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"We are drowning in information but starved for knowledge." – John Naisbit Media Literacy • The ability to access, analyze, interpret, and communicate media in a variety of forms. • Is about inquiry: asking questions about the news and entertainment media, their makers and their messages. • The ability to critically consume and create media. Media Literacy in Science? • Science is not content with the verbal linguistic expression, it also uses math, diagrams, graphs, tables, maps, etc. Science needs these resources to attempt to describe the natural phenomena. • Examples: statistics, scientific studies, assumptions, surveys, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, bond ratings, TV ratings, economics, cause and effect, annual reports, opinion polls... “Scientific multimedia genres are as they are not just because they are fit to the internal functional needs of the scientific community, but also because they play a role in linking the community within the wider social, economic, and political institutions which make its continued existence possible.” Lemke, 2000 Translation: Science uses multimedia not only as a tool for science but to communicate with society what scientists and researchers do, since science is dependent on society‟s money. More on Media Literacy in Science • Science is used to validate tests and principles in advertising, and to draw conclusions to issues raised by the media. – Informational videos, pharmaceutical commercials – Smoking and anti-smoking advertising • How are scientists depicted in the media? – The superhero scientist – The mad scientist – The expert in documentaries and advertising – How does this shape our view on what science is? Some Key Media Sources • Television shows • Commercials • Music • Radio advertising • Informative videos • Multimedia demonstration • Internet • CD ROM and DVD • Newspaper and magazine • Documentary videos • Chat Rooms • Video games Genres represented 1. Frog guts – Procedure 2. BP video – Report 3. Mars rover web sites – Report 4. Science in the news – Report 5. The Day After Tomorrow – Recount 6. The Meatrix – Exposition What is media literacy? It can be divided into three groups: 1. “Access” issues – how to obtain the needed information or “read” the symbolic code. 2. “Analysis” issues – identifying the point of view or subtext. 3. “Creating” messages – how to use and produce media. Applying the Four Resources Model to Media Code-breaking resources: Text-using resources: How do I crack this Code? What do I do with this text? • Understanding the language • What can I do with this media? • Recognizing the intonations • How can I use it in the future? • Recognizing and shaping the visual, nonverbal, and auditory codes Text-participating resources: Text-analyzing resources: What does this mean to me? What does this text do to me? • What is the social and cultural background • Who created this media? and prior knowledge to construct the • What is their purpose? meaning? • What kind of bias may they have? • How are my interests related in this media? • How is this media positioning me? • How do I interpret and use the literal and inferential meanings in the media? • How has this media been constructed to make meaning? Instructional Web Site http://www.froguts.com Procedure Genre • Access literacy – Use of icons, scrolling, and dragging – How is color strategically used on the site? – What are the various clues that indicate a hyperlink? – What on the web site makes it look more real? • Analysis literacy – What is the purpose of this web site? – How can I use this web site? Intro to an informative video “Access” literacy - We not only need to be textually and visually literate, but also literate in nuances such as: Body language Effect of color Sound and tone Effect of camera angle Informative Video Report Genre “Analysis” literacy • How does this video make you feel? • How is science used in this video? • What „genre‟ would you say this is? • Who produced it? What is their social agenda? • How does this video position you? • What sticks out? How does this impact what you recall from the video? • What tools were used to position you? http://www.bplng.com/video/lng.wmv BP video key points • Science is used as an authority to justify the safety of LNG • What is not said? Some examples…. – What are the effects of plants on communities? – What energy is needed to keep the LNG at such cold levels? – What is the history of LNG? Juxtaposition • We can compare what BP says about LNG with other sources of media, such as: – Web Sites http://timrileylaw.com/LNG.htm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3411651.stm – Radio (NPR) http://www.npr.org/features/feature.php?wfId=14640 51 Mars Rovers Web Site Comparison Report Genre • Access literacy – NASA.com: easier to „decode‟; more „alive‟; more organized; also in Spanish; less colors – Space.com: cool graphics; attractive pictures; difficult