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					Country Profile - Indonesia




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Please comment on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    importance of this data point to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the research questions. How does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     this data point relate to public
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ICT access? What are the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  possible interpretations of this fact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  with respect to public ICT access?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    What is the context around this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        fact that leads to a deeper
                                                                                                                                                                                           How accurate is this                                                                    understanding of the local public
                                                                                                                                                                                           data point, based on                                                                   ICT landscape? (Please comment
                                                                                                                                                                                               your team's        Optional: Please comment on the       What is the importance         only on data points that are
                                                                                                                                                                                           knowledge? (Highly     accuracy of this data point (e.g.,    of this data point to our     relevant to public ICT access          Optional: Please
                                                                                                                                                                                           Accurate, Somewhat      more accurate or more current            central research      based on your knowledge. For all         provide notes on data
                                                                                                                                                                                              Accurate, Not           data points and sources,              questions? (High,          other fields please type "no         point analysis (e.g.,
# Question                               Definition                              Source                         Data                                                                            Accurate)          explanation of accuracy rating)           Medium, Low)                      comment".)                         sources)
Ge
   Size of the country (total km^2)      area (km^2)                             2007 CIA World Factbook        1,919,440                                                                                                                               Low                       No real importance beyond it being
1                                                                                                                                                                                          Highly Accurate                                                                        a large country
2 Size of the country (land)             area (km^2)                             2007 CIA World Factbook        1,826,440                                                                                                                               High                      Land area consists of 17,508        Source: Gov't of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  islands, making network provision a Indonesia,
                                                                                                                                                                                           Highly Accurate                                                                        serious challenge                   www.indonesia.go.id
3   Size of the country (water)          area (km^2)                             2007 CIA World Factbook        93,000                                                                                            I cant find rebuttal data on this     Low
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  point, but just from looking at a                               Not much importance other than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  map its obvious that the total                                  that the distance between islands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  water area of Indonesia is at least                             limits network technology choices in
                                                                                                                                                                                           Not Accurate           equal to the land area.                                         some areas
4   Physical features of the country     description                             2007 CIA World Factbook                                                                                                          There are coastal lowlands on the     High
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  big islands, but all islands except                             The rugged mountain terrain in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kalimantan (Borneo) have                                        many areas makes transport,
                                                                                                                mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains. lowest                           significant, rugged mountain                                    network provision, etc., a major
                                                                                                                point: Indian Ocean 0 m. highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m                 Not Accurate          terrain                                                         challenge.
5   Labels for primary                   (e.g. state or province, county,        2007 CIA World Factbook        30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions*                                                               Medium
    political/geographic divisions       district)                                                              (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital
                                                                                                                city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu,
                                                                                                                Gorontalo, Irian Jaya Barat, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa
                                                                                                                Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan
                                                                                                                Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau,
                                                                                                                Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara
                                                                                                                Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah,
                                                                                                                Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan,
                                                                                                                Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
                                                                                                                note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1
                                                                                                                January 2001, the 440 districts or regencies have become the key                                                                                                  The 'note' at the bottom provides the
                                                                                                                administrative units responsible for providing most government services                                                                                           most important info - most
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  administrative power now lies at the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  district or kabupaten level, not the
                                                                                                                                                                                           Highly Accurate                                                                        province or national level.
6   Top 5 largest cities by population   total population per city (2007 est.)                                  Jakarta, 8.7; Surabaya, 2.4; Medan, 1.8, Bandung, 1.7; Bekasi, 1.6;                                                                     High
    (millions)                                                                                                  Tangerang, 1.4; Makasar, 1.4; Depok, 1.3, Semarang, 1.3; Palembang, 1.3                           Metropolitan area population is                                                                         see infoplease for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  more important than city limits                                                                         metropolitan area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  population because it determines                                Metropolitan area population is         populations:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  market aggregation potential for                                more important than city limits         http://www.infoplease.c
                                                                                 World Gazetteer                                                                                           Somewhat Accurate      providers.                                                      population.                             om/ipa/A0107634.html
7   National political map               map                                     University of Texas Archives   See worksheet "Figures_Charts"                                                                                                          Low
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          see www.indonesi.go.id
                                                                                                                                                                                           Not Accurate                                                                           This map is outdated                    for up to date map
8   National terrain map                 map                                     University of Texas Archives   See worksheet "Figures_Charts"                                                                                                          High                      Topography is an important factor       Better topo maps are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Topography is not clearly                                       in Indonesia, as per data point 8       available, see USGS or
                                                                                                                                                                                           Somewhat Accurate      indicated on this map.                                          above.                                  google earth




