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					                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


NUMBER     RN   SN   VN Fentale                      LOCATION         STATUS     LATITUDE
1707-02-   17   07   -02- Unnamed                    Arctic Ocean     Holocene      85.58




                                           Page 1
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NS   LONGITUDEEW   ELEV TYPE                   ESP                 comments
N          85 E     -3800 Submarine volcano    S0




                                              Page 2
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NUMBER     RN   SN   VN     Fentale                      LOCATION        STATUS
0100-01-   01   00   -01-   West Eifel Volc Field        Germany         Radiocarbon
0100-02-   01   00   -02-   Chaîne des Puys              France          Radiocarbon
0100-03-   01   00   -03-   Olot Volc Field              Spain           Holocene?
0101-001   01   01   -001   Larderello                   Italy           Historical
0101-003   01   01   -003   Vulsini                      Italy           Historical
0101-004   01   01   -004   Alban Hills                  Italy           Holocene?
0101-01=   01   01   -01-   Campi Flegrei                Italy           Historical
0101-02=   01   01   -02-   Vesuvius                     Italy           Historical
0101-03=   01   01   -03-   Ischia                       Italy           Historical
0101-04=   01   01   -04-   Stromboli                    Italy           Historical
0101-041   01   01   -041   Lipari                       Italy           Historical
0101-05=   01   01   -05-   Vulcano                      Italy           Historical
0101-06=   01   01   -06-   Etna                         Italy           Historical
0101-07=   01   01   -07-   Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia    Italy           Historical
0101-071   01   01   -071   Pantelleria                  Italy           Historical
0102-02=   01   02   -02-   Methana                      Greece          Historical
0102-03=   01   02   -03-   Mílos                        Greece          Radiocarbon
0102-04=   01   02   -04-   Santorini                    Greece          Historical
0102-05=   01   02   -05-   Nisyros                      Greece          Historical
0102-051   01   02   -051   Yali                         Greece          Holocene
0103-00-   01   03   -00-   Kula                         Turkey          Holocene
0103-001   01   03   -001   Karapinar Field              Turkey          Holocene
0103-002   01   03   -002   Hasan Dagi                   Turkey          Anthropology
0103-003   01   03   -003   Göllü Dag                    Turkey          Holocene?
0103-004   01   03   -004   Acigöl-Nevsehir              Turkey          Anthropology
0103-01=   01   03   -01-   Erciyes Dagi                 Turkey          Holocene?
0103-011   01   03   -011   Karaca Dag                   Turkey          Holocene
0103-02=   01   03   -02-   Nemrut Dagi                  Turkey          Historical
0103-021   01   03   -021   Süphan Dagi                  Turkey          Holocene
0103-022   01   03   -022   Girekol                      Turkey          Holocene
0103-03=   01   03   -03-   Tendürek Dagi                Turkey          Historical
0103-04-   01   03   -04-   Ararat                       Turkey          Historical
0103-05-   01   03   -05-   Kars Plateau                 Turkey          Holocene?
0104-01-   01   04   -01-   Elbrus                       Russia-SW       Tephrochronology
0104-02-   01   04   -02-   Kasbek                       Georgia         Tephrochronology
0104-03-   01   04   -03-   Kabargin Oth Group           Georgia         Holocene
0104-04-   01   04   -04-   Unnamed                      Georgia         Holocene
0104-05-   01   04   -05-   Unnamed                      Georgia         Holocene
0104-06-   01   04   -06-   Aragats                      Armenia         Holocene
0104-07-   01   04   -07-   Ghegam Ridge                 Armenia         Anthropology
0104-08-   01   04   -08-   Dar-Alages                   Armenia         Anthropology
0104-09-   01   04   -09-   Porak                        Armenia         Anthropology
0104-10-   01   04   -10-   Tskhouk-Karckar              Armenia         Tephrochronology
0201-01=   02   01   -01-   Tair, Jebel at               Red Sea         Historical
0201-02=   02   01   -02-   Zubair, Jebel                Red Sea         Historical
0201-021   02   01   -021   Zukur                        Red Sea         Holocene
0201-022   02   01   -022   Hanish                       Red Sea         Holocene
0201-03=   02   01   -03-   Jalua                        Ethiopia        Holocene
0201-04=   02   01   -04-   Alid                         Ethiopia        Holocene
0201-041   02   01   -041   Dallol                       Ethiopia        Historical
0201-05=   02   01   -05-   Gada Ale                     Ethiopia        Holocene


                                                Page 3
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0201-06=   02   01   -06-   Alu                             Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-07=   02   01   -07-   Dalaffilla                      Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-071   02   01   -071   Borale Ale                      Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-08=   02   01   -08-   Erta Ale                        Ethiopia     Historical
0201-09=   02   01   -09-   Ale Bagu                        Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-091   02   01   -091   Hayli Gubbi                     Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-10=   02   01   -10-   Dubbi                           Ethiopia     Historical
0201-101   02   01   -101   Nabro                           Ethiopia     Holocene?
0201-102   02   01   -102   Mallahle                        Ethiopia     Holocene?
0201-103   02   01   -103   Sork Ale                        Ethiopia     Holocene?
0201-104   02   01   -104   Asavyo                          Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-105   02   01   -105   Mat Ala                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-106   02   01   -106   Tat Ali                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-107   02   01   -107   Borawli                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-11=   02   01   -11-   Afderà                          Ethiopia     Holocene?
0201-111   02   01   -111   Ma Alalta                       Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-112   02   01   -112   Alayta                          Ethiopia     Historical
0201-113   02   01   -113   Dabbahu                         Ethiopia     Historical
0201-114   02   01   -114   Dabbayra                        Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-115   02   01   -115   Manda Hararo                    Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-116   02   01   -116   Groppo                          Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-12=   02   01   -12-   Kurub                           Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-121   02   01   -121   Borawli                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-122   02   01   -122   Manda-Inakir                    Ethiopia     Historical
0201-123   02   01   -123   Mousa Alli                      Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-124   02   01   -124   Gufa                            Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-125   02   01   -125   Assab Volc Field                Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-126   02   01   -126   Ardoukôba                       Djibouti     Historical
0201-141   02   01   -141   Dama Ali                        Ethiopia     Historical
0201-15=   02   01   -15-   Gabillema                       Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-151   02   01   -151   Yangudi                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-16=   02   01   -16-   Ayelu                           Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-17=   02   01   -17-   Adwa                            Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-171   02   01   -171   Hertali                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-172   02   01   -172   Liado Hayk                      Ethiopia     Holocene?
0201-18=   02   01   -18-   Dofen                           Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-19=   02   01   -19-   Fentale                         Ethiopia     Historical
0201-191   02   01   -191   Beru                            Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-20-   02   01   -20-   Kone                            Ethiopia     Historical
0201-201   02   01   -201   Unnamed                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-21-   02   01   -21-   Boset-Bericha                   Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-22-   02   01   -22-   Bishoftu Volc Field             Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-221   02   01   -221   Unnamed                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-222   02   01   -222   Sodore                          Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-23-   02   01   -23-   Gedamsa Caldera                 Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-24-   02   01   -24-   Bora-Bericcio                   Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-25-   02   01   -25-   Tullu Moje                      Ethiopia     Anthropology
0201-251   02   01   -251   Unnamed                         Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-252   02   01   -252   East Zway                       Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-26-   02   01   -26-   Butajiri-Silti Field            Ethiopia     Holocene
0201-27-   02   01   -27-   Alutu                           Ethiopia     Radiocarbon
0201-28-   02   01   -28-   O'a Caldera                     Ethiopia     Holocene


                                                   Page 4
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0201-29-   02   01   -29-   Corbetti Caldera            Ethiopia        Holocene
0201-291   02   01   -291   Bilate River Field          Ethiopia        Holocene
0201-292   02   01   -292   Tepi                        Ethiopia        Holocene
0201-293   02   01   -293   Hobicha Caldera             Ethiopia        Holocene?
0201-30-   02   01   -30-   Chiracha                    Ethiopia        Holocene?
0201-31-   02   01   -31-   Tosa Sucha                  Ethiopia        Holocene
0201-311   02   01   -311   Unnamed                     Ethiopia        Holocene
0201-32-   02   01   -32-   Korath Range                Ethiopia        Holocene?
0201-33-   02   01   -33-   Mega Basalt Field           Ethiopia        Holocene
0202-001   02   02   -001   North Island                Africa-E        Holocene
0202-01=   02   02   -01-   Central Island              Africa-E        Holocene
0202-02=   02   02   -02-   South Island                Africa-E        Historical
0202-021   02   02   -021   Marsabit                    Africa-E        Holocene?
0202-03=   02   02   -03-   Barrier, The                Africa-E        Historical
0202-04-   02   02   -04-   Namarunu                    Africa-E        Tephrochronology
0202-05-   02   02   -05-   Segererua Plateau           Africa-E        Holocene
0202-051   02   02   -051   Emuruangogolak              Africa-E        Radiocarbon
0202-052   02   02   -052   Silali                      Africa-E        Ar/Ar
0202-053   02   02   -053   Paka                        Africa-E        Ar/Ar
0202-054   02   02   -054   Korosi                      Africa-E        Holocene
0202-055   02   02   -055   Ol Kokwe                    Africa-E        Holocene
0202-056   02   02   -056   Nyambeni Hills              Africa-E        Holocene
0202-06=   02   02   -06-   Menengai                    Africa-E        Tephrochronology
0202-07=   02   02   -07-   Homa Mountain               Africa-E        Holocene
0202-071   02   02   -071   Elmenteita Badlands         Africa-E        Holocene
0202-08=   02   02   -08-   Eburru, Ol Doinyo           Africa-E        Holocene
0202-09=   02   02   -09-   Olkaria                     Africa-E        Radiocarbon
0202-10=   02   02   -10-   Longonot                    Africa-E        Anthropology
0202-11=   02   02   -11-   Suswa                       Africa-E        Holocene
0202-12=   02   02   -12-   Lengai, Ol Doinyo           Africa-E        Historical
0202-13=   02   02   -13-   Chyulu Hills                Africa-E        Anthropology
0202-15=   02   02   -15-   Kilimanjaro                 Africa-E        Holocene
0202-16=   02   02   -16-   Meru                        Africa-E        Historical
0202-161   02   02   -161   Igwisi Hills                Africa-E        Holocene
0202-162   02   02   -162   Unnamed                     Africa-E        Holocene
0202-163   02   02   -163   SW Usangu Basin             Africa-E        Holocene
0202-164   02   02   -164   Ngozi                       Africa-E        Holocene
0202-165   02   02   -165   Izumbwe-Mpoli               Africa-E        Holocene
0202-166   02   02   -166   Rungwe                      Africa-E        Holocene
0202-17=   02   02   -17-   Kieyo                       Africa-E        Historical
0203-001   02   03   -001   Fort Portal Field           Africa-C        Holocene
0203-002   02   03   -002   Kyatwa Volc Field           Africa-C        Holocene?
0203-003   02   03   -003   Katwe-Kikorongo Field       Africa-C        Holocene
0203-004   02   03   -004   Bunyaruguru Field           Africa-C        Holocene
0203-005   02   03   -005   Katunga                     Africa-C        Holocene
0203-01=   02   03   -01-   May-ya-moto                 Africa-C        Fumarolic
0203-02=   02   03   -02-   Nyamuragira                 Africa-C        Historical
0203-03=   02   03   -03-   Nyiragongo                  Africa-C        Historical
0203-04-   02   03   -04-   Karisimbi                   Africa-C        Potassium-Argon
0203-05-   02   03   -05-   Visoke                      Africa-C        Historical
0203-06-   02   03   -06-   Muhavura                    Africa-C        Holocene
0203-07-   02   03   -07-   Bufumbira                   Africa-C        Holocene?


                                               Page 5
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0203-08-   02   03   -08-   Tshibinda                     Africa-C      Holocene
0204-001   02   04   -001   Sao Tome                      Africa-W      Holocene?
0204-002   02   04   -002   San Carlos                    Africa-W      Holocene
0204-003   02   04   -003   San Joaquin                   Africa-W      Holocene
0204-004   02   04   -004   Santa Isabel                  Africa-W      Historical
0204-01=   02   04   -01-   Cameroon                      Africa-W      Historical
0204-011   02   04   -011   Tombel Graben                 Africa-W      Holocene
0204-02-   02   04   -02-   Manengouba                    Africa-W      Holocene?
0204-03-   02   04   -03-   Oku Volc Field                Africa-W      Uncertain
0204-04-   02   04   -04-   Ngaoundere Plateau            Africa-W      Holocene?
0204-05-   02   04   -05-   Biu Plateau                   Africa-W      Holocene?
0205-00-   02   05   -00-   Haruj                         Africa-N      Holocene
0205-001   02   05   -001   Wau-en-Namus                  Africa-N      Holocene?
0205-002   02   05   -002   Tôh, Tarso                    Africa-N      Holocene
0205-01=   02   05   -01-   Toussidé, Tarso               Africa-N      Holocene
0205-02=   02   05   -02-   Voon, Tarso                   Africa-N      Fumarolic
0205-021   02   05   -021   Koussi, Emi                   Africa-N      Holocene
0205-03-   02   05   -03-   Marra, Jebel                  Africa-N      Radiocarbon
0205-04-   02   05   -04-   Kutum Volc Field              Africa-N      Holocene?
0205-05-   02   05   -05-   Meidob Volc Field             Africa-N      Holocene
0205-06-   02   05   -06-   Bayuda Volc Field             Africa-N      Radiocarbon
0205-07-   02   05   -07-   Umm Arafieb, Jebel            Africa-N      Holocene?
0300-01-   03   00   -01-   Sharat Kovakab                Syria         Holocene
0300-02-   03   00   -02-   Unnamed                       Syria         Historical
0300-03-   03   00   -03-   Unnamed                       Syria         Holocene
0300-04-   03   00   -04-   Unnamed                       Syria         Holocene
0300-05-   03   00   -05-   Es Safa                       Syria         Historical
0300-06-   03   00   -06-   Druze, Jabal ad               Syria         Holocene
0301-001   03   01   -001   Harrah, Al                    Arabia-W      Holocene
0301-01=   03   01   -01-   Rahah, Harrat ar              Arabia-W      Anthropology
0301-02=   03   01   -02-   'Uwayrid, Harrat              Arabia-W      Anthropology
0301-04-   03   01   -04-   Lunayyir, Harrat              Arabia-W      Historical
0301-05=   03   01   -05-   Ithnayn, Harrat               Arabia-W      Holocene
0301-06=   03   01   -06-   Khaybar, Harrat               Arabia-W      Historical
0301-07=   03   01   -07-   Rahat, Harrat                 Arabia-W      Historical
0301-071   03   01   -071   Kishb, Harrat                 Arabia-W      Holocene
0301-072   03   01   -072   Birk, Harrat al               Arabia-W      Holocene
0301-08-   03   01   -08-   Yar, Jabal                    Arabia-W      Historical
0301-09-   03   01   -09-   Arhab, Harra of               Arabia-S      Historical
0301-10-   03   01   -10-   Marha, Jabal el-              Arabia-S      Holocene
0301-11-   03   01   -11-   Haylan, Jabal                 Arabia-S      Anthropology
0301-12-   03   01   -12-   Dhamar, Harras of             Arabia-S      Historical
0301-15-   03   01   -15-   Unnamed                       Arabia-S      Uncertain
0301-16-   03   01   -16-   Sawâd, Harra es-              Arabia-S      Historical
0301-17-   03   01   -17-   Bal Haf, Harra of             Arabia-S      Holocene
0301-18-   03   01   -18-   Bir Borhut                    Arabia-S      Holocene?
0302-00-   03   02   -00-   Unnamed                       Iran          Holocene
0302-001   03   02   -001   Sahand                        Iran          Holocene
0302-002   03   02   -002   Sabalan                       Iran          Holocene
0302-01-   03   02   -01-   Damavand                      Iran          Holocene
0302-02-   03   02   -02-   Qal'eh Hasan Ali              Iran          Holocene?
0302-03-   03   02   -03-   Bazman                        Iran          Fumarolic


                                                 Page 6
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0302-04-   03   02   -04-   Unnamed                     Iran               Holocene?
0302-05-   03   02   -05-   Taftan                      Iran               Holocene
0302-06-   03   02   -06-   Dacht-i-Navar Group         Afghanistan        Holocene?
0302-07-   03   02   -07-   Vakak Group                 Afghanistan        Holocene?
0303-001   03   03   -001   Grille, La                  Indian O.-W        Holocene
0303-01=   03   03   -01-   Karthala                    Indian O.-W        Historical
0303-011   03   03   -011   Ambre-Bobaomby              Madagascar         Holocene
0303-012   03   03   -012   Nosy-Be                     Madagascar         Holocene
0303-013   03   03   -013   Ankaizina Field             Madagascar         Holocene
0303-014   03   03   -014   Itasy Volc Field            Madagascar         Radiocarbon
0303-015   03   03   -015   Ankaratra Field             Madagascar         Holocene
0303-02=   03   03   -02-   Fournaise, Piton de la      Indian O.-W        Historical
0304-00-   03   04   -00-   Boomerang Seamount          Indian O.-S        Historical
0304-001   03   04   -001   Amsterdam Island            Indian O.-S        Holocene
0304-002   03   04   -002   St. Paul                    Indian O.-S        Historical
0304-01=   03   04   -01-   Heard                       Indian O.-S        Historical
0304-011   03   04   -011   McDonald Islands            Indian O.-S        Historical
0304-02=   03   04   -02-   Kerguelen Islands           Indian O.-S        Holocene?
0304-03-   03   04   -03-   Est, Ile de l'              Indian O.-S        Holocene?
0304-04-   03   04   -04-   Possession, Ile de la       Indian O.-S        Holocene
0304-05-   03   04   -05-   Cochons, Ile aux            Indian O.-S        Holocene
0304-06-   03   04   -06-   Prince Edward Island        Indian O.-S        Holocene
0304-07-   03   04   -07-   Marion Island               Indian O.-S        Historical
0305-01=   03   05   -01-   Unnamed                     Indian O.-E        Uncertain
0401-01=   04   01   -01-   Kaikohe-Bay of Islands      New Zealand        Radiocarbon
0401-011   04   01   -011   Whangarei                   New Zealand        Holocene?
0401-02=   04   01   -02-   Auckland Field              New Zealand        Radiocarbon
0401-021   04   01   -021   Mayor Island                New Zealand        Radiocarbon
0401-03=   04   01   -03-   Egmont [Taranaki]           New Zealand        Radiocarbon
0401-04=   04   01   -04-   White Island                New Zealand        Historical
0401-05=   04   01   -05-   Okataina                    New Zealand        Historical
0401-06-   04   01   -06-   Reporoa                     New Zealand        Tephrochronology
0401-061   04   01   -061   Maroa                       New Zealand        Tephrochronology
0401-07=   04   01   -07-   Taupo                       New Zealand        Radiocarbon
0401-08=   04   01   -08-   Tongariro                   New Zealand        Historical
0401-10=   04   01   -10-   Ruapehu                     New Zealand        Historical
0401-11-   04   01   -11-   Rumble V                    New Zealand        Fumarolic
0401-12-   04   01   -12-   Rumble IV                   New Zealand        Fumarolic
0401-13-   04   01   -13-   Rumble III                  New Zealand        Hydrophonic
0401-14-   04   01   -14-   Healy                       New Zealand        Radiocarbon
0402-01=   04   02   -01-   Curtis Island               Kermadec Is        Uncertain
0402-021   04   02   -021   Macauley Island             Kermadec Is        Radiocarbon
0402-03=   04   02   -03-   Raoul Island                Kermadec Is        Historical
0402-05-   04   02   -05-   Monowai Seamount            Kermadec Is        Historical
0403-01=   04   03   -01-   Unnamed                     Tonga-SW Pacific   Historical
0403-03=   04   03   -03-   Unnamed                     Tonga-SW Pacific   Historical
0403-04=   04   03   -04-   Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai   Tonga-SW Pacific   Historical
0403-05=   04   03   -05-   Falcon Island               Tonga-SW Pacific   Historical
0403-06=   04   03   -06-   Tofua                       Tonga-SW Pacific   Historical
0403-061   04   03   -061   Kao                         Tonga-SW Pacific   Holocene
0403-07=   04   03   -07-   Metis Shoal                 Tonga-SW Pacific   Historical
0403-08=   04   03   -08-   Home Reef                   Tonga-SW Pacific   Historical


                                             Page 7
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0403-09=   04   03   -09-   Late                         Tonga-SW Pacific          Historical
0403-091   04   03   -091   Unnamed                      Tonga-SW Pacific          Historical
0403-10=   04   03   -10-   Fonualei                     Tonga-SW Pacific          Historical
0403-101   04   03   -101   Tafahi                       Tonga-SW Pacific          Holocene?
0403-102   04   03   -102   Curacoa                      Tonga-SW Pacific          Historical
0403-11=   04   03   -11-   Niuafo'ou                    Tonga-SW Pacific          Historical
0404-00-   04   04   -00-   Vailulu'u                    Samoa-SW Pacific          Historical
0404-001   04   04   -001   Ta'u                         Samoa-SW Pacific          Holocene
0404-01=   04   04   -01-   Ofu-Olosega                  Samoa-SW Pacific          Historical
0404-02-   04   04   -02-   Tutuila                      Samoa-SW Pacific          Holocene
0404-03-   04   04   -03-   Upolu                        Samoa-SW Pacific          Holocene
0404-04=   04   04   -04-   Savai'i                      Samoa-SW Pacific          Historical
0404-05-   04   04   -05-   Wallis Islands               SW Pacific                Holocene
0405-01-   04   05   -01-   Taveuni                      Fiji Is-SW Pacific        Radiocarbon
0405-02-   04   05   -02-   Koro                         Fiji Is-SW Pacific        Holocene?
0405-03-   04   05   -03-   Nabukelevu                   Fiji Is-SW Pacific        Radiocarbon
0500-01=   05   00   -01-   St. Andrew Strait            Admiralty Is-SW Pacific   Historical
0500-02-   05   00   -02-   Baluan                       Admiralty Is-SW Pacific   Holocene?
0500-03-   05   00   -03-   Unnamed                      Admiralty Is-SW Pacific   Hydrophonic
0501-001   05   01   -001   Blup Blup                    New Guinea-NE of          Holocene
0501-002   05   01   -002   Kadovar                      New Guinea-NE of          Holocene
0501-01=   05   01   -01-   Bam                          New Guinea-NE of          Historical
0501-011   05   01   -011   Boisa                        New Guinea-NE of          Holocene?
0501-02=   05   01   -02-   Manam                        New Guinea-NE of          Historical
0501-03=   05   01   -03-   Karkar                       New Guinea-NE of          Historical
0501-04=   05   01   -04-   Unnamed                      New Guinea-NE of          Uncertain
0501-041   05   01   -041   Yomba                        New Guinea-NE of          Uncertain
0501-05=   05   01   -05-   Long Island                  New Guinea-NE of          Historical
0501-06=   05   01   -06-   Umboi                        New Guinea-NE of          Holocene
0501-07=   05   01   -07-   Ritter Island                New Guinea-NE of          Historical
0501-08=   05   01   -08-   Sakar                        New Guinea-NE of          Holocene?
0502-001   05   02   -001   Unnamed                      New Britain-SW Pac        Uncertain
0502-01=   05   02   -01-   Langila                      New Britain-SW Pac        Historical
0502-021   05   02   -021   Mundua                       New Britain-SW Pac        Holocene
0502-03=   05   02   -03-   Garove                       New Britain-SW Pac        Holocene
0502-04=   05   02   -04-   Dakataua                     New Britain-SW Pac        Anthropology
0502-05=   05   02   -05-   Bola                         New Britain-SW Pac        Holocene
0502-06=   05   02   -06-   Garua Harbour                New Britain-SW Pac        Holocene?
0502-07=   05   02   -07-   Garbuna Group                New Britain-SW Pac        Historical
0502-071   05   02   -071   Lolo                         New Britain-SW Pac        Holocene?
0502-08=   05   02   -08-   Pago                         New Britain-SW Pac        Historical
0502-09=   05   02   -09-   Sulu Range                   New Britain-SW Pac        Historical
0502-10=   05   02   -10-   Hargy                        New Britain-SW Pac        Radiocarbon
0502-11=   05   02   -11-   Bamus                        New Britain-SW Pac        Anthropology
0502-12=   05   02   -12-   Ulawun                       New Britain-SW Pac        Historical
0502-13=   05   02   -13-   Lolobau                      New Britain-SW Pac        Historical
0502-131   05   02   -131   Unnamed                      New Britain-SW Pac        Uncertain
0502-14=   05   02   -14-   Rabaul                       New Britain-SW Pac        Historical
0502-15-   05   02   -15-   Tavui                        New Britain-SW Pac        Radiocarbon
0503-00-   05   03   -00-   Doma Peaks                   New Guinea                Holocene?
0503-001   05   03   -001   Crater Mountain              New Guinea                Holocene?
0503-002   05   03   -002   Yelia                        New Guinea                Holocene?


                                                Page 8
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0503-003   05   03   -003   Koranga                    New Guinea                 Holocene
0503-004   05   03   -004   Madilogo                   New Guinea                 Holocene
0503-01=   05   03   -01-   Lamington                  New Guinea                 Historical
0503-011   05   03   -011   Hydrographers Range        New Guinea                 Holocene
0503-02=   05   03   -02-   Musa River                 New Guinea                 Hot Springs
0503-021   05   03   -021   Managlase Plateau          New Guinea                 Anthropology
0503-03=   05   03   -03-   Victory                    New Guinea                 Historical
0503-031   05   03   -031   Sessagara                  New Guinea                 Holocene
0503-04=   05   03   -04-   Waiowa                     New Guinea                 Historical
0503-041   05   03   -041   Goodenough                 D'Entrecasteaux Is         Holocene
0503-05=   05   03   -05-   Iamalele                   D'Entrecasteaux Is         Holocene
0503-06=   05   03   -06-   Dawson Strait Group        D'Entrecasteaux Is         Hydration Rind
0504-01=   05   04   -01-   Lihir                      New Ireland-SW Pacific     Holocene
0504-02=   05   04   -02-   Ambitle                    New Ireland-SW Pacific     Radiocarbon
0505-00-   05   05   -00-   Tore                       Bougainville-SW Pacific    Holocene
0505-01=   05   05   -01-   Balbi                      Bougainville-SW Pacific    Holocene
0505-011   05   05   -011   Billy Mitchell             Bougainville-SW Pacific    Radiocarbon
0505-02=   05   05   -02-   Bagana                     Bougainville-SW Pacific    Historical
0505-021   05   05   -021   Takuan Group               Bougainville-SW Pacific    Holocene
0505-03=   05   05   -03-   Loloru                     Bougainville-SW Pacific    Radiocarbon
0505-05=   05   05   -05-   Simbo                      Solomon Is-SW Pacific      Anthropology
0505-052   05   05   -052   Kana Keoki                 Solomon Is-SW Pacific      Holocene
0505-053   05   05   -053   Coleman Seamount           Solomon Is-SW Pacific      Holocene
0505-06=   05   05   -06-   Kavachi                    Solomon Is-SW Pacific      Historical
0505-061   05   05   -061   Unnamed                    Solomon Is-SW Pacific      Holocene
0505-062   05   05   -062   Gallego                    Solomon Is-SW Pacific      Holocene?
0505-07=   05   05   -07-   Savo                       Solomon Is-SW Pacific      Historical
0506-01=   05   06   -01-   Tinakula                   Santa Cruz Is-SW Pacific   Historical
0507-001   05   07   -001   Motlav                     Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Holocene
0507-01=   05   07   -01-   Suretamatai                Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-02=   05   07   -02-   Gaua                       Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-021   05   07   -021   Mere Lava                  Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Holocene
0507-03=   05   07   -03-   Aoba                       Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-04=   05   07   -04-   Ambrym                     Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-05=   05   07   -05-   Lopevi                     Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-06=   05   07   -06-   Epi                        Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-07=   05   07   -07-   Kuwae                      Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-08-   05   07   -08-   Unnamed                    Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Holocene?
0507-081   05   07   -081   North Vate                 Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Holocene
0507-09=   05   07   -09-   Traitor's Head             Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-10=   05   07   -10-   Yasur                      Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Historical
0507-11-   05   07   -11-   Aneityum                   Vanuatu-SW Pacific         Holocene?
0508-001   05   08   -001   Eastern Gemini Seamount    SW Pacific                 Historical
0508-01=   05   08   -01-   Matthew Island             SW Pacific                 Historical
0508-02=   05   08   -02-   Hunter Island              SW Pacific                 Historical
0508-03-   05   08   -03-   Unnamed                    SW Pacific                 Hydrophonic
0509-01-   05   09   -01-   Newer Volcanics Prov       Australia                  Radiocarbon
0600-001   06   00   -001   Narcondum                  Andaman Is-Indian O        Holocene
0600-01=   06   00   -01-   Barren Island              Andaman Is-Indian O        Historical
0601-02=   06   01   -02-   Seulawah Agam              Sumatra                    Historical
0601-03=   06   01   -03-   Peuet Sague                Sumatra                    Historical
0601-04=   06   01   -04-   Geureudong                 Sumatra                    Historical


                                              Page 9
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0601-07=   06   01   -07-   Sibayak                    Sumatra          Historical
0601-08=   06   01   -08-   Sinabung                   Sumatra          Holocene
0601-09=   06   01   -09-   Toba                       Sumatra          Holocene
0601-101   06   01   -101   Imun                       Sumatra          Holocene?
0601-11=   06   01   -11-   Sibualbuali                Sumatra          Holocene?
0601-111   06   01   -111   Lubukraya                  Sumatra          Holocene?
0601-12=   06   01   -12-   Sorikmarapi                Sumatra          Historical
0601-13=   06   01   -13-   Talakmau                   Sumatra          Holocene
0601-131   06   01   -131   Sarik-Gajah                Sumatra          Holocene?
0601-14=   06   01   -14-   Marapi                     Sumatra          Historical
0601-15=   06   01   -15-   Tandikat                   Sumatra          Historical
0601-16=   06   01   -16-   Talang                     Sumatra          Historical
0601-17=   06   01   -17-   Kerinci                    Sumatra          Historical
0601-171   06   01   -171   Hutapanjang                Sumatra          Holocene
0601-18=   06   01   -18-   Sumbing                    Sumatra          Historical
0601-19=   06   01   -19-   Kunyit                     Sumatra          Fumarolic
0601-191   06   01   -191   Pendan                     Sumatra          Holocene
0601-20=   06   01   -20-   Belirang-Beriti            Sumatra          Fumarolic
0601-21=   06   01   -21-   Daun, Bukit                Sumatra          Fumarolic
0601-22=   06   01   -22-   Kaba                       Sumatra          Historical
0601-23=   06   01   -23-   Dempo                      Sumatra          Historical
0601-231   06   01   -231   Patah                      Sumatra          Uncertain
0601-24=   06   01   -24-   Lumut Balai, Bukit         Sumatra          Fumarolic
0601-25=   06   01   -25-   Besar                      Sumatra          Historical
0601-251   06   01   -251   Ranau                      Sumatra          Holocene?
0601-26=   06   01   -26-   Sekincau Belirang          Sumatra          Fumarolic
0601-27=   06   01   -27-   Suoh                       Sumatra          Historical
0601-28=   06   01   -28-   Hulubelu                   Sumatra          Fumarolic
0601-29=   06   01   -29-   Rajabasa                   Sumatra          Fumarolic
0602-00=   06   02   -00-   Krakatau                   Indonesia        Historical
0603-01=   06   03   -01-   Pulosari                   Java             Holocene
0603-02=   06   03   -02-   Karang                     Java             Holocene?
0603-03=   06   03   -03-   Kiaraberes-Gagak           Java             Historical
0603-04=   06   03   -04-   Perbakti                   Java             Fumarolic
0603-05=   06   03   -05-   Salak                      Java             Historical
0603-06=   06   03   -06-   Gede                       Java             Historical
0603-07=   06   03   -07-   Patuha                     Java             Holocene
0603-08=   06   03   -08-   Wayang-Windu               Java             Fumarolic
0603-081   06   03   -081   Malabar                    Java             Holocene?
0603-09=   06   03   -09-   Tangkubanparahu            Java             Historical
0603-10=   06   03   -10-   Papandayan                 Java             Historical
0603-11=   06   03   -11-   Kendang                    Java             Holocene
0603-13=   06   03   -13-   Guntur                     Java             Historical
0603-131   06   03   -131   Tampomas                   Java             Holocene
0603-14=   06   03   -14-   Galunggung                 Java             Historical
0603-15=   06   03   -15-   Talagabodas                Java             Fumarolic
0603-16=   06   03   -16-   Karaha, Kawah              Java             Fumarolic
0603-17=   06   03   -17-   Cereme                     Java             Historical
0603-18=   06   03   -18-   Slamet                     Java             Historical
0603-20=   06   03   -20-   Dieng Volc Complex         Java             Historical
0603-21=   06   03   -21-   Sundoro                    Java             Historical
0603-22=   06   03   -22-   Sumbing                    Java             Historical


