer to the college and
Exercises for integrated
skills                         university of other countries.
Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               forbidden
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Forbidden means not permitted or allowed.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               obey
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Obey one’s commands means to conform to or comply with
                               one‘s orders.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               remain
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Remain means continue to be, stay in the same condition.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               others
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Some ... others ... is a fixed pattern.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               contradict
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          Contradict means to imply the opposite or a denial of. In this
                               sentence, it indicates that students can challenge teachers‘ statement
Exercises for integrated
skills                         in some countries.
Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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Vocabulary analysis
                               easy
Grammar exercises              Explanation:
Translation exercises          According to the two totally different classroom norms, we can
                               conclude that it is not easy to understand a new educational system.
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               I. Converse with one of your classmates on the following topics.

Vocabulary analysis               You are a B student. This is disappointing to your parents because
Grammar exercises
                              they always expect you to be an A student. In a recent English test you
                              got another B. Now talk to your parent, exchanging ideas about grades
Translation exercises
                              with him/her. You will first play the role of the student and your
Exercises for integrated      partner as the parent. Then switch roles.
skills

Oral activities                Suggestions:
Writing practice
                                     The discussion can be based on the following aspects.
Listening exercises                  1) The student is satisfied with his grade B.
                                     2) The parent thinks grade B is not good enough.
                        Letter to a B Student
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                               II. Organize yourselves into groups of five or six and discuss
                                   the following issues.
Vocabulary analysis

Grammar exercises
                                  Regarding grades, opinions are divided. Some people think grades
                              are important because they are true reflections of the ability and the
Translation exercises
                              academic achievement of the students and have to do with their future;
Exercises for integrated      others think that while grades are necessary, they do not mean
skills
                              everything and should not be overemphasized.
Oral activities
                               Suggestions:
Writing practice
                                  The discussion can be based on the following aspects.
Listening exercises
                                  1) Grades are important. They‘re the true reflections of the
                                     ability and the academic achievement.
                                  2) Grades should not be overemphasized.
                              A sample discussion on the first topic: script
                              A sample discussion on the second topic: script
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                              (Student=S; Parent=P)

Vocabulary analysis            S: I got another B in English.
Grammar exercises
                               P: What! Why can‘t you tell me another grade? It‘s always been
                                   like that. Always B.
Translation exercises
                               S: Next time I will surely give you another grade. How about C?
Exercises for integrated       P: If you dare.
skills
                               S: I have tried my best. Who can imagine it is so tough.
Oral activities
                               P: If you had prepared well, you would have been much better.
Writing practice               S: No one got A this time. B is the best.
Listening exercises            P: Oh! Really? Do you think you are the best?
                               S: Of course not.
                               P: Ok. Go out and have your fun.
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                                  Group A thinks grades are important because they are true
                              reflections of the ability and the academic achievement of the students
Vocabulary analysis           and would determine their future. Group B thinks that while grades
                              are necessary, they do not mean everything and should not be
Grammar exercises
                              overemphasized.
Translation exercises
                                  Group A: Grades are important. Higher grades mean better career,
Exercises for integrated      better opportunity and better future. What can the employer rely on if
skills
                              he knows nothing about you? What can he know about you except the
Oral activities               ability reflected in your transcript? What can he entrust you to unless
Writing practice              judging from your transcript? The employer is busy so that he has no
Listening exercises           time to make personal meeting with you and spend a lot of time
                              discovering what you are and what you can do. If you were an
                              employer, what could you do before thousands of or even millions of
                              job applicants who are ready to tell you how qualified they are for the
                              job? You could do nothing but survey their transcripts quickly and
                              find out the person you need.
                        Letter to a B Student
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                                   Group B: We do not think grades unnecessary, but we should not
                               overemphasize it. Those who study very well are not necessarily
Vocabulary analysis
                               capable of doing what was reflected in the transcript. It is very
Grammar exercises              common that a man with high grades cheats in the examinations. It is
Translation exercises          very common that a man with high grades can not adapt himself to the
Exercises for integrated
                               new post quickly. It is very common that a man with low grades can
skills                         make remarkable and impressive achievements, too. Therefore, high
Oral activities                grades are necessary, but should not be overemphasized.
Writing practice

Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                               Writing practice
Vocabulary analysis
                                   It is reported that a schoolboy in China was criticized by his
Grammar exercises              teacher for breaking away from the conventional way of looking at
Translation exercises          spring by saying a lot of negative things about this season. The
Exercises for integrated       negative side of spring mentioned in his composition includes the
skills                         changeable weather, too much rainfall and quick spreading of
Oral activities                diseases such as flu. You are required to write a letter of about 200
Writing practice
                               words to a newspaper editor and in your letter first describe what
                               has happened and then express your opinion about it.
Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                               A sample essay:
                               Dear Editor,
Vocabulary analysis
                                   There was a report about a schoolboy in China who was
Grammar exercises              criticized by his teacher for not saying the conventional thing about
Translation exercises          the spring. He said that the spring is a season when weather changes
Exercises for integrated
                               frequently and people are contracted by illnesses, and the rainfall is
skills                         too much.
Oral activities
                                    I was stunned when reading the news. I think the teacher‘s
                               behavior is improper and he/she needs rethinking. Students are
Writing practice
                               always creative, conceiving brilliant new ideas from time to time.
Listening exercises
                               Be it about the way of thinking or the attitude to life, they hate to
                               follow the set pattern. Imagine what a student will think about when
                               he knows that he has to write about a season which he is very
                               familiar with. Choice No.1 is that he can follow suit by saying that
                               the spring is wonderful, which is what he hates to do. Choice No.2
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                               is that he can observe the spring from another perspective and
                               write about the things which few one notice or dare to recognize
Vocabulary analysis            in their writings. The student chose No.2 with the result that he
Grammar exercises              was criticized by his teacher. His creativity was not appreciated or
Translation exercises
                               recognized. His true nature was demeaned. As a result, he will
                               lose the courage to express his creative ideas in the future. If
Exercises for integrated
skills                         everyone in society dare not to speak out their original ideas, we
Oral activities
                               will suffer a lot.
                                    I hope that teachers would not restrict students‘ thinking again.
Writing practice
                               After all, diversity is vitality.
Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                               Listening exercises
Vocabulary analysis
                                                 Go to the Head of the Class
Grammar exercises              A. Listen to the report ―Go to the Head of the Class‖. Write in the
Translation exercises             left-hand column of the table below the five ideas that can
                                  help you leap to the top of the class. Then listen to the report
Exercises for integrated
skills                            again, and write in the right-hand column of the table the key
Oral activities
                                  words and phrases that best illustrate each idea. The first one
                                  is already given as an example.
Writing practice

Listening exercises




                                                                   ■          script
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                               1. Make reading automatic.
Vocabulary analysis              Key   key to school success / takes practice / automatic reader / read
Grammar exercises                      with expression / with sense of meaning
Translation exercises
                               2. Win equal opportunity in the classroom.
Exercises for integrated
skills                           Key   same classroom / different educations / no equal-opportunity
Oral activities                        education / discuss with teacher / let teacher know what‘s on
Writing practice
                                       your mind
Listening exercises            3. Learn to think.
                                 Key   lower mental process — rote learning / higher mental
                                       processes — problem-solving, analyzing, interpreting /
                                       improve thinking skills / gain in rote learning
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading      Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                               4. Have classmates help.
Vocabulary analysis              Key   teamwork / cooperative learning / reward / peer pressure /
Grammar exercises
                                       bonuses / self-esteem / value of cooperation / better attitudes
                                       toward classmates
Translation exercises

Exercises for integrated
                               5. Educate at home.
skills
                                 Key   home / better predictor of success / great impact / homework
Oral activities
                                       and reading / given priority / parents / encourage and praise /
Writing practice                       family members / talk and do things together
Listening exercises
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                  B. After listening, discuss the following two questions.
Vocabulary analysis
                               1. Do you agree with the saying ―Inside almost every poor to
Grammar exercises
                                  average student, there‘s a smart kid yearning to get out‖?
Translation exercises          2. What can you do to help bring your ―smart kid‖ out?
Exercises for integrated
skills

Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises




                                                                       ■          script
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                                                  Go to the Head of the Class
                                   How smart are you? How much can you learn? How high can
Vocabulary analysis            you climb? Until now, schoolchildren seemed frozen in place. An
Grammar exercises              average student in second or third grade paddled along, just fair to
Translation exercises
                               middling, until graduation from high school. A poor student
                               languished at the bottom of each successive class. Studies showed
Exercises for integrated
skills                         that more than four out of five students began and ended schools at
                               the same level of performance.
Oral activities
                                   It doesn‘t have to be that way. Benjamin Bloom, a professor of
Writing practice
                               education at the University of Chicago, supervised two separate
Listening exercises            research projects. In each, students were selected at random and
                               provided with private teachers. With this one-to-one instruction,
                               below-average students climbed to better-than-average, while
                               average students out-performed 98 percent of the boys and girls in
                               conventional classrooms.
                                                                         ■
                        Letter to a B Student
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                                    Bloom identified and tested five remarkable simple ideas aimed
Vocabulary analysis            at reproducing in the classroom the most effective components of
Grammar exercises
                               one-to-one instruction: attention, feedback, support, encouragement,
                               and self-esteem.
Translation exercises
                                    Here are the five ideas that can help you leap to the top of the
Exercises for integrated       class: 1. Make reading automatic. Reading is the key to school
skills
                               success and, like any other skill, it takes practice. A child learns to
Oral activities
                               walk by practicing until he no longer has to think about how to put
Writing practice               one foot in front of the other. And you do the same thing when you
Listening exercises            learn to read. You are not an automatic reader until you can read
                               with expression, with a sense of meaning of the sentences rather
                               than read one word at a time, without expression or meaning.


                                                                                       ■
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                              2. Win equal opportunity in the classroom. Sitting in the same
Vocabulary analysis           classroom, different students get very different educations. Teachers
Grammar exercises
                              often tend to give most of their attention to a handful of students,
                              usually the top third of the class. If you think that you are not getting
Translation exercises
                              an equal-opportunity education, discuss it with your teacher. Let your
Exercises for integrated      teacher know what‘s on your mind. Just raising the question will
skills
                              make your teachers take a closer look at what they‘re doing.
Oral activities

Writing practice

Listening exercises




                                                                                    ■
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                3. Learn to think. Are you learning to remember information —
Vocabulary analysis             or to use it? Do you memorize a math formula, or do you learn
                                how it applies to all the circles of you life? According to Bloom,
Grammar exercises
                                about 95 percent of today‘s teaching focuses on the ―lower mental
Translation exercises
                                process‖ — rote learning of grammar, multiplication tables,
Exercises for integrated        historical names and dates. Most teachers spend very little time
skills
                                on the ―higher mental processes‖ — problem-solving, analyzing
Oral activities                 and interpreting. When you improve your thinking skills there is a
Writing practice                gain in rote learning, too. Knowing what an idea or a principle
Listening exercises             means, and how it can be applied, helps you learn better and
                                remember longer.



                                                                                   ■
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                4. Have classmates help. More and more schools are trying
Vocabulary analysis             teamwork or, as educators call it, ―cooperative learning‖. There
                                are a number of ways to organize these teams, but two things are
Grammar exercises
                                essential. First, youngsters need a reward — praise, a certificate
Translation exercises
                                of recognition — for doing well as a team. Second, the teams‘
Exercises for integrated        success must depend on how well each member learns. It‘s the
skills
                                good side of peer pressure. There are also important bonuses to
Oral activities                 team study. Self-esteem goes up. Students learn the value of
Writing practice                cooperation and develop better attitudes toward classmates with
Listening exercises             different social backgrounds or physical handicaps.




                                                                                   ■
                        Letter to a B Student
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     Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                5. Educate at home. According to the experts, what happens in
Vocabulary analysis             your home is a better predictor of success in school than in any
                                I.Q. or achievement test. The home environment has a great
Grammar exercises
                                impact on how a child learns. It is as important as the quality of
Translation exercises
                                teachers or curriculum. In the homes of top achievers, homework
Exercises for integrated        and reading are given priority over play or television; parents
skills
                                encourage their children‘s intellectual interests and praise school
Oral activities                 achievement. Family members talk together and do things
Writing practice                together.
Listening exercises                Inside almost every poor to average student, there‘s a smart
                                kid yearning to get out. With these ideas, we can help to unlock
                                that potential.