                                                                                                                                                         Indonesia Form 2 Page 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Please comment on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            importance of this data point to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the research questions. How does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             this data point relate to public
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ICT access? What are the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          possible interpretations of this fact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with respect to public ICT access?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            What is the context around this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                fact that leads to a deeper
                                                                                                                                                                                                 How accurate is this                                                                      understanding of the local public
                                                                                                                                                                                                 data point, based on                                                                     ICT landscape? (Please comment
                                                                                                                                                                                                     your team's        Optional: Please comment on the         What is the importance         only on data points that are
                                                                                                                                                                                                 knowledge? (Highly     accuracy of this data point (e.g.,      of this data point to our     relevant to public ICT access            Optional: Please
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Accurate, Somewhat      more accurate or more current              central research      based on your knowledge. For all           provide notes on data
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Accurate, Not           data points and sources,                questions? (High,          other fields please type "no           point analysis (e.g.,
# Question                               Definition                               Source                        Data                                                                                  Accurate)          explanation of accuracy rating)             Medium, Low)                      comment".)                           sources)
Political Environment
1 Overview of country’s political system description                              Economist Intelligence Unit   Indonesia is a Republic with power historically concentrated in the                                                                             High
                                                                                                                presidency, which is the highest executive office, with direct legislative
                                                                                                                powers and authority to appoint the cabinet. The next parliamentary and
                                                                                                                presidential elections are in 2009. There are two large nationalist secular
                                                                                                                parties, Golkar and the PDI-P, and a smaller such party, the Democrat
                                                                                                                Party. The other main parties have Islamic orientation. In the 2004 DPR
                                                                                                                election Golkar emerged as the largest party, but it does not have a majority.
                                                                                                                Indonesia's constitution, drawn up in 1945, is based on 5 principles:
                                                                                                                monotheism, humanitarianism, national unity, representative democracy by
                                                                                                                consensus, and social justice. These principles are embodied in the state                               Key missing info is that under
                                                                                                                ideology, Pancasila (a Sanskrit term originally referring to a Buddhist code                            'otomomi daerah' or regional
                                                                                                                of ethics). The constitution has undergone four revisions since 1999 and                                autonomy most admin power now
                                                                                                                now provides for six principal organs of state. These constitutional                                    rests with districts or 'kabupaten' -
                                                                                                                revisions and other reforms have brought about substantial changes to                                   they control their own share of
                                                                                                                governance and the balance of institutional power in Indonesia, including                               national budgets and can pass
                                                                                                                leading to a greater role for the legislature.                                                          local economic regulations
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Somewhat Accurate      including taxes, business law, etc.                               See data point 9 above.
2    Overview of country’s government      description                            Economist Intelligence Unit   The People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) consists of a 550-member                                                                               Medium
     structures                                                                                                 House of People's Representatives (DPR) plus 128 regional representatives
                                                                                                                (DPD). With effect from 2004 all political representatives, including the
                                                                                                                president, are directly elected.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Highly Accurate
3    Total annual revenues for national    2006 revenues (billions of US$)        2007 CIA World Factbook       74.18                                                                                                                                           Medium                    This data point and the one
     government (billions US $)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           following indicate that Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          has largely recovered from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          financial crisis of the late 90's and is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          back on relatively sound financial
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Highly Accurate                                                                          footing.
4    Total annual expenditures for national 2006 expenditures (billions of US$)   2007 CIA World Factbook       77.39                                                                                                                                           Medium
     government (billions US $)
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Highly Accurate                                                                          See data point 17 above

