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					INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE

The Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Emissions Calculator is a tool that compares the
anticipated emissions from a CHP system to the emissions from systems using separate heat
and power (SHP). The CHP Emissions Calculator was originally developed with support from the
U.S. Department of Energy's Distributed Energy Program and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Enhancements have been supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CHP
Partnership.1

A user can select from a large number of different SHP system profiles, compare them to
a CHP system (characterized by the user), and estimate the carbon, CO2, SO2 and NOX emissions
from both systems and the corresponding emissions reductions achieved by the CHP
system. The CHP Emissions Calculator is intended to help CHP end users and other
interested parties calculate the emissions attributable to their CHP projects. In addition to
estimating emission reductions, the CHP Emissions Calculator presents the carbon equivalency
of these emissions reductions in terms of acres of trees planted and number of cars removed
from the road (see the Additional Information section below for more information).

The CHP Emissions Calculator is designed for users with at least a moderate understanding of
CHP technology and its terminology; therefore, a glossary of the terms that appear in the
Emissions Calculator is not provided here. If you would like to learn more about CHP
technologies, please visit   www.epa.gov/chp.

Please note that the results generated by the CHP Emissions Calculator are intended for
educational and outreach purposes only; it is not designed for use in developing emission
inventories or preparing air permit applications. All results achieved through the
independent use of the Calculator are subject to error and are not endorsed by the EPA
CHP Partnership. If you are interested in obtaining verified and endorsed Calculator
results for a specific project, please contact Anne Hampson at AHampson@icfi.com
(technical support contractor to the CHP Partnership.)

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

The primary components of the CHP Emissions Calculator are the Inputs and Results
worksheets. (Note: the CHP Emissions Calculator contains two additional worksheets
recommended for advanced users only. See the Additional Information section below for more
information about the use of these worksheets.)

Inputs

To use the Inputs worksheet, you will characterize a CHP system and an equivalent SHP by
completing each of the 29 numbered subsections. Each subsection contains a question, at least
one cell to complete or select, and a Submit button. To complete a subsection, you can choose
among three options:

1) Manually enter or select (from a pull-down menu) system-specific information.
2) Use default system information provided in the available MSExcel note (see below).
3) Skip the subsection.

The CHP Emissions Calculator provides concise instructions and default system information for
each subsection in the form of MSExel notes. To view the notes, move the mouse cursor over
the cell with a red triangle in its upper right-hand corner. When typing an entry into a field, press
the Enter key on your keyboard to complete your entry. After completing a subsection, click on
the corresponding Submit button before moving on to the next subsection.

Note that some subsections are not applicable to the CHP system or displaced SHP and
therefore do not have to be addressed by the user. (For example, if you were to select No from
the dropdown menu in subsection 15 regarding the existence of duct burners, you can then skip
subsections 16, 17 and 18.)

Once you have addressed all 31 subsections, click on one of the Check All Inputs and Go To
Results buttons located on the Inputs worksheet. This action will open the Results worksheet.

If you are having difficulty understanding how to complete the subsections, see the Example
below to view a diagram that explains the components of an example subsection.

Example
                  Subsection number                                                     Subsection question




                                                                                       Submit button
       Cells to complete. In this case, a user may      Note that each of these cells has a red
       choose an option provided by the pull-           triangle in the upper right-hand corner. This
       down menu OR enter the number of hours           means that additional information for this
       per year as a percentage.                        subsection is available. View by moving the
                                                        mouse cursor over the cell.



Results

The Results worksheet consists of several tables:

     Table 1 (colored white) presents a summary of the emissions information of the CHP
     system, the displaced SHP, and the corresponding emission reductions and relational
     benefits associated with the CHP system.

     Table 2 (colored green) presents a summary of CHP system information.

     Table 3 (colored blue) presents information about displaced thermal production.

     Table 4 (colored yellow) presents information about the displaced electric production.