to find links; annoying advertising • Analysis literacy – NASA.com: different audiences; government links; who is behind this? – Space.com: like watching TV; use of „red planet‟ phrase; is this a „scientific‟ resource? Sources: http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov http://www.space.com/marsrover Mars Rovers Web Site Comparison Report Genre NASA.com Space.com Navigation from 1 click from home page Click on “SpaceFlight” on top bar, scroll main domain down and click on “Top Stories – Mars Rover.” Target audiences Kids, Students, Educators, Press Young adults or older Background and White background, black text and blue Red and orange background, white and text colors hypertext yellow text (not clearly hyperlinked) Graphics Interactive boxes turn blue when Hyperlinked pictures only hyperlinked; hyperlinked pictures Use of red For attention As background Vectors Some arrows indicating links; human Directed to top and center of page face Advertising 3 grouped, 1 at bottom 3 scattered Pop-up ads 0 2 or 3 Sponsors US government Imaginova.com Science in the News? Report Genre • Access literacy – Similar literacy demands; similar markets • Analysis literacy – Word „science‟ found on: • NYTimes.com = 2; WashingtonPost.com = 0 – Word „sports‟ found on: • NYTimes.com = 2; WashingtonPost.com = 4 Sources: http://www.NYTimes.com http://www.WashingtonPost.com “The Day After Tomorrow” http://thedayaftertomorrow.com Recount Genre • Access literacy – Due to being a main stream movie, information is accessible to the mass public. • Analysis literacy – What social purpose does this movie have? – What are they saying will happen due to global warming? – Does the movie present the facts in a believable way? How is science portrayed? How valid are the claims in the movie? • http://thedayaftertomorrow.com – Movie Site with information about the past, present, and predictions of the future with global warming • http://www.greencine.com/board?action=viewTopic&foru mID=7&topicID=1442 – Chat-room discussion for people to discuss the claims in the movie as well as global warming as a whole • http://www.undoit.org/index.cfm – Site about global warming that addresses what we can do to help prevent global warming • http://www.dayaftertomorrowfacts.org – Site that breaks apart each claim in the movie and looks at whether it is scientifically valid or not The Meatrix Cartoon Exposition genre • Cartoons shape our views as they can create the “world” we experience • Different social agendas can use science in different ways to convey their message • Humor can be mixed with science to hold the viewers attention while conveying a message What to look for…. • Techniques used to reinforce the agenda of the video • The use of color, position, and imagery to reinforce the agenda http://www.themeatrix.com THE MEATRIX • What images stood out? • How is science used to convey the message? • How did this video make you feel? • Who is the audience? • What social purpose does this serve? • What previous knowledge is this video utilizing? • What tools were used to position you? • What tools did the video use to reinforce its point? • How does this video shape our understanding of science? Five Key Questions for Media Literacy 1) Who created this message? 2) What techniques are used to attract my attention? 3) How might different people understand this message differently from me? 4) What lifestyles, values, and points of view are represented in or omitted from this message? 5) Why was this message sent? Five Core Concepts in Media Literacy 1) All media messages are constructed 2) Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules 3) Different people experience the same message differently 4) Media have embedded values and points of view 5) Media messages are constructed to gain profit and/or power Scaffolding Techniques Ideas for media literacy • Demonstrate different types of media, showing the affect of juxtaposition • Teach the students how to access and analyze media, using key questions for discussion • Have activities for students to practice on their own literacy skills such as: – identifying genre, purpose, apply the four resources model, asking key questions • Require them to research and put together their own presentation • Have students present their work through media (e.g., PowerPoint, web page, video, etc.) Essential questions • What literary devices are used to create meaning within science? • How do we teach students to master these devices so that they become agents of social change? Essential Vision We seek to create “access to the evolving language of work power and community” and to help students “design their social futures and achieve success through fulfilling employment.” -The New London Group And remember… • These skills and practices of critical literacy are transdisciplinary and can be applied to any subject, in any discipline, across any age group.
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