                                             Page 10
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0603-23=   06   03   -23-   Ungaran                      Java              Holocene
0603-231   06   03   -231   Telomoyo                     Java              Holocene
0603-24=   06   03   -24-   Merbabu                      Java              Historical
0603-25=   06   03   -25-   Merapi                       Java              Historical
0603-251   06   03   -251   Muria                        Java              Holocene
0603-26=   06   03   -26-   Lawu                         Java              Historical
0603-27=   06   03   -27-   Wilis                        Java              Holocene
0603-28=   06   03   -28-   Kelut                        Java              Historical
0603-281   06   03   -281   Kawi-Butak                   Java              Holocene
0603-29=   06   03   -29-   Arjuno-Welirang              Java              Historical
0603-291   06   03   -291   Penanggungan                 Java              Holocene
0603-292   06   03   -292   Malang Plain                 Java              Holocene
0603-30=   06   03   -30-   Semeru                       Java              Historical
0603-31=   06   03   -31-   Tengger Caldera              Java              Historical
0603-32=   06   03   -32-   Lamongan                     Java              Historical
0603-321   06   03   -321   Lurus                        Java              Holocene
0603-33=   06   03   -33-   Iyang-Argapura               Java              Holocene
0603-34=   06   03   -34-   Raung                        Java              Historical
0603-35=   06   03   -35-   Ijen                         Java              Historical
0603-351   06   03   -351   Baluran                      Java              Holocene?
0604-001   06   04   -001   Bratan                       Lesser Sunda Is   Holocene
0604-01=   06   04   -01-   Batur                        Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-02=   06   04   -02-   Agung                        Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-03=   06   04   -03-   Rinjani                      Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-04=   06   04   -04-   Tambora                      Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-05=   06   04   -05-   Sangeang Api                 Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-06=   06   04   -06-   Sano, Wai                    Lesser Sunda Is   Holocene
0604-07=   06   04   -07-   Poco Leok                    Lesser Sunda Is   Fumarolic
0604-071   06   04   -071   Ranakah                      Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-08=   06   04   -08-   Inierie                      Lesser Sunda Is   Radiocarbon
0604-09=   06   04   -09-   Inielika                     Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-10=   06   04   -10-   Ebulobo                      Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-11=   06   04   -11-   Iya                          Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-12=   06   04   -12-   Sukaria Caldera              Lesser Sunda Is   Fumarolic
0604-13=   06   04   -13-   Ndete Napu                   Lesser Sunda Is   Fumarolic
0604-14=   06   04   -14-   Kelimutu                     Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-15=   06   04   -15-   Paluweh                      Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-16=   06   04   -16-   Egon                         Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-17=   06   04   -17-   Ilimuda                      Lesser Sunda Is   Fumarolic
0604-18=   06   04   -18-   Lewotobi                     Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-20=   06   04   -20-   Leroboleng                   Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-21=   06   04   -21-   Riang Kotang                 Lesser Sunda Is   Fumarolic
0604-22=   06   04   -22-   Iliboleng                    Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-23=   06   04   -23-   Lewotolo                     Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-24=   06   04   -24-   Ililabalekan                 Lesser Sunda Is   Fumarolic
0604-25=   06   04   -25-   Iliwerung                    Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-26=   06   04   -26-   Tara, Batu                   Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-27=   06   04   -27-   Sirung                       Lesser Sunda Is   Historical
0604-28=   06   04   -28-   Yersey                       Lesser Sunda Is   Uncertain
0605-01=   06   05   -01-   Emperor of China             Banda Sea         Uncertain
0605-02=   06   05   -02-   Nieuwerkerk                  Banda Sea         Uncertain
0605-03=   06   05   -03-   Gunungapi Wetar              Banda Sea         Historical


                                               Page 11
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0605-04=   06   05   -04-   Wurlali                      Banda Sea              Historical
0605-05=   06   05   -05-   Teon                         Banda Sea              Historical
0605-06=   06   05   -06-   Nila                         Banda Sea              Historical
0605-07=   06   05   -07-   Serua                        Banda Sea              Historical
0605-08=   06   05   -08-   Manuk                        Banda Sea              Fumarolic
0605-09=   06   05   -09-   Banda Api                    Banda Sea              Historical
0606-01=   06   06   -01-   Colo [Una Una]               Sulawesi-Indonesia     Historical
0606-02=   06   06   -02-   Ambang                       Sulawesi-Indonesia     Historical
0606-03=   06   06   -03-   Soputan                      Sulawesi-Indonesia     Historical
0606-04=   06   06   -04-   Sempu                        Sulawesi-Indonesia     Fumarolic
0606-07-   06   06   -07-   Tondano Caldera              Sulawesi-Indonesia     Fumarolic
0606-10=   06   06   -10-   Lokon-Empung                 Sulawesi-Indonesia     Historical
0606-11=   06   06   -11-   Mahawu                       Sulawesi-Indonesia     Historical
0606-12=   06   06   -12-   Klabat                       Sulawesi-Indonesia     Fumarolic
0606-13=   06   06   -13-   Tongkoko                     Sulawesi-Indonesia     Historical
0607-01=   06   07   -01-   Ruang                        Sangihe Is-Indonesia   Historical
0607-02=   06   07   -02-   Karangetang [Api Siau]       Sangihe Is-Indonesia   Historical
0607-03=   06   07   -03-   Banua Wuhu                   Sangihe Is-Indonesia   Historical
0607-04=   06   07   -04-   Awu                          Sangihe Is-Indonesia   Historical
0607-05=   06   07   -05-   Unnamed                      Sangihe Is-Indonesia   Uncertain
0608-001   06   08   -001   Tarakan                      Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-01=   06   08   -01-   Dukono                       Halmahera-Indonesia    Historical
0608-02-   06   08   -02-   Tobaru                       Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-03=   06   08   -03-   Ibu                          Halmahera-Indonesia    Historical
0608-04=   06   08   -04-   Gamkonora                    Halmahera-Indonesia    Historical
0608-05=   06   08   -05-   Todoko-Ranu                  Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-051   06   08   -051   Jailolo                      Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-052   06   08   -052   Hiri                         Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-06=   06   08   -06-   Gamalama                     Halmahera-Indonesia    Historical
0608-061   06   08   -061   Tidore                       Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-062   06   08   -062   Mare                         Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-063   06   08   -063   Moti                         Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-07=   06   08   -07-   Makian                       Halmahera-Indonesia    Historical
0608-071   06   08   -071   Tigalalu                     Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-072   06   08   -072   Amasing                      Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0608-073   06   08   -073   Bibinoi                      Halmahera-Indonesia    Holocene
0610-01-   06   10   -01-   Bombalai                     Borneo                 Holocene?
0700-01=   07   00   -01-   Jolo                         Sulu Is-Philippines    Historical
0701-01=   07   01   -01-   Balut                        Mindanao-Philippines   Fumarolic
0701-011   07   01   -011   Parker                       Mindanao-Philippines   Historical
0701-02=   07   01   -02-   Matutum                      Mindanao-Philippines   Holocene
0701-03=   07   01   -03-   Apo                          Mindanao-Philippines   Fumarolic
0701-031   07   01   -031   Leonard Range                Mindanao-Philippines   Radiocarbon
0701-04=   07   01   -04-   Makaturing                   Mindanao-Philippines   Historical
0701-05=   07   01   -05-   Latukan                      Mindanao-Philippines   Holocene?
0701-06=   07   01   -06-   Ragang                       Mindanao-Philippines   Historical
0701-061   07   01   -061   Kalatungan                   Mindanao-Philippines   Holocene?
0701-07=   07   01   -07-   Musuan                       Mindanao-Philippines   Historical
0701-071   07   01   -071   Malindang                    Mindanao-Philippines   Holocene
0701-072   07   01   -072   Balatukan                    Mindanao-Philippines   Fumarolic
0701-08=   07   01   -08-   Camiguin                     Mindanao-Philippines   Historical
0701-09-   07   01   -09-   Paco                         Mindanao-Philippines   Anthropology


                                               Page 12
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0702-01=   07   02   -01-   Cuernos de Negros          Philippines-C       Fumarolic
0702-02=   07   02   -02-   Canlaon                    Philippines-C       Historical
0702-03=   07   02   -03-   Mandalagan                 Philippines-C       Holocene
0702-04=   07   02   -04-   Silay                      Philippines-C       Holocene
0702-05=   07   02   -05-   Cabalían                   Philippines-C       Fumarolic
0702-07=   07   02   -07-   Mahagnoa                   Philippines-C       Fumarolic
0702-08=   07   02   -08-   Biliran                    Philippines-C       Historical
0703-01=   07   03   -01-   Bulusan                    Luzon-Philippines   Historical
0703-02=   07   03   -02-   Pocdol Mountains           Luzon-Philippines   Holocene
0703-03=   07   03   -03-   Mayon                      Luzon-Philippines   Historical
0703-031   07   03   -031   Masaraga                   Luzon-Philippines   Holocene
0703-04=   07   03   -04-   Malinao                    Luzon-Philippines   Fumarolic
0703-041   07   03   -041   Iriga                      Luzon-Philippines   Historical
0703-042   07   03   -042   Isarog                     Luzon-Philippines   Fumarolic
0703-044   07   03   -044   Malindig                   Luzon-Philippines   Hot Springs
0703-05=   07   03   -05-   Banáhao                    Luzon-Philippines   Holocene
0703-06=   07   03   -06-   San Pablo Volc Field       Luzon-Philippines   Anthropology
0703-07=   07   03   -07-   Taal                       Luzon-Philippines   Historical
0703-08=   07   03   -08-   Laguna Caldera             Luzon-Philippines   Fumarolic
0703-081   07   03   -081   Mariveles                  Luzon-Philippines   Radiocarbon
0703-082   07   03   -082   Natib                      Luzon-Philippines   Holocene?
0703-083   07   03   -083   Pinatubo                   Luzon-Philippines   Historical
0703-084   07   03   -084   Arayat                     Luzon-Philippines   Holocene?
0703-085   07   03   -085   Amorong                    Luzon-Philippines   Fumarolic
0703-086   07   03   -086   Santo Tomas                Luzon-Philippines   Uncertain
0703-087   07   03   -087   Patoc                      Luzon-Philippines   Fumarolic
0703-088   07   03   -088   Ambalatungan Group         Luzon-Philippines   Fumarolic
0703-09=   07   03   -09-   Cagua                      Luzon-Philippines   Historical
0704-01=   07   04   -01-   Camiguin de Babuyanes      Luzon-N of          Historical
0704-02=   07   04   -02-   Didicas                    Luzon-N of          Historical
0704-03=   07   04   -03-   Babuyan Claro              Luzon-N of          Historical
0704-05=   07   04   -05-   Unnamed                    Luzon-N of          Historical
0704-06-   07   04   -06-   Iraya                      Luzon-N of          Historical
0705-01-   07   05   -01-   Leizhou Bandao             SE Asia             Holocene
0705-02-   07   05   -02-   Cù-Lao Ré Group            SE Asia             Holocene
0705-03-   07   05   -03-   Toroeng Prong              SE Asia             Holocene?
0705-04-   07   05   -04-   Haut Dong Nai              SE Asia             Holocene?
0705-05-   07   05   -05-   Bas Dong Nai               SE Asia             Holocene?
0705-06-   07   05   -06-   Cendres, Ile des           SE Asia             Historical
0705-07-   07   05   -07-   Veteran                    SE Asia             Fumarolic
0705-08-   07   05   -08-   Popa                       SE Asia             Anthropology
0705-09-   07   05   -09-   Lower Chindwin             SE Asia             Holocene?
0705-10-   07   05   -10-   Singu Plateau              SE Asia             Holocene
0705-11-   07   05   -11-   Tengchong                  SE Asia             Holocene
0801-01=   08   01   -01-   Unnamed                    Taiwan-E of         Uncertain
0801-011   08   01   -011   Unnamed                    Taiwan-E of         Uncertain
0801-02=   08   01   -02-   Unnamed                    Taiwan-E of         Uncertain
0801-03=   08   01   -03-   Unnamed                    Taiwan-E of         Historical
0801-04=   08   01   -04-   Unnamed                    Taiwan-N of         Uncertain
0801-05=   08   01   -05-   Zengyu                     Taiwan-N of         Uncertain
0802-01=   08   02   -01-   Iriomote-jima              Ryukyu Is           Historical
0802-02=   08   02   -02-   Iwo-Tori-shima             Ryukyu Is           Historical


                                             Page 13
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0802-021   08   02   -021   Yokoate-jima               Ryukyu Is        Historical
0802-022   08   02   -022   Akuseki-jima               Ryukyu Is        Holocene?
0802-03=   08   02   -03-   Suwanose-jima              Ryukyu Is        Historical
0802-04=   08   02   -04-   Nakano-shima               Ryukyu Is        Historical
0802-041   08   02   -041   Kogaja-jima                Ryukyu Is        Holocene?
0802-042   08   02   -042   Gaja-jima                  Ryukyu Is        Holocene?
0802-043   08   02   -043   Kuchino-shima              Ryukyu Is        Tephrochronology
0802-05=   08   02   -05-   Kuchinoerabu-jima          Ryukyu Is        Historical
0802-06=   08   02   -06-   Kikai                      Ryukyu Is        Historical
0802-07=   08   02   -07-   Ibusuki Volc Field         Kyushu-Japan     Historical
0802-08=   08   02   -08-   Sakura-jima                Kyushu-Japan     Historical
0802-081   08   02   -081   Sumiyoshi-ike              Kyushu-Japan     Radiocarbon
0802-09=   08   02   -09-   Kirishima                  Kyushu-Japan     Historical
0802-091   08   02   -091   Fukue-jima                 Kyushu-Japan     Tephrochronology
0802-10=   08   02   -10-   Unzen                      Kyushu-Japan     Historical
0802-11=   08   02   -11-   Aso                        Kyushu-Japan     Historical
0802-12=   08   02   -12-   Kuju                       Kyushu-Japan     Historical
0802-13=   08   02   -13-   Tsurumi                    Kyushu-Japan     Historical
0803-001   08   03   -001   Abu                        Honshu-Japan     Holocene
0803-002   08   03   -002   Sanbe                      Honshu-Japan     Radiocarbon
0803-003   08   03   -003   Oki-Dogo                   Honshu-Japan     Anthropology
0803-01=   08   03   -01-   Izu-Tobu                   Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-02=   08   03   -02-   Hakone                     Honshu-Japan     Radiocarbon
0803-03=   08   03   -03-   Fuji                       Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-031   08   03   -031   Tateshina                  Honshu-Japan     Holocene
0803-04=   08   03   -04-   On-take                    Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-05=   08   03   -05-   Haku-san                   Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-06=   08   03   -06-   Norikura                   Honshu-Japan     Radiocarbon
0803-07=   08   03   -07-   Yake-dake                  Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-071   08   03   -071   Washiba-Kumonotaira        Honshu-Japan     Tephrochronology
0803-08=   08   03   -08-   Tate-yama                  Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-09=   08   03   -09-   Niigata-Yake-yama          Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-10=   08   03   -10-   Myoko                      Honshu-Japan     Radiocarbon
0803-11=   08   03   -11-   Asama                      Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-12=   08   03   -12-   Kusatsu-Shirane            Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-121   08   03   -121   Shiga                      Honshu-Japan     Holocene?
0803-122   08   03   -122   Haruna                     Honshu-Japan     Anthropology
0803-13=   08   03   -13-   Akagi                      Honshu-Japan     Uncertain
0803-131   08   03   -131   Hiuchi                     Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-14=   08   03   -14-   Nikko-Shirane              Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-141   08   03   -141   Nantai                     Honshu-Japan     Holocene?
0803-142   08   03   -142   Omanago Group              Honshu-Japan     Holocene
0803-143   08   03   -143   Takahara                   Honshu-Japan     Holocene
0803-15=   08   03   -15-   Nasu                       Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-151   08   03   -151   Numazawa                   Honshu-Japan     Radiocarbon
0803-16=   08   03   -16-   Bandai                     Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-17=   08   03   -17-   Adatara                    Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-18=   08   03   -18-   Azuma                      Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-19=   08   03   -19-   Zao                        Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-191   08   03   -191   Hijiori                    Honshu-Japan     Radiocarbon
0803-20=   08   03   -20-   Narugo                     Honshu-Japan     Historical
0803-21=   08   03   -21-   Kurikoma                   Honshu-Japan     Historical


                                             Page 14
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0803-22=   08   03   -22-   Chokai                          Honshu-Japan           Historical
0803-23=   08   03   -23-   Akita-Komaga-take               Honshu-Japan           Historical
0803-24=   08   03   -24-   Iwate                           Honshu-Japan           Historical
0803-25=   08   03   -25-   Hachimantai                     Honshu-Japan           Holocene?
0803-26=   08   03   -26-   Akita-Yake-yama                 Honshu-Japan           Historical
0803-261   08   03   -261   Kanpu                           Honshu-Japan           Radiocarbon
0803-262   08   03   -262   Megata                          Honshu-Japan           Tephrochronology
0803-27=   08   03   -27-   Iwaki                           Honshu-Japan           Historical
0803-271   08   03   -271   Towada                          Honshu-Japan           Historical
0803-28=   08   03   -28-   Hakkoda Group                   Honshu-Japan           Radiocarbon
0803-29=   08   03   -29-   Osore-yama                      Honshu-Japan           Historical
0804-01=   08   04   -01-   Oshima                          Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-011   08   04   -011   To-shima                        Izu Is-Japan           Tephrochronology
0804-02=   08   04   -02-   Nii-jima                        Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-03=   08   04   -03-   Kozu-shima                      Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-04=   08   04   -04-   Miyake-jima                     Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-041   08   04   -041   Mikura-jima                     Izu Is-Japan           Tephrochronology
0804-042   08   04   -042   Kurose Hole                     Izu Is-Japan           Holocene?
0804-05=   08   04   -05-   Hachijo-jima                    Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-06=   08   04   -06-   Aoga-shima                      Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-061   08   04   -061   Myojin Knoll                    Izu Is-Japan           Holocene?
0804-07=   08   04   -07-   Bayonnaise Rocks                Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-08=   08   04   -08-   Smith Rock                      Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-09=   08   04   -09-   Tori-shima                      Izu Is-Japan           Historical
0804-091   08   04   -091   Sofugan                         Izu Is-Japan           Uncertain
0804-093   08   04   -093   Suiyo Seamount                  Izu Is-Japan           Fumarolic
0804-094   08   04   -094   Mokuyo Seamount                 Izu Is-Japan           Fumarolic
0804-095   08   04   -095   Doyo Seamount                   Izu Is-Japan           Fumarolic
0804-096   08   04   -096   Nishino-shima                   Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-097   08   04   -097   Kaikata Seamount                Volcano Is-Japan       Fumarolic
0804-10=   08   04   -10-   Kaitoku Seamount                Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-101   08   04   -101   Unnamed                         Volcano Is-Japan       Uncertain
0804-11=   08   04   -11-   Kita-Iwo-jima                   Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-12=   08   04   -12-   Iwo-jima                        Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-121   08   04   -121   Kita-Fukutokutai                Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-13=   08   04   -13-   Fukutoku-Okanoba                Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-131   08   04   -131   Minami-Hiyoshi                  Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-132   08   04   -132   Nikko                           Volcano Is-Japan       Uncertain
0804-133   08   04   -133   Fukujin                         Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-134   08   04   -134   Kasuga                          Volcano Is-Japan       Historical
0804-135   08   04   -135   Minami Kasuga                   Volcano Is-Japan       Holocene
0804-136   08   04   -136   Unnamed                         Mariana Is-C Pacific   Uncertain
0804-137   08   04   -137   Unnamed                         Mariana Is-C Pacific   Uncertain
0804-14=   08   04   -14-   Farallon de Pajaros             Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical
0804-141   08   04   -141   Ahyi                            Mariana Is-C Pacific   Seismicity
0804-142   08   04   -142   Supply Reef                     Mariana Is-C Pacific   Hydrophonic
0804-143   08   04   -143   Maug Islands                    Mariana Is-C Pacific   Holocene?
0804-15=   08   04   -15-   Asuncion                        Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical
0804-16=   08   04   -16-   Agrigan                         Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical
0804-17=   08   04   -17-   Pagan                           Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical
0804-18=   08   04   -18-   Alamagan                        Mariana Is-C Pacific   Radiocarbon
0804-19=   08   04   -19-   Guguan                          Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical


                                                  Page 15
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0804-191   08   04   -191   Zealandia Bank             Mariana Is-C Pacific   Fumarolic
0804-192   08   04   -192   Sarigan                    Mariana Is-C Pacific   Holocene
0804-20=   08   04   -20-   Anatahan                   Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical
0804-201   08   04   -201   Ruby                       Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical
0804-21=   08   04   -21-   Esmeralda Bank             Mariana Is-C Pacific   Fumarolic
0804-211   08   04   -211   NW Rota-1                  Mariana Is-C Pacific   Historical
0805-01=   08   05   -01-   Oshima-Oshima              Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-011   08   05   -011   E-san                      Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-02=   08   05   -02-   Komaga-take                Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-03=   08   05   -03-   Usu                        Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-031   08   05   -031   Niseko                     Hokkaido-Japan         Tephrochronology
0805-032   08   05   -032   Yotei                      Hokkaido-Japan         Tephrochronology
0805-033   08   05   -033   Shiribetsu                 Hokkaido-Japan         Holocene
0805-034   08   05   -034   Kuttara                    Hokkaido-Japan         Tephrochronology
0805-04=   08   05   -04-   Shikotsu                   Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-041   08   05   -041   Rishiri                    Hokkaido-Japan         Radiocarbon
0805-05=   08   05   -05-   Tokachi                    Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-06=   08   05   -06-   Daisetsu                   Hokkaido-Japan         Tephrochronology
0805-061   08   05   -061   Nipesotsu-Maruyama         Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-062   08   05   -062   Shikaribetsu Group         Hokkaido-Japan         Holocene?
0805-07=   08   05   -07-   Akan                       Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0805-08=   08   05   -08-   Kutcharo                   Hokkaido-Japan         Tephrochronology
0805-081   08   05   -081   Mashu                      Hokkaido-Japan         Radiocarbon
0805-082   08   05   -082   Rausu                      Hokkaido-Japan         Tephrochronology
0805-09=   08   05   -09-   Shiretoko-Iwo-zan          Hokkaido-Japan         Historical
0900-01=   09   00   -01-   Golovnin                   Kuril Is               Historical
0900-02=   09   00   -02-   Mendeleev                  Kuril Is               Historical
0900-021   09   00   -021   Smirnov                    Kuril Is               Holocene
0900-03=   09   00   -03-   Tiatia                     Kuril Is               Historical
0900-04=   09   00   -04-   Berutarube                 Kuril Is               Holocene
0900-041   09   00   -041   Lvinaya Past               Kuril Is               Radiocarbon
0900-05=   09   00   -05-   Atsonupuri                 Kuril Is               Historical
0900-06-   09   00   -06-   Bogatyr Ridge              Kuril Is               Holocene
0900-061   09   00   -061   Unnamed                    Kuril Is               Uncertain
0900-07=   09   00   -07-   Grozny Group               Kuril Is               Historical
0900-08=   09   00   -08-   Baransky                   Kuril Is               Historical
0900-09=   09   00   -09-   Chirip                     Kuril Is               Historical
0900-091   09   00   -091   Golets-Tornyi Group        Kuril Is               Holocene?
0900-10=   09   00   -10-   Medvezhia                  Kuril Is               Historical
0900-11-   09   00   -11-   Demon                      Kuril Is               Holocene
0900-111   09   00   -111   Ivao Group                 Kuril Is               Holocene
0900-112   09   00   -112   Rudakov                    Kuril Is               Holocene?
0900-113   09   00   -113   Tri Sestry                 Kuril Is               Holocene?
0900-12=   09   00   -12-   Kolokol Group              Kuril Is               Historical
0900-13-   09   00   -13-   Unnamed                    Kuril Is               Uncertain
0900-15=   09   00   -15-   Chirpoi                    Kuril Is               Historical
0900-16-   09   00   -16-   Unnamed                    Kuril Is               Hydrophonic
0900-161   09   00   -161   Milne                      Kuril Is               Holocene
0900-17=   09   00   -17-   Goriaschaia Sopka          Kuril Is               Historical
0900-18=   09   00   -18-   Zavaritzki Caldera         Kuril Is               Historical
0900-19=   09   00   -19-   Prevo Peak                 Kuril Is               Historical
0900-191   09   00   -191   Urataman                   Kuril Is               Holocene


                                             Page 16
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


0900-20=   09   00   -20-   Ketoi                          Kuril Is     Historical
0900-21=   09   00   -21-   Ushishur                       Kuril Is     Historical
0900-211   09   00   -211   Srednii                        Kuril Is     Holocene
0900-22=   09   00   -22-   Rasshua                        Kuril Is     Historical
0900-23=   09   00   -23-   Unnamed                        Kuril Is     Historical
0900-24=   09   00   -24-   Sarychev Peak                  Kuril Is     Historical
0900-25=   09   00   -25-   Raikoke                        Kuril Is     Historical
0900-26=   09   00   -26-   Chirinkotan                    Kuril Is     Historical
0900-27=   09   00   -27-   Ekarma                         Kuril Is     Historical
0900-29=   09   00   -29-   Sinarka                        Kuril Is     Historical
0900-30=   09   00   -30-   Kharimkotan                    Kuril Is     Historical
0900-31=   09   00   -31-   Tao-Rusyr Caldera              Kuril Is     Historical
0900-32=   09   00   -32-   Nemo Peak                      Kuril Is     Historical
0900-331   09   00   -331   Shirinki                       Kuril Is     Holocene
0900-34=   09   00   -34-   Fuss Peak                      Kuril Is     Historical
0900-35=   09   00   -35-   Karpinsky Group                Kuril Is     Historical
0900-351   09   00   -351   Lomonosov Group                Kuril Is     Holocene
0900-36=   09   00   -36-   Chikurachki                    Kuril Is     Historical
0900-37-   09   00   -37-   Vernadskii Ridge               Kuril Is     Holocene
0900-38=   09   00   -38-   Ebeko                          Kuril Is     Historical
0900-39=   09   00   -39-   Alaid                          Kuril Is     Historical
1000-001   10   00   -001   Mashkovtsev                    Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-01=   10   00   -01-   Kambalny                       Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-02=   10   00   -02-   Koshelev                       Kamchatka    Historical
1000-021   10   00   -021   Unnamed                        Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-022   10   00   -022   Diky Greben                    Kamchatka    Radiocarbon
1000-023   10   00   -023   Kurile Lake                    Kamchatka    Radiocarbon
1000-03=   10   00   -03-   Ilyinsky                       Kamchatka    Historical
1000-04=   10   00   -04-   Zheltovsky                     Kamchatka    Historical
1000-041   10   00   -041   Kell                           Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-042   10   00   -042   Belenkaya                      Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-05=   10   00   -05-   Ksudach                        Kamchatka    Historical
1000-051   10   00   -051   Ozernoy                        Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-052   10   00   -052   Olkoviy Volc Group             Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-053   10   00   -053   Khodutka                       Kamchatka    Radiocarbon
1000-054   10   00   -054   Piratkovsky                    Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-055   10   00   -055   Ostanets                       Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-056   10   00   -056   Otdelniy                       Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-057   10   00   -057   Golaya                         Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-058   10   00   -058   Asacha                         Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-059   10   00   -059   Visokiy                        Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-06=   10   00   -06-   Mutnovsky                      Kamchatka    Historical
1000-07=   10   00   -07-   Gorely                         Kamchatka    Historical
1000-08=   10   00   -08-   Opala                          Kamchatka    Radiocarbon
1000-081   10   00   -081   Unnamed                        Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-082   10   00   -082   Tolmachev Dol                  Kamchatka    Radiocarbon
1000-083   10   00   -083   Vilyuchik                      Kamchatka    Tephrochronology
1000-084   10   00   -084   Barkhatnaya Sopka              Kamchatka    Tephrochronology
1000-085   10   00   -085   Unnamed                        Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-086   10   00   -086   Unnamed                        Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-087   10   00   -087   Bolshe-Bannaya                 Kamchatka    Holocene
1000-09=   10   00   -09-   Koryaksky                      Kamchatka    Historical


                                                 Page 17
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1000-10=   10   00   -10-   Avachinsky                 Kamchatka        Historical
1000-11=   10   00   -11-   Dzenzursky                 Kamchatka        Holocene
1000-12=   10   00   -12-   Zhupanovsky                Kamchatka        Historical
1000-121   10   00   -121   Veer                       Kamchatka        Tephrochronology
1000-122   10   00   -122   Kostakan                   Kamchatka        Holocene
1000-123   10   00   -123   Bakening                   Kamchatka        Tephrochronology
1000-124   10   00   -124   Zavaritsky                 Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-125   10   00   -125   Akademia Nauk              Kamchatka        Historical
1000-13=   10   00   -13-   Karymsky                   Kamchatka        Historical
1000-14=   10   00   -14-   Maly Semiachik             Kamchatka        Historical
1000-15=   10   00   -15-   Bolshoi Semiachik          Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-16-   10   00   -16-   Taunshits                  Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-17=   10   00   -17-   Uzon                       Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-18=   10   00   -18-   Kikhpinych                 Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-19=   10   00   -19-   Krasheninnikov             Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-20=   10   00   -20-   Kronotsky                  Kamchatka        Historical
1000-201   10   00   -201   Schmidt                    Kamchatka        Holocene
1000-21=   10   00   -21-   Gamchen                    Kamchatka        Tephrochronology
1000-22=   10   00   -22-   Komarov                    Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-221   10   00   -221   Vysoky                     Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-23=   10   00   -23-   Kizimen                    Kamchatka        Historical
1000-232   10   00   -232   Unnamed                    Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-24=   10   00   -24-   Tolbachik                  Kamchatka        Historical
1000-241   10   00   -241   Udina                      Kamchatka        Holocene
1000-242   10   00   -242   Zimina                     Kamchatka        Holocene
1000-25=   10   00   -25-   Bezymianny                 Kamchatka        Historical
1000-251   10   00   -251   Kamen                      Kamchatka        Holocene
1000-26=   10   00   -26-   Kliuchevskoi               Kamchatka        Historical
1000-261   10   00   -261   Ushkovsky                  Kamchatka        Historical
1000-27=   10   00   -27-   Shiveluch                  Kamchatka        Historical
1000-271   10   00   -271   Piip                       Kamchatka-E of   Tephrochronology
1000-272   10   00   -272   Khangar                    Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-273   10   00   -273   Cherpuk Group              Kamchatka        Holocene
1000-28=   10   00   -28-   Ichinsky                   Kamchatka        Historical
1000-29-   10   00   -29-   Maly Payalpan              Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-30-   10   00   -30-   Bolshoi Payalpan           Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-31-   10   00   -31-   Plosky                     Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-32-   10   00   -32-   Akhtang                    Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-33-   10   00   -33-   Kozyrevsky                 Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-34-   10   00   -34-   Romanovka                  Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-35-   10   00   -35-   Uksichan                   Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-36-   10   00   -36-   Bolshoi-Kekuknaysky        Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-37-   10   00   -37-   Kulkev                     Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-38-   10   00   -38-   Geodesistoy                Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-39-   10   00   -39-   Anaun                      Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-40-   10   00   -40-   Krainy                     Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-41-   10   00   -41-   Kekurny                    Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-42-   10   00   -42-   Eggella                    Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-43-   10   00   -43-   Unnamed                    Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-44-   10   00   -44-   Verkhovoy                  Kamchatka        Holocene?
1000-45-   10   00   -45-   Alney-Chashakondzha        Kamchatka        Radiocarbon
1000-46-   10   00   -46-   Cherny                     Kamchatka        Holocene?


