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Science and the Media Presentation - Science and the Media

VIEWS: 64 PAGES: 30

									"We are drowning in information but
     starved for knowledge."
          – John Naisbit
              Media Literacy
• The ability to access, analyze, interpret, and
  communicate media in a variety of forms.
• Is about inquiry: asking questions about the
  news and entertainment media, their makers
  and their messages.
• The ability to critically consume and create
  media.
    Media Literacy in Science?
• Science is not content with the verbal linguistic
  expression, it also uses math, diagrams, graphs,
  tables, maps, etc. Science needs these
  resources to attempt to describe the natural
  phenomena.
• Examples: statistics, scientific studies,
  assumptions, surveys, inductive reasoning,
  deductive reasoning, bond ratings, TV ratings,
  economics, cause and effect, annual reports,
  opinion polls...
“Scientific multimedia genres are as they are
 not just because they are fit to the internal
functional needs of the scientific community,
 but also because they play a role in linking
   the community within the wider social,
  economic, and political institutions which
  make its continued existence possible.”
                 Lemke, 2000
                 Translation:
 Science uses multimedia not only as a tool
for science but to communicate with society
 what scientists and researchers do, since
 science is dependent on society‟s money.
More on Media Literacy in Science
• Science is used to validate tests and principles
  in advertising, and to draw conclusions to issues
  raised by the media.
  – Informational videos, pharmaceutical commercials
  – Smoking and anti-smoking advertising
• How are scientists depicted in the media?
  –   The superhero scientist
  –   The mad scientist
  –   The expert in documentaries and advertising
  –   How does this shape our view on what science is?
    Some Key Media Sources
•    Television shows
•    Commercials
•    Music
•    Radio advertising
•    Informative videos
•    Multimedia demonstration
•    Internet
•    CD ROM and DVD
•    Newspaper and magazine
•    Documentary videos
•    Chat Rooms
•    Video games
        Genres represented
1.   Frog guts – Procedure
2.   BP video – Report
3.   Mars rover web sites – Report
4.   Science in the news – Report
5.   The Day After Tomorrow – Recount
6.   The Meatrix – Exposition
      What is media literacy?
It can be divided into three groups:
1. “Access” issues – how to obtain the
    needed information or “read” the
    symbolic code.
2. “Analysis” issues – identifying the point
    of view or subtext.
3. “Creating” messages – how to use and
    produce media.
     Applying the Four Resources Model
                  to Media
Code-breaking resources:                          Text-using resources:
How do I crack this Code?                         What do I do with this text?
•   Understanding the language                    •   What can I do with this media?
•   Recognizing the intonations                   •   How can I use it in the future?
•   Recognizing and shaping the visual,
    nonverbal, and auditory codes


Text-participating resources:                     Text-analyzing resources:
What does this mean to me?                        What does this text do to me?
•   What is the social and cultural background    •   Who created this media?
    and prior knowledge to construct the          •   What is their purpose?
    meaning?                                      •   What kind of bias may they have?
•   How are my interests related in this media?   •   How is this media positioning me?
•   How do I interpret and use the literal and
    inferential meanings in the media?
•   How has this media been constructed to
    make meaning?
             Instructional Web Site
                http://www.froguts.com
                     Procedure Genre

• Access literacy
   –   Use of icons, scrolling, and dragging
   –   How is color strategically used on the site?
   –   What are the various clues that indicate a hyperlink?
   –   What on the web site makes it look more real?


• Analysis literacy
   – What is the purpose of this web site?
   – How can I use this web site?
   Intro to an informative video
“Access” literacy
- We not only need to be textually and visually
  literate, but also literate in nuances such as:
       Body language
       Effect of color
       Sound and tone
       Effect of camera angle
              Informative Video
                    Report Genre
“Analysis” literacy
• How does this video make you feel?
• How is science used in this video?
• What „genre‟ would you say this is?
• Who produced it? What is their social agenda?
• How does this video position you?
• What sticks out? How does this impact what you recall
   from the video?
• What tools were used to position you?

          http://www.bplng.com/video/lng.wmv
         BP video key points
• Science is used as an authority to justify
  the safety of LNG
• What is not said? Some examples….
  – What are the effects of plants on
    communities?
  – What energy is needed to keep the LNG at
    such cold levels?
  – What is the history of LNG?
                Juxtaposition
• We can compare what BP says about LNG with
  other sources of media, such as:
  – Web Sites
    http://timrileylaw.com/LNG.htm
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3411651.stm
  – Radio (NPR)
    http://www.npr.org/features/feature.php?wfId=14640
    51
Mars Rovers Web Site Comparison
                       Report Genre
• Access literacy
   – NASA.com: easier to „decode‟; more „alive‟; more
     organized; also in Spanish; less colors
   – Space.com: cool graphics; attractive pictures; difficult
     to find links; annoying advertising
• Analysis literacy
   – NASA.com: different audiences; government links;
     who is behind this?
   – Space.com: like watching TV; use of „red planet‟
     phrase; is this a „scientific‟ resource?
   Sources:
      http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov
      http://www.space.com/marsrover
Mars Rovers Web Site Comparison
                                  Report Genre
                                NASA.com                                 Space.com