The remaining tables provide additional emissions information about the CHP system and the
displaced electric and thermal production. The Results worksheet also includes two diagrams that
present the inputs and outputs of the CHP system and displaced SHP.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

More detailed documentation on the CHP Emissions Calculator is available by clicking on the
Documentation: Emissions Calculator icon at the top of the Input worksheet.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency supports CHP because of the significant cost-
effective emissions reductions that can be achieved by increasing efficient energy supply. The
average efficiency of fossil-fueled power plants in the United States is 33 percent and has
remained virtually unchanged for 40 years. This means that two-thirds of the energy in the fuel is
lost-vented as heat-at most power plants in the United States. CHP systems achieve effective
electrical efficiencies of 50 percent to 70 percent. This improvement in efficiency translates into
emissions reductions. These reductions can be converted into terms (called relational benefits )
that are more readily understood by the public. The CHP Emissions Calculator presents these
relational benefits in terms of acres of forest planted and numbers of cars removed from the road.
For example, when a CHP system is described as reducing emissions equivalent to planting
10,000 acres of forest, this means the difference in carbon emissions between the CHP system
and displaced SHP is equal to the atmospheric carbon annually sequestered by 10,000 acres of
forest. Likewise, when a CHP system is described as reducing emissions equivalent to 20,000
cars, this means the difference in carbon emissions between the CHP system and displaced SHP
is equal to the carbon emissions produced by 20,000 cars each year.

HELP US IMPROVE THE CHP EMISSIONS CALCULATOR

We welcome your input on the CHP Emissions Calculator's usability and functionality. Should
you encounter any bugs when using the tool, please report them via e-mail to EPA Technical Support
Contractor Anne Hampson Ahampson@icfi.com
                                                                                                               Document                Document
                                                                                                             Introduction:         Documentation:
                                                                                                           Emissions Calculator   Emissions Calculator

 1. CHP: Type of System                       Microturbine                                                                            Submit
                                                                                               4
                                                                                               1
 2. CHP: Electricity Generating Capacity (per unit)
                                           Normal size range for this technology is 30 to 250 kW
                                                                                                                                       Submit
                                                                                          60 kW

 3. CHP: How Many Identical Units (i.e., engines) Does This System Have?
                                                                                                                                        Submit
                                                                                               1

 4. CHP: How Many Hours per Year Does the CHP System Operate?
                                    7 days per week - 16 hours per day - 5,840 hours           3

                    As a number of hours per year                                       5,840                                           Submit
                            OR    As a percentage                                         0%

 5. CHP: Does the System Provide Heating or Cooling or Both?
                                                      Heating Only                             1

      If Heating and Cooling: How many of the 5,840 hours are in cooling mode?
                     As a number of hours per year                             -
               as a percentage of the 5,840 hours?                              0%
                                                                                                                                        Submit
      If Heating and Cooling: Does the System Provide Simultaneous Heating and Cooling?
                                                      No                                       2

 6. CHP: Fuel
                                          Fuel Type    Natural Gas                             1

                                                                                                                                         Submit


 7. CHP: If Diesel, Distillate, Coal or Other: What is the Sulfur Content?                    High sulfur oil: 0.15% or 1,500
                             I will enter a value in one        or                            Low sulfur oil: 0.05% or 500 ppm
 0                             of the following blocks
                                                                                               Ultra low sulfur diesel: 15 ppm

          Enter Sulfur Content of Fuel as a percent                                    0.000%                                             Submit
                                          OR ppm                                          -        ppm

 8. CHP: What is the CO2 Emission Rate for this Fuel? (default completed for fuel in Item 6)
                                                                                                                                          Submit
                         Enter alternative value:                         116.7 lb CO2/MMBtu

 9. CHP: What is the Heat Content of this Fuel? (Enter a value in only ONE of the boxes)
                                                                          1,020 Btu/cubic foot (HHV)
                                           OR                                -    Btu/gallon (HHV)                                        Submit
                                           OR                                -    Btu/lb (HHV)


 10. CHP: Boiler Steam To Process (Steam Turbine CHP Only)


           Boiler Steam to Process as lb Steam/hr                                              0
      Boiler Steam to Process as MMBtu Steam/hr                                                0



 11. CHP: Steam Turbine System Boiler Efficiency (Steam Turbine CHP Only)




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                                                                                                    Document                Document
                                                                                                  Introduction:         Documentation:
                                                                                                Emissions Calculator   Emissions Calculator

                                                                                                                           Submit
                      Enter Boiler Efficiency as %                              83%