                                             Page 18
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1000-47-   10   00   -47-   Pogranychny                  Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-48-   10   00   -48-   Zaozerny                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-49-   10   00   -49-   Bliznets                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-50-   10   00   -50-   Kebeney                      Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-51-   10   00   -51-   Fedotych                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-511   10   00   -511   Shisheika                    Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-512   10   00   -512   Terpuk                       Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-52-   10   00   -52-   Sedankinsky                  Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-53-   10   00   -53-   Leutongey                    Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-54-   10   00   -54-   Tuzovsky                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-55-   10   00   -55-   Gorny Institute              Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-551   10   00   -551   Kinenin                      Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-552   10   00   -552   Bliznetsy                    Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-56-   10   00   -56-   Titila                       Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-57-   10   00   -57-   Mezhdusopochny               Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-58-   10   00   -58-   Shishel                      Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-59-   10   00   -59-   Elovsky                      Kamchatka       Tephrochronology
1000-60-   10   00   -60-   Alngey                       Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-61-   10   00   -61-   Uka                          Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-62-   10   00   -62-   Kaileney                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-63-   10   00   -63-   Plosky                       Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-64-   10   00   -64-   Bely                         Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-65-   10   00   -65-   Nylgimelkin                  Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-66-   10   00   -66-   Snezhniy                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-67-   10   00   -67-   Iktunup                      Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-671   10   00   -671   Spokoiny                     Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-68-   10   00   -68-   Ostry                        Kamchatka       Holocene
1000-69-   10   00   -69-   Snegovoy                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-70-   10   00   -70-   Severny                      Kamchatka       Radiocarbon
1000-71-   10   00   -71-   Iettunup                     Kamchatka       Holocene?
1000-72-   10   00   -72-   Voyampolsky                  Kamchatka       Holocene?
1001-03-   10   01   -03-   Balagan-Tas                  Russia-NE       Historical
1002-01-   10   02   -01-   Sikhote-Alin                 Russia-SE       Holocene
1002-03-   10   02   -03-   Udokan Plateau               Russia-SE       Radiocarbon
1002-04-   10   02   -04-   Vitim Plateau                Russia-SE       Holocene
1002-05-   10   02   -05-   Tunkin Depression            Russia-SE       Holocene?
1002-06-   10   02   -06-   Oka Plateau                  Russia-SE       Holocene
1002-07-   10   02   -07-   Azas Plateau                 Russia-SE       Holocene
1003-01-   10   03   -01-   Taryatu-Chulutu              Mongolia        Radiocarbon
1003-02-   10   03   -02-   Khanuy Gol                   Mongolia        Holocene
1003-03-   10   03   -03-   Bus-Obo                      Mongolia        Holocene?
1003-04-   10   03   -04-   Dariganga Volc Field         Mongolia        Holocene
1003-05-   10   03   -05-   Middle Gobi                  Mongolia        Holocene?
1004-01-   10   04   -01-   Turfan                       China-W         Historical
1004-02-   10   04   -02-   Tianshan Volc Group          China-W         Historical
1004-03-   10   04   -03-   Kunlun Volc Group            China-W         Historical
1004-04-   10   04   -04-   Unnamed                      China-W         Holocene?
1005-01-   10   05   -01-   Honggeertu                   China-E         Holocene?
1005-02-   10   05   -02-   Keluo Group                  China-E         Holocene
1005-03-   10   05   -03-   Wudalianchi                  China-E         Historical
1005-04-   10   05   -04-   Jingbo                       China-E         Radiocarbon
1005-05-   10   05   -05-   Longgang Group               China-E         Radiocarbon


                                               Page 19
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1005-06-   10   05   -06-   Baitoushan                 China-E            Historical
1006-01-   10   06   -01-   Xianjindao                 Korea              Historical
1006-02-   10   06   -02-   Ch'uga-ryong               Korea              Holocene?
1006-03-   10   06   -03-   Ulreung                    Korea              Radiocarbon
1006-04-   10   06   -04-   Halla                      Korea              Historical
1101-01-   11   01   -01-   Buldir                     Aleutian Is        Holocene?
1101-02-   11   01   -02-   Kiska                      Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-03-   11   01   -03-   Segula                     Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-04-   11   01   -04-   Davidof                    Aleutian Is        Holocene?
1101-05-   11   01   -05-   Little Sitkin              Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-06-   11   01   -06-   Semisopochnoi              Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-07-   11   01   -07-   Gareloi                    Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-08-   11   01   -08-   Tanaga                     Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-09-   11   01   -09-   Takawangha                 Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-10-   11   01   -10-   Bobrof                     Aleutian Is        Holocene?
1101-11-   11   01   -11-   Kanaga                     Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-111   11   01   -111   Moffett                    Aleutian Is        Holocene?
1101-112   11   01   -112   Adagdak                    Aleutian Is        Holocene?
1101-12-   11   01   -12-   Great Sitkin               Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-13-   11   01   -13-   Kasatochi                  Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-14-   11   01   -14-   Koniuji                    Aleutian Is        Uncertain
1101-15-   11   01   -15-   Sergief                    Aleutian Is        Uncertain
1101-16-   11   01   -16-   Atka                       Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-18-   11   01   -18-   Seguam                     Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-19-   11   01   -19-   Amukta                     Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-20-   11   01   -20-   Chagulak                   Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-21-   11   01   -21-   Yunaska                    Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-22-   11   01   -22-   Herbert                    Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-23-   11   01   -23-   Carlisle                   Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-24-   11   01   -24-   Cleveland                  Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-25-   11   01   -25-   Uliaga                     Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-26-   11   01   -26-   Kagamil                    Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-27-   11   01   -27-   Vsevidof                   Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-28-   11   01   -28-   Recheschnoi                Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-29-   11   01   -29-   Okmok                      Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-30-   11   01   -30-   Bogoslof                   Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-31-   11   01   -31-   Makushin                   Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-311   11   01   -311   Table Top-Wide Bay         Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-32-   11   01   -32-   Akutan                     Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-34-   11   01   -34-   Westdahl                   Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-35-   11   01   -35-   Fisher                     Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-36-   11   01   -36-   Shishaldin                 Aleutian Is        Historical
1101-37-   11   01   -37-   Isanotski                  Aleutian Is        Uncertain
1101-38-   11   01   -38-   Roundtop                   Aleutian Is        Holocene
1101-39-   11   01   -39-   Amak                       Aleutian Is        Historical
1102-01-   11   02   -01-   Frosty                     Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-011   11   02   -011   Dutton                     Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-02-   11   02   -02-   Emmons Lake                Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-03-   11   02   -03-   Pavlof                     Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-04-   11   02   -04-   Pavlof Sister              Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-05-   11   02   -05-   Dana                       Alaska Peninsula   Radiocarbon
1102-051   11   02   -051   Stepovak                   Alaska Peninsula   Holocene


                                             Page 20
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1102-06-   11   02   -06-   Kupreanof                   Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-07-   11   02   -07-   Veniaminof                  Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-08-   11   02   -08-   Black Peak                  Alaska Peninsula   Radiocarbon
1102-09-   11   02   -09-   Aniakchak                   Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-10-   11   02   -10-   Yantarni                    Alaska Peninsula   Tephrochronology
1102-11-   11   02   -11-   Chiginagak                  Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-12-   11   02   -12-   Kialagvik                   Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-13-   11   02   -13-   Ugashik-Peulik              Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-131   11   02   -131   Ukinrek Maars               Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-132   11   02   -132   Unnamed                     Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-14-   11   02   -14-   Martin                      Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-15-   11   02   -15-   Mageik                      Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-16-   11   02   -16-   Trident                     Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-17-   11   02   -17-   Katmai                      Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-18-   11   02   -18-   Novarupta                   Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-19-   11   02   -19-   Griggs                      Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-20-   11   02   -20-   Snowy Mountain              Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-21-   11   02   -21-   Denison                     Alaska Peninsula   Uncertain
1102-22-   11   02   -22-   Steller                     Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-23-   11   02   -23-   Kukak                       Alaska Peninsula   Fumarolic
1102-25-   11   02   -25-   Kaguyak                     Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1102-26-   11   02   -26-   Fourpeaked                  Alaska Peninsula   Historical
1102-27-   11   02   -27-   Douglas                     Alaska Peninsula   Holocene
1103-01-   11   03   -01-   Augustine                   Alaska-SW          Historical
1103-02-   11   03   -02-   Iliamna                     Alaska-SW          Historical
1103-03-   11   03   -03-   Redoubt                     Alaska-SW          Historical
1103-04-   11   03   -04-   Spurr                       Alaska-SW          Historical
1103-05-   11   03   -05-   Hayes                       Alaska-SW          Radiocarbon
1104-01-   11   04   -01-   St. Paul Island             Alaska-W           Radiocarbon
1104-02-   11   04   -02-   Nunivak Island              Alaska-W           Holocene
1104-03-   11   04   -03-   Ingakslugwat Hills          Alaska-W           Holocene
1104-04-   11   04   -04-   St. Michael                 Alaska-W           Anthropology
1104-05-   11   04   -05-   Kookooligit Mountains       Alaska-W           Holocene
1104-06-   11   04   -06-   Imuruk Lake                 Alaska-W           Radiocarbon
1105-001   11   05   -001   Buzzard Creek               Alaska-E           Radiocarbon
1105-01-   11   05   -01-   Sanford                     Alaska-E           Holocene?
1105-02-   11   05   -02-   Wrangell                    Alaska-E           Historical
1105-021   11   05   -021   Gordon                      Alaska-E           Holocene?
1105-03-   11   05   -03-   Churchill                   Alaska-E           Radiocarbon
1105-04-   11   05   -04-   Edgecumbe                   Alaska-E           Radiocarbon
1105-05-   11   05   -05-   Duncan Canal                Alaska-E           Holocene
1105-06-   11   05   -06-   Tlevak Strait-Suemez Is.    Alaska-E           Holocene
1105-07-   11   05   -07-   Behm Canal-Rudyerd Bay      Alaska-E           Holocene?
1200-01-   12   00   -01-   Fort Selkirk                Canada             Holocene?
1200-02-   12   00   -02-   Alligator Lake              Canada             Holocene
1200-03-   12   00   -03-   Atlin Volc Field            Canada             Holocene
1200-031   12   00   -031   Tuya Volc Field             Canada             Holocene
1200-04-   12   00   -04-   Heart Peaks                 Canada             Holocene?
1200-05-   12   00   -05-   Level Mountain              Canada             Holocene?
1200-06-   12   00   -06-   Edziza                      Canada             Radiocarbon
1200-07-   12   00   -07-   Spectrum Range              Canada             Holocene
1200-08-   12   00   -08-   Hoodoo Mountain             Canada             Tephrochronology


                                              Page 21
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1200-09-   12   00   -09-   Iskut-Unuk River Cones       Canada          Radiocarbon
1200-10-   12   00   -10-   Tseax River Cone             Canada          Radiocarbon
1200-11-   12   00   -11-   Crow Lagoon                  Canada          Holocene
1200-12-   12   00   -12-   Milbanke Sound Group         Canada          Holocene
1200-13-   12   00   -13-   Satah Mountain               Canada          Holocene
1200-14-   12   00   -14-   Nazko                        Canada          Radiocarbon
1200-15-   12   00   -15-   Wells Gray-Clearwater        Canada          Dendrochronology
1200-16-   12   00   -16-   Silverthrone                 Canada          Holocene
1200-17-   12   00   -17-   Bridge River Cones           Canada          Holocene
1200-18-   12   00   -18-   Meager                       Canada          Radiocarbon
1200-19-   12   00   -19-   Garibaldi Lake               Canada          Holocene
1200-20-   12   00   -20-   Garibaldi                    Canada          Radiocarbon
1201-01=   12   01   -01-   Baker                        US-Washington   Historical
1201-02-   12   01   -02-   Glacier Peak                 US-Washington   Tephrochronology
1201-03-   12   01   -03-   Rainier                      US-Washington   Historical
1201-04-   12   01   -04-   Adams                        US-Washington   Tephrochronology
1201-05-   12   01   -05-   St. Helens                   US-Washington   Historical
1201-06-   12   01   -06-   West Crater                  US-Washington   Radiocarbon
1201-07-   12   01   -07-   Indian Heaven                US-Washington   Radiocarbon
1202-01-   12   02   -01-   Hood                         US-Oregon       Historical
1202-02-   12   02   -02-   Jefferson                    US-Oregon       Varve Count
1202-03-   12   02   -03-   Blue Lake Crater             US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-04-   12   02   -04-   Sand Mountain Field          US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-06-   12   02   -06-   Belknap                      US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-07-   12   02   -07-   North Sister Field           US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-08-   12   02   -08-   South Sister                 US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-09-   12   02   -09-   Bachelor                     US-Oregon       Tephrochronology
1202-10-   12   02   -10-   Davis Lake                   US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-11-   12   02   -11-   Newberry                     US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-12-   12   02   -12-   Devils Garden                US-Oregon       Holocene?
1202-13-   12   02   -13-   Squaw Ridge Lava Field       US-Oregon       Holocene?
1202-14-   12   02   -14-   Four Craters Lava Field      US-Oregon       Holocene?
1202-15-   12   02   -15-   Cinnamon Butte               US-Oregon       Holocene?
1202-16-   12   02   -16-   Crater Lake                  US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1202-17-   12   02   -17-   Diamond Craters              US-Oregon       Holocene?
1202-19-   12   02   -19-   Jordan Craters               US-Oregon       Radiocarbon
1203-01-   12   03   -01-   Shasta                       US-California   Historical
1203-02-   12   03   -02-   Medicine Lake                US-California   Radiocarbon
1203-03-   12   03   -03-   Brushy Butte                 US-California   Holocene?
1203-05-   12   03   -05-   Twin Buttes                  US-California   Holocene?
1203-06-   12   03   -06-   Tumble Buttes                US-California   Holocene?
1203-08-   12   03   -08-   Lassen Volc Center           US-California   Historical
1203-09-   12   03   -09-   Eagle Lake Field             US-California   Holocene?
1203-10-   12   03   -10-   Clear Lake                   US-California   Holocene
1203-11-   12   03   -11-   Mono Lake Volc Field         US-California   Tephrochronology
1203-12-   12   03   -12-   Mono Craters                 US-California   Radiocarbon
1203-13-   12   03   -13-   Inyo Craters                 US-California   Radiocarbon
1203-15-   12   03   -15-   Mammoth Mountain             US-California   Radiocarbon
1203-16-   12   03   -16-   Ubehebe Craters              US-California   Anthropology
1203-17-   12   03   -17-   Golden Trout Creek           US-California   Tephrochronology
1203-18-   12   03   -18-   Coso Volc Field              US-California   Holocene?
1203-19-   12   03   -19-   Lavic Lake                   US-California   Holocene?


                                               Page 22
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1204-01-   12   04   -01-   Shoshone Lava Field          US-Idaho               Holocene
1204-02-   12   04   -02-   Craters of the Moon          US-Idaho               Radiocarbon
1204-03-   12   04   -03-   Wapi Lava Field              US-Idaho               Radiocarbon
1204-04-   12   04   -04-   Hell's Half Acre             US-Idaho               Radiocarbon
1205-01-   12   05   -01-   Yellowstone                  US-Wyoming             Tephrochronology
1206-01-   12   06   -01-   Soda Lakes                   US-Nevada              Holocene
1207-01-   12   07   -01-   Santa Clara                  US-Utah                Holocene?
1207-03-   12   07   -03-   Bald Knoll                   US-Utah                Holocene
1207-04-   12   07   -04-   Markagunt Plateau            US-Utah                Dendrochronology
1207-05-   12   07   -05-   Black Rock Desert            US-Utah                Radiocarbon
1208-01-   12   08   -01-   Dotsero                      US-Colorado            Radiocarbon
1209-01-   12   09   -01-   Uinkaret Field               US-Arizona             Anthropology
1209-02-   12   09   -02-   Sunset Crater                US-Arizona             Dendrochronology
1210-01-   12   10   -01-   Carrizozo                    US-New Mexico          Surface Exposure
1210-02-   12   10   -02-   Zuni-Bandera                 US-New Mexico          Anthropology
1301-01-   13   01   -01-   CoAxial Segment              Pacific-NE             Historical
1301-011   13   01   -011   Axial Seamount               Pacific-NE             Historical
1301-02-   13   01   -02-   Cleft Segment                Pacific-NE             Historical
1301-021   13   01   -021   North Gorda Ridge            Pacific-NE             Historical
1301-03-   13   01   -03-   Unnamed                      Pacific-NE             Uncertain
1302-00-   13   02   -00-   Loihi                        Hawaiian Is            Historical
1302-01-   13   02   -01-   Kilauea                      Hawaiian Is            Historical
1302-02=   13   02   -02-   Mauna Loa                    Hawaiian Is            Historical
1302-03-   13   02   -03-   Mauna Kea                    Hawaiian Is            Radiocarbon
1302-04-   13   02   -04-   Hualalai                     Hawaiian Is            Historical
1302-06-   13   02   -06-   Haleakala                    Hawaiian Is            Anthropology
1302-08-   13   02   -08-   Unnamed                      Hawaiian Is            Uncertain
1302-09-   13   02   -09-   Unnamed                      Hawaiian Is            Historical
1303-01-   13   03   -01-   Unnamed                      Pacific-E              Historical
1303-02-   13   03   -02-   Galápagos Rift               Pacific-E              Historical
1303-03-   13   03   -03-   Teahitia                     Society Is-C Pacific   Seismicity
1303-04-   13   03   -04-   Rocard                       Society Is-C Pacific   Seismicity
1303-05-   13   03   -05-   Moua Pihaa                   Society Is-C Pacific   Seismicity
1303-06-   13   03   -06-   Mehetia                      Society Is-C Pacific   Anthropology
1303-061   13   03   -061   Unnamed                      Pacific-E              Historical
1303-07-   13   03   -07-   Easter Island                Pacific-C              Holocene
1303-071   13   03   -071   Adams Seamount               Pacific-C              Potassium-Argon
1303-08-   13   03   -08-   Macdonald                    Austral Is-C Pacific   Historical
1304-01-   13   04   -01-   Antipodes Island             Pacific-S              Holocene?
1304-02-   13   04   -02-   Unnamed                      Pacific-S              Uncertain
1304-03-   13   04   -03-   Unnamed                      Pacific-S              Uncertain
1401-00-   14   01   -00-   Prieto, Cerro                México                 Holocene?
1401-001   14   01   -001   Pinacate                     México                 Holocene
1401-002   14   01   -002   San Quintín Volc Field       México                 Holocene?
1401-003   14   01   -003   San Luis, Isla               México                 Holocene
1401-004   14   01   -004   Jaraguay Volc Field          México                 Holocene
1401-005   14   01   -005   Coronado                     México                 Fumarolic
1401-006   14   01   -006   Guadalupe                    México                 Holocene
1401-007   14   01   -007   San Borja Volc Field         México                 Holocene
1401-008   14   01   -008   Unnamed                      México                 Uncertain
1401-01=   14   01   -01-   Tres Vírgenes                México                 Radiocarbon
1401-011   14   01   -011   Tortuga, Isla                México                 Holocene


                                               Page 23
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1401-012   14   01   -012   Comondú-La Purísima          México          Holocene?
1401-02=   14   01   -02-   Bárcena                      México-Is       Historical
1401-021   14   01   -021   Socorro                      México-Is       Historical
1401-022   14   01   -022   Durango Volc Field           México          Holocene
1401-023   14   01   -023   Sangangüey                   México          Holocene
1401-03=   14   01   -03-   Ceboruco                     México          Historical
1401-031   14   01   -031   Mascota Volc Field           México          Holocene
1401-04=   14   01   -04-   Colima                       México          Historical
1401-06=   14   01   -06-   Michoacán-Guanajuato         México          Historical
1401-061   14   01   -061   Zitácuaro-Valle de Bravo     México          Ar/Ar
1401-062   14   01   -062   Jocotitlán                   México          Radiocarbon
1401-07-   14   01   -07-   Toluca, Nevado de            México          Radiocarbon
1401-08=   14   01   -08-   Chichinautzin                México          Radiocarbon
1401-081   14   01   -081   Papayo                       México          Holocene
1401-082   14   01   -082   Iztaccíhuatl                 México          Holocene
1401-09=   14   01   -09-   Popocatépetl                 México          Historical
1401-091   14   01   -091   Malinche, La                 México          Radiocarbon
1401-092   14   01   -092   Serdán-Oriental              México          Holocene
1401-093   14   01   -093   Humeros, Los                 México          Holocene?
1401-094   14   01   -094   Atlixcos, Los                México          Holocene
1401-095   14   01   -095   Naolinco Volc Field          México          Radiocarbon
1401-096   14   01   -096   Cofre de Perote              México          Radiocarbon
1401-097   14   01   -097   Gloria, La                   México          Holocene
1401-098   14   01   -098   Cumbres, Las                 México          Radiocarbon
1401-10=   14   01   -10-   Orizaba, Pico de             México          Historical
1401-11=   14   01   -11-   San Martín                   México          Historical
1401-12=   14   01   -12-   Chichón, El                  México          Historical
1401-13=   14   01   -13-   Tacaná                       México          Historical
1402-02=   14   02   -02-   Tajumulco                    Guatemala       Holocene
1402-03=   14   02   -03-   Santa María                  Guatemala       Historical
1402-04=   14   02   -04-   Almolonga                    Guatemala       Historical
1402-06=   14   02   -06-   Atitlán                      Guatemala       Historical
1402-07=   14   02   -07-   Tolimán                      Guatemala       Holocene
1402-08=   14   02   -08-   Acatenango                   Guatemala       Historical
1402-09=   14   02   -09-   Fuego                        Guatemala       Historical
1402-10=   14   02   -10-   Agua                         Guatemala       Holocene
1402-11=   14   02   -11-   Pacaya                       Guatemala       Historical
1402-111   14   02   -111   Cuilapa-Barbarena            Guatemala       Holocene
1402-12=   14   02   -12-   Tecuamburro                  Guatemala       Radiocarbon
1402-13-   14   02   -13-   Moyuta                       Guatemala       Hot Springs
1402-14-   14   02   -14-   Flores                       Guatemala       Holocene
1402-141   14   02   -141   Tahual                       Guatemala       Holocene
1402-15-   14   02   -15-   Santiago, Cerro              Guatemala       Holocene
1402-16-   14   02   -16-   Suchitán                     Guatemala       Holocene
1402-17-   14   02   -17-   Chingo                       Guatemala       Holocene
1402-18-   14   02   -18-   Ixtepeque                    Guatemala       Holocene
1402-19-   14   02   -19-   Ipala                        Guatemala       Holocene
1402-20-   14   02   -20-   Chiquimula Volc Field        Guatemala       Holocene
1402-21-   14   02   -21-   Quezaltepeque                Guatemala       Holocene
1403-001   14   03   -001   San Diego                    El Salvador     Holocene
1403-002   14   03   -002   Singüil, Cerro               El Salvador     Holocene
1403-01=   14   03   -01-   Apaneca Range                El Salvador     Holocene


                                               Page 24
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1403-02=   14   03   -02-   Santa Ana                   El Salvador     Historical
1403-03=   14   03   -03-   Izalco                      El Salvador     Historical
1403-041   14   03   -041   Coatepeque Caldera          El Salvador     Holocene
1403-05=   14   03   -05-   San Salvador                El Salvador     Historical
1403-051   14   03   -051   Cinotepeque, Cerro          El Salvador     Holocene
1403-052   14   03   -052   Guazapa                     El Salvador     Holocene?
1403-06=   14   03   -06-   Ilopango                    El Salvador     Historical
1403-07=   14   03   -07-   San Vicente                 El Salvador     Holocene
1403-071   14   03   -071   Apastepeque Field           El Salvador     Holocene
1403-072   14   03   -072   Taburete                    El Salvador     Holocene?
1403-08=   14   03   -08-   Tecapa                      El Salvador     Holocene
1403-081   14   03   -081   Usulután                    El Salvador     Holocene
1403-082   14   03   -082   Tigre, El                   El Salvador     Holocene
1403-09=   14   03   -09-   Chinameca                   El Salvador     Holocene
1403-10=   14   03   -10-   San Miguel                  El Salvador     Historical
1403-101   14   03   -101   Aramuaca, Laguna            El Salvador     Holocene
1403-11=   14   03   -11-   Conchagua                   El Salvador     Uncertain
1403-12=   14   03   -12-   Conchagüita                 El Salvador     Historical
1403-13-   14   03   -13-   Tigre, Isla el              Honduras        Holocene
1403-14-   14   03   -14-   Zacate Grande, Isla         Honduras        Holocene
1403-15-   14   03   -15-   Yojoa, Lake                 Honduras        Holocene
1403-16-   14   03   -16-   Utila Island                Honduras        Holocene
1404-01=   14   04   -01-   Cosigüina                   Nicaragua       Historical
1404-02=   14   04   -02-   San Cristóbal               Nicaragua       Historical
1404-04=   14   04   -04-   Telica                      Nicaragua       Historical
1404-06-   14   04   -06-   Rota                        Nicaragua       Holocene
1404-07=   14   04   -07-   Negro, Cerro                Nicaragua       Historical
1404-08=   14   04   -08-   Pilas, Las                  Nicaragua       Historical
1404-09=   14   04   -09-   Momotombo                   Nicaragua       Historical
1404-091   14   04   -091   Apoyeque                    Nicaragua       Radiocarbon
1404-092   14   04   -092   Nejapa-Miraflores           Nicaragua       Tephrochronology
1404-10=   14   04   -10-   Masaya                      Nicaragua       Historical
1404-101   14   04   -101   Granada                     Nicaragua       Holocene
1404-11=   14   04   -11-   Mombacho                    Nicaragua       Holocene
1404-111   14   04   -111   Zapatera                    Nicaragua       Holocene
1404-12=   14   04   -12-   Concepción                  Nicaragua       Historical
1404-13-   14   04   -13-   Maderas                     Nicaragua       Holocene
1404-131   14   04   -131   Estelí                      Nicaragua       Holocene?
1404-132   14   04   -132   Ciguatepe, Cerro el         Nicaragua       Holocene?
1404-133   14   04   -133   Lajas, Las                  Nicaragua       Holocene?
1404-14-   14   04   -14-   Azul, Volcán                Nicaragua       Holocene
1405-01=   14   05   -01-   Orosí                       Costa Rica      Uncertain
1405-02=   14   05   -02-   Rincón de la Vieja          Costa Rica      Historical
1405-03=   14   05   -03-   Miravalles                  Costa Rica      Historical
1405-031   14   05   -031   Tenorio                     Costa Rica      Holocene
1405-033   14   05   -033   Arenal                      Costa Rica      Historical
1405-034   14   05   -034   Platanar                    Costa Rica      Holocene
1405-04=   14   05   -04-   Poás                        Costa Rica      Historical
1405-05=   14   05   -05-   Barva                       Costa Rica      Tephrochronology
1405-06=   14   05   -06-   Irazú                       Costa Rica      Historical
1405-07=   14   05   -07-   Turrialba                   Costa Rica      Historical
1406-01-   14   06   -01-   Barú                        Panamá          Historical


                                              Page 25
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1406-02-   14   06   -02-   Yeguada, La                 Panamá          Radiocarbon
1406-03-   14   06   -03-   Valle, El                   Panamá          Holocene?
1501-011   15   01   -011   Romeral                     Colombia        Radiocarbon
1501-012   15   01   -012   Bravo, Cerro                Colombia        Radiocarbon
1501-02=   15   01   -02-   Ruiz, Nevado del            Colombia        Historical
1501-021   15   01   -021   Santa Isabel                Colombia        Radiocarbon
1501-03=   15   01   -03-   Tolima, Nevado del          Colombia        Historical
1501-04=   15   01   -04-   Machín                      Colombia        Radiocarbon
1501-05=   15   01   -05-   Huila, Nevado del           Colombia        Historical
1501-06=   15   01   -06-   Puracé                      Colombia        Historical
1501-061   15   01   -061   Sotará                      Colombia        Holocene
1501-062   15   01   -062   Petacas                     Colombia        Holocene?
1501-07=   15   01   -07-   Doña Juana                  Colombia        Historical
1501-08=   15   01   -08-   Galeras                     Colombia        Historical
1501-09=   15   01   -09-   Azufral                     Colombia        Radiocarbon
1501-10=   15   01   -10-   Cumbal                      Colombia        Historical
1501-11=   15   01   -11-   Negro de Mayasquer, Cerro   Colombia        Holocene?
1502-001   15   02   -001   Soche                       Ecuador         Radiocarbon
1502-002   15   02   -002   Cuicocha                    Ecuador         Radiocarbon
1502-003   15   02   -003   Imbabura                    Ecuador         Radiocarbon
1502-004   15   02   -004   Mojanda                     Ecuador         Holocene?
1502-005   15   02   -005   Cayambe                     Ecuador         Historical
1502-01=   15   02   -01-   Reventador                  Ecuador         Historical
1502-011   15   02   -011   Pululagua                   Ecuador         Radiocarbon
1502-02=   15   02   -02-   Guagua Pichincha            Ecuador         Historical
1502-021   15   02   -021   Atacazo                     Ecuador         Radiocarbon
1502-022   15   02   -022   Chacana                     Ecuador         Historical
1502-03=   15   02   -03-   Antisana                    Ecuador         Historical
1502-04=   15   02   -04-   Sumaco                      Ecuador         Historical
1502-041   15   02   -041   Illiniza                    Ecuador         Holocene
1502-05=   15   02   -05-   Cotopaxi                    Ecuador         Historical
1502-06=   15   02   -06-   Quilotoa                    Ecuador         Radiocarbon
1502-071   15   02   -071   Chimborazo                  Ecuador         Radiocarbon
1502-08=   15   02   -08-   Tungurahua                  Ecuador         Historical
1502-081   15   02   -081   Licto                       Ecuador         Holocene?
1502-09=   15   02   -09-   Sangay                      Ecuador         Historical
1503-01=   15   03   -01-   Fernandina                  Galápagos       Historical
1503-011   15   03   -011   Ecuador                     Galápagos       Surface Exposure
1503-02=   15   03   -02-   Wolf                        Galápagos       Historical
1503-03=   15   03   -03-   Darwin                      Galápagos       Surface Exposure
1503-04=   15   03   -04-   Alcedo                      Galápagos       Historical
1503-05=   15   03   -05-   Negra, Sierra               Galápagos       Historical
1503-06=   15   03   -06-   Azul, Cerro                 Galápagos       Historical
1503-07=   15   03   -07-   Pinta                       Galápagos       Historical
1503-08=   15   03   -08-   Marchena                    Galápagos       Historical
1503-081   15   03   -081   Genovesa                    Galápagos       Holocene
1503-09=   15   03   -09-   Santiago                    Galápagos       Historical
1503-091   15   03   -091   Santa Cruz                  Galápagos       Holocene
1503-12-   15   03   -12-   San Cristóbal               Galápagos       Holocene
1504-00-   15   04   -00-   Quimsachata                 Perú            Radiocarbon
1504-001   15   04   -001   Auquihuato, Cerro           Perú            Holocene?
1504-002   15   04   -002   Sara Sara                   Perú            Holocene


                                              Page 26
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1504-003   15   04   -003   Coropuna                     Perú            Holocene
1504-004   15   04   -004   Andahua Valley               Perú            Holocene
1504-005   15   04   -005   Sabancaya                    Perú            Historical
1504-006   15   04   -006   Chachani, Nevado             Perú            Holocene
1504-01=   15   04   -01-   Misti, El                    Perú            Historical
1504-02=   15   04   -02-   Ubinas                       Perú            Historical
1504-03=   15   04   -03-   Huaynaputina                 Perú            Historical
1504-031   15   04   -031   Ticsani                      Perú            Holocene
1504-04=   15   04   -04-   Tutupaca                     Perú            Holocene
1504-05-   15   04   -05-   Yucamane                     Perú            Historical
1504-06-   15   04   -06-   Casiri, Nevados              Perú            Holocene
1505-01=   15   05   -01-   Tacora                       Chile-N         Fumarolic
1505-011   15   05   -011   Taapaca                      Chile-N         Radiocarbon
1505-012   15   05   -012   Parinacota                   Chile-N         Surface Exposure
1505-02=   15   05   -02-   Guallatiri                   Chile-N         Historical
1505-021   15   05   -021   Acotango                     Chile-N         Holocene
1505-025   15   05   -025   Tambo Quemado                Bolivia         Holocene
1505-026   15   05   -026   Arintica                     Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-03=   15   05   -03-   Isluga                       Chile-N         Historical
1505-032   15   05   -032   Tata Sabaya                  Bolivia         Holocene
1505-035   15   05   -035   Jayu Khota, Laguna           Bolivia         Holocene
1505-036   15   05   -036   Nuevo Mundo                  Bolivia         Holocene
1505-04=   15   05   -04-   Irruputuncu                  Chile-N         Historical
1505-042   15   05   -042   Pampa Luxsar                 Bolivia         Holocene
1505-05=   15   05   -05-   Olca-Paruma                  Chile-N         Historical
1505-051   15   05   -051   Aucanquilcha                 Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-052   15   05   -052   San Agustín, Cerro           Bolivia         Holocene?
1505-06=   15   05   -06-   Ollagüe                      Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-061   15   05   -061   Yumia, Cerro                 Bolivia         Holocene?
1505-062   15   05   -062   Escala                       Bolivia         Holocene
1505-063   15   05   -063   Santa Isabel, Cerro          Bolivia         Holocene?
1505-064   15   05   -064   Moiro, Cerro                 Bolivia         Holocene?
1505-065   15   05   -065   Azufre, Cerro del            Chile-N         Holocene
1505-07=   15   05   -07-   San Pedro                    Chile-N         Historical
1505-071   15   05   -071   Paniri                       Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-072   15   05   -072   Leon, Cerro del              Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-073   15   05   -073   Linzor                       Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-074   15   05   -074   Jorcada                      Bolivia         Holocene
1505-075   15   05   -075   Quetena                      Bolivia         Holocene?
1505-076   15   05   -076   Uturuncu                     Bolivia         Holocene?
1505-081   15   05   -081   Volcán, El                   Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-082   15   05   -082   Tocorpuri, Cerros de         Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-09=   15   05   -09-   Putana                       Chile-N         Historical
1505-091   15   05   -091   Sairecabur                   Chile-N         Holocene
1505-092   15   05   -092   Licancabur                   Chile-N         Holocene
1505-093   15   05   -093   Guayaques                    Chile-N         Holocene
1505-094   15   05   -094   Purico Complex               Chile-N         Holocene
1505-095   15   05   -095   Colachi                      Chile-N         Holocene
1505-096   15   05   -096   Verde, Laguna                Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-097   15   05   -097   Acamarachi                   Chile-N         Holocene
1505-098   15   05   -098   Chiliques                    Chile-N         Holocene
1505-10=   15   05   -10-   Láscar                       Chile-N         Historical