Demographics
1 Total population                         number of people (millions) (2006)     WB                            223                                                                                                     A number of other sources give a        Medium                    Again, just that it’s a big country
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        figure of 234-245+ million, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        quoted estimate is probably low.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Not Accurate
2    % population non-urban                %                                      UNSTATS                       52                                                                                                                                        High
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        For this point and the one below,                                 All urban areas in Indonesia have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        its hard to judge without a                                       fairly good network connectivity,
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Somewhat Accurate      definition of urban and non-urban                                 most rural areas do not
3    % population urban                    %                                      UNSTATS                       48                                                                               Somewhat Accurate      see data point 22                 High                            see data point 22
4    Population breakdown by age           number of people (2007 est.)           2007 CIA World Factbook       0-14 years: 28.7% (male 34,309,176/female 33,148,341), 15-64 years:                                                                       High                            This is primarily important in that
                                                                                                                65.6% (male 77,132,708/female 76,731,481), 65 years and over: 5.7%                                                                                                        Indonesia very much reflects the
                                                                                                                (male 5,956,471/female 7,415,820)                                                                                                                                         'early adopter' profile of young,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          educated people becoming users,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Census data in Indonesia is always                                whereas older, less educated people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a little shaky, but its accurate                                  being much less likely to become
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Somewhat Accurate      enough for our purposes.                                          users.
5    % of Population 0-14 years old        % of population (2007 est.)            2007 CIA World Factbook       28.70%                                                                           Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
6    number of males 0-14 years old        number of people (2007 est.)           2007 CIA World Factbook       34309176                                                                         Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
7    number of females 0-14 years old      number of people (2007 est.)           2007 CIA World Factbook       33148341                                                                         Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
8    % of Population 15-64 years old       % of population (2007 est.)            2007 CIA World Factbook       65.60%                                                                           Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
9    number of males 15-64 years old       number of people (2007 est.)           2007 CIA World Factbook       77132708                                                                         Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
10   number of females 15-64 years old     number of people (2007 est.)           2007 CIA World Factbook       76731481                                                                         Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
11   % of Population 65 and older          % of population (2007 est.)            2007 CIA World Factbook       5.70%                                                                            Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
12   number of males 65 and older          number of people (2007 est.)           2007 CIA World Factbook       5956471                                                                          Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
13   number of females 0-14 years old      number of people (2007 est.)           2007 CIA World Factbook       7415820                                                                          Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24
14   Population pyramid by age and sex     2007                                   US Census Bureau              See worksheet "Figures_Charts"                                                   Somewhat Accurate      See data point 24                       High                      See data point 24




                                                                                                                                                            Indonesia Form 2 Page 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Please comment on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         importance of this data point to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the research questions. How does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          this data point relate to public
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ICT access? What are the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       possible interpretations of this fact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       with respect to public ICT access?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         What is the context around this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             fact that leads to a deeper
                                                                                                                                                                                   How accurate is this                                                                 understanding of the local public
                                                                                                                                                                                   data point, based on                                                                ICT landscape? (Please comment
                                                                                                                                                                                       your team's        Optional: Please comment on the What is the importance            only on data points that are
                                                                                                                                                                                   knowledge? (Highly     accuracy of this data point (e.g., of this data point to our     relevant to public ICT access         Optional: Please
                                                                                                                                                                                   Accurate, Somewhat      more accurate or more current         central research      based on your knowledge. For all        provide notes on data
                                                                                                                                                                                      Accurate, Not           data points and sources,           questions? (High,          other fields please type "no        point analysis (e.g.,
# Question                                Definition                    Source                        Data                                                                              Accurate)          explanation of accuracy rating)        Medium, Low)                      comment".)                        sources)
15 % total population of each ethnicity   for each group >1% of total   2007 CIA World Factbook       Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%,                                                                        Low
                                          population (2000 Census)                                    Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified                                                                                            This is not particularly important as
                                                                                                      29.9%                                                                                                                                                            Indonesia has a high level of
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Other souces give the Sundanese                              primary school enrollment, which
                                                                                                                                                                                                          population at about 20%. See                                 is all in Bahasa Indonesia, and non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                          point 24 for accuracy of census                              language cultural differences don't
                                                                                                                                                                                   Somewhat Accurate      data.                                                        have a big impact on user uptake.
16 Languages spoken                       for each group >1% of total   2007 CIA World Factbook       Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local                                                                High
                                          population (2000 Census)                                    dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)                                              Outdated. No one under the age of                            Everyone with primary schooling
                                                                                                                                                                                   Somewhat Accurate      70 speaks Dutch anymore.                                     speaks Bahasa Indonesia.
17 Description of population speaking     Description                   Economist Intelligence Unit                                                                                                                                             High
   each language