 12. CHP: Electric Efficiency
                                 I will enter an efficiency in one
                                                                     Use default for this technology
                                       of the following blocks
 1
                 Enter Generating Efficiency as %                               25% (HHV)
  OR Enter Generating Efficiency as Btu/kWh HHV                              13,407 Btu/kWh (HHV)
                                                                                                                               Submit
  OR Enter Generating Efficiency as Btu/kWh LHV                              12,200 Btu/kWh (LHV)




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                                                                                                             Document                Document
                                                                                                           Introduction:         Documentation:
                                                                                                         Emissions Calculator   Emissions Calculator


 13. CHP: Base Power to Heat Ratio                                                                                    Submit
       The Power to Heat Ratio should reflect the ONLY thermal production of the generating unit (i.e., combustion turbine).
       Thermal Output of the duct burners (if equipped) should not be included.
                                                                                                             Use the Thermal
                                I will enter a Power to Heat ratio   Use default for this technology      Calculator to calculate
                                                                                                          my Power to Heat Ratio
                              Power to Heat Ratio                               0.70
                                                                                                                                         Submit


 14. CHP: NOx Emission Rate
                                                                    Use default emissions for this technology.
                                   I will enter a NOx rate in one   Note: Default emissions are without aftertreatment. Some areas may require add-on
                                       of the following blocks      controls and you will need to enter an emission rate based on your local requirements.
 1                                                                                         2
                                                                    SCR can reduce emissions by up to 90%


               Enter a NOx Rate as ppm (15% O2)                                       9.0 ppm
             OR     Enter a NOx Rate as gm/hp-hr                                      -       gm/hp-hr
             OR     Enter a NOx Rate as lb/MMBtu                                   0.036 lb NOx/MMBtu                                   Submit
             OR       Enter a NOx Rate as lb/MWh                                   0.479 lb NOx/MWh

 15. Duct Burners: Does the System Incorporate Duct Burners?
                                                                                                                                        Submit
 0                                                  No                                    2

 16. Duct Burners: What is the Total Fuel Input Capacity of the Burners for Each CHP Unit?
      For reference, the Microturbine has a heat input of .8 MMBtu/hr
                                                                                                                                         Submit
                                                                             -   MMBtu/hr

 17. Duct Burners: The CHP system operates 5,840 hours per year. How much do the duct burners operate?
                   As a number of hours per year                       -                                                                 Submit
             As a percentage of the 5,840 hours?                        0%                                                                                   0

 18. Duct Burners: NOx Emission Rate for the Duct Burners
                                            I will enter a NOx rate in one
                                                                                Use default for this technology
                                                                                      2
                                                of the following blocks

 0
                                                                                                                                         Submit
 0                                                                                    -       lb/MMBtu
                                             OR                                       -       ppm NOx at 15% O2

 19. Cooling: Does the CHP Provide Cooling?         No
                                                                                                                                         Submit
                                                  2 You indicated No Cooling in Item 5

 20. Cooling: Type of Absorption Chiller Used?                                                                                                               0
                                                                                      -
                                                                                                                                          Submit
                Coefficient of Performance (COP)                                      -




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                                                                                                              Document                Document
                                                                                                            Introduction:         Documentation:
                                                                                                          Emissions Calculator   Emissions Calculator

 21. Cooling: What is the Cooling Capacity of the System?                                                                            Submit               0
     Based on your other entries, the maximum cooling capacity is . tons or . MMBtu/hr of cooling

 (Enter a value in only ONE of the boxes)                                                 -       Cooling Tons
                                                                                          -       OR MMBtu per Hour of Cooling
                                                                                                                                           Submit



 22. Displaced Cooling: What is the Efficiency of the Cooling System that is Being Displaced?
                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                                                          0
 (Enter a value in only ONE of the boxes)
                  Electricity Demand (kW per ton)                                         -                                               Submit
          OR Coefficient of Performance (COP)                                             -

 23. Displaced Thermal: Type of System:
                                                       Existing Gas Boiler
                                                                                                                                          Submit
                                                                                              1

 24. Displaced Thermal: If not a Natural Gas System: What is the Sulfur Content?
                                                                             Commercial coal: 1% sulfur
                                                                                           1
                                      I will enter a value or          High sulfur oil: 0.15% or 1,500 ppm
                                                                        Low sulfur oil: 0.05% or 500 ppm
                                                   0
                 Enter Sulfur Content as a percent                                     0.00%                                              Submit
                                         OR    ppm                                        -       ppm