                                               Page 27
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1505-101   15   05   -101   Cordón de Puntas Negras     Chile-N         Holocene
1505-102   15   05   -102   Miñiques                    Chile-N         Holocene
1505-103   15   05   -103   Tujle, Cerro                Chile-N         Holocene
1505-104   15   05   -104   Caichinque                  Chile-N         Holocene
1505-105   15   05   -105   Tilocalar                   Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-106   15   05   -106   Negrillar, El               Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-107   15   05   -107   Pular                       Chile-N         Holocene
1505-108   15   05   -108   Negrillar, La               Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-109   15   05   -109   Socompa                     Chile-N         Radiocarbon
1505-11=   15   05   -11-   Llullaillaco                Chile-N         Historical
1505-112   15   05   -112   Escorial, Cerro             Chile-N         Holocene?
1505-12=   15   05   -12-   Lastarria                   Chile-N         Holocene
1505-121   15   05   -121   Cordón del Azufre           Chile-N         Holocene
1505-122   15   05   -122   Bayo, Cerro                 Chile-N         Holocene
1505-123   15   05   -123   Nevada, Sierra              Chile-N         Holocene
1505-124   15   05   -124   Falso Azufre                Chile-N         Holocene
1505-125   15   05   -125   Incahuasi, Nevado de        Chile-N         Holocene
1505-13=   15   05   -13-   Ojos del Salado, Nevados    Chile-N         Tephrochronology
1505-131   15   05   -131   Solo, El                    Chile-N         Holocene
1505-14-   15   05   -14-   Copiapó                     Chile-N         Uncertain
1505-15-   15   05   -15-   Tuzgle, Cerro               Argentina       Holocene?
1505-16-   15   05   -16-   Aracar                      Argentina       Historical
1505-161   15   05   -161   Unnamed                     Argentina       Holocene?
1505-18-   15   05   -18-   Antofagasta de la Sierra    Argentina       Holocene
1505-19-   15   05   -19-   Cóndor, Cerro el            Argentina       Holocene
1505-20-   15   05   -20-   Peinado                     Argentina       Holocene
1505-21-   15   05   -21-   Robledo                     Argentina       Holocene
1505-22-   15   05   -22-   Tipas                       Argentina       Holocene
1506-01=   15   06   -01-   San Félix                   Chile-Is        Holocene
1506-02=   15   06   -02-   Robinson Crusoe             Chile-Is        Historical
1506-04=   15   06   -04-   Unnamed                     Chile-Is        Uncertain
1507-01=   15   07   -01-   Tupungatito                 Chile-C         Historical
1507-02=   15   07   -02-   San José                    Chile-C         Historical
1507-021   15   07   -021   Maipo                       Chile-C         Historical
1507-022   15   07   -022   Palomo                      Chile-C         Holocene
1507-023   15   07   -023   Atuel, Caldera del          Argentina       Holocene
1507-024   15   07   -024   Risco Plateado              Argentina       Holocene?
1507-03=   15   07   -03-   Tinguiririca                Chile-C         Historical
1507-04=   15   07   -04-   Planchón-Peteroa            Chile-C         Historical
1507-042   15   07   -042   Calabozos                   Chile-C         Holocene
1507-05=   15   07   -05-   Descabezado Grande          Chile-C         Historical
1507-06=   15   07   -06-   Azul, Cerro                 Chile-C         Historical
1507-061   15   07   -061   Maule, Laguna del           Chile-C         Holocene
1507-062   15   07   -062   San Pedro-Pellado           Chile-C         Holocene
1507-063   15   07   -063   Longaví, Nevado de          Chile-C         Radiocarbon
1507-064   15   07   -064   Blancas, Lomas              Chile-C         Holocene
1507-065   15   07   -065   Resago                      Chile-C         Holocene
1507-066   15   07   -066   Payún Matru                 Argentina       Holocene
1507-067   15   07   -067   Domuyo                      Argentina       Holocene?
1507-07=   15   07   -07-   Chillán, Nevados de         Chile-C         Historical
1507-071   15   07   -071   Cochiquito Volc Group       Argentina       Holocene
1507-072   15   07   -072   Tromen                      Argentina       Holocene


                                              Page 28
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1507-073   15   07   -073   Puesto Cortaderas           Argentina       Holocene
1507-08=   15   07   -08-   Antuco                      Chile-C         Historical
1507-081   15   07   -081   Trocon                      Argentina       Holocene?
1507-09=   15   07   -09-   Copahue                     Chile-C         Historical
1507-091   15   07   -091   Callaqui                    Chile-C         Historical
1507-092   15   07   -092   Mariñaqui, Laguna           Chile-C         Holocene
1507-093   15   07   -093   Tolguaca                    Chile-C         Holocene
1507-10=   15   07   -10-   Lonquimay                   Chile-C         Historical
1507-11=   15   07   -11-   Llaima                      Chile-C         Historical
1507-111   15   07   -111   Sollipulli                  Chile-C         Radiocarbon
1507-112   15   07   -112   Caburgua-Huelemolle         Chile-C         Tephrochronology
1507-12=   15   07   -12-   Villarrica                  Chile-C         Historical
1507-121   15   07   -121   Quetrupillan                Chile-C         Historical
1507-122   15   07   -122   Lanín                       Chile-C         Radiocarbon
1507-123   15   07   -123   Huanquihue Group            Argentina       Radiocarbon
1507-13=   15   07   -13-   Mocho-Choshuenco            Chile-C         Historical
1507-14=   15   07   -14-   Carrán-Los Venados          Chile-C         Historical
1507-141   15   07   -141   Cordón Caulle               Chile-C         Historical
1507-15=   15   07   -15-   Puyehue                     Chile-C         Holocene
1507-151   15   07   -151   Mencheca                    Chile-C         Holocene
1507-152   15   07   -152   Pantoja, Cerro              Chile-C         Holocene
1507-153   15   07   -153   Antillanca Group            Chile-C         Holocene
1507-16-   15   07   -16-   Puntiagudo-Cordón Cenizos   Chile-C         Historical
1508-01=   15   08   -01-   Osorno                      Chile-S         Historical
1508-011   15   08   -011   Tronador                    Chile-S         Holocene?
1508-012   15   08   -012   Cayutué-La Viguería         Chile-S         Tephrochronology
1508-02=   15   08   -02-   Calbuco                     Chile-S         Historical
1508-021   15   08   -021   Cuernos del Diablo          Chile-S         Holocene
1508-022   15   08   -022   Yate                        Chile-S         Holocene
1508-023   15   08   -023   Hornopirén                  Chile-S         Holocene
1508-024   15   08   -024   Apagado                     Chile-S         Holocene
1508-03=   15   08   -03-   Huequi                      Chile-S         Historical
1508-04=   15   08   -04-   Minchinmávida               Chile-S         Historical
1508-041   15   08   -041   Chaitén                     Chile-S         Radiocarbon
1508-05=   15   08   -05-   Corcovado                   Chile-S         Historical
1508-050   15   08   -050   Yanteles                    Chile-S         Radiocarbon
1508-051   15   08   -051   Palena Volc Group           Chile-S         Holocene
1508-052   15   08   -052   Melimoyu                    Chile-S         Radiocarbon
1508-053   15   08   -053   Puyuhuapi                   Chile-S         Holocene
1508-054   15   08   -054   Mentolat                    Chile-S         Historical
1508-055   15   08   -055   Cay                         Chile-S         Holocene?
1508-056   15   08   -056   Maca                        Chile-S         Radiocarbon
1508-057   15   08   -057   Hudson, Cerro               Chile-S         Historical
1508-058   15   08   -058   Río Murta                   Chile-S         Holocene?
1508-059   15   08   -059   Arenales                    Chile-S         Historical
1508-06=   15   08   -06-   Lautaro                     Chile-S         Historical
1508-061   15   08   -061   Viedma                      Argentina       Historical
1508-062   15   08   -062   Aguilera                    Chile-S         Radiocarbon
1508-063   15   08   -063   Reclus                      Chile-S         Historical
1508-07=   15   08   -07-   Burney, Monte               Chile-S         Historical
1508-08-   15   08   -08-   Palei-Aike Volc Field       Chile-S         Anthropology
1508-09-   15   08   -09-   Fueguino                    Chile-S         Historical


                                             Page 29
                              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1600-01=   16   00   -01-   Saba                         W Indies               Historical
1600-02=   16   00   -02-   Quill, The                   W Indies               Radiocarbon
1600-03=   16   00   -03-   Liamuiga                     W Indies               Radiocarbon
1600-04=   16   00   -04-   Nevis Peak                   W Indies               Holocene?
1600-05=   16   00   -05-   Soufrière Hills              W Indies               Historical
1600-06=   16   00   -06-   Soufrière Guadeloupe         W Indies               Historical
1600-08=   16   00   -08-   Diables, Morne aux           W Indies               Holocene
1600-09=   16   00   -09-   Diablotins, Morne            W Indies               Holocene?
1600-10=   16   00   -10-   Trois Pitons, Morne          W Indies               Radiocarbon
1600-101   16   00   -101   Watt, Morne                  W Indies               Historical
1600-11=   16   00   -11-   Plat Pays, Morne             W Indies               Radiocarbon
1600-12=   16   00   -12-   Pelée                        W Indies               Historical
1600-14=   16   00   -14-   Qualibou                     W Indies               Historical
1600-15=   16   00   -15-   Soufrière St. Vincent        W Indies               Historical
1600-16=   16   00   -16-   Kick 'em Jenny               W Indies               Historical
1600-17=   16   00   -17-   St. Catherine                W Indies               Holocene
1700-01=   17   00   -01-   Snaefellsjökull              Iceland-W              Radiocarbon
1700-02=   17   00   -02-   Lysuhóll                     Iceland-W              Holocene
1700-03=   17   00   -03-   Ljósufjöll                   Iceland-W              Anthropology
1701-01=   17   01   -01-   Reykjaneshryggur             Iceland-SW             Historical
1701-02=   17   01   -02-   Reykjanes                    Iceland-SW             Historical
1701-03=   17   01   -03-   Krísuvík                     Iceland-SW             Historical
1701-04=   17   01   -04-   Brennisteinsfjöll            Iceland-SW             Historical
1701-05=   17   01   -05-   Hengill                      Iceland-SW             Radiocarbon
1701-06=   17   01   -06-   Grímsnes                     Iceland-SW             Tephrochronology
1701-07=   17   01   -07-   Prestahnukur                 Iceland-SW             Radiocarbon
1701-08=   17   01   -08-   Langjökull                   Iceland-SW             Radiocarbon
1701-09=   17   01   -09-   Hofsjökull                   Iceland-SW             Holocene
1701-10=   17   01   -10-   Kerlingarfjöll               Iceland-SW             Holocene
1702-01=   17   02   -01-   Vestmannaeyjar               Iceland-S              Historical
1702-02=   17   02   -02-   Eyjafjöll                    Iceland-S              Historical
1702-03=   17   02   -03-   Katla                        Iceland-S              Historical
1702-04=   17   02   -04-   Tindfjallajökull             Iceland-S              Holocene
1702-05=   17   02   -05-   Torfajökull                  Iceland-S              Historical
1702-06=   17   02   -06-   Vatnafjöll                   Iceland-S              Tephrochronology
1702-07=   17   02   -07-   Hekla                        Iceland-S              Historical
1703-01=   17   03   -01-   Grímsvötn                    Iceland-NE             Historical
1703-02=   17   03   -02-   Loki-Fögrufjöll              Iceland-NE             Historical
1703-03=   17   03   -03-   Bárdarbunga                  Iceland-NE             Historical
1703-04=   17   03   -04-   Tungnafellsjökull            Iceland-NE             Holocene
1703-05=   17   03   -05-   Kverkfjöll                   Iceland-NE             Historical
1703-06=   17   03   -06-   Askja                        Iceland-NE             Historical
1703-07=   17   03   -07-   Fremrinamur                  Iceland-NE             Tephrochronology
1703-08=   17   03   -08-   Krafla                       Iceland-NE             Historical
1703-09=   17   03   -09-   Theistareykjarbunga          Iceland-NE             Tephrochronology
1703-10=   17   03   -10-   Tjörnes Fracture Zone        Iceland-N of           Historical
1704-01=   17   04   -01-   Öraefajökull                 Iceland-SE             Historical
1704-02=   17   04   -02-   Esjufjöll                    Iceland-SE             Historical
1705-01=   17   05   -01-   Kolbeinsey Ridge             Iceland-N of           Historical
1706-01=   17   06   -01-   Jan Mayen                    Atlantic-N-Jan Mayen   Historical
1707-01-   17   07   -01-   Unnamed                      Arctic Ocean           Uncertain
1707-02-   17   07   -02-   Unnamed                      Arctic Ocean           Holocene


                                               Page 30
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1801-02=   18   01   -02-   Unnamed                     Atlantic-N           Historical
1801-03=   18   01   -03-   Unnamed                     Atlantic-N           Uncertain
1801-04=   18   01   -04-   Unnamed                     Atlantic-N           Historical
1802-001   18   02   -001   Flores                      Azores and Madeira   Radiocarbon
1802-002   18   02   -002   Corvo                       Azores and Madeira   Holocene
1802-01=   18   02   -01-   Fayal                       Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-02=   18   02   -02-   Pico                        Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-03=   18   02   -03-   San Jorge                   Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-04=   18   02   -04-   Graciosa                    Azores and Madeira   Holocene
1802-05=   18   02   -05-   Terceira                    Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-07=   18   02   -07-   Don Joao de Castro Bank     Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-08=   18   02   -08-   Sete Cidades                Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-081   18   02   -081   Unnamed                     Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-09=   18   02   -09-   Agua de Pau                 Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-10=   18   02   -10-   Furnas                      Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-11=   18   02   -11-   Monaco Bank                 Azores and Madeira   Historical
1802-12-   18   02   -12-   Madeira                     Azores and Madeira   Radiocarbon
1803-01-   18   03   -01-   La Palma                    Canary Is            Historical
1803-02-   18   03   -02-   Hierro                      Canary Is            Radiocarbon
1803-03-   18   03   -03-   Tenerife                    Canary Is            Historical
1803-04-   18   03   -04-   Gran Canaria                Canary Is            Radiocarbon
1803-05-   18   03   -05-   Fuerteventura               Canary Is            Holocene
1803-06-   18   03   -06-   Lanzarote                   Canary Is            Historical
1804-01=   18   04   -01-   Fogo                        Cape Verde Is        Historical
1804-02-   18   04   -02-   Brava                       Cape Verde Is        Holocene
1804-04-   18   04   -04-   Sao Vicente                 Cape Verde Is        Holocene
1805-01=   18   05   -01-   Unnamed                     Atlantic-C           Uncertain
1805-02=   18   05   -02-   Unnamed                     Atlantic-C           Uncertain
1805-03=   18   05   -03-   Unnamed                     Atlantic-C           Uncertain
1805-04=   18   05   -04-   Unnamed                     Atlantic-C           Uncertain
1805-05-   18   05   -05-   Ascensión                   Atlantic-C           Holocene
1805-051   18   05   -051   Trindade                    Atlantic-C           Holocene
1806-01=   18   06   -01-   Tristan da Cunha            Atlantic-S           Historical
1806-02-   18   06   -02-   Bouvet                      Atlantic-S           Magnetism
1806-03-   18   06   -03-   Thompson Island             Atlantic-S           Uncertain
1900-01=   19   00   -01-   Buckle Island               Antarctica           Historical
1900-011   19   00   -011   Young Island                Antarctica           Fumarolic
1900-012   19   00   -012   Sturge Island               Antarctica           Uncertain
1900-013   19   00   -013   Pleiades, The               Antarctica           Potassium-Argon
1900-014   19   00   -014   Unnamed                     Antarctica           Holocene?
1900-015   19   00   -015   Melbourne                   Antarctica           Tephrochronology
1900-016   19   00   -016   Unnamed                     Antarctica           Holocene?
1900-02=   19   00   -02-   Erebus                      Antarctica           Historical
1900-021   19   00   -021   Royal Society Range         Antarctica           Holocene?
1900-022   19   00   -022   Berlin                      Antarctica           Ar/Ar
1900-023   19   00   -023   Andrus                      Antarctica           Holocene?
1900-024   19   00   -024   Waesche                     Antarctica           Holocene?
1900-025   19   00   -025   Siple                       Antarctica           Holocene?
1900-026   19   00   -026   Toney Mountain              Antarctica           Holocene?
1900-027   19   00   -027   Takahe                      Antarctica           Ice Core
1900-028   19   00   -028   Hudson Mountains            Antarctica           Uncertain
1900-029   19   00   -029   Peter I Island              Antarctica           Holocene


                                              Page 31
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


1900-03=   19   00   -03-   Deception Island           Antarctica       Historical
1900-031   19   00   -031   Penguin Island             Antarctica       Lichenometry
1900-04=   19   00   -04-   Bridgeman Island           Antarctica       Uncertain
1900-041   19   00   -041   Paulet                     Antarctica       Holocene
1900-05=   19   00   -05-   Seal Nunataks Group        Antarctica       Uncertain
1900-07=   19   00   -07-   Thule Islands              Antarctica       Historical
1900-08=   19   00   -08-   Bristol Island             Antarctica       Historical
1900-081   19   00   -081   Montagu Island             Antarctica       Historical
1900-09=   19   00   -09-   Michael                    Antarctica       Historical
1900-10=   19   00   -10-   Candlemas Island           Antarctica       Historical
1900-11=   19   00   -11-   Hodson                     Antarctica       Holocene
1900-12=   19   00   -12-   Leskov Island              Antarctica       Fumarolic
1900-13=   19   00   -13-   Zavodovski                 Antarctica       Historical
1900-14-   19   00   -14-   Protector Shoal            Antarctica       Historical




                                             Page 32
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


LATITUDE NS   VF   LONGITUDEEW   ELEV    TYPE                  TIMEFRAME   Color scheme
   50.17 N    *        6.85 E      600   Maars                 D7          Buenos Aires VAAC
  45.775 N    *        2.97 E     1464   Cinder cones          D7          Washington VAAC
   42.17 N    *        2.53 E      893   Pyroclastic cones     ?           Montreal VAAC
   43.25 N            10.87 E      500   Explosion craters     D6          Alaska VAAC
    42.6 N            11.93 E      800   Caldera               D7          Tokyo VAAC
   41.73 N             12.7 E      949   Caldera               ?           Darwin VAAC
  40.827 N           14.139 E      458   Caldera               D5          Toulouse VAAC
  40.821 N           14.426 E     1281   Somma volcano         D2          London VAAC
   40.73 N           13.897 E      789   Complex volcano       D6          Wellington VAAC
  38.789 N           15.213 E      924   Stratovolcano         D1
   38.48 N            14.95 E      602   Stratovolcanoes       D6
  38.404 N           14.962 E      500   Stratovolcanoes       D3
  37.734 N           15.004 E     3350   Stratovolcanoes       D1
    37.1 N    *        12.7 E       -8   Submarine volcanoes   D3
   36.77 N            12.02 E      836   Shield volcano        D3
  37.615 N           23.336 E      760   Lava domes            D7
  36.699 N    *      24.439 E      751   Stratovolcanoes       D6
  36.404 N           25.396 E      367   Shield volcanoes      D2
  36.586 N            27.16 E      698   Stratovolcano         D3
  36.671 N            27.14 E      180   Lava domes            U
   38.58 N    *       28.52 E      750   Cinder cones          U
   37.67 N    *       33.65 E     1302   Cinder cones          U
   38.13 N            34.17 E     3253   Stratovolcano         D7
   38.25 N            34.57 E     2143   Lava dome             ?
   38.57 N    *       34.52 E     1689   Caldera               D7
   38.52 N            35.48 E     3916   Stratovolcano         ?
   37.67 N            39.83 E     1957   Shield volcano        U
   38.65 N            42.23 E     2948   Stratovolcano         D5
   38.92 N            42.82 E     4158   Stratovolcano         D7
   39.17 N            43.33 E            Unknown               U
   39.37 N            43.87 E     3584   Shield volcano        D3
    39.7 N             44.3 E     5165   Stratovolcano         D3
   40.75 N    *        42.9 E     3000   Volcanic field        ?
   43.33 N            42.45 E     5633   Stratovolcano         D6
    42.7 N             44.5 E     5050   Stratovolcano         D7
   42.55 N    *          44 E     3650   Cinder cones          U
   42.45 N    *       44.25 E     3750   Cinder cones          U
   41.55 N    *        43.6 E     3400   Lava cones            U
   40.53 N             44.2 E     4095   Stratovolcano         U
  40.275 N    *       44.75 E     3597   Volcanic field        D7
    39.7 N    *      45.542 E     3329   Pyroclastic cones     D7
   40.02 N            45.78 E     2800   Stratovolcano         D7
   39.73 N            46.02 E     3000   Pyroclastic cones     D7
   15.55 N            41.82 E      244   Stratovolcano         D3
   15.05 N            42.18 E      191   Shield volcano        D3
   14.02 N            42.75 E      624   Shield volcano        U
   13.72 N            42.73 E      422   Shield volcano        U
  15.042 N            39.82 E      713   Stratovolcano         U
   14.88 N            39.92 E      904   Stratovolcano         U
  14.242 N             40.3 E      -48   Explosion craters     D2
  13.975 N           40.408 E      287   Stratovolcano         U


                                             Page 33
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 13.82    N        40.55   E      429   Fissure vents       U
13.792    N        40.55   E      613   Stratovolcano       U
13.725    N         40.6   E      668   Stratovolcano       U
  13.6    N        40.67   E      613   Shield volcano      D1
 13.52    N        40.63   E     1031   Stratovolcano       U
  13.5    N        40.72   E      521   Shield volcano      U
 13.58    N       41.808   E     1625   Stratovolcano       D3
 13.37    N         41.7   E     2218   Stratovolcano       ?
 13.27    N        41.65   E     1875   Stratovolcano       ?
 13.18    N       41.725   E     1611   Stratovolcano       ?
 13.07    N         41.6   E     1200   Shield volcano      U
  13.1    N        41.15   E      523   Shield volcano      U
 13.28    N        41.07   E      700   Shield volcano      U
  13.3    N        40.98   E      812   Stratovolcano       U
 13.08    N        40.85   E     1295   Stratovolcano       ?
 13.02    N         40.2   E     1815   Stratovolcano       U
 12.88    N        40.57   E     1501   Shield volcano      D2
  12.6    N        40.48   E     1442   Stratovolcano       D1
 12.38    N        40.07   E     1302   Shield volcano      U
 12.17    N        40.82   E      600   Shield volcanoes    U
 11.73    N        40.25   E      930   Stratovolcano       U
 11.88    N       41.208   E      625   Shield volcano      U
 11.63    N        41.45   E      875   Lava domes          U
 12.38    N         42.2   E      600   Fissure vents       D2
 12.47    N         42.4   E     2028   Stratovolcano       U
 12.55    N   *    42.53   E      600   Volcanic field      U
 12.95    N   *    42.43   E      987   Volcanic field      U
 11.58    N   *    42.47   E      298   Fissure vents       D2
 11.28    N        41.63   E     1068   Shield volcano      D5
 11.08    N        41.27   E     1459   Stratovolcano       U
 10.58    N       41.042   E     1383   Complex volcano     U
10.082    N       40.702   E     2145   Stratovolcano       U
 10.07    N        40.84   E     1733   Stratovolcano       U
  9.78    N        40.33   E      900   Fissure vent        U
  9.57    N   *    40.28   E      878   Maars               ?
  9.35    N        40.13   E     1151   Stratovolcano       U
 8.975    N        39.93   E     2007   Stratovolcano       D3
  8.95    N        39.75   E     1100   Volcanic field      U
    8.8   N       39.692   E     1619   Calderas            D3
    8.7   N   *    39.63   E     1300   Pyroclastic cones   U
 8.558    N       39.475   E     2447   Stratovolcanoes     U
  8.78    N   *    38.98   E     1850   Fissure vents       U
  8.62    N   *    38.95   E     1800   Fissure vents       U
  8.43    N   *    39.35   E     1765   Pyroclastic cones   U
  8.35    N        39.18   E     1984   Caldera             U
  8.27    N        39.03   E     2285   Pumice cones        U
 8.158    N        39.13   E     2349   Pumice cone         D2
  8.07    N   *    39.07   E     1800   Fissure vents       U
  7.95    N   *    38.93   E     1889   Fissure vents       U
  8.05    N   *    38.35   E     2281   Fissure vents       U
  7.77    N        38.78   E     2335   Stratovolcano       D7
  7.47    N        38.58   E     2075   Caldera             U


                                            Page 34
                          9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 7.18    N        38.43   E     2320   Caldera             U
 7.07    N   *     38.1   E     1700   Maars               U
 7.42    N   *    35.43   E     2728   Shield volcano      U
 6.78    N        37.83   E     1800   Caldera             ?
 6.65    N        38.12   E     1650   Stratovolcano       ?
 5.93    N   *    37.57   E     1650   Cinder cones        U
 5.65    N   *    37.67   E     1200   Cinder cones        U
   5.1   N   *    35.88   E      912   Tuff cones          ?
 4.08    N   *    37.42   E     1067   Pyroclastic cones   U
 4.07    N        36.05   E      520   Tuff cones          U
   3.5   N       36.042   E      550   Tuff cones          U
 2.63    N         36.6   E      800   Stratovolcano       D3
 2.32    N        37.97   E     1707   Shield volcano      ?
 2.32    N        36.57   E     1032   Shield volcano      D2
 1.98    N        36.43   E      817   Shield volcano      D7
 1.57    N   *     37.9   E      699   Pyroclastic cones   U
   1.5   N        36.33   E     1328   Shield volcano      D2
 1.15    N        36.23   E     1528   Shield volcano      D7
 0.92    N        36.18   E     1697   Shield volcano      D7
 0.77    N        36.12   E     1446   Shield volcano      U
 0.62    N       36.075   E     1130   Shield volcano      U
 0.23    N        37.87   E      750   Shield volcano      U
   0.2   S        36.07   E     2278   Shield volcano      D7
 0.38    S         34.5   E     1751   Complex volcano     U
 0.52    S   *    36.27   E     2126   Pyroclastic cones   U
 0.65    S        36.22   E     2856   Complex volcano     U
0.904    S   *   36.292   E     2434   Pumice cones        D4
0.914    S       36.446   E     2776   Stratovolcano       D3
1.175    S        36.35   E     2356   Shield volcano      U
2.764    S       35.914   E     2962   Stratovolcano       D1
 2.68    S   *    37.88   E     2188   Volcanic field      D3
 3.07    S        37.35   E     5895   Stratovolcano       U
 3.25    S        36.75   E     4565   Stratovolcano       D2
 4.87    S   *    31.92   E            Tuff cones          U
 8.63    S        33.57   E            Pyroclastic cone    U
 8.75    S   *     33.8   E     2179   Lava domes          U
 8.97    S        33.57   E     2622   Caldera             U
 8.93    S         33.4   E     1568   Pyroclastic cones   U
 9.13    S        33.67   E     2961   Stratovolcano       U
 9.23    S        33.78   E     2175   Stratovolcano       D3
   0.7   N   *    30.25   E     1524   Tuff cones          U
 0.45    N   *    30.25   E     1430   Tuff cones          ?
 0.08    S   *    29.92   E     1067   Tuff cones          U
   0.2   S   *    30.08   E     1554   Maars               U
0.471    S       30.191   E     1707   Tuff cone           U
 0.93    S        29.33   E      950   Fumarole field      ?
1.408    S         29.2   E     3058   Shield volcano      D1
 1.52    S        29.25   E     3470   Stratovolcano       D1
   1.5   S        29.45   E     4507   Stratovolcano       D7
 1.47    S       29.492   E     3711   Stratovolcano       D2
 1.38    S        29.67   E     4127   Stratovolcano       U
 1.23    S   *    29.72   E     2440   Cinder cones        ?