                                                                                    ■
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




Lead-in questions            Lead-in questions:
Supplementary reading        1. Do you have any pressure when you are in college? What are
Memorable quotes                 they?
                             2. If you were a college student, would you like to choose a variety
                                of courses or just limited courses which could benefit your future
                                career?
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement



                                                         College Pressures
                                                            (Abridged)
                                                                                    William Zinsser
Lead-in questions                I see four kinds of pressure working on college students today:
Supplementary reading        economic pressure, parental pressure, peer pressure, and self-induced
Memorable quotes
                             pressure. It is easy to look around for villains — to blame the colleges
                             for charging too much money, the professors for assigning too much
                             work, the parents for pushing their children too far, the students for
                             driving themselves too hard. But there are no villains, only victims.
                                 ―In the late 1960s,‖ one dean told me, ―the typical question that I
                             got from students was ‗Why is there so much suffering in the world?‘
                             or ‗How can I make a contribution?‘ Today it‘s ‗Do you think it would
                             look better for getting into law school if I did a double major in history
                             and political science, or just majored in one of them?‘‖ Many other
                             deans confirmed this pattern. One said: ―They‘re trying to find an
                             edge — the intangible something that will look better on paper if two
                             students are about equal. ‖
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                 Note the emphasis on looking better. The transcript has become a
                             sacred document, the passport to security. How one appears on paper is
Lead-in questions            more important than how one appears in person. A is for Admirable
Supplementary reading        and B is for Borderline, even though, in Yale‘s official system of
Memorable quotes
                             grading, A means ―excellent‖ and B means ―very good‖. Today,
                             looking very good is no longer good enough, especially for students
                             who hope to go on to law school or medical school. They know that
                             entrance into the better schools will be an entrance into the better law
                             firms and better medical practice where they will make a lot of money.
                                 The pressure is almost as heavy on students who just want to
                             graduate and get a job. Long gone are the days of the ―Gentleman‘s C,‖
                             when students journeyed through college with a certain relaxation,
                             sampling a wide variety of courses — music, art, philosophy, classics,
                             anthropology, poetry, religion — that would send them out as liberally
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             educated men and women. If I were an employer I would rather
                             employ graduates who have this range and curiosity than those who
Lead-in questions            narrowly pursued safe subjects and high grades. I know countless
Supplementary reading        students whose inquiring minds exhilarate me. I like to hear the play of
Memorable quotes
                             their ideas. I don‘t know if they are getting A‘s or C‘s, and I don‘t care.
                             I also like them as people. The country needs them, and they will find
                             satisfying jobs. I tell them to relax. They can‘t.
                                 Nor can I blame them. They live in a brutal economy. Tuition, room,
                             and board at most private colleges now comes to at least $7,000, not
                             counting books and fees. This might seem to suggest that the colleges
                             are getting rich. But they are equally battered by inflation. Heating oil
                             is up. Insurance is up. Postage is up. Health-premium costs are up.
                             Everything is up. Deficits are up. We are witnessing in America the
                             creation of a brotherhood of paupers — colleges, parents, and students,
                             joined by the common bond of debts.
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                 Along with economic pressure goes parental pressure. Inevitably,
                             the two are deeply intertwined.
Lead-in questions                I see many students taking premedical courses with joyless tenacity.
Supplementary reading        They go off to their labs as if they were going to the dentist. It saddens
Memorable quotes
                             me because I know them in other corners of their life as cheerful
                             people.
                                 ―Do you want to go to medical school?‖ I ask them.
                                 ―I guess so,‖ they say, without conviction, or ―Not really.‖
                                 ―Then why are you going?‖
                                 ―Well, my parents want me to be a doctor. They‘re paying all this
                             money and ... ‖
                                 Poor students, poor parents. They are caught in one of the oldest
                             webs of love and duty and guilt. The parents mean well; they are trying
                             to steer their sons and daughters toward a secure future. But the sons
                             and daughters want to major in history or classics or philosophy —
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             subjects with no ―practical‖ value. Where‘s the payoff on the
                             humanities? It‘s not easy to persuade such loving parents that the
Lead-in questions            humanities do indeed pay off. The intellectual faculties developed by
Supplementary reading        studying subjects like history and classics — an ability to synthesize
Memorable quotes
                             and relate, to weigh cause and effect, to see events in perspective —
                             are just the faculties that make creative leaders in business or almost
                             any general field. Still, many fathers would rather put their money on
                             courses that point toward a specific profession.
                                  Peer pressure and self-induced pressure are also intertwined, and
                             they begin almost at the beginning of freshman year.
                                  ―I had a freshman student I‘ll call Linda,‖ one dean told me, ―who
                             came in and said she was under terrible pressure because her roommate,
                             Barbara, was much brighter and studied all the time. I couldn‘t tell her
                             that Barbara had come in two hours earlier to say the same thing about
                             Linda.‖
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading     Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                The story is symptomatic of all the pressures put together. When
                             every student thinks every other student is working harder and doing
Lead-in questions            better, the only solution is to study harder still. I see students going off
Supplementary reading        to the library every night after dinner and coming back when it closes
Memorable quotes
                             at midnight. I wish they could sometimes forget about their peers and
                             go to a movie. I hear the clacking of typewriters in the hours before
                             dawn. I see the tension in their eyes when exams are approaching and
                             papers are due: ―Will I get everything done?‖
                                 Part of the problem is that they do more than they are expected to
                             do. A professor will assign five-page papers. Several students will start
                             writing ten-page papers to impress him. Then more students will write
                             ten-page papers, and a few will raise the ante to fifteen. Pity the poor
                             student who is still just doing the assignment.
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                                 ―Once you have twenty or thirty percent of the student population
                             deliberately overexerting,‖ one dean points out, ―it‘s bad for everybody.
Lead-in questions            When a teacher gets more and more effort from his class, the student
Supplementary reading        who is doing normal work can be perceived as not doing well. The
Memorable quotes
                             tactic works, psychologically.‖
                                 Ultimately it will be the students‘ own business to break the circles
                             in which they are trapped. They are too young to be prisoners of their
                             parents‘ dreams and their classmates‘ fears. They must be jolted into
                             believing in themselves as unique men and women who have the
                             power to shape their own future.

