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					Environmental Science
New Challenges for a New Century
Tenth Edition

Enger • Smith

Chapter 20

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Environmental Policy and Decision Making Chapter 20

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Outline
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New Challenges for a New Century – Learning from the Past – Thinking About the Future Development of U.S. Environmental Policy Environmental Policy and Regulation Greening of Geopolitics Terrorism and the Environment International Environmental Policy It All Comes Back to You
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New Challenges for a New Century
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One major future challenge will be controlling worldwide environmental impact as developing nations evolve. Knowledge has become the economy’s most important and dynamic resource. – Many now understand pollution equates to inefficiency and increased costs.

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New Challenges for a New Century
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It is important to recognize that economic, environmental, and social goals are integrally linked and that we develop policies that reflect that interrelationship. – For their part, businesses need to build the practice and skills of dialogue with communities and citizens.

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Governance and Government
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Governance is about decisions and how we make them. – Environmental governance is inevitably associated with organizations where official authority often resides.  Also encompasses oversight or advisory groups, corporate councils, and even advocacy groups.

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Governance and Government
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Government is the set of institutions normally associated with political authority. – Laws establish legal mandates of government agencies with responsibility for environmental protection.  Environmental governance goes beyond official actions of governments.  Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become strong advocates.
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Governance and Government
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Governance includes individual choices and actions when these influence large public policies or affect corporate behavior. – Consumer choices can sometimes be as powerful as government regulations in tempering business decisions that affect the environment.

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Learning from the Past
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For the past quarter century, the basic pattern of environmental protection in developed nations has been to react to specific crises. – EPA has traditionally focused almost exclusively on past and present problems, and ignored anticipated problems yet to arise.

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Thinking About the Future
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Accelerating rate of change is shrinking distance between present and future. – Environmental effects of changes in global economic activity are being felt more rapidly by both nations and individuals.  By taking steps now, present generation can minimize environmental and financial debts of later generations.

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Thinking About the Future
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Most important remaining sources of pollution are diffuse and widespread. – We are recognizing that controlling pollutants alone, no matter how successful, will not achieve an environmentally sustainable economy.

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Defining the Future
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We are progressing from an environmental paradigm based on clean-up and control to one including assessment, anticipation, and avoidance. In long-run, environmental quality is largely a function of behavior of individuals. – Extent of environmental awareness and strength of environmental institutions will be critical factors driving environmental quality.
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Defining the Future
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Three aims for future environmental issues: – Articulate role of technology. – Define roles of all participants. – Chart a course with strategic goals.

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Defining the Future
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Next 50 years will see a world in which people are more crowded, more connected, and more consuming than at any time in human history. – Human population is expected to level off at 10-11 billion by the end of the twentyfirst century.  Reach 9 billion by 2050.

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Development of Environmental Policy in U.S.
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Government Branches – Legislative (Congress)  Declare and shape national policy by passing legislation. – Executive (President)  Directed to enforce the law. – Judiciary (Court System)  Implement law.
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Executive Branch

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Development of Environmental Policy in U.S.
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When Congress considers certain conduct to be against public policy and the public good, it passes legislation. – Congress specifically regulates, controls, or prohibits activity in conflict with public policy and attempts to encourage desirable behavior.

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Passage of a Law

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Development of Environmental Policy in U.S.
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1970’s – First Earth Day - April 22, 1970. – Much environmental legislation passed.  Immediate, obvious problems were relatively easy to address.  Environmental concerns faded when energy crisis threatened the economy.  Many tangible accomplishments.  Expansion of protected areas.
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Development of Environmental Policy in U.S.
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1980’s – Reagan Administration – Resurgence in awareness by late 80’s 1990’s – Environmental issues become major Presidential campaign topic. – Decline in membership of major environmental organizations, but increase in grassroots organizations.  Business interests vs. original goals.
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Development of Environmental Policy in U.S.
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Late 1980s saw beginning of antienvironmental movement. – Wise Use Movement.  Argue extinction is a natural process.  Tend to frame complex environmental and economic issues in simple scapegoating terms.  Jobs versus Owls

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Changing Nature of Environmental Policy
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Public opinion polls over past four decades in the United States have revealed 80% of citizens in favor of maintaining or strengthening clean air and water laws. – Polls often reflect attitudes not activities.

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Changing Nature of Environmental Policy
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The 1990s witnessed decline in membership of major environmental organizations. – Large environmental groups may have grown into large bureaucracies.  Many smaller, local, grassroots groups are being created or expanding.  Estimated some 7,000 local active environmental organizations.

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Environmental Policy and Regulation
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U.S. Environmental Law governed by Administrative Law. – Defines how government organizations develop and implement regulatory programs they are legislatively authorized to create.  Also applies to groups affected by agency actions - i.e. state programs.