                                           Page 35
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


  2.32    S   *    28.75   E     1460   Cinder cones         U
    0.2   N   *     6.58   E     2024   Shield volcano       ?
  3.35    N   *     8.52   E     2260   Shield volcano       U
  3.35    N   *     8.63   E     2009   Shield volcano       U
  3.58    N   *     8.75   E     3007   Shield volcano       D2
 4.203    N         9.17   E     4095   Stratovolcano        D1
  4.75    N   *     9.67   E      500   Cinder cones         U
  5.03    N         9.83   E     2411   Stratovolcano        ?
  6.25    N   *     10.5   E     3011   Stratovolcano        ?
  7.25    N   *    13.67   E            Volcanic field       ?
 10.75    N   *       12   E            Volcanic field       ?
 27.25    N   *     17.5   E     1200   Volcanic field       U
 25.05    N   *    17.55   E      547   Caldera              ?
 21.33    N   *    16.33   E     2000   Volcanic field       U
 21.03    N        16.45   E     3265   Stratovolcano        U
 20.92    N        17.28   E     3100   Stratovolcano        U
  19.8    N        18.53   E     3415   Pyroclastic shield   U
 12.95    N        24.27   E     3042   Volcanic field       D7
 14.57    N   *    25.85   E            Scoria cones         ?
 15.32    N   *    26.47   E     2000   Scoria cones         D7
 18.33    N   *    32.75   E      670   Cinder cones         D6
 18.17    N   *    33.83   E            Shield volcano       ?
 36.53    N   *    40.85   E      534   Volcanic field       U
 36.67    N           37   E            Unknown              D6
33.308    N   *   36.925   E      945   Volcanic field       U
 33.15    N   *   36.258   E     1197   Volcanic field       U
33.308    N   *   37.308   E      979   Volcanic field       D3
32.658    N   *   36.425   E     1800   Volcanic field       U
 31.08    N   *    38.42   E     1100   Volcanic field       U
  27.8    N   *    36.17   E     1950   Volcanic field       U
 27.08    N   *    37.25   E     1920   Volcanic field       D6
 25.17    N   *    37.75   E     1370   Volcanic field       D6
 26.58    N   *     40.2   E     1625   Volcanic field       U
     25   N   *    39.92   E     2093   Volcanic field       D6
 23.08    N   *    39.78   E     1744   Volcanic field       D6
  22.8    N   *    41.38   E     1475   Volcanic field       U
 18.37    N   *    41.63   E      381   Volcanic field       U
 17.05    N   *    42.83   E      305   Volcanic field       D3
 15.63    N   *    44.08   E     3100   Volcanic field       D6
 15.28    N        44.22   E     2650   Tuff cone            U
 15.43    N   *    44.78   E     1550   Volcanic field       D7
 14.57    N   *    44.67   E     3500   Volcanic field       D2
 12.25    N           45   E            Submarine volcano    ?
 13.58    N   *    46.12   E     1737   Volcanic field       D6
 14.05    N   *    48.33   E      233   Volcanic field       U
 15.55    N   *    50.63   E            Volcanic field       ?
 39.33    N        45.17   E            Volcanic field       U
 37.75    N        46.43   E     3707   Stratovolcano        U
 38.25    N        47.92   E     4811   Stratovolcano        U
35.951    N       52.109   E     5670   Stratovolcano        U
  29.4    N   *    57.57   E            Maars                ?
 28.07    N           60   E     3490   Stratovolcano        U


                                            Page 36
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 28.17   N   *     60.67   E            Volcanic field        ?
  28.6   N         61.13   E     3940   Stratovolcano         U
 33.95   N   *     67.92   E     3800   Lava domes            ?
 34.25   N   *     67.97   E     3190   Volcanic field        ?
 11.47   S         43.33   E     1087   Shield volcano        U
 11.75   S         43.38   E     2361   Shield volcano        D1
  12.6   S   *     49.15   E     1475   Volcanic field        U
 13.32   S   *     48.48   E      214   Cinder cones          U
  14.3   S   *     48.67   E     2878   Cinder cones          U
    19   S   *     46.77   E     1800   Scoria cones          D7
  19.4   S   *      47.2   E     2644   Cinder cones          U
21.231   S        55.713   E     2632   Shield volcano        D1
37.721   S        77.825   E     -650   Submarine volcano     D2
 37.83   S         77.52   E      881   Stratovolcano         U
 38.72   S         77.53   E      268   Stratovolcano         D4
53.106   S        73.513   E     2745   Stratovolcano         D1
 53.03   S          72.6   E      230   Complex volcano       D1
 49.58   S          69.5   E     1840   Stratovolcanoes       ?
 46.43   S          52.2   E     1090   Stratovolcano         ?
 46.42   S         51.75   E      934   Stratovolcano         U
  46.1   S         50.23   E      775   Stratovolcano         U
 46.63   S         37.95   E      672   Shield volcano        U
  46.9   S         37.75   E     1230   Shield volcanoes      D1
 11.75   N         80.75   E            Submarine volcano ?   ?
  35.3   S   *     173.9   E      388   Volcanic field        D6
 35.75   S   *    174.27   E      397   Cinder cones          ?
  36.9   S   *    174.87   E      260   Volcanic field        D6
 37.28   S        176.25   E      355   Shield volcano        D7
  39.3   S        174.07   E     2518   Stratovolcano         D4
 37.52   S        177.18   E      321   Stratovolcanoes       D1
 38.12   S         176.5   E     1111   Lava domes            D2
 38.42   S        176.33   E      592   Caldera               D6
 38.42   S        176.08   E     1156   Calderas              D6
 38.82   S           176   E      760   Caldera               D6
 39.13   S       175.642   E     1978   Stratovolcanoes       D2
 39.28   S        175.57   E     2797   Stratovolcano         D1
36.139   S       178.197   E     -700   Submarine volcano     U
 36.13   S        178.05   E     -450   Submarine volcano     U
35.745   S       178.478   E     -140   Submarine volcano     D2
 34.98   S           179   E      950   Submarine volcano     D6
30.542   S       178.561   W      137   Submarine volcano     ?
  30.2   S        178.47   W      238   Caldera               D7
 29.27   S        177.92   W      516   Stratovolcano         D1
25.887   S       177.188   W     -100   Submarine volcano     D1
 21.38   S        175.65   W     -500   Submarine volcano     D2
 20.85   S        175.53   W      -13   Submarine volcano     D2
 20.57   S        175.38   W      149   Submarine volcano     D2
 20.32   S        175.42   W      -17   Submarine volcano     D2
 19.75   S        175.07   W      515   Caldera               D2
 19.67   S        175.03   W     1030   Stratovolcano         U
 19.18   S        174.87   W       43   Submarine volcano     D2
18.992   S       174.775   W       -2   Submarine volcano     D1


                                            Page 37
                            9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


18.806    S        174.65   W       540   Stratovolcano         D3
18.325    S       174.365   W      -300   Submarine volcano     D1
 18.02    S       174.325   W       180   Stratovolcano         D2
 15.85    S        173.72   W       560   Stratovolcano         ?
 15.62    S        173.67   W       -33   Submarine volcano     D2
  15.6    S        175.63   W       260   Shield volcano        D2
14.215    S       169.058   W      -592   Submarine volcano     D1
 14.23    S       169.454   W       931   Shield volcano        U
14.175    S       169.618   W       639   Shield volcanoes      D3
14.295    S         170.7   W       653   Tuff cones            U
13.935    S        171.72   W      1100   Shield volcano        U
13.612    S       172.525   W      1858   Shield volcano        D2
  13.3    S        176.17   W       143   Shield volcanoes      U
 16.82    S        179.97   W      1241   Shield volcano        D5
 17.32    S         179.4   E       522   Cinder cones          ?
 19.12    S        177.98   E       805   Lava domes            D5
  2.38    S        147.35   E       270   Complex volcano       D2
  2.57    S        147.28   E       254   Stratovolcano         U
  3.03    S        147.78   E     -1300   Submarine volcano     D2
 3.507    S       144.605   E       402   Stratovolcano         U
  3.63    S       144.631   E       365   Stratovolcano         U
 3.613    S       144.818   E       685   Stratovolcano         D2
 3.994    S       144.963   E       240   Stratovolcano         U
  4.08    S       145.037   E      1807   Stratovolcano         D1
 4.649    S       145.964   E      1839   Stratovolcano         D2
 4.311    S       146.256   E     -2000   Submarine volcano ?   ?
    4.9   S        146.75   E             Submarine volcano ?   ?
 5.358    S        147.12   E     1280    Complex volcano       D2
 5.589    S       147.875   E     1548    Complex volcano       U
  5.52    S       148.121   E      140    Stratovolcano         D1
 5.414    S       148.094   E      992    Stratovolcano         ?
    5.2   S        148.57   E             Submarine volcano ?   ?
 5.525    S        148.42   E     1330    Complex volcano       D1
  4.63    S        149.35   E      179    Complex volcano       U
 4.692    S         149.5   E      368    Stratovolcano         U
 5.056    S       150.108   E      400    Caldera               D3
  5.15    S        150.03   E     1155    Stratovolcano         U
    5.3   S   *    150.07   E      565    Volcanic field        ?
  5.45    S        150.03   E      564    Stratovolcanoes       D1
 5.468    S       150.507   E      805    Stratovolcano         ?
  5.58    S        150.52   E      742    Caldera               D1
    5.5   S       150.942   E      610    Stratovolcanoes       D1
  5.33    S         151.1   E     1148    Stratovolcano         D6
    5.2   S        151.23   E     2248    Stratovolcano         D3
  5.05    S        151.33   E     2334    Stratovolcano         D1
  4.92    S       151.158   E      858    Caldera               D2
  4.75    S        150.85   E             Submarine volcano ?   ?
 4.271    S       152.203   E      688    Pyroclastic shield    D1
  4.12    S         152.2   E      200    Caldera               D7
    5.9   S        143.15   E     3568    Stratovolcano         ?
  6.58    S        145.08   E     3233    Stratovolcano         ?
  7.05    S       145.858   E     3384    Stratovolcano         ?


                                              Page 38
                            9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


  7.33    S       146.708   E     1500    Maar                  U
    9.2   S        147.57   E      850    Pyroclastic cone      U
  8.95    S        148.15   E     1680    Stratovolcano         D2
      9   S        148.37   E     1915    Stratovolcano         U
 9.308    S        148.13   E      808    Hydrothermal field    ?
  9.08    S   *    148.33   E     1342    Volcanic field        U
    9.2   S        149.07   E     1925    Stratovolcano         D2
  9.48    S   *    149.13   E      370    Pyroclastic cones     U
  9.57    S       149.075   E      640    Pyroclastic cone      D2
  9.48    S   *    150.35   E      220    Volcanic field        U
  9.52    S        150.53   E      200    Lava domes            U
  9.62    S   *    150.88   E      500    Volcanic field        D6
 3.125    S       152.642   E      700    Volcanic complex      U
  4.08    S        153.65   E      450    Stratovolcano         D7
  5.83    S        154.93   E     2200    Lava cone             U
  5.92    S        154.98   E     2715    Stratovolcano         U
 6.092    S       155.225   E     1544    Pyroclastic shield    D5
  6.14    S       155.195   E     1750    Lava cone             D1
 6.442    S       155.608   E     2210    Volcanic complex      U
  6.52    S        155.62   E     1887    Pyroclastic shield    D7
 8.292    S        156.52   E      335    Stratovolcanoes       D2
  8.75    S        157.03   E     -700    Submarine volcano     U
  8.83    S        157.17   E             Submarine volcano     U
  9.02    S        157.95   E       -20   Submarine volcano     D1
  8.92    S        158.03   E      -240   Submarine volcanoes   U
  9.35    S   *    159.73   E      1000   Volcanic field        ?
  9.13    S        159.82   E       485   Stratovolcano         D3
 10.38    S         165.8   E       851   Stratovolcano         D1
 13.67    S        167.67   E       411   Stratovolcano         U
  13.8    S        167.47   E       921   Complex volcano       D2
 14.27    S         167.5   E       797   Stratovolcano         D2
 14.45    S        168.05   E      1028   Stratovolcano         U
  15.4    S        167.83   E      1496   Shield volcano        D1
 16.25    S        168.12   E      1334   Pyroclastic shield    D1
16.507    S       168.346   E      1413   Stratovolcano         D1
 16.68    S        168.37   E       833   Stratovolcanoes       D1
16.829    S       168.536   E        -2   Caldera               D2
16.992    S       168.592   E       216   Stratovolcanoes       ?
 17.47    S       168.353   E       594   Stratovolcanoes       U
 18.75    S        169.23   E       837   Stratovolcano         D3
 19.53    S       169.442   E       361   Stratovolcano         D1
  20.2    S        169.78   E       852   Stratovolcanoes       ?
 20.98    S        170.28   E       -80   Submarine volcano     D2
 22.33    S        171.32   E       177   Stratovolcano         D2
  22.4    S        172.05   E       297   Stratovolcano         D2
 25.78    S        168.63   E     -2400   Submarine volcano     D2
 37.77    S   *     142.5   E      1011   Shield volcanoes      D7
 13.43    N         94.28   E       710   Stratovolcano         U
12.278    N        93.858   E       354   Stratovolcano         D1
 5.448    N        95.658   E      1810   Stratovolcano         D3
 4.914    N        96.329   E      2801   Complex volcano       D1
 4.813    N         96.82   E      2885   Stratovolcanoes       D2


                                              Page 39
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 3.23    N         98.52   E     2212   Stratovolcanoes     D3
 3.17    N        98.392   E     2460   Stratovolcano       U
 2.58    N         98.83   E     2157   Caldera             U
2.158    N         98.93   E     1505   Unknown             ?
1.556    N        99.255   E     1819   Stratovolcano       ?
1.478    N        99.209   E     1862   Stratovolcano       ?
0.686    N        99.539   E     2145   Stratovolcano       D2
0.079    N         99.98   E     2919   Complex volcano     U
 0.08    N         100.2   E            Pyroclastic cones   ?
0.381    S       100.473   E     2891   Complex volcano     D1
0.433    S       100.317   E     2438   Stratovolcanoes     D2
0.978    S       100.679   E     2597   Stratovolcano       D1
1.697    S       101.264   E     3800   Stratovolcano       D1
 2.33    S         101.6   E     2021   Stratovolcano       U
2.414    S       101.728   E     2507   Stratovolcano       D2
2.592    S        101.63   E     2151   Stratovolcano       U
 2.82    S        102.02   E            Unknown             U
 2.82    S        102.18   E     1958   Compound volcano    U
 3.38    S        102.37   E     2467   Stratovolcanoes     U
 3.52    S        102.62   E     1952   Stratovolcano       D1
 4.03    S        103.13   E     3173   Stratovolcano       D2
 4.27    S         103.3   E     2817   Unknown             ?
 4.22    S        103.62   E     2055   Stratovolcano ?     U
 4.43    S        103.67   E     1899   Stratovolcano ?     D2
 4.83    S        103.92   E     1881   Caldera             ?
 5.12    S        104.32   E     1719   Calderas            U
 5.25    S        104.27   E     1000   Calderas            D2
 5.35    S         104.6   E     1040   Caldera             U
 5.78    S       105.625   E     1281   Stratovolcano       U
6.102    S       105.423   E      813   Caldera             D1
6.342    S       105.975   E     1346   Stratovolcano       U
 6.27    S       106.042   E     1778   Stratovolcano       ?
 6.73    S        106.65   E     1511   Stratovolcano       D2
 6.75    S        106.68   E     1699   Stratovolcano       U
 6.72    S        106.73   E     2211   Stratovolcano       D2
 6.78    S        106.98   E     2958   Stratovolcano       D2
 7.16    S         107.4   E     2434   Stratovolcano       U
7.208    S        107.63   E     2182   Lava dome           U
 7.13    S        107.65   E     2343   Stratovolcano       ?
 6.77    S         107.6   E     2084   Stratovolcano       D2
 7.32    S        107.73   E     2665   Stratovolcanoes     D1
 7.23    S        107.72   E     2608   Stratovolcano       U
7.143    S        107.84   E     2249   Complex volcano     D3
 6.77    S        107.95   E     1684   Stratovolcano       U
 7.25    S       108.058   E     2168   Stratovolcano       D2
7.208    S        108.07   E     2201   Stratovolcano       U
 7.12    S        108.08   E     1155   Fumarole field      U
6.892    S         108.4   E     3078   Stratovolcano       D2
7.242    S       109.208   E     3428   Stratovolcano       D2
   7.2   S   *    109.92   E     2565   Complex volcano     D2
   7.3   S       109.992   E     3136   Stratovolcano       D2
7.384    S        110.07   E     3371   Stratovolcano       D4


                                            Page 40
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 7.18    S        110.33   E      2050   Stratovolcano         U
 7.37    S         110.4   E      1894   Stratovolcano         U
 7.45    S        110.43   E      3145   Stratovolcano         D4
7.542    S       110.442   E      2968   Stratovolcano         D1
 6.62    S        110.88   E      1625   Stratovolcano         U7
7.625    S       111.192   E      3265   Stratovolcano         D3
7.808    S       111.758   E      2563   Stratovolcano         U
 7.93    S       112.308   E      1731   Stratovolcano         D2
 7.92    S        112.45   E      2651   Stratovolcanoes       U
7.725    S        112.58   E      3339   Stratovolcano         D2
 7.62    S        112.63   E      1653   Stratovolcano         U
 8.02    S   *    112.68   E       680   Maars                 U
8.108    S        112.92   E      3676   Stratovolcano         D1
7.942    S        112.95   E      2329   Stratovolcanoes       D1
7.979    S       113.342   E      1651   Stratovolcano         D3
 7.73    S        113.58   E       539   Complex volcano       ?
 7.97    S        113.57   E      3088   Complex volcano       U
8.125    S       114.042   E      3332   Stratovolcano         D1
8.058    S       114.242   E      2799   Stratovolcanoes       D2
 7.85    S        114.37   E      1247   Stratovolcano         ?
 8.28    S        115.13   E      2276   Caldera               U
8.242    S       115.375   E      1717   Caldera               D1
8.342    S       115.508   E      3142   Stratovolcano         D2
 8.42    S        116.47   E      3726   Stratovolcano         D1
 8.25    S           118   E      2850   Stratovolcano         D2
   8.2   S        119.07   E      1949   Complex volcano       D2
 8.72    S        120.02   E       903   Caldera               U
 8.68    S        120.48   E      1675   Unknown               U
 8.62    S        120.52   E      2100   Lava domes            D2
8.875    S        120.95   E      2245   Stratovolcano         D7
 8.73    S        120.98   E      1559   Complex volcano       D1
 8.82    S        121.18   E      2124   Stratovolcano         D2
8.897    S       121.645   E       637   Stratovolcano         D2
8.792    S        121.77   E      1500   Caldera               U
 8.72    S        121.78   E       750   Fumarole field        ?
 8.77    S        121.82   E      1639   Complex volcano       D2
 8.32    S       121.708   E       875   Stratovolcano         D2
 8.67    S        122.45   E      1703   Stratovolcano         D1
8.478    S       122.671   E      1100   Stratovolcano         U
8.542    S       122.775   E      1703   Stratovolcanoes       D1
8.358    S       122.842   E      1117   Complex volcano       D1
   8.3   S       122.892   E       200   Fumarole field        ?
8.342    S       123.258   E      1659   Stratovolcano         D2
8.272    S       123.505   E      1423   Stratovolcano         D2
 8.55    S        123.38   E      1018   Stratovolcano         U
 8.53    S        123.57   E      1018   Complex volcano       D2
7.792    S       123.579   E       748   Stratovolcano         D3
8.508    S        124.13   E       862   Complex volcano       D2
 7.53    S        123.95   E     -3800   Submarine volcano ?   ?
 6.62    S        124.22   E     -2850   Submarine volcano ?   ?
   6.6   S       124.675   E     -2285   Submarine volcano ?   ?
6.642    S        126.65   E       282   Stratovolcano         D5


                                             Page 41
                       9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


7.125    S   128.675   E       868   Stratovolcano         D3
 6.92    S   129.125   E       655   Stratovolcano         D2
 6.73    S     129.5   E       781   Stratovolcano         D2
   6.3   S       130   E       641   Stratovolcano         D2
 5.53    S   130.292   E       282   Stratovolcano         U
4.525    S   129.871   E       640   Caldera               D2
 0.17    S   121.608   E       507   Stratovolcano         D2
 0.75    N    124.42   E      1795   Complex volcano       D3
1.108    N    124.73   E      1784   Stratovolcano         D1
 1.13    N   124.758   E      1549   Caldera               U
 1.23    N    124.83   E      1202   Caldera               U
1.358    N   124.792   E      1580   Stratovolcano         D1
1.358    N   124.858   E      1324   Stratovolcano         D2
 1.47    N    125.03   E      1995   Stratovolcano         U
 1.52    N     125.2   E      1149   Stratovolcano         D3
   2.3   N    125.37   E       725   Stratovolcano         D1
 2.78    N     125.4   E      1784   Stratovolcano         D1
3.138    N   125.491   E        -5   Submarine volcano     D2
 3.67    N     125.5   E      1320   Stratovolcano         D1
 3.97    N    124.17   E     -5000   Submarine volcano ?   ?
 1.83    N    127.83   E       318   Pyroclastic cones     U
 1.68    N    127.88   E      1335   Complex volcano       D1
 1.63    N    127.67   E      1035   Unknown               U
1.488    N    127.63   E      1325   Stratovolcano         D1
 1.38    N    127.53   E      1635   Stratovolcano         D2
 1.25    N    127.47   E       979   Calderas              U
 1.08    N    127.42   E      1130   Stratovolcano         U
   0.9   N    127.32   E       630   Stratovolcano         U
   0.8   N    127.33   E      1715   Stratovolcanoes       D1
0.658    N     127.4   E      1730   Stratovolcano         U
 0.57    N     127.4   E       308   Stratovolcano         U
 0.45    N     127.4   E       950   Stratovolcano         U
 0.32    N     127.4   E      1357   Stratovolcano         D2
 0.07    N    127.42   E       422   Stratovolcano         U
 0.53    S    127.48   E      1030   Stratovolcanoes       U
 0.77    S    127.72   E       900   Stratovolcanoes       U
   4.4   N    117.88   E       531   Pyroclastic cone      ?
6.013    N   121.057   E       811   Pyroclastic cones     D3
   5.4   N   125.375   E       862   Stratovolcano         U
6.113    N   124.892   E      1824   Stratovolcano         D5
 6.37    N    125.07   E      2286   Stratovolcano         U
7.008    N    125.27   E      2954   Stratovolcano         U
7.382    N   126.047   E      1190   Stratovolcano         D6
7.647    N    124.32   E      1940   Stratovolcano         D3
 7.65    N    124.47   E      2158   Stratovolcano         ?
   7.7   N     124.5   E      2815   Stratovolcano         D3
 7.95    N     124.8   E      2824   Stratovolcano         ?
7.877    N   125.068   E       646   Lava dome             D3
 8.22    N    123.63   E      2435   Stratovolcano         U
 8.77    N    124.98   E      2450   Compound volcano      U
9.203    N   124.673   E      1552   Stratovolcanoes       D2
9.593    N    125.52   E       524   Stratovolcano         U


                                         Page 42
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 9.258   N       123.175   E     1862    Stratovolcano         U
10.412   N       123.132   E     2435    Stratovolcano         D1
 10.65   N        123.25   E     1879    Stratovolcano         U
 10.77   N        123.23   E     1535    Stratovolcano         U
10.287   N       125.221   E      945    Stratovolcano         U
10.872   N       124.853   E      800    Stratovolcano         U
11.523   N       124.535   E     1301    Compound volcano      D2
 12.77   N        124.05   E     1565    Stratovolcanoes       D1
 13.05   N       123.958   E     1102    Compound volcano      U
13.257   N       123.685   E     2462    Stratovolcano         D1
 13.32   N         123.6   E     1328    Stratovolcano         U
13.422   N       123.597   E     1548    Stratovolcano         U
13.457   N       123.457   E     1196    Stratovolcano         D5
13.658   N        123.38   E     1966    Stratovolcano         U
 13.24   N       122.018   E     1157    Stratovolcano ?       U
 14.07   N        121.48   E     2158    Complex volcano       U
 14.12   N   *     121.3   E     1090    Stratovolcano         D6
14.002   N       120.993   E      400    Stratovolcano         D2
 14.42   N        121.27   E      743    Caldera               ?
 14.52   N        120.47   E     1420    Stratovolcano         D7
14.705   N         120.4   E     1287    Stratovolcano         ?
 15.13   N        120.35   E     1486    Stratovolcano         D2
  15.2   N       120.742   E     1026    Stratovolcano         ?
15.828   N       120.805   E      376    Unknown               U
 16.33   N        120.55   E     2260    Stratovolcano         ?
17.147   N        120.98   E     1865    Stratovolcano         U
 17.32   N         121.1   E     2329    Compound volcano      U
18.222   N       122.123   E     1133    Stratovolcano         D3
 18.83   N        121.86   E      712    Stratovolcano         D3
19.077   N       122.202   E      244    Compound volcano      D2
19.523   N        121.94   E     1080    Stratovolcanoes       D2
 20.33   N        121.75   E      -24    Submarine volcano     D3
20.469   N        122.01   E     1009    Stratovolcano         D6
 20.83   N   *    109.78   E      259    Volcanic field        U
 15.38   N   *    109.12   E      181    Volcanic field        U
 14.93   N           108   E      800    Cinder cone           ?
  11.6   N   *     108.2   E     1000    Volcanic field        ?
  10.8   N   *     107.2   E      392    Volcanic field        ?
10.158   N       109.014   E      -20    Submarine volcanoes   D2
  9.83   N        109.05   E             Submarine volcano     U
 20.92   N         95.25   E      1518   Stratovolcano         D7
 22.28   N   *      95.1   E       385   Volcanic field        ?
  22.7   N   *     95.98   E       507   Fissure vents         U
 25.23   N   *      98.5   E      2865   Pyroclastic cones     U7
 20.93   N        134.75   E     -6000   Submarine volcano ?   ?
 19.17   N        132.25   E       -10   Submarine volcano ?   ?
 21.83   N        121.18   E      -115   Submarine volcano     ?
    24   N        121.83   E             Submarine volcano     D3
  25.4   N         122.2   E      -100   Submarine volcano     ?
 26.18   N       122.458   E      -418   Submarine volcano     ?
24.558   N           124   E      -200   Submarine volcano     D2
27.877   N       128.224   E       212   Complex volcano       D2


                                             Page 43
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


28.797   N       128.997   E      495   Stratovolcanoes     D3
29.461   N       129.597   E      584   Stratovolcanoes     ?
29.635   N       129.716   E      799   Stratovolcanoes     D1
29.856   N       129.859   E      979   Stratovolcanoes     D2
29.879   N       129.625   E      301   Lava domes          ?
  29.9   N       129.544   E      497   Stratovolcano       ?
29.964   N       129.927   E      628   Stratovolcanoes     D6
 30.44   N       130.219   E      657   Stratovolcanoes     D2
30.789   N       130.308   E      704   Caldera             D1
 31.22   N   *    130.57   E      922   Calderas            D6
31.585   N       130.657   E     1117   Stratovolcano       D1
31.768   N       130.594   E      100   Maars               D7
31.931   N       130.864   E     1700   Shield volcano      D2
32.653   N       128.851   E      317   Shield volcanoes    D7
32.757   N       130.294   E     1500   Complex volcano     D2
32.881   N       131.106   E     1592   Caldera             D1
33.083   N       131.251   E     1791   Stratovolcanoes     D2
 33.28   N       131.432   E     1584   Lava domes          D6
  34.5   N         131.6   E      641   Shield volcanoes    U
 35.13   N        132.62   E     1126   Stratovolcano       D7
36.176   N       133.334   E      151   Shield volcano      U
  34.9   N       139.098   E     1406   Pyroclastic cones   D2
 35.23   N       139.024   E     1438   Complex volcano     D7
35.358   N       138.731   E     3776   Stratovolcano       D4
  36.1   N         138.3   E     2530   Stratovolcanoes     U
 35.89   N        137.48   E     3063   Complex volcano     D2
36.152   N       136.774   E     2702   Stratovolcano       D5
36.103   N       137.557   E     3026   Stratovolcanoes     D7
36.224   N        137.59   E     2455   Stratovolcano       D2
36.408   N       137.594   E     2924   Shield volcanoes    D7
36.568   N       137.593   E     2621   Stratovolcano       D3
36.918   N       138.039   E     2400   Lava dome           D2
36.888   N        138.12   E     2446   Stratovolcano       D7
36.403   N       138.526   E     2568   Complex volcano     D1
 36.62   N       138.535   E     2171   Stratovolcanoes     D2
36.688   N       138.519   E     2041   Shield volcanoes    ?
36.474   N       138.881   E     1449   Stratovolcano       D6
36.557   N       139.196   E     1828   Stratovolcano       ?
36.952   N       139.289   E     2356   Stratovolcano       D5
36.796   N       139.379   E     2578   Shield volcano      D2
36.762   N       139.494   E     2486   Stratovolcano       ?
36.792   N        139.51   E     2367   Lava domes          U
36.897   N        139.78   E     1795   Stratovolcano       D7
37.122   N       139.966   E     1915   Stratovolcanoes     D2
 37.45   N       139.579   E     1100   Shield volcano      D7
37.598   N       140.076   E     1819   Stratovolcano       D3
37.644   N       140.286   E     1718   Stratovolcanoes     D2
37.732   N       140.248   E     2035   Stratovolcanoes     D2
38.141   N       140.443   E     1841   Complex volcano     D2
38.606   N       140.178   E      516   Caldera             U
38.733   N       140.732   E      470   Caldera             D6
38.958   N       140.792   E     1628   Stratovolcano       D2


                                            Page 44
                       9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


39.096   N   140.052   E      2233   Stratovolcanoes       D2
39.758   N   140.803   E      1637   Stratovolcanoes       D2
 39.85   N   141.004   E      2041   Complex volcano       D2
39.955   N   140.857   E      1614   Stratovolcano         ?
39.961   N   140.761   E      1366   Complex volcano       D2
39.931   N   139.879   E       355   Stratovolcano         D7
 39.95   N    139.73   E       291   Maars                 D7
40.653   N   140.307   E      1625   Stratovolcano         D3
 40.47   N    140.92   E      1159   Caldera               D6
40.656   N   140.881   E      1585   Stratovolcanoes       D5
41.276   N   141.124   E       879   Stratovolcano         D4
34.721   N   139.398   E       764   Stratovolcano         D2
34.517   N   139.283   E       508   Stratovolcano         D7
34.393   N   139.273   E       432   Lava domes            D6
34.216   N   139.156   E       572   Lava domes            D6
34.079   N   139.529   E       815   Stratovolcano         D1
33.871   N   139.605   E       851   Stratovolcano         D7
  33.4   N    139.68   E      -107   Submarine volcano     ?
 33.13   N   139.769   E       854   Stratovolcanoes       D5
32.454   N   139.762   E       423   Stratovolcano         D4
  32.1   N    139.85   E       360   Submarine volcano     ?
 31.88   N    139.92   E        11   Submarine volcano     D2
31.436   N   140.054   E       136   Submarine volcano     D2
 30.48   N   140.306   E       394   Stratovolcano         D1
29.789   N   140.345   E        99   Stratovolcano         ?
  28.6   N    140.63   E     -1418   Submarine volcano     U
 28.32   N    140.57   E      -920   Submarine volcano     U
 27.68   N     140.8   E      -860   Submarine volcano     U
27.274   N   140.882   E        38   Caldera               D2
 26.67   N       141   E      -162   Submarine volcano     U
26.122   N   141.102   E      -103   Submarine volcano     D2
 26.13   N    144.48   E     -3200   Submarine volcano ?   ?
25.424   N   141.284   E       792   Stratovolcano         D2
24.754   N    141.29   E       161   Caldera               D1
24.414   N   141.419   E       -73   Submarine volcano     D2
 24.28   N   141.485   E       -14   Submarine volcano     D1
23.497   N    141.94   E       -30   Submarine volcano     D2
23.075   N   142.308   E      -391   Submarine volcano     ?
 21.93   N    143.47   E      -217   Submarine volcano     D2
21.765   N    143.71   E      -598   Submarine volcano     D2
  21.6   N   143.637   E      -170   Submarine volcano     U
    21   N     142.9   E             Submarine volcano ?   ?
  20.3   N     143.2   E             Submarine volcano ?   ?
 20.53   N     144.9   E       360   Stratovolcano         D2
 20.42   N    145.03   E      -137   Submarine volcano     D1
 20.13   N     145.1   E        -8   Submarine volcano     D2
 20.02   N    145.22   E       227   Stratovolcano         ?
 19.67   N     145.4   E       857   Stratovolcano         D2
 18.77   N    145.67   E       965   Stratovolcano         D2
 18.13   N     145.8   E       570   Stratovolcanoes       D1
  17.6   N    145.83   E       744   Stratovolcano         D6
 17.32   N    145.85   E       287   Stratovolcano         D3


                                         Page 45
                       9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 16.88   N    145.85   E        0   Stratovolcano         U
16.708   N    145.78   E      538   Stratovolcano         U
 16.35   N    145.67   E      790   Stratovolcano         D1
 15.62   N    145.57   E     -230   Submarine volcano     D2
    15   N    145.25   E      -43   Submarine volcano     U
14.601   N   144.775   E     -517   Submarine volcano     D1
41.507   N   139.371   E      737   Stratovolcano         D4
41.802   N    141.17   E      618   Stratovolcano         D3
42.061   N   140.681   E     1131   Stratovolcano         D1
42.541   N   140.843   E      737   Stratovolcano         D1
 42.88   N    140.63   E     1154   Stratovolcanoes       D7
 42.83   N   140.815   E     1898   Stratovolcano         D7
42.767   N   140.916   E     1107   Stratovolcano         U
42.489   N   141.163   E      581   Stratovolcanoes       D3
42.688   N    141.38   E     1320   Caldera               D2
 45.18   N    141.25   E     1721   Stratovolcano         D7
43.416   N    142.69   E     2077   Stratovolcanoes       D2
43.661   N   142.858   E     2290   Stratovolcanoes       D6
43.453   N   143.036   E     2013   Stratovolcanoes       D3
43.312   N   143.096   E     1401   Lava domes            ?
43.384   N   144.013   E     1499   Caldera               D1
43.608   N   144.443   E      999   Caldera               D6
 43.57   N   144.565   E      855   Caldera               D6
44.073   N   145.126   E     1660   Stratovolcano         D3
44.131   N   145.165   E     1563   Stratovolcano         D2
43.841   N   145.509   E      543   Caldera               D3
43.976   N   145.736   E      888   Stratovolcano         D3
 44.42   N   146.135   E     1189   Stratovolcano         U
44.351   N   146.256   E     1819   Stratovolcano         D2
44.459   N   146.936   E     1221   Stratovolcano         U
44.608   N   146.994   E      528   Stratovolcano         D7
44.805   N   147.135   E     1206   Stratovolcano         D2
44.833   N   147.342   E     1634   Stratovolcano         U
 45.03   N   147.208   E     -930   Submarine volcano     ?
45.026   N   147.922   E     1211   Complex volcanoes     D2
45.097   N   148.024   E     1132   Stratovolcano         D2
45.338   N   147.925   E     1587   Stratovolcanoes       D3
 45.25   N    148.35   E      442   Pyroclastic cones     ?
45.387   N   148.843   E     1125   Somma volcano         D2
  45.5   N    148.85   E     1205   Stratovolcano         U
 45.77   N    149.68   E     1426   Cinder cones          U
 45.88   N    149.83   E      542   Stratovolcano         ?
 45.93   N    149.92   E      998   Stratovolcano         ?
46.042   N    150.05   E     1328   Somma volcanoes       D2
  46.1   N     150.5   E     -100   Submarine volcano ?   ?
46.525   N   150.875   E      742   Caldera               D2
 46.47   N    151.28   E     -502   Submarine volcano     D2
 46.82   N    151.78   E     1540   Somma volcano         U
 46.83   N    151.75   E      891   Stratovolcano         D2
46.925   N    151.95   E      624   Caldera               D2
 47.02   N    152.12   E     1360   Stratovolcano         D3
 47.12   N    152.25   E      678   Somma volcano         U