                                                                                                   1,079 words
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             About the author           William Zinsser was born in 1922 in New
Lead-in questions            York City, and studied at Princeton University. He was a feature
Supplementary reading
                             writer, film critic, and drama editor for the New York Herald Tribune
                             and later a columnist for Look and Life, and has also written
Memorable quotes
                             numerous books. In 1971 he took a teaching position in the English
                             department at Yale University. He is the author of the best-selling
                             book On Writing Well: An Informal Guide to Writing Nonfiction
                             (1976).
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             They‘re trying to find an edge — the intangible something that will
Lead-in questions            look better on paper if two students are about equal. (Paragraph 2)
Supplementary reading
                                    ―edge‖ here means an advantage over others, as in the
                             expression ―have the edge on/over‖, meaning ―be slightly better than
Memorable quotes
                             someone or something because you have an advantage they do not
                             have.‖ What the dean means is that they try to find an advantage over
                             others, i.e. they try to have higher marks on their transcript so that
                             they will appear to be academically superior to others, especially
                             when two students are more or less the same. But the dean seems to
                             think that marks are not really very reliable and valid indications of
                             the real quality of the students.
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             ... sampling a wide variety of courses (Paragraph 4)      ... taking
Lead-in questions            numerous courses without necessarily going deep into any of them.
Supplementary reading

Memorable quotes
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             If I were an employer I would rather employ graduates who have
Lead-in questions            this range and curiosity than those who narrowly pursued safe
Supplementary reading
                             subjects and high grades. (Paragraph 4)       If I were an employer,
                             I would employ those students who take all these courses and thus
Memorable quotes
                             have a wide range of knowledge and are always curious about what
                             is new and unknown; I would not employ those who only take
                             those courses they can safely pass and score high marks.
                      Letter to a B Student
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                             But they are equally battered by inflation. (Paragraph 5)        But
Lead-in questions
                             they (the colleges) are as badly affected by inflation as the parents
                             and the students are.
Supplementary reading

Memorable quotes
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             We are witnessing in America the creation of a brotherhood of
Lead-in questions
                             paupers — colleges, parents, and students, joined by the common
                             bond of debts. (Paragraph 5)        Here in America we find a union
Supplementary reading
                             of colleges, parents, and students come into being; what they have
Memorable quotes             in common is that they are all in debt.
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading         Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             tenacity (Paragraph 7)              determination to continue what one is
Lead-in questions
                             doing
Supplementary reading