 25. Displaced Thermal: What is the CO2 Emission Rate for this Fuel? (default completed for fuel in Item 23)
                         Enter alternative value:                       116.7 lb CO2/MMBtu
                                                                                                                                           Submit


 26. Displaced Thermal: What is the Heat Content of this Fuel? (Enter a value in only ONE of the boxes)
                                                                          1,020 Btu/cubic foot (HHV)
                                          OR                                 -    Btu/gallon (HHV)
                                          OR                                 -    Btu/lb (HHV)
                                                                                                                                           Submit


 27. Displaced Thermal: Efficiency (usually a boiler)
                                      I will enter an efficiency               Use default for this thermal technology

                  Enter Generating Efficiency as %                                       80%
                                                                                                                                           Submit




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                                                                                                 Document                Document
                                                                                               Introduction:         Documentation:
                                                                                             Emissions Calculator   Emissions Calculator

 28. Displaced Thermal Production: NOx Emission Rate                                                                    Submit

                                   I will enter the NOx rate          Use default for NOx rate
                                          NOx Rate                          0.100 lb NOx/MMBtu
                                                                                                                              Submit


 29. Displaced Electricity: Generation Profile
                       eGRID Average Non-Baseload 2005                                  Modify one of the Three
                                                                                  3     User-Defined Generating
    Link to EPA's eGRID (Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database)                  Sources                        Submit


 30. Displaced Electricity: Select U.S. Average or individual state or NERC region/subregion for EGRID Data
                                                                                                                               Submit
                                                         US Average
                                                                                  1
                                                                                                     Document




                                                                                                                               Submit
 31. Displaced Electricity: Transmission Losses                                 7%




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                           CHP Results


                           The results generated by the CHP Emissions Calculator are intended for eductional and outreach purposes only;
                           it is not designed for use in developing emission inventories or preparing air permit applications.

                           The results of this analysis have not been reviewed or endorsed by the EPA CHP Partnership.

                           Annual Emissions Analysis
                                                                                            Displaced       Displaced
                                                                                            Electricity      Thermal        Emissions/Fuel
                                                                           CHP System       Production      Production        Reduction         Percent Reduction
                           NOx (tons/year)                                        0.08              0.42            0.11               0.44                     84%
                           SO2 (tons/year)                                        0.00              1.16            0.00               1.15                    100%
                           CO2 (tons/year)                                         274               298             125               149                      35%
                           Carbon (metric tons/year)                                68                74              31                 37                     35%
                           Fuel Consumption (MMBtu/year)                         4,699            3,219           2,135                655                      12%

                           Number of Cars Removed                                                                                          25

                                                     This CHP project will reduce emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) by 149 tons per year
                                                              This is equal to 37 metric tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE) per year


                                                                                           This reduction is equal to
                                                                                        removing the carbon emissions
                                                                                                   of 25 cars




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                           CHP Results



                           The results of this analysis have not been reviewed or endorsed by the EPA CHP Partnership.
                                                         CHP Technology: Microturbine
                                                                      Fuel: Natural Gas
                                                             Unit Capacity:              60 kW
                                                          Number of Units:                1
                                                      Total CHP Capacity:                60 kW
                                                                 Operation:           5,840 hours per year
                                                                 Heat Rate:         13,411 Btu/kWh HHV
                                                  CHP Fuel Consumption:               4,699 MMBtu/year
                                          Duct Burner Fuel Consumption:                 -    MMBtu/year
                                                  Total Fuel Consumption:             4,699 MMBtu/year
                                                    Total CHP Generation:               350 MWh/year
                                              Useful CHP Thermal Output:              1,708 MMBtu/year for thermal applications (non-cooling)
                                                                                        -    MMBtu/year for electric applications (cooling and electric heating)
                                                                                      1,708 MMBtu/year Total
                                         Displaced On-Site Production for                    Existing Gas Boiler
                                      Thermal (non-cooling) Applications:              0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx
                                                                                      0.00% sulfur content
                            Displaced Electric Service (cooling and electric
                                                                  heating):
                                                                             There is no displaced cooling service