                                        Page 46
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 47.35   N       152.475   E     1172   Stratovolcano       D2
 47.52   N         152.8   E      401   Caldera             D3
  47.6   N        152.92   E       36   Submarine volcano   U
 47.77   N        153.02   E      956   Stratovolcano       D2
 48.08   N        153.33   E     -150   Submarine volcano   D2
48.092   N         153.2   E     1496   Stratovolcano       D2
48.292   N        153.25   E      551   Stratovolcano       D2
 48.98   N        153.48   E      724   Stratovolcano       D2
48.958   N        153.93   E     1170   Stratovolcano       D2
48.875   N       154.175   E      934   Stratovolcano       D3
 49.12   N       154.508   E     1145   Stratovolcano       D2
 49.35   N         154.7   E     1325   Stratovolcano       D2
 49.57   N       154.808   E     1018   Caldera             D2
  50.2   N        154.98   E      761   Stratovolcano       U
 50.27   N        155.25   E     1772   Stratovolcano       D3
 50.13   N        155.37   E     1345   Cones               D2
 50.25   N        155.43   E     1681   Cinder cones        U
50.325   N       155.458   E     1816   Stratovolcanoes     D1
 50.55   N        155.97   E     1183   Cinder cones        U
 50.68   N        156.02   E     1156   Somma volcano       D1
50.858   N        155.55   E     2339   Stratovolcano       D2
  51.1   N        156.72   E      503   Stratovolcano       U
  51.3   N        156.87   E     2156   Stratovolcano       U
51.357   N        156.75   E     1812   Stratovolcano       D5
  51.6   N        156.55   E      298   Cinder cone         U
 51.45   N        156.97   E     1070   Lava domes          D6
 51.45   N        157.12   E       81   Caldera             D7
 51.49   N         157.2   E     1578   Stratovolcano       D2
 51.57   N       157.323   E     1953   Stratovolcano       D2
 51.65   N        157.35   E      900   Stratovolcanoes     U
 51.75   N        157.27   E      892   Stratovolcano       U
  51.8   N        157.53   E     1079   Stratovolcano       D2
 51.88   N        157.38   E      562   Shield volcano      U
 52.02   N   *    157.53   E      681   Volcanic field      U
52.063   N       157.703   E     2090   Stratovolcanoes     D7
52.113   N       157.849   E     1322   Stratovolcano       U
52.146   N       157.322   E      719   Shield volcanoes    U
 52.22   N   *   157.428   E      791   Shield volcanoes    U
52.263   N       157.787   E      858   Stratovolcano       U
52.355   N       157.827   E     1910   Complex volcano     U
 52.43   N        157.93   E     1234   Stratovolcano       U
52.453   N       158.195   E     2322   Complex volcano     D1
52.558   N        158.03   E     1829   Caldera             D2
52.543   N       157.335   E     2475   Caldera             D6
 52.57   N   *    157.02   E      610   Cinder cone         U
 52.63   N   *    157.58   E     1021   Cinder cones        D6
  52.7   N        158.28   E     2173   Stratovolcano       D7
52.823   N        158.27   E      870   Lava domes          D7
 52.92   N        158.52   E      450   Shield volcanoes    U
 52.88   N         158.3   E      700   Shield volcanoes    U
  52.9   N        157.78   E     1200   Lava domes          U
 53.32   N       158.688   E     3456   Stratovolcano       D2


                                            Page 47
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


53.255   N        158.83   E     2741   Stratovolcano       D1
53.637   N       158.922   E     2285   Compound volcano    U
 53.59   N       159.147   E     2958   Compound volcano    D2
 53.75   N        158.45   E      520   Cinder cones        D6
 53.83   N   *    158.05   E     1150   Cinder cones        D6
53.905   N        158.07   E     2278   Stratovolcano       D7
53.905   N       158.385   E     1567   Cinder cones        D7
 53.98   N        159.45   E     1180   Stratovolcanoes     D2
 54.05   N        159.45   E     1536   Stratovolcano       D1
 54.13   N        159.67   E     1560   Caldera             D2
 54.32   N        160.02   E     1720   Stratovolcanoes     D7
 54.53   N         159.8   E     2353   Stratovolcano       D7
  54.5   N        159.97   E     1617   Calderas            D7
54.487   N       160.253   E     1552   Stratovolcanoes     D5
54.593   N       160.273   E     1856   Caldera             D5
54.753   N       160.527   E     3528   Stratovolcano       D2
 54.92   N        160.63   E     2020   Shield volcano      U
54.973   N       160.702   E     2576   Complex volcano     D7
55.032   N        160.72   E     2070   Stratovolcano       D6
 55.07   N        160.77   E     2161   Stratovolcano       D7
 55.13   N        160.32   E     2376   Stratovolcano       D2
 55.92   N   *    161.75   E            Cinder cones        ?
 55.83   N        160.33   E     3682   Shield volcano      D2
55.755   N       160.527   E     2923   Stratovolcanoes     U
55.862   N       160.603   E     3081   Stratovolcanoes     U
55.978   N       160.587   E     2882   Stratovolcano       D1
 56.02   N       160.593   E     4585   Stratovolcano       U
56.057   N       160.638   E     4835   Stratovolcano       D1
 56.07   N        160.47   E     3943   Compound volcano    D3
56.653   N        161.36   E     3283   Stratovolcano       D1
 55.42   N        167.33   E     -300   Submarine volcano   D7
 54.75   N        157.38   E     2000   Stratovolcano       D5
 55.55   N        157.47   E     1868   Pyroclastic cones   U
 55.68   N        157.73   E     3621   Stratovolcano       D4
 55.82   N        157.98   E     1802   Shield volcanoes    ?
 55.88   N        157.78   E     1906   Shield volcanoes    ?
  55.2   N        158.47   E     1236   Shield volcano      ?
 55.43   N        158.65   E     1956   Shield volcano      ?
 55.58   N        158.38   E     2016   Shield volcano      ?
 55.65   N         158.8   E     1442   Stratovolcano       ?
 56.08   N        158.38   E     1692   Shield volcano      ?
 56.47   N         157.8   E     1401   Shield volcanoes    D7
 56.37   N        158.37   E      915   Shield volcano      ?
 56.33   N        158.67   E     1170   Shield volcano      ?
 56.32   N        158.83   E     1828   Stratovolcano       ?
 56.37   N        159.03   E     1554   Shield volcano      ?
  56.4   N        158.85   E     1377   Shield volcanoes    ?
 56.57   N        158.52   E     1046   Shield volcano      ?
 56.82   N        158.95   E     1185   Shield volcano      ?
 56.52   N        159.53   E     1400   Shield volcano      ?
  56.7   N        159.65   E     2598   Stratovolcano       D5
 56.82   N        159.67   E     1778   Stratovolcano       ?


                                            Page 48
                         9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


56.85   N        159.8   E     1427   Shield volcanoes    ?
56.88   N       159.95   E     1349   Shield volcanoes    ?
56.97   N       159.78   E     1244   Stratovolcano       ?
 57.1   N       159.93   E     1527   Shield volcano      ?
57.13   N        160.4   E      965   Shield volcano      ?
57.15   N       161.08   E      379   Lava dome           D7
 57.2   N       159.83   E      765   Shield volcano      D7
57.27   N       160.08   E     1241   Shield volcano      D7
 57.3   N       159.83   E     1333   Shield volcano      ?
57.32   N       159.97   E     1533   Shield volcanoes    ?
57.33   N        160.2   E     2125   Stratovolcano       D6
57.35   N       160.97   E      583   Maar                D6
57.35   N       161.37   E      265   Lava cone           D7
 57.4   N        160.1   E     1559   Shield volcanoes    D7
57.47   N       160.25   E     1641   Shield volcano      ?
57.45   N       160.37   E     2525   Shield volcano      ?
57.55   N       160.53   E     1381   Shield volcanoes    D7
 57.7   N        160.4   E     1853   Stratovolcano       ?
 57.7   N       160.58   E     1643   Shield volcano      ?
 57.8   N       160.67   E     1582   Shield volcano      ?
57.83   N       160.25   E     1255   Shield volcano      ?
57.88   N       160.53   E     2080   Shield volcanoes    ?
57.97   N       160.65   E     1764   Shield volcanoes    D7
58.02   N        160.8   E     2169   Shield volcano      ?
58.08   N       160.77   E     2300   Shield volcanoes    ?
58.13   N       160.82   E     2171   Stratovolcano       D7
58.18   N       160.82   E     2552   Stratovolcano       D7
 58.2   N       160.97   E     2169   Shield volcano      ?
58.28   N       160.87   E     1936   Shield volcano      D7
 58.4   N       161.08   E     1340   Shield volcanoes    ?
58.37   N       160.62   E     1225   Shield volcanoes    ?
66.43   N       143.73   E      993   Cinder cone         D4
   47   N   *    137.5   E            Volcanic field      U
56.28   N   *   117.77   E     2180   Pyroclastic cones   D7
 53.7   N   *    113.3   E     1250   Cinder cones        U
 51.5   N   *    102.5   E     1200   Volcanic field      ?
 52.7   N   *    98.98   E     2077   Cinder cones        U
52.52   N   *     98.6   E     2765   Volcanic field      U
48.17   N   *     99.7   E     2400   Volcanic field      D7
48.67   N   *   102.75   E     1886   Volcanic field      U
47.12   N       109.08   E     1162   Cinder cone         ?
45.33   N   *      114   E     1778   Cinder cones        U
45.28   N   *    106.7   E     1120   Cinder cones        ?
 42.9   N        89.25   E            Cone                D6
 42.5   N   *     82.5   E            Volcanic field      D6
35.52   N   *     80.2   E     5808   Pyroclastic cones   D2
35.85   N   *     91.7   E     5400   Volcanic field      ?
41.47   N   *      113   E     1700   Cinder cones        ?
49.37   N   *   125.92   E      670   Pyroclastic cones   U
48.72   N   *   126.12   E      597   Volcanic field      D4
44.08   N   *   128.83   E      500   Volcanic field      D7
42.33   N   *    126.5   E     1000   Cinder cones        D6


                                          Page 49
                       9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 41.98   N    128.08   E     2744 Stratovolcano         D2
 41.33   N       128   E          Unknown               D5
 38.33   N    127.33   E      452 Shield volcano        ?
  37.5   N    130.87   E      984 Stratovolcano         D7
 33.37   N    126.53   E     1950 Shield volcano        D6
 52.35   N   175.911   E      656 Stratovolcano         ?
52.103   N   177.602   E     1220 Stratovolcano         D2
52.015   N   178.136   E     1160 Stratovolcano         U
 51.97   N    178.33   E      328 Stratovolcano         ?
 51.95   N   178.543   E     1174 Stratovolcano         D3
 51.93   N    179.58   E     1221 Stratovolcano         D2
 51.79   N   178.794   W     1573 Stratovolcano         D2
51.885   N   178.146   W     1806 Stratovolcanoes       D2
51.873   N   178.006   W     1449 Stratovolcano         U
 51.91   N   177.438   W      738 Stratovolcano         ?
51.923   N   177.168   W     1307 Stratovolcano         D2
51.944   N   176.747   W     1196 Stratovolcano         ?
51.988   N   176.592   W      610 Stratovolcano         ?
52.076   N    176.13   W     1740 Stratovolcano         D2
52.177   N   175.508   W      314 Stratovolcano         D4
 52.22   N    175.13   W      273 Stratovolcano         ?
 52.05   N    174.95   W      560 Stratovolcano         ?
52.381   N   174.154   W     1533 Stratovolcanoes       D1
52.315   N    172.51   W     1054 Stratovolcanoes       D2
  52.5   N   171.252   W     1066 Stratovolcano         D2
52.577   N    171.13   W     1142 Stratovolcano         U
52.643   N   170.629   W      550 Shield volcano        D2
52.742   N   170.111   W     1280 Stratovolcano         U
52.894   N   170.054   W     1620 Stratovolcano         D3
52.825   N   169.944   W     1730 Stratovolcano         D1
53.065   N    169.77   W      888 Stratovolcano         U
52.974   N    169.72   W      893 Stratovolcano         D2
 53.13   N   168.693   W     2149 Stratovolcano         D3
53.157   N   168.539   W     1984 Stratovolcano         U
 53.43   N    168.13   W     1073 Shield volcano        D2
 53.93   N    168.03   W      150 Submarine volcano     D2
53.891   N   166.923   W     1800 Stratovolcano         D2
53.968   N   166.677   W      792 Cinder cones          U
54.134   N   165.986   W     1303 Stratovolcano         D2
54.518   N    164.65   W     1654 Stratovolcano ?       D2
 54.65   N    164.43   W     1112 Stratovolcano         D3
54.756   N    163.97   W     2857 Stratovolcano         D1
54.765   N   163.723   W     2446 Stratovolcano         U
  54.8   N   163.589   W     1871 Stratovolcano         U
55.424   N   163.149   W      488 Stratovolcano         D4
55.082   N   162.814   W     2012 Stratovolcanoes       U
55.168   N   162.272   W     1506 Stratovolcano         U
55.341   N   162.079   W     1436 Caldera               U
 55.42   N   161.887   W     2519 Stratovolcano         D2
55.453   N   161.843   W     2142 Stratovolcano         D4
55.641   N   161.214   W     1354 Stratovolcano         D7
 55.93   N       160   W     1555 Cinder cones          U


                                       Page 50
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


56.011   N       159.797   W     1895   Stratovolcano        D2
 56.17   N        159.38   W     2507   Stratovolcano        D1
56.552   N       158.785   W     1032   Stratovolcano        D7
 56.88   N        158.17   W     1341   Caldera              D2
57.019   N       157.185   W     1345   Stratovolcano        D7
57.135   N        156.99   W     2221   Stratovolcano        D2
57.203   N       156.745   W     1677   Stratovolcano        U
57.751   N       156.368   W     1474   Stratovolcano        D3
57.832   N        156.51   W       91   Maars                D2
 57.87   N        155.42   W      300   Lava dome            U
58.172   N       155.361   W     1863   Stratovolcano        D2
58.195   N       155.253   W     2165   Stratovolcano        U
58.236   N         155.1   W     1864   Stratovolcano        D2
 58.28   N       154.963   W     2047   Stratovolcano        D2
 58.27   N       155.157   W      841   Caldera              D2
58.354   N       155.092   W     2317   Stratovolcano        U
58.336   N       154.682   W     2162   Stratovolcanoes      U
58.418   N       154.449   W     2287   Stratovolcano        ?
 58.43   N         154.4   W     2272   Stratovolcano        U
58.453   N       154.355   W     2043   Stratovolcano        U
58.608   N       154.028   W      901   Stratovolcano        D7
 58.77   N       153.672   W     2105   Stratovolcano        D1
58.855   N       153.542   W     2140   Stratovolcano        U
59.363   N        153.43   W     1252   Lava domes           D1
60.032   N        153.09   W     3053   Stratovolcano        D3
60.485   N       152.742   W     3108   Stratovolcano        D2
61.299   N       152.251   W     3374   Stratovolcano        D2
 61.64   N       152.411   W     3034   Stratovolcano        D6
 57.18   N   *     170.3   W      203   Shield volcano       D7
 60.02   N   *    166.33   W      511   Shield volcano       U
 61.43   N   *    164.47   W      190   Cinder cones         U
 63.45   N   *    162.12   W      715   Shield volcanoes     U
  63.6   N   *    170.43   W      673   Shield volcano       U
  65.6   N   *    163.92   W      610   Shield volcanoes     D6
 64.07   N        148.42   W      830   Tuff rings           D7
 62.22   N        144.13   W     4949   Shield volcano       ?
    62   N        144.02   W     4317   Shield volcano       D2
 62.13   N        143.08   W     2755   Cinder cones         ?
 61.38   N        141.75   W     5005   Stratovolcano        D6
 57.05   N        135.75   W      970   Stratovolcanoes      D7
  56.5   N   *     133.1   W       15   Volcanic field       U
 55.25   N   *     133.3   W       50   Volcanic field       U
 55.32   N   *    131.05   W      500   Cinder cones         ?
 62.93   N   *    137.38   W     1239   Volcanic field       ?
 60.42   N   *    135.42   W     2217   Volcanic field       U
 59.68   N   *    133.32   W     1880   Cinder cones         U
 59.37   N   *    130.58   W     2123   Volcanic field       U
  58.6   N        131.97   W     2012   Shield volcano       ?
 58.42   N        131.35   W     2190   Shield volcano       ?
 57.72   N        130.63   W     2786   Stratovolcano        D6
 57.43   N        130.68   W     2430   Shield volcano       U
 56.78   N        131.28   W     1850   Subglacial volcano   D7


                                            Page 51
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 56.58   N   *    130.55   W     1880   Cinder cones        D3
 55.12   N         128.9   W      609   Pyroclastic cone    D4
  54.7   N        130.23   W      335   Pyroclastic cone    U
  52.5   N   *    128.73   W      335   Cinder cones        U
 52.47   N   *     124.7   W     1921   Volcanic field      U
  52.9   N        123.73   W     1230   Cinder cones        D7
 52.33   N   *    120.57   W     2015   Cinder cones        D5
 51.43   N         126.3   W     3160   Caldera             U
  50.8   N   *     123.4   W     2500   Volcanic field      U
 50.63   N         123.5   W     2680   Complex volcano     D7
 49.92   N   *    123.03   W     2316   Volcanic field      U
 49.85   N           123   W     2678   Stratovolcano       D7
48.777   N       121.813   W     3285   Stratovolcanoes     D3
48.112   N       121.113   W     3213   Stratovolcano       D4
46.853   N        121.76   W     4392   Stratovolcano       D3
46.206   N        121.49   W     3742   Stratovolcano       D6
  46.2   N        122.18   W     2549   Stratovolcano       D1
 45.88   N   *    122.08   W     1329   Volcanic field      D7
 45.93   N   *    121.82   W     1806   Shield volcanoes    D7
45.374   N       121.695   W     3426   Stratovolcano       D3
44.674   N         121.8   W     3199   Stratovolcano       D6
44.411   N       121.774   W     1230   Maar                D6
 44.38   N   *    121.93   W     1664   Cinder cones        D6
44.285   N       121.841   W     2095   Shield volcanoes    D6
 44.17   N        121.77   W     3074   Complex volcano     D6
44.103   N       121.768   W     3157   Complex volcano     D7
43.979   N       121.688   W     2763   Stratovolcano       D7
 43.57   N   *    121.82   W     2163   Volcanic field      D7
43.722   N       121.229   W     2434   Shield volcano      D6
43.512   N   *   120.861   W     1698   Volcanic field      ?
43.472   N   *   120.754   W     1711   Volcanic field      ?
43.361   N   *   120.669   W     1501   Volcanic field      ?
43.241   N   *   122.108   W     1956   Cinder cones        ?
 42.93   N        122.12   W     2487   Caldera             D7
  43.1   N   *    118.75   W     1435   Volcanic field      ?
43.147   N        117.46   W     1473   Volcanic field      D7
41.409   N       122.193   W     4317   Stratovolcano       D4
41.611   N       121.554   W     2412   Shield volcano      D6
41.178   N       121.443   W     1174   Shield volcano      ?
40.777   N   *   121.591   W     1631   Cinder cones        ?
 40.68   N   *    121.55   W     2191   Cinder cones        ?
40.492   N       121.508   W     3187   Stratovolcano       D2
 40.63   N   *    120.83   W     1652   Fissure vents       ?
 38.97   N   *    122.77   W     1439   Volcanic field      U
    38   N   *    119.03   W     2121   Cinder cones        D4
 37.88   N           119   W     2796   Lava domes          D6
37.692   N        119.02   W     2629   Lava domes          D6
37.631   N       119.032   W     3369   Lava domes          D6
 37.02   N        117.45   W      752   Maars               D7
36.358   N   *    118.32   W     2886   Volcanic field      D7
 36.03   N   *    117.82   W     2400   Lava domes          ?
 34.75   N   *   116.625   W     1495   Volcanic field      ?


                                            Page 52
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 43.18   N        114.35   W      1478   Shield volcano        D7
 43.42   N   *     113.5   W      2005   Cinder cones          D7
 42.88   N   *    113.22   W      1604   Shield volcano        D7
  43.5   N        112.45   W      1631   Shield volcano        D7
 44.43   N   *    110.67   W      2805   Calderas              D7
 39.53   N        118.87   W      1251   Maars                 U
37.257   N   *   113.625   W      1465   Volcanic field        ?
37.328   N       112.408   W      2135   Cinder cones          U
 37.58   N   *    112.67   W      2840   Volcanic field        D6
 38.97   N   *     112.5   W      1800   Volcanic field        D6
39.661   N       107.035   W      2230   Maar                  D7
 36.38   N   *    113.13   W      1555   Volcanic field        D6
 35.37   N   *     111.5   W      2447   Cinder cone           D6
 33.78   N        105.93   W      1731   Cinder cones          D7
  34.8   N   *       108   W      2550   Volcanic field        D7
 46.52   N        129.58   W     -2400   Submarine volcano     D2
 45.95   N           130   W     -1410   Submarine volcano     D2
 44.83   N   *     130.3   W     -2140   Submarine volcano     D2
 42.67   N        126.78   W     -3000   Submarine volcano     D2
 31.75   N        124.25   W     -2533   Submarine volcano ?   ?
 18.92   N        155.27   W      -975   Submarine volcano     D2
19.421   N       155.287   W      1222   Shield volcano        D1
19.475   N       155.608   W      4170   Shield volcano        D2
 19.82   N        155.47   W      4205   Shield volcano        D7
19.692   N        155.87   W      2523   Shield volcano        D3
20.708   N        156.25   W      3055   Shield volcano        D4
 21.75   N        158.75   W     -3000   Submarine volcano ?   ?
 23.58   N        163.83   W     -4000   Submarine volcano     D2
  9.82   N         104.3   W     -2500   Submarine volcano     D1
 0.792   N         86.15   W     -2430   Submarine volcano     D2
 17.57   S        148.85   W     -1600   Submarine volcano     U
17.642   S         148.6   W     -2100   Submarine volcano     U
 18.32   S        148.67   W      -180   Submarine volcano     U
 17.87   S        148.07   W       435   Stratovolcano         U
17.436   S       113.206   W     -2566   Submarine volcano     D2
 27.15   S        109.38   W       511   Shield volcanoes      U
 25.37   S        129.27   W       -59   Submarine volcano     D7
 28.98   S        140.25   W       -27   Submarine volcano     D2
 49.68   S        178.77   E       402   Pyroclastic cones     ?
  53.9   S         140.3   W     -1000   Submarine volcano     ?
 55.97   S        143.17   W             Submarine volcano     ?
32.418   N       115.305   W      223    Lava dome             ?
31.772   N   *   113.498   W     1200    Cinder cones          U
30.468   N   *   115.996   W      260    Cinder cones          ?
29.814   N       114.384   W      180    Tuff cone             U
 29.33   N   *     114.5   W      960    Cinder cones          U
 29.08   N       113.513   W      440    Stratovolcano         U
 29.07   N        118.28   W     1100    Shield volcano        U
  28.5   N   *    113.75   W     1360    Cinder cones          U
    28   N           115   W             Submarine volcano ?   ?
 27.47   N       112.591   W     1940    Stratovolcanoes       D7
 27.43   N        111.98   W      210    Shield volcano        U


                                             Page 53
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


    26   N   *    111.92   W      780   Volcanic field      ?
  19.3   N        110.82   W      332   Cinder cones        D2
 18.78   N        110.95   W     1050   Shield volcano      D2
 24.15   N   *    104.45   W     2075   Cinder cones        U
 21.45   N        104.73   W     2340   Stratovolcano       U
21.125   N       104.508   W     2280   Stratovolcano       D3
 20.62   N   *    104.83   W     2560   Cinder cones        U
19.514   N        103.62   W     3850   Stratovolcanoes     D1
 19.48   N   *    102.25   W     3860   Cinder cones        D2
  19.4   N   *    100.25   W     3500   Caldera             D7
 19.73   N        99.758   W     3900   Stratovolcano       D6
19.108   N        99.758   W     4680   Stratovolcano       D7
 19.08   N   *     99.13   W     3930   Volcanic field      D6
19.308   N          98.7   W     3600   Lava dome           U
19.179   N        98.642   W     5230   Stratovolcano       U
19.023   N        98.622   W     5426   Stratovolcanoes     D1
 19.23   N         98.03   W     4503   Stratovolcano       D7
 19.27   N   *     97.47   W     3485   Tuff cones          U
 19.68   N         97.45   W     3150   Calderas            ?
19.809   N        96.526   W      800   Shield volcano      U
 19.67   N   *     96.75   W     2000   Pyroclastic cones   D7
19.492   N         97.15   W     4282   Shield volcanoes    D6
 19.33   N   *     97.25   W     3500   Volcanic field      U
 19.15   N         97.27   W     3940   Stratovolcano       D7
 19.03   N        97.268   W     5675   Stratovolcano       D3
 18.57   N          95.2   W     1650   Shield volcano      D4
 17.36   N        93.228   W     1150   Lava domes          D2
 15.13   N        92.112   W     4060   Stratovolcano       D2
15.034   N        91.903   W     4220   Stratovolcano       U
14.756   N        91.552   W     3772   Stratovolcano       D1
 14.82   N         91.48   W     3197   Stratovolcano       D3
14.583   N        91.186   W     3535   Stratovolcano       D3
14.612   N        91.189   W     3158   Stratovolcano       U
14.501   N        90.876   W     3976   Stratovolcano       D2
14.473   N         90.88   W     3763   Stratovolcano       D1
14.465   N        90.743   W     3760   Stratovolcano       U
14.381   N        90.601   W     2552   Complex volcano     D1
 14.33   N   *      90.4   W     1454   Volcanic field      U
14.156   N        90.407   W     1845   Stratovolcano       D7
 14.03   N          90.1   W     1662   Stratovolcano       U
14.308   N   *    89.992   W     1600   Volcanic field      U
 14.43   N          89.9   W     1716   Stratovolcano       U
 14.33   N   *     89.87   W     1192   Volcanic field      U
  14.4   N   *     89.78   W     2042   Stratovolcanoes     U
 14.12   N   *     89.73   W     1775   Stratovolcano       U
 14.42   N   *     89.68   W     1292   Lava domes          U
 14.55   N   *     89.63   W     1650   Stratovolcano       U
 14.83   N   *     89.55   W     1192   Cinder cones        U
 14.57   N         89.45   W     1200   Volcanic field      U
 14.27   N   *     89.48   W      781   Volcanic field      U
 14.05   N   *     89.65   W      957   Cinder cones        U
13.891   N        89.786   W     2036   Stratovolcanoes     U


                                            Page 54
                          9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


13.853   N        89.63   W     2381   Stratovolcano        D1
13.813   N       89.633   W     1950   Stratovolcano        D2
 13.87   N        89.55   W      746   Caldera              U
13.734   N       89.294   W     1893   Stratovolcano        D2
 14.02   N        89.25   W      665   Volcanic field       U
  13.9   N        89.12   W     1438   Stratovolcano        ?
13.672   N       89.053   W      450   Caldera              D3
13.595   N       88.837   W     2182   Stratovolcano        U
 13.72   N   *    88.77   W      700   Volcanic field       U
13.435   N       88.532   W     1172   Stratovolcano        ?
13.494   N       88.502   W     1593   Stratovolcano        U
13.419   N       88.471   W     1449   Stratovolcano        U
 13.47   N        88.43   W     1640   Stratovolcano        U
13.478   N        88.33   W     1300   Stratovolcano        U
13.434   N       88.269   W     2130   Stratovolcano        D1
13.428   N       88.105   W      181   Maar                 U
13.275   N       87.845   W     1225   Stratovolcano        ?
13.229   N       87.767   W      505   Stratovolcano        D3
13.272   N       87.641   W      783   Stratovolcano        U
 13.33   N        87.63   W      640   Stratovolcano        U
 14.98   N   *    87.98   W     1090   Volcanic field       U
  16.1   N   *     86.9   W       74   Pyroclastic cones    U
 12.98   N        87.57   W      872   Stratovolcano        D3
12.702   N       87.004   W     1745   Stratovolcano        D1
12.602   N       86.845   W     1061   Stratovolcanoes      D1
 12.55   N        86.75   W      832   Stratovolcano        U
12.506   N       86.702   W      728   Cinder cones         D2
12.495   N       86.688   W     1088   Complex volcano      D2
12.422   N        86.54   W     1297   Stratovolcano        D2
12.242   N       86.342   W      518   Pyroclastic shield   D7
 12.12   N        86.32   W      360   Fissure vents        T
11.984   N       86.161   W      635   Caldera              D1
 11.92   N        85.98   W      300   Fissure vents        U
11.826   N       85.968   W     1344   Stratovolcano        U
 11.73   N        85.82   W      629   Shield volcano       U
11.538   N       85.622   W     1700   Stratovolcano        D1
11.446   N       85.515   W     1394   Stratovolcano        U
 13.17   N   *     86.4   W      899   Fissure vents        ?
 12.53   N       86.142   W      603   Stratovolcano        ?
  12.3   N        85.73   W      926   Shield volcano       ?
 12.53   N        83.87   W      201   Cinder cones         U
 10.98   N       85.473   W     1659   Stratovolcanoes      ?
 10.83   N       85.324   W     1916   Complex volcano      D2
10.748   N       85.153   W     2028   Stratovolcano        D2
10.673   N       85.015   W     1916   Stratovolcanoes      U
10.463   N       84.703   W     1670   Stratovolcano        D1
  10.3   N       84.366   W     2267   Stratovolcanoes      U
  10.2   N       84.233   W     2708   Stratovolcano        D1
10.135   N         84.1   W     2906   Complex volcano      D7
 9.979   N       83.852   W     3432   Stratovolcano        D2
10.025   N       83.767   W     3340   Stratovolcano        D3
 8.808   N       82.543   W     3474   Stratovolcano        D5


                                           Page 55
                         9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 8.47   N        80.82   W     1297   Stratovolcano       D5
 8.58   N        80.17   W     1185   Stratovolcano       ?
5.206   N       75.364   W     3858   Stratovolcano       D7
5.092   N         75.3   W     4000   Stratovolcano       D4
4.895   N       75.322   W     5321   Stratovolcano       D2
 4.82   N        75.37   W     4950   Shield volcano      D7
 4.67   N        75.33   W     5200   Stratovolcano       D2
 4.48   N       75.392   W     2650   Stratovolcano       D6
 2.93   N        76.03   W     5365   Stratovolcano       D5
 2.32   N         76.4   W     4650   Stratovolcanoes     D2
2.108   N       76.592   W     4400   Stratovolcano       U
 1.57   N        76.78   W     4054   Lava dome           ?
 1.47   N        76.92   W     4150   Stratovolcano       D2
 1.22   N        77.37   W     4276   Complex volcano     D1
 1.08   N        77.68   W     4070   Stratovolcano       D7
 0.95   N        77.87   W     4764   Stratovolcano       D2
0.828   N       77.964   W     4445   Stratovolcano       D2
0.552   N        77.58   W     3955   Stratovolcano       D7
0.308   N       78.364   W     3246   Caldera             D7
0.258   N       78.183   W     4609   Compound volcano    D7
 0.13   N        78.27   W     4263   Stratovolcanoes     ?
0.029   N       77.986   W     5790   Compound volcano    D4
0.077   S       77.656   W     3562   Stratovolcano       D1
0.038   N       78.463   W     3356   Caldera             D7
0.171   S       78.598   W     4784   Stratovolcano       D1
0.353   S       78.617   W     4463   Stratovolcano       D7
0.375   S        78.25   W     4643   Caldera             D4
0.481   S       78.141   W     5753   Stratovolcano       D3
0.538   S       77.626   W     3990   Stratovolcano       D3
0.659   S       78.714   W     5248   Stratovolcano       U
0.677   S       78.436   W     5911   Stratovolcano       D2
 0.85   S         78.9   W     3914   Caldera             D6
1.464   S       78.815   W     6310   Stratovolcano       D6
1.467   S       78.442   W     5023   Stratovolcano       D1
 1.78   S   *   78.613   W     3336   Scoria cones        ?
2.002   S       78.341   W     5230   Stratovolcano       D1
 0.37   S        91.55   W     1476   Shield volcano      D1
 0.02   S       91.546   W      790   Shield volcano      D6
 0.02   N        91.35   W     1710   Shield volcano      D2
 0.18   S        91.28   W     1330   Shield volcano      D3
 0.43   S        91.12   W     1130   Shield volcano      D2
 0.83   S        91.17   W     1124   Shield volcano      D1
 0.92   S       91.408   W     1640   Shield volcano      D2
 0.58   N        90.75   W      780   Shield volcano      D2
 0.33   N        90.47   W      343   Shield volcano      D2
 0.32   N       89.958   W       64   Shield volcano      U
 0.22   S        90.77   W      920   Shield volcano      D2
 0.62   S        90.33   W      864   Shield volcano      U
 0.88   S         89.5   W      759   Shield volcano      U
 14.2   S        71.33   W     3923   Lava dome           D7
15.07   S        73.18   W     4980   Cinder cone         ?
15.33   S        73.45   W     5522   Stratovolcano       U