Navigation from           1 click from home page           Click on “SpaceFlight” on top bar, scroll
main domain                                                down and click on “Top Stories – Mars
                                                                          Rover.”
Target audiences     Kids, Students, Educators, Press               Young adults or older


Background and     White background, black text and blue   Red and orange background, white and
text colors                     hypertext                   yellow text (not clearly hyperlinked)


Graphics             Interactive boxes turn blue when             Hyperlinked pictures only
                     hyperlinked; hyperlinked pictures


Use of red                     For attention                           As background

Vectors            Some arrows indicating links; human       Directed to top and center of page
                                 face

Advertising               3 grouped, 1 at bottom                         3 scattered

Pop-up ads                          0                                       2 or 3

Sponsors                     US government                             Imaginova.com
           Science in the News?
                      Report Genre
• Access literacy
   – Similar literacy demands; similar markets
• Analysis literacy
   – Word „science‟ found on:
      • NYTimes.com = 2; WashingtonPost.com = 0
   – Word „sports‟ found on:
      • NYTimes.com = 2; WashingtonPost.com = 4

   Sources:
      http://www.NYTimes.com
      http://www.WashingtonPost.com
      “The Day After Tomorrow”
       http://thedayaftertomorrow.com
                 Recount Genre
• Access literacy
  – Due to being a main stream movie,
    information is accessible to the mass public.
• Analysis literacy
  – What social purpose does this movie have?
  – What are they saying will happen due to
    global warming?
  – Does the movie present the facts in a
    believable way? How is science portrayed?
    How valid are the claims in the
               movie?
• http://thedayaftertomorrow.com
   – Movie Site with information about the past, present, and
     predictions of the future with global warming
• http://www.greencine.com/board?action=viewTopic&foru
  mID=7&topicID=1442
   – Chat-room discussion for people to discuss the claims in the
     movie as well as global warming as a whole
• http://www.undoit.org/index.cfm
   – Site about global warming that addresses what we can do to
     help prevent global warming
• http://www.dayaftertomorrowfacts.org
   – Site that breaks apart each claim in the movie and looks at
     whether it is scientifically valid or not
            The Meatrix Cartoon
                   Exposition genre
• Cartoons shape our views as they can create the “world”
  we experience
• Different social agendas can use science in different
  ways to convey their message
• Humor can be mixed with science to hold the viewers
  attention while conveying a message
What to look for….
• Techniques used to reinforce the agenda of the video
• The use of color, position, and imagery to reinforce the
  agenda
                 http://www.themeatrix.com
              THE MEATRIX
• What images stood out?
• How is science used to convey the message?
• How did this video make you feel?
• Who is the audience?
• What social purpose does this serve?
• What previous knowledge is this video utilizing?
• What tools were used to position you?
• What tools did the video use to reinforce its
  point?
• How does this video shape our understanding of
  science?
          Five Key Questions
            for Media Literacy
1) Who created this message?
2) What techniques are used to attract my
   attention?
3) How might different people understand this
   message differently from me?
4) What lifestyles, values, and points of view are
   represented in or omitted from this message?
5) Why was this message sent?
         Five Core Concepts
            in Media Literacy
1) All media messages are constructed
2) Media messages are constructed using a
   creative language with its own rules
3) Different people experience the same
   message differently
4) Media have embedded values and points of
   view
5) Media messages are constructed to gain profit
   and/or power
       Scaffolding Techniques
         Ideas for media literacy
• Demonstrate different types of media, showing
  the affect of juxtaposition
• Teach the students how to access and analyze
  media, using key questions for discussion
• Have activities for students to practice on their
  own literacy skills such as:
   – identifying genre, purpose, apply the four resources
     model, asking key questions
• Require them to research and put together their
  own presentation
• Have students present their work through media
  (e.g., PowerPoint, web page, video, etc.)
        Essential questions
• What literary devices are used to create
  meaning within science?
• How do we teach students to master these
  devices so that they become agents of
  social change?
        Essential Vision

  We seek to create “access to the
evolving language of work power and
  community” and to help students
   “design their social futures and
  achieve success through fulfilling
            employment.”

              -The New London Group
           And remember…
• These skills and practices of critical
  literacy are transdisciplinary and can be
  applied to any subject, in any discipline,
  across any age group.

								
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