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Local dialects are the native
                                                                                                                                                                                                          tongue of all Indonesians. Bahasa
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Indonesia is the SECOND
                                                                                                                                                                                                          language of all Indonesians.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          English is the THIRD language of
                                                                                                                                                                                                          many. Japanese and German are
                                                                                                                                                                                                          becoming increasingly common,
                                                                                                                                                                                                          primarily in Bali and other tourist
                                                                                                                                                                                                          destinations. As per data point 36
                                                                                                                                                                                                          above, almost no one speaks Dutch
                                                                                                                                                                                                          anymore. Finally, English is                                 Bahasa Indonesia and to a lesser
                                                                                                                                                                                                          widely spoken in business and                                extent English are the languages in
                                                                                                      Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), as well as some 250 other regional                                   government circles ONLY IN                                   which most content is presented in
                                                                                                      languages and dialects. English has increasingly replaced Dutch as the main                         JAKARTA AND OTHER LARGE                                      Indonesia. English is of limited use
                                                                                                      second language, and is widely spoken in government and business circles Not Accurate               URBAN AREAS.                                                 outside of urban areas.




                                                                                                                                                Indonesia Form 2 Page 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Please comment on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      importance of this data point to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the research questions. How does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       this data point relate to public
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ICT access? What are the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    possible interpretations of this fact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    with respect to public ICT access?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      What is the context around this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fact that leads to a deeper
                                                                                                                                                                                              How accurate is this                                                                   understanding of the local public
                                                                                                                                                                                              data point, based on                                                                  ICT landscape? (Please comment
                                                                                                                                                                                                  your team's        Optional: Please comment on the      What is the importance         only on data points that are
                                                                                                                                                                                              knowledge? (Highly     accuracy of this data point (e.g.,   of this data point to our     relevant to public ICT access            Optional: Please
                                                                                                                                                                                              Accurate, Somewhat      more accurate or more current           central research      based on your knowledge. For all           provide notes on data
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Accurate, Not           data points and sources,             questions? (High,          other fields please type "no           point analysis (e.g.,
# Question                               Definition                             Source                        Data                                                                                 Accurate)          explanation of accuracy rating)          Medium, Low)                      comment".)                           sources)
Economy
1 Current GDP (Absolute)                 Billion US$                            Economist Intelligence Unit   364.5                                                                                                                                       Low                       Not very important on an individual
                                                                                                                                                                                              Highly Accurate                                                                       basis.
2   Real GDP growth in last year         %                                      Economist Intelligence Unit   5.5                                                                             Highly Accurate                                             Medium                    See data point 17
3   Consumer price inflation rate        %                                      Economist Intelligence Unit   13.1                                                                                                                                        High                      Important in that inflation is high
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and continues to outpace growth in
                                                                                                                                                                                              Highly Accurate                                                                       real wages.
4   Economic highlights from EIU                                                Economist Intelligence Unit   Indonesia has a well-balanced economy, in which all major sectors play an                                                                   High
    (paragraph from EIU)                                                                                      important role. Agriculture (including animal husbandry, fishing and
                                                                                                              forestry) has historically been the dominant activity in terms of both
                                                                                                              employment and output. The country has a vast range of mineral resources,
                                                                                                              which have been exploited rapidly over the past three decades, enabling the
                                                                                                              mining sector to make an important contribution to the balance of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Important in that as the economy
                                                                                                              payments. The manufacturing sector began a rapid expansion in the mid-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    continues to diversify more job
                                                                                                              1980s, and in 1991 the share of manufacturing in GDP exceeded that of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    opportunities become available in
                                                                                                              agricultural sector for the first time. Recently, the services sector has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    non-agricultural sectors, meaning