                                         Page 56
                          9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 15.52   S        72.65   W     6377   Stratovolcano        U
 15.42   S   *    72.33   W     4713   Cinder cones         U
 15.78   S        71.85   W     5967   Stratovolcanoes      D1
16.191   S        71.53   W     6057   Stratovolcano        U
16.294   S       71.409   W     5822   Stratovolcano        D4
16.355   S       70.903   W     5672   Stratovolcano        D1
16.608   S        70.85   W     4850   Stratovolcano        D5
16.755   S       70.595   W     5408   Lava domes           U
17.025   S       70.358   W     5815   Stratovolcano        U
 17.18   S         70.2   W     5550   Stratovolcanoes      D2
 17.47   S       69.813   W     5650   Stratovolcanoes      U
 17.72   S        69.77   W     5980   Stratovolcano        U
  18.1   S         69.5   W     5860   Complex volcano      D7
 18.17   S        69.15   W     6348   Stratovolcano        D6
 18.42   S       69.092   W     6071   Stratovolcano        D2
 18.37   S        69.05   W     6052   Stratovolcanoes      U
 18.62   S        68.75   W     4215   Pyroclastic shield   U
 18.75   S        69.05   W     5597   Stratovolcanoes      ?
 19.15   S        68.83   W     5550   Stratovolcano        D2
 19.13   S        68.53   W     5430   Stratovolcano        U
 19.45   S        67.42   W     3650   Maars                U
 19.78   S        66.48   W     5438   Lava domes           U
 20.73   S        68.55   W     5163   Stratovolcano        D2
 20.85   S   *     68.2   W     5543   Volcanic field       U
 20.93   S        68.48   W     5407   Stratovolcanoes      D3
 21.22   S        68.47   W     6176   Stratovolcano        ?
 21.25   S        67.75   W     4980   Stratovolcano        ?
  21.3   S        68.18   W     5868   Stratovolcano        ?
  21.5   S         67.5   W     4050   Cone                 ?
  21.6   S        66.88   W     4000   Lava dome            U
 21.67   S         66.5   W     5100   Stratovolcano        ?
 21.68   S        67.47   W     4250   Scoria cone          ?
21.787   S       68.237   W     5846   Stratovolcano        U
 21.88   S         68.4   W     6145   Stratovolcanoes      D2
 22.08   S        68.25   W     5946   Stratovolcano        ?
 22.18   S        68.12   W     5760   Stratovolcanoes      ?
 22.18   S        67.95   W     5680   Stratovolcano        ?
 22.08   S        67.77   W     5750   Stratovolcano        U
 22.25   S        67.42   W     5730   Fissure vent         ?
 22.27   S        67.18   W     6008   Stratovolcano        ?
 22.33   S        67.97   W     5100   Stratovolcano        ?
22.439   S       67.888   W     5808   Stratovolcano        ?
 22.55   S        67.85   W     5890   Stratovolcano        D3
 22.72   S       67.892   W     5971   Stratovolcanoes      U
 22.83   S        67.88   W     5916   Stratovolcano        U
22.895   S       67.566   W     5598   Lava domes           U
    23   S        67.75   W     5703   Pyroclastic shield   U
23.236   S       67.645   W     5631   Stratovolcano        U
23.252   S        67.71   W     5464   Stratovolcano        ?
  23.3   S        67.62   W     6046   Stratovolcano        U
 23.58   S         67.7   W     5778   Stratovolcano        U
 23.37   S        67.73   W     5592   Stratovolcanoes      D1


                                           Page 57
                          9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


23.743   S       67.534   W     5852   Stratovolcanoes     U
 23.82   S        67.77   W     5910   Stratovolcanoes     U
 23.83   S        67.95   W     3550   Maar                U
 23.95   S        67.73   W     4450   Stratovolcanoes     U
 23.97   S        68.13   W     3116   Stratovolcanoes     ?
 24.18   S   *    68.25   W     3500   Pyroclastic cones   ?
24.188   S       68.054   W     6233   Stratovolcanoes     U
 24.28   S         68.6   W     4109   Pyroclastic cones   ?
  24.4   S        68.25   W     6051   Stratovolcano       D7
 24.72   S        68.53   W     6739   Stratovolcano       D3
 25.08   S        68.37   W     5447   Stratovolcano       ?
 25.17   S         68.5   W     5697   Stratovolcano       U
 25.33   S        68.52   W     5463   Complex volcano     U
 25.42   S        68.58   W     5401   Complex volcano     U
 26.48   S   *    68.58   W     6127   Complex volcano     U
  26.8   S        68.37   W     5890   Complex volcano     U
27.042   S        68.28   W     6621   Stratovolcanoes     U
 27.12   S        68.55   W     6887   Stratovolcano       D6
27.108   S        68.72   W     6190   Stratovolcano       U
  27.3   S        69.13   W     6052   Stratovolcano       ?
 24.05   S        66.48   W     5500   Stratovolcano       ?
 24.25   S        67.77   W     6082   Stratovolcano       D2
  25.1   S        68.27   W            Pyroclastic cone    ?
 26.08   S   *     67.5   W     4000   Scoria cones        U
 26.62   S        68.35   W     6532   Stratovolcano       U
 26.62   S        68.15   W     5740   Stratovolcano       U
 26.77   S        67.72   W     4400   Caldera             U
  27.2   S        68.55   W     6660   Complex volcano     U
 26.28   S        80.12   W      193   Shield volcano      U
33.658   S        78.85   W      922   Shield volcanoes    D3
 33.62   S   *    76.83   W     -642   Submarine volcano   ?
  33.4   S         69.8   W     6000   Stratovolcano       D2
33.782   S       69.897   W     5856   Stratovolcano       D2
34.161   S       69.833   W     5264   Caldera             D2
34.608   S       70.295   W     4860   Stratovolcano       U
 34.65   S   *    70.05   W     5189   Caldera             U
 34.93   S           70   W     4999   Stratovolcano       ?
34.814   S       70.352   W     4280   Stratovolcano       D2
 35.24   S        70.57   W     4107   Stratovolcanoes     D2
35.558   S       70.496   W     3508   Caldera             U
 35.58   S        70.75   W     3953   Stratovolcanoes     D2
35.653   S       70.761   W     3788   Stratovolcano       D2
 36.02   S   *    70.58   W     3092   Caldera             U
35.989   S       70.849   W     3621   Stratovolcanoes     U
36.193   S       71.161   W     3242   Stratovolcano       D7
36.286   S       71.009   W     2268   Stratovolcano       U
 36.45   S        70.92   W     1890   Cinder cone         U
 36.42   S         69.2   W     3680   Shield volcano      U
 36.58   S        70.42   W     4709   Stratovolcano       ?
36.863   S       71.377   W     3212   Stratovolcano       D1
 36.77   S        69.82   W     1435   Stratovolcanoes     U
37.142   S        70.03   W     3978   Stratovolcanoes     U


                                           Page 58
                          9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 37.55   S        69.62   W      970 Pyroclastic cone      U
37.406   S       71.349   W     2979 Stratovolcano         D3
 37.75   S        69.88   W          Lava domes            ?
 37.85   S        71.17   W     2997 Stratovolcano         D1
 37.92   S        71.45   W     3164 Stratovolcano         D2
 38.27   S         71.1   W     2143 Cinder cones          U
 38.31   S       71.645   W     2806 Stratovolcano         U
38.377   S        71.58   W     2865 Stratovolcano         D2
38.692   S       71.729   W     3125 Stratovolcano         D1
 38.97   S        71.52   W     2282 Caldera               D6
 39.25   S   *     71.7   W     1496 Cinder cones          D7
 39.42   S        71.93   W     2847 Stratovolcano         D1
  39.5   S         71.7   W     2360 Stratovolcano         D3
39.633   S         71.5   W     3747 Stratovolcano         D6
 39.88   S        71.58   W     2139 Stratovolcanoes       D4
39.927   S       72.027   W     2422 Stratovolcanoes       D2
 40.35   S   *    72.07   W     1114 Pyroclastic cones     D2
 40.52   S         72.2   W     1798 Fissure vents         D2
 40.59   S       72.117   W     2236 Stratovolcano         U
40.534   S       72.038   W     1840 Stratovolcano         U
 40.77   S        71.95   W     2024 Stratovolcano         U
40.771   S       72.153   W     1990 Stratovolcanoes       U
40.969   S       72.264   W     2493 Stratovolcano         D3
  41.1   S       72.493   W     2652 Stratovolcano         D3
41.157   S       71.885   W     3491 Stratovolcano         ?
 41.25   S   *    72.27   W      506 Pyroclastic cones     D7
41.326   S       72.614   W     2003 Stratovolcano         D2
  41.4   S           72   W     1862 Stratovolcano         U
41.755   S       72.396   W     2187 Stratovolcano         U
41.874   S       72.431   W     1572 Stratovolcano         U
 41.88   S        72.58   W     1210 Pyroclastic cone      U
42.377   S       72.578   W     1318 Stratovolcano         D2
42.793   S       72.439   W     2404 Stratovolcano         D3
42.833   S       72.646   W     1122 Caldera               D7
 43.18   S         72.8   W     2300 Stratovolcano         D7
  43.5   S         72.8   W     2042 Stratovolcanoes       D7
 43.78   S        72.47   W          Cinder cones          U
 44.08   S        72.88   W     2400 Stratovolcano         D6
  44.3   S        72.53   W      524 Cinder cones          U
  44.7   S        73.08   W     1660 Stratovolcano         D4
45.059   S       72.984   W     2090 Stratovolcano         ?
  45.1   S        73.17   W     2960 Stratovolcano         D6
  45.9   S        72.97   W     1905 Stratovolcano         D2
 46.17   S        72.67   W          Pyroclastic cones     ?
  47.2   S        73.48   W     3437 Stratovolcano         D2
 49.02   S        73.55   W     3607 Stratovolcano         D2
49.358   S        73.28   W     1500 Subglacial volcano    D2
 50.33   S        73.75   W     2546 Stratovolcano         D7
50.964   S       73.585   W     1000 Cinder cone           D2
 52.33   S         73.4   W     1758 Stratovolcano         D2
    52   S   *       70   W      282 Cinder cones          D7
 54.95   S        70.25   W      150 Lava domes            D3


                                          Page 59
                          9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


 17.63   N        63.23   W      887    Stratovolcano         D5
17.478   N        62.96   W      601    Stratovolcano         D6
 17.37   N         62.8   W     1156    Stratovolcano         D6
 17.15   N        62.58   W      985    Stratovolcano         ?
 16.72   N        62.18   W      915    Stratovolcano         D1
 16.05   N        61.67   W     1467    Stratovolcano         D2
15.612   N        61.43   W      861    Stratovolcano         U
15.503   N       61.397   W     1430    Stratovolcano         ?
 15.37   N        61.33   W     1387    Complex volcano       D6
15.307   N       61.305   W     1224    Stratovolcanoes       D2
15.255   N       61.341   W      940    Stratovolcano         D6
 14.82   N        61.17   W     1397    Stratovolcano         D2
 13.83   N        61.05   W      777    Caldera               D4
 13.33   N        61.18   W     1220    Stratovolcano         D2
  12.3   N        61.64   W     -185    Submarine volcano     D1
 12.15   N        61.67   W      840    Stratovolcano         U
  64.8   N        23.78   W     1448    Stratovolcano         D6
 64.87   N   *    23.25   W      540    Pyroclastic cones     U
 64.87   N   *    22.23   W      988    Fissure vents         D6
 63.67   N   *    23.33   W       80    Submarine volcanoes   D2
 63.88   N   *     22.5   W      230    Crater rows           D6
 63.93   N   *     22.1   W      379    Crater rows           D6
 63.92   N   *    21.83   W      626    Crater rows           D6
 64.18   N   *    21.33   W      803    Crater rows           D6
 64.03   N   *    20.87   W      214    Crater rows           D7
  64.6   N   *    20.58   W     1390    Subglacial volcano    D7
 64.75   N        19.98   W     1360    Stratovolcano         D6
 64.78   N        18.92   W     1782    Subglacial volcano    U
 64.63   N        19.32   W     1488    Stratovolcano         U
 63.43   N   *    20.28   W      279    Submarine volcanoes   D2
 63.63   N        19.62   W     1666    Stratovolcano         D3
 63.63   N        19.05   W     1512    Subglacial volcano    D2
 63.78   N        19.57   W     1463    Stratovolcano         U
 63.92   N        19.17   W     1259    Stratovolcano         D6
 63.92   N   *    19.67   W     1235    Fissure vents         D6
 63.98   N         19.7   W     1491    Stratovolcano         D1
 64.42   N        17.33   W     1725    Caldera               D1
 64.48   N         17.8   W     1570    Subglacial volcano    D2
 64.63   N        17.53   W     2000    Stratovolcano         D2
 64.73   N        17.92   W     1535    Stratovolcano         U
 64.65   N        16.72   W     1920    Stratovolcano         D2
 65.03   N        16.75   W     1516    Stratovolcano         D2
 65.43   N        16.65   W      939    Stratovolcano         D7
 65.73   N        16.78   W      650    Caldera               D2
 65.88   N        16.83   W      564    Shield volcano        D7
  66.3   N         17.1   W             Submarine volcano     D3
    64   N        16.65   W      2119   Stratovolcano         D4
 64.27   N        16.65   W      1760   Stratovolcano         D2
 66.67   N         18.5   W         5   Submarine volcano     D4
 71.08   N         8.17   W      2277   Stratovolcano         D2
 88.27   N         65.6   W     -1500   Submarine volcano     ?
 85.58   N           85   E     -3800   Submarine volcano     U


                                            Page 60
                            9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


     49   N         34.5    W     -1650   Submarine volcano     D3
 39.95    N        25.83    W     -2835   Submarine volcano     ?
 38.75    N        38.08    W     -4200   Submarine volcano     D3
39.462    N       31.216    W       914   Stratovolcano         D7
39.699    N       31.111    W       718   Stratovolcano         U
  38.6    N        28.73    W      1043   Stratovolcano         D2
 38.47    N         28.4    W      2351   Stratovolcano         D4
 38.65    N        28.08    W      1053   Fissure vent          D2
 39.02    N        27.97    W       402   Stratovolcano         U
 38.73    N        27.32    W      1023   Stratovolcanoes       D1
 38.23    N        26.63    W       -14   Submarine volcano     D4
 37.87    N        25.78    W       856   Stratovolcano         D3
 37.78    N   *    25.67    W       350   Pyroclastic cones     D5
 37.77    N        25.47    W       947   Stratovolcano         D5
 37.77    N        25.32    W       805   Stratovolcano         D5
  37.6    N        25.88    W      -197   Submarine volcano     D2
 32.73    N        16.97    W      1862   Shield volcano        D7
 28.57    N        17.83    W      2426   Stratovolcanoes       D2
 27.73    N        18.03    W      1500   Shield volcano        D7
28.271    N       16.641    W      3715   Stratovolcano         D2
     28   N        15.58    W      1950   Fissure vents         D7
28.358    N        14.02    W       529   Fissure vents         U
 29.03    N        13.63    W       670   Fissure vents         D3
 14.95    N        24.35    W      2829   Stratovolcano         D2
 14.85    N        24.72    W       900   Stratovolcano         U
 16.85    N        24.97    W       725   Stratovolcano         U
      7   N        21.83    W     -1415   Submarine volcano ?   ?
    4.2   N        21.45    W     -2900   Submarine volcano     ?
  0.72    S        20.53    W     -1528   Submarine volcano     ?
    3.5   S         24.5    W     -5300   Submarine volcano     ?
  7.95    S        14.37    W       858   Stratovolcano         U
20.514    S       29.331    W       600   Stratovolcano         U
37.092    S        12.28    W      2060   Shield volcano        D1
 54.42    S         3.35    E       780   Shield volcano        D7
 53.93    S           5.5   E             Submarine volcano ?   ?
 66.78    S       163.25    E     1239    Stratovolcano         D3
 66.42    S       162.47    E     1340    Stratovolcano         U
  67.4    S       164.83    E     1167    Stratovolcano         ?
 72.67    S        165.5    E     3040    Stratovolcano         D7
 73.45    S   *   164.58    E     2987    Scoria cones          ?
 74.35    S        164.7    E     2732    Stratovolcano         D4
 76.83    S          163    E     -500    Submarine volcano     ?
 77.53    S       167.17    E     3794    Stratovolcano         D1
 78.25    S   *   163.33    E     3000    Cinder cones          ?
 76.05    S          136    W     3478    Shield volcanoes      D7
  75.8    S       132.33    W     2978    Shield volcanoes      ?
 77.17    S       126.88    W     3292    Shield volcanoes      ?
 73.43    S       126.67    W     3110    Shield volcano        ?
  75.8    S       115.83    W     3595    Shield volcano        ?
 76.28    S       112.08    W     3460    Shield volcano        D7
 74.33    S   *    99.42    W      749    Stratovolcanoes       ?
 68.85    S        90.58    W     1640    Shield volcano        U


                                              Page 61
                        9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


62.97   S       60.65   W      576   Caldera             D2
 62.1   S       57.93   W      180   Stratovolcano       D2
62.05   S       56.75   W      240   Stratovolcano       ?
63.58   S       55.77   W      353   Cinder cone         U
65.03   S   *   60.05   W      368   Pyroclastic cones   ?
59.45   S       27.37   W     1075   Stratovolcanoes     D2
59.03   S       26.58   W     1100   Stratovolcano       D2
58.42   S       26.33   W     1370   Shield volcano      D1
57.78   S       26.45   W      990   Stratovolcano       D1
57.08   S       26.67   W      550   Stratovolcano       D2
 56.7   S       27.15   W     1005   Stratovolcano       U
56.67   S       28.13   W      190   Stratovolcano       U
 56.3   S       27.57   W      551   Stratovolcano       D3
55.92   S       28.08   W      -27   Submarine volcano   D2




                                         Page 62
                             9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


NUMBER     RN   SN   VN     Fentale                     LOCATION             STATUS           LATITUDE
1900-023   19   00   -023   Andrus                      Antarctica           Holocene?            75.8
1900-022   19   00   -022   Berlin                      Antarctica           Ar/Ar               76.05
1900-028   19   00   -028   Hudson Mountains            Antarctica           Uncertain           74.33
1900-029   19   00   -029   Peter I Island              Antarctica           Holocene            68.85
1900-025   19   00   -025   Siple                       Antarctica           Holocene?           73.43
1900-027   19   00   -027   Takahe                      Antarctica           Ice Core            76.28
1900-026   19   00   -026   Toney Mountain              Antarctica           Holocene?            75.8
1900-024   19   00   -024   Waesche                     Antarctica           Holocene?           77.17
1707-02-   17   07   -02-   Unnamed                     Arctic Ocean         Holocene            85.58
1805-051   18   05   -051   Trindade                    Atlantic-C           Holocene           20.514
0405-02-   04   05   -02-   Koro                        Fiji Is-SW Pacific   Holocene?           17.32
0405-03-   04   05   -03-   Nabukelevu                  Fiji Is-SW Pacific   Radiocarbon         19.12
0405-01-   04   05   -01-   Taveuni                     Fiji Is-SW Pacific   Radiocarbon         16.82
0402-01=   04   02   -01-   Curtis Island               Kermadec Is          Uncertain          30.542
0402-021   04   02   -021   Macauley Island             Kermadec Is          Radiocarbon          30.2
0402-05-   04   02   -05-   Monowai Seamount            Kermadec Is          Historical         25.887
0402-03=   04   02   -03-   Raoul Island                Kermadec Is          Historical          29.27
0401-02=   04   01   -02-   Auckland Field              New Zealand          Radiocarbon          36.9
0401-03=   04   01   -03-   Egmont [Taranaki]           New Zealand          Radiocarbon          39.3
0401-14-   04   01   -14-   Healy                       New Zealand          Radiocarbon         34.98
0401-01=   04   01   -01-   Kaikohe-Bay of Islands      New Zealand          Radiocarbon          35.3
0401-061   04   01   -061   Maroa                       New Zealand          Tephrochronology    38.42
0401-021   04   01   -021   Mayor Island                New Zealand          Radiocarbon         37.28
0401-05=   04   01   -05-   Okataina                    New Zealand          Historical          38.12
0401-06-   04   01   -06-   Reporoa                     New Zealand          Tephrochronology    38.42
0401-10=   04   01   -10-   Ruapehu                     New Zealand          Historical          39.28
0401-13-   04   01   -13-   Rumble III                  New Zealand          Hydrophonic        35.745
0401-12-   04   01   -12-   Rumble IV                   New Zealand          Fumarolic           36.13
0401-11-   04   01   -11-   Rumble V                    New Zealand          Fumarolic          36.139
0401-07=   04   01   -07-   Taupo                       New Zealand          Radiocarbon         38.82
0401-08=   04   01   -08-   Tongariro                   New Zealand          Historical          39.13
0401-011   04   01   -011   Whangarei                   New Zealand          Holocene?           35.75
0401-04=   04   01   -04-   White Island                New Zealand          Historical          37.52
0404-01=   04   04   -01-   Ofu-Olosega                 Samoa-SW Pacific     Historical         14.175
0404-04=   04   04   -04-   Savai'i                     Samoa-SW Pacific     Historical         13.612
0404-001   04   04   -001   Ta'u                        Samoa-SW Pacific     Holocene            14.23
0404-02-   04   04   -02-   Tutuila                     Samoa-SW Pacific     Holocene           14.295
0404-03-   04   04   -03-   Upolu                       Samoa-SW Pacific     Holocene           13.935
0404-00-   04   04   -00-   Vailulu'u                   Samoa-SW Pacific     Historical         14.215
0508-001   05   08   -001   Eastern Gemini Seamount     SW Pacific           Historical          20.98
0508-02=   05   08   -02-   Hunter Island               SW Pacific           Historical           22.4
0508-01=   05   08   -01-   Matthew Island              SW Pacific           Historical          22.33
0508-03-   05   08   -03-   Unnamed                     SW Pacific           Hydrophonic         25.78
0404-05-   04   04   -05-   Wallis Islands              SW Pacific           Holocene             13.3
0403-102   04   03   -102   Curacoa                     Tonga-SW Pacific     Historical          15.62
0403-05=   04   03   -05-   Falcon Island               Tonga-SW Pacific     Historical          20.32
0403-10=   04   03   -10-   Fonualei                    Tonga-SW Pacific     Historical          18.02
0403-08=   04   03   -08-   Home Reef                   Tonga-SW Pacific     Historical         18.992
0403-04=   04   03   -04-   Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai   Tonga-SW Pacific     Historical          20.57
0403-061   04   03   -061   Kao                         Tonga-SW Pacific     Holocene            19.67
0403-09=   04   03   -09-   Late                        Tonga-SW Pacific     Historical         18.806


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0403-07=   04   03   -07-   Metis Shoal                 Tonga-SW Pacific Historical     19.18
0403-11=   04   03   -11-   Niuafo'ou                   Tonga-SW Pacific Historical      15.6
0403-101   04   03   -101   Tafahi                      Tonga-SW Pacific Holocene?      15.85
0403-06=   04   03   -06-   Tofua                       Tonga-SW Pacific Historical     19.75
0403-01=   04   03   -01-   Unnamed                     Tonga-SW Pacific Historical     21.38
0403-03=   04   03   -03-   Unnamed                     Tonga-SW Pacific Historical     20.85
0403-091   04   03   -091   Unnamed                     Tonga-SW Pacific Historical    18.325
                            Unnamed                     Tonga-SW Pacific Unknown        21.15
0507-04=   05   07   -04-   Ambrym                      Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical    16.25
0507-11-   05   07   -11-   Aneityum                    Vanuatu-SW PacificHolocene?      20.2
0507-03=   05   07   -03-   Aoba                        Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical     15.4
0507-06=   05   07   -06-   Epi                         Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical    16.68
0507-02=   05   07   -02-   Gaua                        Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical    14.27
0507-07=   05   07   -07-   Kuwae                       Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical   16.829
0507-05=   05   07   -05-   Lopevi                      Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical   16.507
0507-021   05   07   -021   Mere Lava                   Vanuatu-SW PacificHolocene      14.45
0507-001   05   07   -001   Motlav                      Vanuatu-SW PacificHolocene      13.67
0507-081   05   07   -081   North Vate                  Vanuatu-SW PacificHolocene      17.47
0507-01=   05   07   -01-   Suretamatai                 Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical     13.8
0507-09=   05   07   -09-   Traitor's Head              Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical    18.75
0507-08-   05   07   -08-   Unnamed                     Vanuatu-SW PacificHolocene?    16.992
0507-10=   05   07   -10-   Yasur                       Vanuatu-SW PacificHistorical    19.53




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NS   LONGITUDE EW   ELEV     TYPE                  ESP                comments
S       132.33 W      2978   Shield volcanoes      E0                 Three coalescing trachytic shield volcanoes with
S          136 W      3478   Shield volcanoes      E0                 Mount Berlin consists of two coalescing shield vo
S        99.42 W       749   Stratovolcanoes       B0                 The Hudson Mountains, located along the Walgr
S        90.58 W      1640   Shield volcano        B0                 The 11 x 19 km Peter I Island in the Bellingshau
S       126.67 W      3110   Shield volcano        B0                 Mount Siple is a youthful-looking shield volcano
S       112.08 W      3460   Shield volcano        E0                 Mount Takahe is an isolated shield volcano in ea
S       115.83 W      3595   Shield volcano        B0                 Toney Mountain in east-central Marie Byrd Land
S       126.88 W      3292   Shield volcanoes      B0                 Mount Waesche is the southernmost of a N-S-tr
N           85 E     -3800   Submarine volcano     S0
S       29.331 W       600   Stratovolcano         E0                 The small island of Trindade lies at the eastern e
S        179.4 E       522   Cinder cones          B0                 The 16 x 9 km, shark-tooth-shaped Koro Island,
S       177.98 E       805   Lava domes            E0                 The andesitic-to-dacitic Nabukelevu lava-dome c
S       179.97 W      1241   Shield volcano        B0                 Straddling the 180 degree meridian, Taveuni, the
S      178.561 W       137   Submarine volcano     E0                 Curtis and nearby Cheeseman Islands are the u
S       178.47 W       238   Caldera               B0                 Macauley Island is a remnant of the rim of a larg
S      177.188 W      -100   Submarine volcano     S0                 Monowai seamount, also known as Orion seamo
S       177.92 W       516   Stratovolcano         E0                 Anvil-shaped Raoul Island is the largest and nor
S       174.87 E       260   Volcanic field        B0                 The 140 sq km Auckland volcanic field, which is
S       174.07 E      2518   Stratovolcano         E0                 The nearly symmetrical, steep-sided cone of Egm
S          179 E       950   Submarine volcano     E0                 Healy submarine volcano lies along the South K
S        173.9 E       388   Volcanic field        B0                 The Kaikohe-Bay of Islands volcanic field at the
S       176.08 E      1156   Calderas              E0                 The 16 x 25 km Maroa caldera formed sometim
S       176.25 E       355   Shield volcano        E0                 The small 4-km-wide Mayor Island, also known a
S        176.5 E      1111   Lava domes            B0                 The massive, dominantly rhyolitic Okataina Volc
S       176.33 E       592   Caldera               E0                 The 10 x 15 km wide Reporoa caldera, occupyin
S       175.57 E      2797   Stratovolcano         E1                 Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active vol
S      178.478 E      -140   Submarine volcano     E0                 The Rumble III seamount, the largest of the Rum
S       178.05 E      -450   Submarine volcano     S0                 The submarine volcano Rumble IV was thought
S      178.197 E      -700   Submarine volcano     S0
S          176 E       760   Caldera               E0                 Taupo, the most active rhyolitic volcano of the T
S      175.642 E      1978   Stratovolcanoes       E1                 Tongariro is a large andesitic volcanic massif, lo
S       174.27 E       397   Cinder cones          B0                 The Whangarei volcanic field, named after the a
S       177.18 E       321   Stratovolcanoes       E1                 Uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New
S      169.618 W       639   Shield volcanoes      B0                 The two triangle-shaped islands of Ofu and Olos
S      172.525 W      1858   Shield volcano        B0                 Savai'i, the largest and highest of the Samoan is
S      169.454 W       931   Shield volcano        B0                 The rectangular, 6 x 10 km Ta'u Island, located
S        170.7 W       653   Tuff cones            B0                 The elongated, extensively eroded Tutuila Island
S       171.72 W      1100   Shield volcano        B0                 The massive, basaltic shield volcano forming 75
S      169.058 W      -592   Submarine volcano     S0                 A massive volcanic seamount, not discovered un
S       170.28 E       -80   Submarine volcano     S0                 A submarine eruption, the first recorded in histor
S       172.05 E       297   Stratovolcano         E0                 Hunter Island, the SE-most volcano of the New H
S       171.32 E       177   Stratovolcano         E0                 Isolated Matthew Island is composed of two low
S       168.63 E     -2400   Submarine volcano     S0
S       176.17 W       143   Shield volcanoes      B0                 The Wallis Islands consist of one relatively large
S       173.67 W       -33   Submarine volcano     E0                 A submarine volcano south of Curacoa Reef at t
S       175.42 W       -17   Submarine volcano     E0                 The ephemeral Falcon Island in the central part
S      174.325 W       180   Stratovolcano         E0                 The small, less than 2-km-wide island of Fonual
S      174.775 W        -2   Submarine volcano     E0                 Home Reef, a submarine volcano midway betwe
S       175.38 W       149   Submarine volcano     E0                 The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga H
S       175.03 W      1030   Stratovolcano         E0                 The highest and most spectacular volcano of the
S       174.65 W       540   Stratovolcano         E0                 The small, 6-km-wide circular island of Late, lyin


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S    174.87   W     43   Submarine volcano      E0                Metis Shoal, a submarine volcano midway betwe
S    175.63   W    260   Shield volcano         B0                Niuafo'ou ("Tin Can Island") is a low, 8-km-wide
S    173.72   W    560   Stratovolcano          E0                The small 1.2 x 2.8 km wide island of Tafahi is a
S    175.07   W    515   Caldera                E0                The low, forested Tofua Island in the central par
S    175.65   W   -500   Submarine volcano      S0                During an eruption in 1907 from an unnamed su
S    175.53   W    -13   Submarine volcano      E0                An unnamed submarine volcano is located 35 km
S   174.365   W    -40   Submarine volcano      E0                A submarine volcano along the Tofua volcanic a
S    175.75   W    -65   Fumorlic               S0                A large submarine volcano rises to within 65 m o
S    168.12   E   1334   Pyroclastic shield     B1                Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-w
S    169.78   E    852   Stratovolcanoes        B0                Oval-shaped, 17-km-wide Aneityum Island, also
S    167.83   E   1496   Shield volcano         B0                Aoba, also known as Ambae, is a massive 2500
S    168.37   E    833   Stratovolcanoes        B0                A large caldera, with submarine post-caldera con
S     167.5   E    797   Stratovolcano          E1                The roughly 20-km-diameter Gaua Island, also k
S   168.536   E     -2   Caldera                B0                The largely submarine Kuwae caldera occupies
S   168.346   E   1413   Stratovolcano          B1                The small 7-km-wide conical island of Lopevi, kn
S    168.05   E   1028   Stratovolcano          B0                The small 4-km-wide symmetrical island of basa
S    167.67   E    411   Stratovolcano          B0                The elongated island of Motlav, also referred to
S   168.353   E    594   Stratovolcanoes        B0                The islands of Nguna, Pele, and Emau, north of
S    167.47   E    921   Complex volcano        E0                Suretamatai volcano forms much of Vanua Lava
S    169.23   E    837   Stratovolcano          B0                The Traitor's Head Peninsula north of Cook Bay
S   168.592   E    216   Stratovolcanoes        B0                A group of small islands south of Tongoa Island
S   169.442   E    361   Stratovolcano          E0                Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visite