                                               Displaced Electricity Profile: eGRID Average Non-Baseload 2005

                                                               Egrid State:    US Average
                                                      Distribution Losses:             7%
                                          Displaced Electricity Production:          350     MWh/year CHP generation
                                                                                      -      MWh/year Displaced Electric Demand (cooling)
                                                                                      -      MWh/year Displaced Electric Demand (electric heating)
                                                                                       26    MWh/year Transmission Losses
                                                                                     377     MWh/year Total




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                           CHP Results



                           The results of this analysis have not been reviewed or endorsed by the EPA CHP Partnership.
                           Annual Analysis for CHP

                                                                         CHP System:                                          Total Emissions
                                                                         Microturbine                                       from CHP System
                           NOx (tons/year)                                       0.08               -                                     0.08
                           SO2 (tons/year)                                       0.00               -                                     0.00
                           CO2 (tons/year)                                        274               -                                     274
                           Carbon (metric tons/year)                               68               -                                       68
                           Fuel Consumption (MMBtu/year)                        4,699               -                                   4,699

                           Annual Analysis for Displaced Production for Thermal (non-cooling) Applications
                                                                                                                             Total Displaced
                                                                                                                             Emissions from
                                                                                                                                Thermal
                                                                                                                               Production
                           NOx (tons/year)                                                                                               0.11
                           SO2 (tons/year)                                                                                               0.00
                           CO2 (tons/year)                                                                                                125
                           Carbon (metric tons/year)                                                                                       31
                           Fuel Consumption (MMBtu/year)                                                                                2,135

                           Annual Analysis for Displaced Electricity Production

                                                                          Displaced      Displaced         Displaced
                                                                        CHP Electricity Electricity for   Electricity for     Transmission       Total Displaced Emissions
                                                                         Generation       Cooling           Heating              Losses          from Electricity Generation
                           NOx (tons/year)                                       0.39               -                  -                0.03                           0.42
                           SO2 (tons/year)                                       1.07               -                  -                0.08                           1.16
                           CO2 (tons/year)                                        277               -                  -               20.88                            298
                           Carbon (metric tons/year)                               69               -                  -                   5                              74
                           Fuel Consumption (MMBtu/year)                        2,994               -                  -                 225                          3,219




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                           CHP Results


                           The results of this analysis have not been reviewed or endorsed by the EPA CHP Partnership.
                              Total Emissions for Conventional Production                                         Total Emissions for CHP System
                                           .52 tons of NOx                                                                .08 tons of NOx
                                           1.16 tons of SO2                                                               . tons of SO2
                                         423 tons of CO2                                                                 274 tons of CO2


                                                                      350 MWh
                           3,219 MMBtu                                Electricity to Facility            4,699 MMBtu
                           Fuel consumption                                                              Fuel Consumption                                         350 MWh
                                               Central Station        No Cooling                                                     CHP                          Electricity
                                               Powerplant                                                                           System                        to Facility

                                                                      26 MWh
                                                                      Transmission Losses
                                           .42 tons of NOx                                                                  .08 tons of NOx    Thermal from CHP
                                           1.16 tons of SO2                                                                  . tons of SO2
                                          298 tons of CO2                                                                    274 tons of CO2

                                                                                                                                                                  1,708 MMBtu
                           2,135 MMBtu                                                                                                                            Thermal to
                           Fuel consumption                                                                                                                       Facility
                                               On-Site Thermal        1,708 MMBtu
                                               Production             Thermal to Facility                                         Absorption
                                                                                                                                   Chiller                        No Cooling


                                           .11 tons of NOx
                                           . tons of SO2
                                          125 tons of CO2




                           Emission Rates
                                                                        CHP System
                                                                       including Duct     Microturbine      Displaced
                                                                           Burners           Alone          Electricity
                           NOx (lb/MWh)                                          0.48             0.48               2.21
                           SO2 (lb/MWh)                                          0.01             0.01               6.13
                           CO2 (lb/MWh)                                        1,565             1,565             1,583

                           Emission Rates
                                                                        Displaced
                                                                         Thermal
                                                                        Production
                           NOx (lb/MMBtu)                                      0.10
                           SO2 (lb/MMBtu)                                  0.00059
                           CO2 (lb/MMBtu)                                       117