Memorable quotes
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             They are caught in one of the oldest webs of love and duty and guilt.
Lead-in questions
                             (Paragraph 12)         A web is a complicated pattern of connections
                             or relationships. Both the students and their parents find themselves
Supplementary reading
                             caught in a web: The parents, out of good intention, want their
Memorable quotes             children to take courses which they think are more profitable; the
                             children are not interested in these courses, but they feel they just
                             have to take them; otherwise they would suffer from a sense of guilt
                             because it is their parents who have paid for their education. Such a
                             web has long been in existence in human history, thus ―one of the
                             oldest webs‖.
                      Letter to a B Student
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                             Where‘s the payoff on the humanities? (Paragraph 12)           What
Lead-in questions
                             financial benefit can students get from courses in humanities? The
                             humanities are subjects such as history, philosophy and literature,
Supplementary reading
                             which are concerned with human ideas and behaviors. Such courses
Memorable quotes             do not usually lead immediately to profitable occupations as courses
                             related to law and medicine do.
                      Letter to a B Student
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    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             self-induced pressure (Paragraph 13)               pressure brought on by
Lead-in questions
                             the students themselves
Supplementary reading

Memorable quotes
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             The story is symptomatic of all the pressures put together.
Lead-in questions
                             (Paragraph 15)   The story indicates all the pressures combined.
Supplementary reading

Memorable quotes
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:              Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Questions for discussion:
Lead-in questions            1. How do you interpret the last sentence of the first paragraph
Supplementary reading           ―But there are no villains, only victims‖?
                             2. From Zinsser‘s quotation of a certain dean in the 2nd paragraph,
Memorable quotes
                                what idea do you get from the difference between the students in
                                the late 1960s and students of the time when the article was
                                written (presumably in the 1970s-1980s)?
                             3. Why do students, both of those who want to enter graduate
                                schools and those who just want to graduate and get a job, attach
                                so much importance to grades?
                             4. Zinsser obviously holds a different opinion from many of the
                                parents with regard to the courses the students should take.
                                Describe this difference and voice your own opinion.
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:              Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




Lead-in questions
                             5. According to the text, what mentality underlies peer pressure and
                                self-induced pressure?
Supplementary reading
                             6. As a college student do you feel any of the four pressures Zinsser
Memorable quotes                has described in the text? Is there any other pressure you feel?
                                Discuss with your classmates the pressure(s) you feel and try to
                                suggest a way ―to break the circles in which you are trapped‖.
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:              Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Answers for reference:

Lead-in questions
                             1. No one is really to blame for the pressures working on college
                                students, not the colleges, or the professors, or the parents, or the
Supplementary reading
                                students themselves. In fact, they (the colleges, the professors,
Memorable quotes                the parents and the students) are all victims.
                             2 The students in the late 1960s seemed to be more concerned with
                                what was happening in the world as a whole, and what they
                                could do to make our world a better place to live. The college
                                students of the time when the article was written were more
                                concerned about their own future and career, and they seemed to
                                be more egoistic.
                             3. To both of them, a good transcript will serve as a passport to
                                security. They want to look better so that they can either be
                                enrolled by a graduate school or find a good job.
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:              Section Two:     Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities    Global Reading   Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Answers for reference:

Lead-in questions
                             4. Most parents want their sons and daughters to take courses that
                                would lead them to occupations with good pay such as law and
Supplementary reading
                                medicine. But Zinsser would rather that they took a wide range
Memorable quotes                of courses in the humanities, such as philosophy, history, music
                                and religion, so that they would become liberally well-educated
                                men and women.
                             5. The mentality that underlies peer pressure and self-induced
                                pressure is the fear to be outshone by one‘s fellow students, the
                                fear to appear inferior to others.
                             6. Open to discussion.
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Memorable quotes
Lead-in questions            Please paraphrase the following quotes:
Supplementary reading
                             They are able because they think they are able.
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                                                                                                 —Vergil
                      Letter to a B Student
    Section One:             Section Two:      Section Three:     Section Four:              Section Five:
    Pre-reading Activities   Global Reading    Detailed Reading   Consolidation Activities   Further Enhancement




                             Natural abilities are like natural plants, that need
Lead-in questions
                             pruning by study.
Supplementary reading                                          — Francis Bacon
Memorable quotes

				
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