                                                                                                              expanded, boosted by the tourism industry, and in 2005 it accounted for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    more knowledge economy factors
                                                                                                              41% of GDP and employed about one third of the working population.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    come into play, and also leads to
                                                                                                                                                                                              Highly Accurate                                                                       more rural to urban migration.
5   Economic Policy (first paragraph     Description                            Economist Intelligence Unit   In June the government announced a new policy that builds on"and in some                                                                    Medium
    form EIU)                                                                                                 cases clarifies"three previous rounds of economic reform, setting out 141
                                                                                                              specific changes in four broad areas, namely the financial sector, investment
                                                                                                              incentives, infrastructure, and small and medium-sized enterprise
                                                                                                              development. The announcement met with a less than enthusiastic response
                                                                                                              from business associations. Given that many measures are still outstanding                             The national government is
                                                                                                              from three previous rounds of policy reforms, there is considerable                                    making strides towards improving
                                                                                                              scepticism about the government.s ability to deliver on these new                                      the business climate. The major
                                                                                                              commitments. There was also concern that measures to improve the                                       problem, overlooked by EIU, is the
                                                                                                              business climate, such as speedier issuance of business licences and eased                             situation at the regional, or
                                                                                                              customs procedures, could fail in the absence of wider civil service reform.                           district, level where a confusing
                                                                                                              These measures strike at the discretionary powers of state employees, and so                           array of local
                                                                                                              are likely to face stiff resistance at an operational level.                                           legislation/regulation complicates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     local business and economic                                    This data is primarily important to
                                                                                                                                                                                              Somewhat Accurate      develoment.                                                    foreign investors, not local.
6   Current GNI per capita               GNI per capita, Atlas method           World Bank                    1.42                                                                                                                                        Low                       Too abstract to translate into
                                         (current US$ in thousands) (2006)                                                                                                                                                                                                          spending power on the part of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    individuals because of the wide
                                                                                                                                                                                              Highly Accurate                                                                       income inequality in Indonesia.
7   Current % of population living below % living below national poverty line                                 27.10%                                                                                                                                      Medium
    national pov. line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is a relative factor, i.e. also too
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    abstract, as it doesn't differentiate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    between urban and rural, and cost of
                                                                                UNDP                                                                                                          Highly Accurate                                                                       living in different areas.
8   Current % of population living below % living below $2 /day                                               52.40%                                                                                                                                      High
    $2/day                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This data is important as it provides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    insight as to how much of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    population would need subsidization
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to utilize ICTs, and what the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    business prospects for private sector
                                                                                UNDP                                                                                                          Highly Accurate                                                                       service provision look like.
9   Current % of population below        Below national poverty line (2001)     Country Website               Nanggroe Aceh, 28.47; Sumatera Utara, 14.93; Sumatera Barat, 10.46;                                                                         High
    national poverty line by region                                                                           Riau, 13.12; Jambi, 12.45; Sumatera Selatan, 20.92; Bengkulu, 22.39;
                                                                                                              Lampung, 22.22; Bangka Belitung, 9.07; Banten, 8.58; DKI Jakarta, 3.18;
                                                                                                              Jawa Barat, 12.1; Jawa Tengah, 21.11; DI Yogyakarta, 19.14; Jawa Timur,
                                                                                                              20.08; Bali, 6.85; Nusa Tenggara B., 25.38; Nusa Tenggara T., 27.86;
                                                                                                              Kalimantan Barat, 13.91; Kalimantan Tengah, 10.44; Kalimantan Selatan,
                                                                                                              7.19; Kalimantan Timur, 11.57; Sulawesi Utara, 8.94; Gorontalo, 29.01;
                                                                                                              Sulawesi Tengah, 21.69; Sulawesi Selatan, 14.9; Sulawesi Tenggara, 21.9;
                                                                                                              Maluku, 32.13; Maluku Utara, 12.42; Papua, 38.69
                                                                                                                                                                                              Somewhat Accurate      This data is outdated.                                         See data point 47
10 Gini coefficient                      A value of 0 represents perfect                                      34.3                                                                                                                                        High
                                         equality, and a value of 100 perfect                                                                                                                                                                                                       This is an important indicator of
                                         inequality (2006)                      UNDP                                                                                                          Highly Accurate                                                                       potential for affordability of access.