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Environmental Policy and Regulation
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1969 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) - Designed to institutionalize a concern for the quality of the environment within the federal government. – Two Purposes:  Advise the President on the state of the nation’s environment.  Create an advisory council - Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).
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Environmental Policy and Regulation
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Until 1970, most federal agencies acted within their delegated authority without considering the environmental impacts of their actions. – 1970 - EPA established by Congress to implement statutes.  Administrative functions empower EPA, the states, and private citizens, to take responsibility for enforcing the various authorized programs.
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Environmental Policy and Regulation
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To date, much environmental law has reflected perception that environmental problems are localized in time, space, and media. – Environmental regulation has focused on specific phenomena, and “Command and Control” solutions.  Highly specific  Centralized authority
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Environmental Policy and Regulation
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In 2003, the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) reported that societal benefits of EPA regulations significantly outweighed costs of environmental compliance between 19922002. – Annual benefits of $146 - $230 billion.  Annual costs of $36 - $42 billion.

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Greening of Geopolitics
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Environmental “Green” politics have moved into mainstream political arenas. – Ecological degradation in any nation is now understood almost inevitably to impinge on quality of life in others.  A sense of urgency has opened previously closed doors to international negotiations and cooperation.

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Greening of Geopolitics
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Where before poor nations never had a strategic advantage, they now may have an ecological edge. – Ecologically, there could be more parity than there ever was economically, or militarily.  Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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Greening of Geopolitics
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) had developed an Office of Scientific and Environmental Affairs. – U.S. Department of Defense has created an Office of Environmental Security.  Most formidable obstacle may be entrenched economic and political interests of the world’s most advanced nations.

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Terrorism and the Environment
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Environmental Terrorism - Unlawful use of force against environmental resources to deprive populations of their benefits or destroy other property. – Releasing Oil in Persian Gulf – Burning Oil Wells in Kuwait – Biological or Chemical Weapons – Nuclear Weapons
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Terrorism and the Environment
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Biological weapons are naturally occurring organisms that cause disease. – Anthrax bacteria produce spores that allow them to live in a dormant state.  When used as a weapon, inhaled spores enter the lungs, releasing a toxin that is lethal to cells.

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Terrorism and the Environment
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Biological weapons have a long history. – Roman Empire used animal carcasses to contaminate water wells. – Francisco Pizarro gave smallpoxcontaminated clothing to South American natives. Modern chemical weapons tend to be made with agents having much great power. – Nerve Gas
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Terrorism and the Environment
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In 1972, 103 countries signed the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). – Prohibited development and use of biological and chemical weapons.  Allows research for defense against biological weapons.  Vaccines  Controlling a biological agent is the most troublesome part of using biological weapons.
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International Environmental Policy
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Most global organizations have not been able to achieve significant progress in reversing global environmental degradation. – Competing Interests – Unable to address whole issues

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International Environmental Policy
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Over 150 global environmental treaties negotiated since start of 20th century. – At least 500 bilateral agreements in effect dealing with cross-border environmental issues.

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International Environmental Policy
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Successful Efforts – 1961: Antarctic Treaty – 1972: UN Conference - Stockholm, Sweden – 1979: Convention on Long Range TransBoundary Air Pollution – 1987: Montreal Protocol

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International Environmental Policy
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But: – No international legislature with authority to pass laws. – International court at the Hague in the Netherlands has no power to enforce decisions.

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European Policy and the European Union
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“The environment knows no boundaries.” – Slogan for early EU environmental legislation:  Early laws focused on testing and labeling dangerous chemicals, testing drinking water, and controlling air pollutants from power plants and automobiles.  Desire to improve living conditions for citizens.
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European Policy and the European Union
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The 1992 Maastricht Treaty formally established the concept of sustainable development in European Union Law. – In 1997, the Amsterdam Treaty made sustainable development one of the overriding objectives of the EU.

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New International Instruments
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Lessons on International Agreements – Scientific community plays a crucial role:  Confirming links between human activities and global environmental problems.  Showing what could happen to human health and the global environment in the absence of action.

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Lessons on International Agreements
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Use incentives, not punitive actions. Every interested party must have an opportunity to participate as full partners. Government action needs to be consistent and predictable; provide sufficient lead times; favor government-led incentives; and use flexible, market-based solutions where appropriate. Agreements mark the beginning of a process, not the end.
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It All Comes Back to You
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Average individuals must make choices on the basis of a broader, longer view of their self-interest. – Must get involved in turning choices into action and be held accountable for their actions.

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Review
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New Challenges for a New Century – Learning from the Past – Thinking About the Future Development of U.S. Environmental Policy Environmental Policy and Regulation Greening of Geopolitics Terrorism and the Environment International Environmental Policy It All Comes Back to You
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