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Thermal Calculator

      Value             Units      Description


       Calculate the Power to Heat Ratio by completing the
       entries in one of the following boxes:
               -        MMBtu/hr   Thermal output from a single unit

          OR
           30,000 lb/hr            Steam consumed in process
            1,000 Btu/lb           Enthalpy (a common value is 1,000 Btu/lb)
             30.0 MMBtu/hr         calculated

          OR
               -        MMBtu/hr   Fuel consumed in thermal process (often a boiler)
                   0%              Efficiency of thermal converter
               -        MMBtu/hr   calculated




      Results
               30.0 MMBtu/hr       thermal output
              8,790 kW             thermal output
                 60 kW             kW capacity of CHP system
              0.007                Power to Heat ratio of CHP system



       Copy this Power to Heat Ratio
                                                 Reset Thermal Calculator
           to the Input Screen
Generation Sources


Existing Generation Sources                                                           Heat Rate
Name                             Code NOx lb/MWh     SO2 lb/MWh    CO2 lb/MWh         Btu/kWh
EGrid Annual Average                1           1.94          5.26         1,329          7,292
EGrid Annual Fossil                 2           2.59          7.14         1,841          9,934
EGrid Annual Coal                   3          2.212          6.13         1,583          8,543
EGrid Annual Oil                    4         3.3553          9.77         2,136        10,432
EGrid Annual Natural Gas            5         2.1368         5.447         1,244          7,603
Coal Boiler 3.8 lb/MWh NOx          6         0.536          0.109           966          8,098
Coal Boiler 1.5 lb/MWh NOx          7         3.800          5.000         1,948          9,500
Coal Boiler with SCR 0.8 lb/MWh NOx 8         1.500          2.500         1,948          9,500
Gas Boiler 0.77 lb/MWh NOx          9         0.800          1.000         1,948          9,500
Gas Turbine Peaker 25 ppm          10         0.770          0.006         1,287        11,000
Gas combined-cycle 9 ppm           11         1.190          0.007         1,404        12,000
Gas combined-cycle 3 ppm           12         0.286          0.005           936          8,000
                                                                                                         Reset this
                                                                                                     Generation Sources
Please enter emission rates for the new generation sources:                                               Screen
User Defined Generation Sources                                                       Heat Rate
Name                                 Code NOx lb/MWh       SO2 lb/MWh    CO2 lb/MWh   Btu/kWh
User Source 1                          13             -              -            -         -      Copy these Generation
User Source 2                          14             -              -            -         -         Sources to the
User Source 3                          15             -              -            -         -          Profile Inputs

                                                                                                  and Return to Input Screen
Heat Content of Fuel (Btu/lb delivered)
                                             Moisture Content of Biomass
Biomass Fuel Source          Bone Dry   10%        20%        30%        40%     50%
Corn Stover                   7,560     7,106     6,652      6,198      5,744    5,290
Wheat Straw                   6,840     6,566     6,292      6,018      5,744    5,470
Forest Residue                8,570     7,884     7,198      6,512      5,826    5,140
Urban Wood Waste              6,150     5,840     5,530      5,220      4,910    4,600
Hybrid Poplar                 8,200     7,380     6,560      5,740      4,920    4,100
Hybrid Willow                 8,200     7,380     6,560      5,740      4,920    4,100
Switchgrass                   8,670     8,148     7,626      7,104      6,582    6,060

Emission Rates

Biomass Fuel Source          CO2 Emission Rate NOx Emission Rate        Sulfur Content
Corn Stover                     0     lb/MMBtu                                  lb/MMBtu
Wheat Straw                     0     lb/MMBtu                                  lb/MMBtu
Forest Residue                  0     lb/MMBtu     0.165 lb/MMBtu      0.00825 lb/MMBtu
Urban Wood Waste                0     lb/MMBtu     0.165 lb/MMBtu      0.00825 lb/MMBtu
Hybrid Poplar                   0     lb/MMBtu     0.165 lb/MMBtu      0.00825 lb/MMBtu
Hybrid Willow                   0     lb/MMBtu     0.165 lb/MMBtu      0.00825 lb/MMBtu
Switchgrass                     0     lb/MMBtu                                  lb/MMBtu
*Emissions Data from AP-42

				
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