                                                                                                                                                         Indonesia Form 2 Page 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Please comment on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   importance of this data point to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the research questions. How does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    this data point relate to public
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ICT access? What are the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                possible interpretations of this fact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                with respect to public ICT access?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   What is the context around this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       fact that leads to a deeper
                                                                                                                                                          How accurate is this                                                                    understanding of the local public
                                                                                                                                                          data point, based on                                                                   ICT landscape? (Please comment
                                                                                                                                                              your team's         Optional: Please comment on the What is the importance              only on data points that are
                                                                                                                                                          knowledge? (Highly       accuracy of this data point (e.g., of this data point to our      relevant to public ICT access          Optional: Please
                                                                                                                                                          Accurate, Somewhat        more accurate or more current         central research       based on your knowledge. For all         provide notes on data
                                                                                                                                                             Accurate, Not             data points and sources,           questions? (High,           other fields please type "no         point analysis (e.g.,
# Question                            Definition                                     Source                            Data                                    Accurate)           explanation of accuracy rating)         Medium, Low)                       comment".)                         sources)
11 Current % of unemployed population of people ages 15-64                                                             9.90%                                                     Very, very difficult to measure in High                        Important in that a significant
                                                                                                                                                                                 Indonesia, given the nature of the                             portion of access occurs in the
                                                                                     World Bank                                                           Not Accurate           informal sector.                                               workplace.

Education
1 Total enrollment in primary education The ratio of enrolled children of the                                          94%                                                       There is a very high dropout rate,     High                    Indicates that there is great potential
                                        official age for primary school to the                                                                                                   particularly in rural areas, due to                            for promoting basic ICT literacy
                                        total population of that age. (2004)                                                                                                     the miscellaneous fees and other                               through curriculum adjustment and
                                                                                                                                                                                 hidden costs involved in public                                facilities provision in primary
                                                                                 UNDP                                                                     Somewhat Accurate      shooling.                                                      schools.
2   National literacy rate                  A person is literate who can, with                                         87.90%                                                                                           High                    Indicates that the need for non-text
                                            understanding, both read and write a                                                                                                                                                                based ICT exists primarily for the
                                            short simple statement on his or her                                                                                                 Doesn't indicate the large                                     visually disabled and a relatively
                                            everyday life. % of population ages                                                                                                  difference between urban and rural                             small population of functionally
                                            15+. (2000-2004)                     UNESCO                                                                   Somewhat Accurate      areas.                                                         illiterate.

ICT Infrastructure
1 National electrification rate             The number of people with                World Energy Outlook              54.00%                                                                                           Medium
                                            electricity access as a percentage of                                                                                                                                                               Important primarily as an indicator
                                            total population (only includes                                                                                                      This figure is probably too low.                               of potential home use, not for public
                                            regional averages). (2005)                                                                                                           PLN (state-owned electrical                                    access centers. Also, it would be
                                                                                                                                                                                 utility) has a fairly well developed                           better to know distribution by island.
                                                                                                                                                                                 infrastructure and has expanded                                Check www.pln.co.id for better info
                                                                                                                                                          Somewhat Accurate      rapidly in last five years.                                    (maybe).
2   Landline coverage                       Main telephone lines per 100             International Telecommunication   6.57                                                                                             Medium                  Too high level (abstract) to be of
                                            inhabitants. (2006)                      Union                                                                                                                                                      much use. Again, regional
                                                                                                                                                          Highly Accurate                                                                       distribution is important.
3   Cell phone subscriptions                Mobile telephone subscribers per 100     International Telecommunication   28.3                                                      Figures are outdated. The level of High                        Rapidly becoming a prime means of
                                            inhabitants. (2006)                      Union                                                                Not Accurate           growth is exponential.                                         Internet access.
4   Cell phone cost                         Cost of a 3-minute local call during     International Telecommunication   0.11                                                                                         Low                         Not a primary source of
                                            peak hours (US$). (2005)                 Union                                                                Somewhat Accurate      Varies according to provider.                                  information, except gossip.
5   Broadband Cost relative to income       Lowest sampled cost (US$) per 100        World Economic Forum              5.29                                                      Prices are dropping as more        High
                                            kbits/s as a percentage of monthly                                                                                                   competition occurs in                                          Obviously indicates affordability of
                                            income (GNI) (2006)                                                                                           Somewhat Accurate      marketplace.                                                   access for many.
6   Internet hosts (per 10,000 inhabitants) The number of computers in an            World Economic Forum              5.01                                                                                         Medium
                                            economy that are directly linked to
                                            the worldwide Internet network.                                                                                                      Much too low. If I understand
                                            This statistic is based on the country                                                                                               correctly this would mean only +/-                             Not a particularly useful statistic in
                                            code in the host address and thus                                                                                                    25,000 computers connected to the                              determining availability of access in
                                            may not correspond with the actual                                                                                                   Internet in the whole country?                                 libraries and public access centers,
                                            physical location. (2004)                                                                                                            There are more than that in                                    as most of these will be in business
                                                                                                                                                          Not Accurate           Jakarta alone.                                                 and government offices.
7   Total International Internet            Mbps (2006)                              International Telecommunication   1507                                                      Outdated. VSAT links have been         Low                     Quite abstract. Data points 63-67
    bandwidth                                                                        Union                                                                                       increasing rapidly. Check ISP                                  don't translate well in terms of
                                                                                                                                                                                 industry association site (APJII)                              opportunities for access among
                                                                                                                                                          Somewhat Accurate      for up to date info.                                           groups targeted by this study.
8   International Internet bandwidth per    bit/s (2006)                             International Telecommunication   6.76                                                                                             Low
    inhabitant                                                                       Union                                                                Somewhat Accurate      See data point 64                                              See data point 63
9   Percent of homes with personal          %                                        International Telecommunication   2.8                                                                                              Low                     Indicative of use in higher income
    computers                                                                        Union                                                                                                                                                      levels, not the populations the study
                                                                                                                                                          Somewhat Accurate      Outdated                                                       is focused on.
10 Personal computers per 100               Self-contained computers designed to International Telecommunication       1.36                                                                                             Medium
   inhabitants                              be used by a single individual. (2005) Union                                                                                                                                                        Somewhat indicative of availability
                                                                                                                                                          Somewhat Accurate      Outdated                                                       of end-user access capacity.
11 Internet users per 100 inhabitants       People with access to the worldwide      International Telecommunication   7.2                                                       Outdated, check APJII site for         High
                                            network (2006 data)                      Union                                                                Somewhat Accurate      more current info.                                             The most important statistic.




                                                                                                                                Indonesia Form 2 Page 5
Political Map




Terrain Map
Population Pyramid
Highly Accurate
Somewhat Accurate
Not Accurate




High
Medium
Low

				
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