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 trachytic shield volcanoes with a combined volume of 252 cu km formed during the Miocene along a north-south line in the Ames Range of
sists of two coalescing shield volcanoes, Berlin Crater and Merrem Peak, each with a 2-km-wide summit caldera. Mount Berlin is located in t
 ntains, located along the Walgreen Coast in Antarctica's western Ellsworth Land, contain many only slightly eroded parasitic cones forming n
Peter I Island in the Bellingshausen Sea opposite Ellsworth Land is a morphologically youthful shield-like volcano. A 100-m-wide circular crate
youthful-looking shield volcano that forms an island along the Pacific Ocean coast of Antarctica's Marie Byrd Land. The massive 1800 cu km
 an isolated shield volcano in eastern Marie Byrd Land with an 8-km-wide summit caldera. The massive 780 cu km volcano displays a conica
 n east-central Marie Byrd Land is a linear, E-W-trending volcanic massif with a 3-km-wide summit caldera and several satellitic cinder cones
 s the southernmost of a N-S-trending chain of volcanoes in central Marie Byrd Land. Mount Waesche is located 20 km SW of Pliocene Mou

of Trindade lies at the eastern end of an E-W-trending chain of submarine volcanoes and guyots extending about 1100 km from the continen
hark-tooth-shaped Koro Island, located between Fiji's Viti Levu and Vanua Levu Islands, is part of the volcanic Lomaiviti Islands. A chain of b
dacitic Nabukelevu lava-dome complex occupies the SW end of Kadavu Island at the southern end of the Fiji archipelago. The high point of t
0 degree meridian, Taveuni, the third largest of the Fiji islands, is known as the "Garden Island" as a result of its rich volcanic soils. The mas
y Cheeseman Islands are the uplifted portion of a submarine volcano astride the Kermadec Ridge. The age of the small islands is considered
 s a remnant of the rim of a large submarine caldera centered 8 km to the NW. The 3-km-wide island consists of a low, gently sloping surface
unt, also known as Orion seamount, rises to within 100 m of the sea surface about halfway between the Kermadec and Tonga island groups.
oul Island is the largest and northernmost of the Kermadec Islands. During the past several thousand years volcanism has been dominated b
 uckland volcanic field, which is a late Pleistocene to late Holocene in age, lies at the southern end of the Northland Peninsula and is overlain
 etrical, steep-sided cone of Egmont (Mount Taranaki), New Zealand's largest andesitic stratovolcano, is surrounded by a ring plain of debris-
 volcano lies along the South Kermadec Ridge and consists of an elongated edifice with a 3 x 4 km wide caldera at the NE end whose rim re
  of Islands volcanic field at the upper end of the Northland Peninsula contains 30 Pleistocene to upper-Holocene eruptive centers, consisting
Maroa caldera formed sometime after 230 thousand years ago (ka) in the NE corner of the 30 x 40 km Whakamaru caldera, which is the larg
wide Mayor Island, also known as Tuhua, in the Bay of Plenty is the emergent portion of a 15-km-wide compound peralkaline lava shield cons
minantly rhyolitic Okataina Volcanic Centre is surrounded by extensive ignimbrite and pyroclastic sheets produced during multiple caldera-for
wide Reporoa caldera, occupying the Reporoa-Broadlands basin, lies near the western margin of the Taupo volcanic zone SSW of the Okata
 New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about
eamount, the largest of the Rumbles seamount group along the South Kermadec Ridge, rises 2300 m from the sea floor to within about 200
olcano Rumble IV was thought to have been active from April to December of 1966, based on hydrophone signals, but later evidence indicat

active rhyolitic volcano of the Taupo volcanic zone, is a large, roughly 35-km-wide caldera with poorly defined margins. It is a type example o
ge andesitic volcanic massif, located immediately NE of Ruapehu volcano, that is composed of more than a dozen composite cones constru
 olcanic field, named after the adjacent Whangarei Harbor, consists of Quaternary basaltic scoria cones and lava flows. The field lies in the c
 .4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of P
shaped islands of Ofu and Olosega in eastern Samoa, with a combined length of 6 km, are separated by a narrow strait. The islands are form
st and highest of the Samoan islands, consists of a massive basaltic shield volcano constructed along a WNW-ESE-trending rift zone that sp
6 x 10 km Ta'u Island, located at the eastern end of the Samoan islands, is ringed by sea cliffs. The 931-m-high island is the emergent portio
xtensively eroded Tutuila Island in the center of the Samoan Islands consists of five Pliocene-to-Pleistocene volcanoes constructed along two
saltic shield volcano forming 75-km-long Upolu Island in Samoa is elongated in an E-W direction and was constructed during two periods of e
 ic seamount, not discovered until 1975, rises 4200 m from the sea floor to a depth of 590 m about one-third of the way between Ta'u and Ro
ption, the first recorded in historical time from this previously little known seamount, was observed by a passing ship on February 18, 1996. W
e SE-most volcano of the New Hebrides arc, is a small 1-km-wide island consisting of a composite andesitic-to-dacitic cone topped by explos
 Island is composed of two low andesitic-to-dacitic cones separated by a narrow isthmus. Matthew Island was discovered in 1788 by a ship c

s consist of one relatively large island, 7 x 14 km Uvea Island, and 22 smaller islands and islets that are surrounded by a barrier reef. The low
ano south of Curacoa Reef at the northern end of the Tofua volcanic arc was first observed in eruption in 1973. Explosive eruptions, which p
alcon Island in the central part of the Tonga Islands was named after the British vessel H.M.S. Falcon, which reported a shoal in 1865. Falco
an 2-km-wide island of Fonualei contains a fumarolically active crater, which is breached to the SW with a fresh lava flow extending to the se
bmarine volcano midway between Metis Shoal and Late Island in the central Tonga islands, was first reported active in the mid-19th century,
 of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are a
most spectacular volcano of the Tonga Islands, symmetrical Kao volcano rises steeply to 1030 m about 6 km north of Tofua Island. Kao is el
wide circular island of Late, lying along the Tofua volcanic arc about 55 km WSW of the island of Vavau, contains a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep


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 bmarine volcano midway between the islands of Kao and Late, has produced a series of ephemeral islands since the first confirmed activity
an Island") is a low, 8-km-wide island that forms the summit of a largely submerged basaltic shield volcano. Niuafo'ou is an isolated volcanic
 .8 km wide island of Tafahi is a conical stratovolcano that rises to 560 m about 7 km north of the island of Niuatoputapu in the northern Tong
  Tofua Island in the central part of the Tonga Islands group is the emergent summit of a large stratovolcano that was seen in eruption by Cap
 n in 1907 from an unnamed submarine volcano pyroclastic material was ejected to 100 m above the sea surface, and pumice rafts were pro
marine volcano is located 35 km NW of the Niu Aunofo lighthouse on Tongatapu Island. Tongatapu is a coral island at the southern end of a
 ano along the Tofua volcanic arc was first observed in September 2001. The newly discovered volcano lies NW of the island of Vava'u abou
e volcano rises to within 65 m of the sea surface west of Tongatapu Island. The summit of the volcano is cut by a large 7 x 4.5 km wide calde
 basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyrocla
 km-wide Aneityum Island, also known as Anatom or Anetchom, lies SE of Tanna Island and is the southernmost of the Vanuatu Islands chai
n as Ambae, is a massive 2500 cu km basaltic shield volcano that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A prono
with submarine post-caldera cones active in historical time, lies off the eastern coast of Epi Island. Epi Island itself, located slightly west of the
m-diameter Gaua Island, also known as Santa Maria, consists of a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano with an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera.
 arine Kuwae caldera occupies the area between Epi and Tongoa islands. The 6 x 12 km caldera contains two basins that cut the NW end of
wide conical island of Lopevi, known locally as Vanei Vollohulu, is one of Vanuatu's most active volcanoes. A small summit crater containing
wide symmetrical island of basaltic Mera Lava in the southern Banks Islands contains a well-preserved summit crater and an east-west line o
 and of Motlav, also referred to as Mota Lava, is comprised of at least five Pleistocene basaltic stratovolcanoes capped by two well-preserved
  una, Pele, and Emau, north of Vate Island (also known as Efaté), have been variously mapped as Pleistocene and Pleistocene to Holocene.
ano forms much of Vanua Lava Island, one of the largest of Vanuatu's Banks Islands. The younger lavas of 921-m-high Suretamatai (also kn
 d Peninsula north of Cook Bay on eastern Erromango Island is comprised of three Holocene volcanic cones that are the youngest on the 50
 slands south of Tongoa Island were considered to be remnants of a once-larger landmass that foundered during the Holocene. Ewose, Bun
nown and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Ca




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 rth-south line in the Ames Range of western Marie Byrd Land. The youngest and best exposed of the three is Mount Andrus, the southernm
t caldera. Mount Berlin is located in the Flood Range of Marie Byrd Land, near the eastern coast of the Ross Sea. The two calderas are orien
htly eroded parasitic cones forming nunataks protruding above the Antarctic icecap. The cinder cones apparently rest on three extensively e
 volcano. A 100-m-wide circular crater is found at the summit of the 1750-m-high volcano. The island was discovered by the Russian explore
Byrd Land. The massive 1800 cu km volcano is truncated by a 4-5 km summit caldera and is ringed by tuff cones at sea level. Its lack of diss
780 cu km volcano displays a conical, youthful morphology, and the oldest dated rocks are only 0.31 million years old. Three samples were t
ra and several satellitic cinder cones. A sample from the top of the felsic shield volcano gave a Potassium-Argon date of 0.5 million years ag
  located 20 km SW of Pliocene Mount Sidley, Antarctica's highest volcano, and was constructed on the SE rim of the 10-km-wide Chang Pe

 ing about 1100 km from the continental shelf off the Brazilian coast. The island lies more than halfway between Brazil and the Mid-Atlantic R
 lcanic Lomaiviti Islands. A chain of basaltic cinder cones of upper Pleistocene or possibly Holocene age extends from north to south along th
 e Fiji archipelago. The high point of the Nabukelevu complex is 805 m Mt. Washington, an andesitic lava dome. Flat-lying dacitic lava flows a
 ult of its rich volcanic soils. The massive, elongated basaltic shield volcano rises to 1241 m and is dotted by approximately 150 volcanic cone
age of the small islands is considered to be Pleistocene, and rocks consist dominantly, if not entirely, of andesitic pyroclastic-flow deposits (L
 nsists of a low, gently sloping surface of rhyolitic pumice from the caldera-forming eruption truncated by steep cliffs formed of underlying bas
 Kermadec and Tonga island groups. The volcano lies at the southern end of the Tonga Ridge and is slightly offset from the Kermadec volcan
 ars volcanism has been dominated by dacitic explosive eruptions. Two Holocene calderas are found at Raoul. The older caldera cuts the cen
   Northland Peninsula and is overlain by New Zealand's largest city. More than 50 maars, tuff rings, small lava shields, and scoria cones have
  surrounded by a ring plain of debris-avalanche and lahar deposits that extend to the coast. The isolated Egmont volcanic center is located o
  caldera at the NE end whose rim reaches to 1150 m below sea level. A smaller caldera lies to the SW, and a satellitic cone, Cotton volcano
Holocene eruptive centers, consisting primarily of basaltic scoria cones, lava flows, and small shield volcanoes, along with minor rhyolitic lava
Whakamaru caldera, which is the largest of the Taupo volcanic zone. The Whakamaru caldera partially overlaps with the Taupo caldera on th
ompound peralkaline lava shield constructed between about 120,000 and 35,000 years ago. A 3-km-wide composite caldera was formed in t
  produced during multiple caldera-forming eruptions. Numerous lava domes and craters erupted from two subparallel NE-SW-trending vent l
upo volcanic zone SSW of the Okataina volcanic center. Reporoa caldera formed about 230,000 years ago during the eruption of the volumin
 ilding episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW di
 om the sea floor to within about 200 m of the sea surface. Fresh-looking andesitic rocks have been dredged from its summit and basaltic lav
 ne signals, but later evidence indicates that the hydrophone array had been damaged and that the signals originated from Rumble III. Fresh,

 fined margins. It is a type example of an "inverse volcano" that slopes inward towards the most recent vent location. The Taupo caldera, now
an a dozen composite cones constructed over a period of 275,000 years. Vents along a NE-trending zone extending from Saddle Cone (belo
 and lava flows. The field lies in the central part of the Northland Peninsula, at the southernmost end of the Northland Intraplate Province. In a
km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The 321-m-high island consists of two overlapping andesiti
y a narrow strait. The islands are formed by two eroded, coalescing basaltic shield volcanoes whose slopes dip to the east and west. Steep c
 WNW-ESE-trending rift zone that splits into two rifts on the east side of the 75-km-long, oval-shaped island. Pliocene and Pleistocene shield
 -m-high island is the emergent portion of the large Lata shield volcano. Collapse and landsliding of the southern portion of the basaltic shield
 ene volcanoes constructed along two or three rifts trending SSW-NNE. The Pago basaltic-to-andesitic shield volcano in the center of the 32-
 s constructed during two periods of extensive eruptions during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The most extensive activity during the Pleistoc
 hird of the way between Ta'u and Rose islands at the eastern end of the American Samoas. The basaltic seamount, named Vailulu'u, is con
 assing ship on February 18, 1996. Water discoloration and bursts of very dark water were observed at Eastern Gemini. Overflights as late a
sitic-to-dacitic cone topped by explosion craters and a lava dome. The island was named after the vessel that discovered it in 1798. A 100-m
d was discovered in 1788 by a ship captain, who named the island after the owner of his vessel. Only the triangular eastern portion of the sm

  surrounded by a barrier reef. The low, forested islands, formed of flat-lying basaltic lava flows that are cut by explosion craters and capped b
 n 1973. Explosive eruptions, which produced large rafts of dacitic pumice covering an area of more than 100 sq km, were observed from the
which reported a shoal in 1865. Falcon Island has been the site of island-forming eruptions on at least two occasions since the 19th century.
h a fresh lava flow extending to the sea and forming a rugged shoreline. Steep, inward-facing scarps mark the rim of a partially exposed cald
ported active in the mid-19th century, when an ephemeral island formed. An eruption in 1984 produced a 12-km-high eruption plume, copious
 The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of a the rim of a largely submarine ca
 6 km north of Tofua Island. Kao is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and, with the exception of a small flat area on the SSW coast, rises at
, contains a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep summit crater with an ephemeral lake. The largely submerged basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano ri


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 nds since the first confirmed activity in the mid-19th century. An island, perhaps not in eruption, was reported in 1781 and subsequently was
  no. Niuafo'ou is an isolated volcanic island in the north central Lau Basin about 170 km west of the northern end of the Tofua volcanic arc. T
of Niuatoputapu in the northern Tonga Islands. Tafahi is the northernmost subaerial volcano of the Tofua volcanic arc. The basaltic-andesite
 ano that was seen in eruption by Captain Cook in 1774. The first Caucasian to set foot on the 515-m-high island was Capt. William Bligh in 1
a surface, and pumice rafts were produced. The eruption was approximately located on Admiralty Chart 2421 at a point 48 km SW of Tongat
  coral island at the southern end of an island chain paralleling the Tofua volcanic arc on the east. The volcano, whose first documented erup
 lies NW of the island of Vava'u about two-thirds of the way between Late and Fonualei volcanoes. The site of the eruption is along a NNE-SS
s cut by a large 7 x 4.5 km wide caldera, with two young scoria cones forming the high point of the seamount. A chain of explosion craters up
c. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The cald
hernmost of the Vanuatu Islands chain. Aneityum consists of two coalescing, dominantly basaltic Pleistocene volcanoes. Both the NW side o
   New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form
 land itself, located slightly west of the main New Hebrides volcanic arc, largely consists of two Quaternary volcanoes, Mount Allombei on the
  th an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera. Small parasitic vents near the caldera rim fed Pleistocene lava flows that reached the coast on several
ns two basins that cut the NW end of Tongoa Island and the flank of the late-Pleistocene or Holocene Tavani Ruru volcano on the SE tip of E
  s. A small summit crater containing a cinder cone is breached to the NW and tops an older cone that is rimmed by the remnant of a larger c
 ummit crater and an east-west line of young cinder cones cutting across the NE flank. Several small cinder cones occupy the triangular sum
  anoes capped by two well-preserved late-Pleistocene to Holocene pyroclastic cones, Tuntog and Vetnam. Tuntog is a largely pyroclastic com
 tocene and Pleistocene to Holocene. Late-Pleistocene to Holocene eruptions constructed composite basaltic cones with well-preserved crate
s of 921-m-high Suretamatai (also known as Soritimeat) volcano overlie a number of small older stratovolcanoes that form the island. In cont
ones that are the youngest on the 50-km-long island. Mounts Rantop, Nagat, and Oulenou are small basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes wit
ed during the Holocene. Ewose, Buninga, and Tongariki islands, at the southern end of the Shepherd Islands, lie on the rim of a proposed ca
bolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 y




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 ree is Mount Andrus, the southernmost volcano, where late-stage volcanic activity resumed during the late-Pleistocene or Holocene (Gonzal
Ross Sea. The two calderas are oriented along an east-west line, characteristic of Flood Range volcanoes. The westernmost and highest vol
 pparently rest on three extensively eroded Miocene stratovolcanoes, Teeters Nunatak, Mount Moses, and Mount Manthe. Subaerial basaltic
as discovered by the Russian explorer Bellingshausen in 1821, and extensive summer pack ice and its isolated location far from regular ship
uff cones at sea level. Its lack of dissection in a coastal area more susceptible to erosion than inland Antarctic volcanoes, and the existence
 lion years old. Three samples were too young to date by Potassium-Argon, and some tephra layers younger than 30,000 years in the Byrd S
 m-Argon date of 0.5 million years ago. Some of the ash bands in the Byrd Station ice core deposited within the past 30,000 years may have
 SE rim of the 10-km-wide Chang Peak caldera. Pre-caldera Chang Peak lavas were erupted about 1.6 million years ago (Ma) and the Waes

 etween Brazil and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the eastern end of the submarine Vitória-Trindade Ridge. Trindade is a dissected volcanic isla
   extends from north to south along the crest of the island (Coulson, 1976). With the exception of one location on the west coast where young
 a dome. Flat-lying dacitic lava flows are found at Cape Washington along the west coast and at Talaulia Bay on the NE coast. NNE-trending
 d by approximately 150 volcanic cones along a NE-SW rift that extends the length of the 40-km-long island. A few cones in the central part o
 andesitic pyroclastic-flow deposits (Lloyd, 1992). Curtis Island, only 500 x 800 m in diameter and 137-m high, contains a large, fumarolically a
  steep cliffs formed of underlying basaltic lava flows. The pre-caldera Macauley volcano consisted of two generations of shield volcanoes sep
ghtly offset from the Kermadec volcanoes. Small parasitic cones occur on the north and west flanks of the basaltic submarine volcano, which
 Raoul. The older caldera cuts the center of Raoul Island and is about 2.5 x 3.5 km wide. Denham caldera, formed during a major dacitic expl
 ll lava shields, and scoria cones have formed in the past 140,000 years in an elliptical volcanic field 29 km long in its largest (N-S) direction. T
d Egmont volcanic center is located on the west coast of central North Island at the southern end of a volcanic arc extending NW along the N
  and a satellitic cone, Cotton volcano, rises to 980 below sea level at the SW end of the 15-km-long complex. The flat-lying floor of the larger
 anoes, along with minor rhyolitic lava flows and domes. The field lies at the northern end of the Northland Intraplate Province, and volcanism
 verlaps with the Taupo caldera on the south and was formed during the eruption of the Whakamaru Group ignimbrites between about 340 a
 e composite caldera was formed in two or three collapse events, the last of which took place about 6300 years ago, and was accompanied b
wo subparallel NE-SW-trending vent lineations form the Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. Lava domes of the Haroharo complex,
ago during the eruption of the voluminous ca. 100 cu km Kaingaroa Ignimbrite. Large slump scallops cut the northern caldera rim; on the sou
massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimot
  ged from its summit and basaltic lava from its flanks. Rumble III has been the source of several submarine eruptions detected by hydrophon
  ls originated from Rumble III. Fresh, glassy andesitic lava was dredged from the summit of Rumble IV. In 1992 gas bubbles were acoustical

 ent location. The Taupo caldera, now filled by Lake Taupo, largely formed as a result of the voluminous eruption of the Oruanui Tephra abou
 e extending from Saddle Cone (below Ruapehu volcano) to Te Mari crater (including vents at the present-day location of Ngauruhoe) were a
he Northland Intraplate Province. In addition to the younger dominantly basaltic rocks, Miocene dacitic lava domes and rhyolitic breccias are
  consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE because the shoreline
pes dip to the east and west. Steep cliffs up to 600-m high truncate the northern and southern sides of the islands. The narrow, steep-sided r
and. Pliocene and Pleistocene shield formation was followed by stream and marine erosion, partial submergence, and growth of coral reefs.
southern portion of the basaltic shield volcano have left an arcuate, south-facing embayment with a steep headwall overlooking several flat be
 hield volcano in the center of the 32-km-long island is truncated by an eroded, 9-km-wide caldera that encloses Pago Pago harbor on its we
 extensive activity during the Pleistocene took place along a 20-km segment along the central axis of the island. Following a lengthy period of
 c seamount, named Vailulu'u, is considered to mark the current location of the Samoan hotspot. The summit of Vailulu'u contains a 2-km-wi
Eastern Gemini. Overflights as late as the 22nd noted periodic explosions that ejected black products to about 20 m above sea level. Located
el that discovered it in 1798. A 100-m-deep, steep-sided crater occupies the NW part of the island, which contrasts with the southern cone, w
e triangular eastern portion of the small, 0.6 x 1.2 km wide island was present prior to the 1940s, when construction of the larger western seg

 ut by explosion craters and capped by tuff cones and cinder cones, reach a maximum height of only 143 m above sea level. Numerous sma
n 100 sq km, were observed from the island of Tafahi, 27 km to the SSW. The eruption site was located about 6.5 km SW of Curacoa Reef.
 o occasions since the 19th century. Islands up to 6 km in length were formed in eruptions beginning in 1885 and 1927; in 1933 the island ha
 rk the rim of a partially exposed caldera which contains a pyroclastic cone that is breached to the east and forms the 180-m-high summit of t
a 12-km-high eruption plume, copious amounts of floating pumice, and an ephemeral island 500 x 1500 m wide, with cliffs 30-50 m high that
of a the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 1
  flat area on the SSW coast, rises at angles exceeding 35 degrees to the summit, which has a series of small coalescing craters. The lower
saltic-andesite to andesitic volcano rises 1500 m from the sea floor, with its conical summit reaching 540 m above sea level. Cinder cones ar


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 orted in 1781 and subsequently was eroded away. During periods of inactivity following 20th-century eruptions, waves have been observed t
hern end of the Tofua volcanic arc. The circular island encloses a 5-km-wide caldera that is mostly filled by a lake whose bottom extends to b
a volcanic arc. The basaltic-andesite volcano is elongated in a N-S direction, and the summit is located at the SW side of the island. The wes
gh island was Capt. William Bligh in 1789, just after the renowned mutiny on the "Bounty." The volcano's summit contains a 5-km-wide calde
 2421 at a point 48 km SW of Tongatapu Island, along the Tofua volcanic arc. Tongatapu is located at the southern end of a chain of coral is
olcano, whose first documented eruptions took place in 1911 and 1923, was constructed at the southern end of a submarine ridge segment o
site of the eruption is along a NNE-SSW-trending submarine plateau south of Fonualei with an approximate bathymetric depth of 300 m. T-ph
  ount. A chain of explosion craters up to 100 m deep cut the flank of one of the scoria cones, and thick deposits of ash and scoria blanket the
 pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post
cene volcanoes. Both the NW side of Inrerow Atamwan volcano and the SE side of Nanawarez volcano are truncated by large erosional cirq
 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes is located at the summit of the Hawaiian-style sh
 ry volcanoes, Mount Allombei on the west and Pomare (Tavani Kutali) on the east. Tavani Ruro, which forms an elongated eastern extension
ws that reached the coast on several sides of the island; several littoral cones were formed where these lava flows reached the sea. Quiet co
avani Ruru volcano on the SE tip of Epi Island. Native legends of a major eruption that segmented the once-connected landmasses of Epi an
  rimmed by the remnant of a larger crater. The basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has been active during historical time at both summit and flank v
 der cones occupy the triangular summit crater of 1028-m-high Star Peak, the high point of the island. The low degree of dissection indicates
 m. Tuntog is a largely pyroclastic composite cone at the SW end of the island with a 500-m-wide summit crater. Vetman, in the center of the
 saltic cones with well-preserved craters. Largely submarine calderas north of Vate Island of varying sizes have been inferred, ranging from a
olcanoes that form the island. In contrast to other large volcanoes of Vanuatu, the dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic Suretamatai does not con
saltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes with well-preserved morphologies. Mount Rantop is the largest, rising to 837 m, and 421-m-high Mount Ou
 ands, lie on the rim of a proposed caldera thought to be one of several formed in the central volcanic chain of Vanuatu about 2000 years ago
 ay have continued for the past 800 years. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone




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ate-Pleistocene or Holocene (Gonzalez-Ferran and Gonzalez-Bonorino 1972, LeMasurier and Thomson 1990). A distinct 4.5-km-wide calder
es. The westernmost and highest volcano, Berlin Crater, reaches 3478 m and is located 3.5 km ESE of Merrem Peak caldera. Berlin Crater
nd Mount Manthe. Subaerial basaltic lava flows dominate, but subglacial or subaqueous tuffs and lava flows are also present. The possible p
solated location far from regular shipping lanes have restricted visits to the island. Dated samples from Peter I Island range from 0.35 to 0.1 m
tarctic volcanoes, and the existence of a satellite cone too young to date by the Potassium-Argon method, suggest a possible Holocene age
nger than 30,000 years in the Byrd Station ice core are thought to have originated from Mount Takahe. Two early Holocene phreatomagmati
 hin the past 30,000 years may have been from Toney Mountain, and Holocene activity is possible (LeMasurier and Thomson 1990). Severa
million years ago (Ma) and the Waesche shield formed about 1.0 Ma. Waesche may have been active during the Holocene and is a possible

  Trindade is a dissected volcanic island with numerous phonolitic lava domes and steep-sided volcanic plugs. The youngest volcanism, at Vu
cation on the west coast where young lava flows reached the sea, the youngest lava flows, erupted from the NNE-SSW-trending cinder cone
  Bay on the NE coast. NNE-trending faults cut the complex in several locations and define its eastern boundary. The dome complex is cut by
  nd. A few cones in the central part of the volcano occur to the west of the axial rift zone. At least 58 eruptions have occurred on Taveuni sinc
 high, contains a large, fumarolically active crater whose floor is only 10 m above sea level. Reports of possible historical eruptions probably
   generations of shield volcanoes separated by a period of growth of a pyroclastic cone. Eruption of the voluminous Sandy Bay Tuff about 63
he basaltic submarine volcano, which rises from a depth of about 1500 m and was named for one of the New Zealand Navy bathymetric surv
 a, formed during a major dacitic explosive eruption about 2200 years ago, truncated the western side of the island and is 6.5 x 4 km wide. Its
 m long in its largest (N-S) direction. The Auckland volcanic field has dominantly produced intraplate alkali basaltic to basantic rocks forming
 lcanic arc extending NW along the Northland Peninsula. Egmont is the youngest and SE-most of a group of three volcanoes beginning with
  plex. The flat-lying floor of the larger NE caldera lies 250-400 m below the caldera rim. Rhyodacitic pumice deposits mantle the caldera floor
 d Intraplate Province, and volcanism has progressively shifted to the SE, with the younger Taheke Basalts being aligned along a NE trend at
oup ignimbrites between about 340 and 330 ka. The Maroa caldera was subsequently filled by at least 70 rhyolitic lava domes or flows, mostl
0 years ago, and was accompanied by a plinian eruption that produced tephra deposits up to 70 cm thick on mainland North Island. Post-cald
va domes of the Haroharo complex, at the northern end of the Okataina Volcanic Centre, occupy part of the 16 x 26 km Pleistocene Harohar
  the northern caldera rim; on the south the rim is buried by sediments. The Deer Hill rhyolitic lava dome was erupted after caldera collapse o
 iclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu be
rine eruptions detected by hydrophone signals. Early surveys placed its depth at 117 m, and later depths of about 200 m, 140 m, and 220 m
  n 1992 gas bubbles were acoustically detected rising from Rumble IV.

  eruption of the Oruanui Tephra about 22,600 years before present (BP). This was the largest known eruption at Taupo, producing about 117
 nt-day location of Ngauruhoe) were active during a several hundred year long period around 10,000 years ago, producing the largest known
ava domes and rhyolitic breccias are also present at Whangarei. Quaternary volcanics form a group of large cones SE of Whangarei, a NE-a
hed to the SE because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Volckner Rocks, four sea stacks that a
he islands. The narrow, steep-sided ridge forming the eastern tip of Ofu Island consists of a dike complex. The shield volcano on Ofu is cut o
mergence, and growth of coral reefs. Late-stage Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions produced voluminous lava flows that partially buried frin
p headwall overlooking several flat benches. Two smaller shields were constructed along two rift zones at the NW and NE tips of the island.
 ncloses Pago Pago harbor on its west side. The caldera is now partially filled by cinder cones and trachytic lava domes. ENE-trending dike c
  island. Following a lengthy period of erosion, the latest lava flows, at least three of which were estimated to be as young as a few hundred to
 mmit of Vailulu'u contains a 2-km-wide, 400-m-deep oval-shaped caldera. Two principal rift zones extend east and west from the summit, pa
 about 20 m above sea level. Located ~100 km south of Aneityum Island, about halfway between Yasur volcano and Matthew Island, the Eas
h contrasts with the southern cone, whose summit is filled by a lava dome. Several poorly documented eruptions have been noted since the
construction of the larger western segment began; it consists primarily of lava flows. The 177-m-high western cone contains a crater that is b

3 m above sea level. Numerous small shields (lava cones) and tuff cones are considered on morphological grounds to be of Pleistocene to R
 about 6.5 km SW of Curacoa Reef. Multiple submarine vents are apparently located in this area; a second eruption was reported in 1979 fro
1885 and 1927; in 1933 the island had a height of more than 145 m. Passing ships often reported "smoke" issuing from the site of Falcon Isla
 nd forms the 180-m-high summit of the island. Blocky lava flows from this cone fill much of the northern caldera moat and reach the sea thro
 m wide, with cliffs 30-50 m high that enclosed a water-filled crater. Another island-forming eruption in 2006 produced widespread dacitic pum
 Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra
 small coalescing craters. The lower flanks of the basaltic-andesite volcano are densely jungled, but the upper slopes are almost vegetation f
0 m above sea level. Cinder cones are found north of the summit crater, west and north of a semicircular plateau 100-150 m below the summ


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  ptions, waves have been observed to break on rocky reefs or sandy banks with depths of 10 m or less. Dacitic tuff cones formed during the
   by a lake whose bottom extends to below sea level. The inner walls of the caldera drop sharply to the caldera lake, named Big Lake (or Vai
at the SW side of the island. The western side of the volcano is the most dissected, and a narrow fringing reef partially encircles the island. N
   summit contains a 5-km-wide caldera whose walls drop steeply about 500 m. Three post-caldera cones were constructed at the northern en
he southern end of a chain of coral islands paralleling the Tofua volcanic arc on its eastern side. The reported location of the 1907 eruption c
   end of a submarine ridge segment of the Tofua volcanic arc extending NNE to Falcon Island. Prior to an eruption in 1999, when an epheme
 ate bathymetric depth of 300 m. T-phase waves were recorded on September 27-28, and on the 27th local fishermen observed an ash-rich
  eposits of ash and scoria blanket the caldera floor nearby. Diffuse high-temperature hydrothermal vents and vigorous gas discharge occurs
stic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and p
  are truncated by large erosional cirques. Volcanic activity ceased during the uppermost late-Pleistocene to Holocene.
at the summit of the Hawaiian-style shield volcano within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diamete
 orms an elongated eastern extension of Epi Island across a narrow isthmus, is related to Kuwae caldera to the east. Pomare volcano is the h
 lava flows reached the sea. Quiet collapse that formed the roughly 700-m-deep caldera was followed by extensive ash eruptions. Constructio
nce-connected landmasses of Epi and Tongoa, along with radiocarbon dates of dacitic pyroclastic-flow deposits on Tongoa Island suggest th
orical time at both summit and flank vents, primarily along a NW-SE-trending fissure that cuts across the island, producing moderate explosiv
he low degree of dissection indicates that Mera Lava was in eruption during the Holocene (Mallick and Ash, 1975). Mere Lava was reported t
  t crater. Vetman, in the center of the island, is a pyroclastic cone truncated by a summit crater that is breached on the southern side. The 41
 s have been inferred, ranging from a large caldera whose southern rim is defined by the islands of Nguna, Pele, and Emao to a smaller cald
  -andesitic Suretamatai does not contain a youthful summit caldera. A chain of small stratovolcanoes, oriented along a NNE-SSW line, gives
  to 837 m, and 421-m-high Mount Oulenou is the most youthful looking, with an unbreached crater. A low plateau to the NW is underlain by a
 ain of Vanuatu about 2000 years ago (Crawford et al. 1988, Macfarlane et al. 1988). Eissen et al. (1991) did not find evidence for a caldera a
getated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe ca




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 1990). A distinct 4.5-km-wide caldera truncates the summit of Mount Andrus. Weak fumarolic activity was observed in 1977 at Mount Kauffm
Merrem Peak caldera. Berlin Crater displays active fumaroles along its western and northern caldera rims, producing the characteristic Anta
ows are also present. The possible presence of steam was reported at one of the Hudson volcanoes during 1974. Satellite data suggested th
Peter I Island range from 0.35 to 0.1 million years old. The unmodified volcanic form of the upper part of the volcano argues that parts of it m
 d, suggest a possible Holocene age (LeMasurier and Thomson 1990). The location of Mount Siple on published maps is 26 km NE of the ac
Two early Holocene phreatomagmatic tephra layers in the Antarctic ice core were attributed to Mount Takahe. The latest stage of activity at M
asurier and Thomson 1990). Several small cinder cones occur along the crest of the 14-km-long massif, which is almost entirely mantled by
 uring the Holocene and is a possible source of ash layers in the Byrd Station ice core that were deposited during the past 30,000 years. The

 plugs. The youngest volcanism, at Vulcao de Paredao on the SE tip of the island, constructed a pyroclastic cone with lava flows that are no o
  the NNE-SSW-trending cinder cone chain, are confined to the central plateau, where they form a flat, undissected lava field that extends pri
oundary. The dome complex is cut by several collapse scarps that were the source of debris avalanches that have incorporated human artifa
ptions have occurred on Taveuni since the first known human settlements of the Fiji Islands about 950-750 BC; all of these eruptions affected
ossible historical eruptions probably represent increased thermal activity. Geologic studies have documented a remarkable uplift of 18 m of C
voluminous Sandy Bay Tuff about 6300 years ago truncated the NW side of the Annexation shield volcano and formed a 12-km-wide, 1.1-km
 New Zealand Navy bathymetric survey ships that documented its morphology. A large 8 x 13 km wide submarine caldera with a depth of mo
  the island and is 6.5 x 4 km wide. Its long axis is parallel to the tectonic fabric of the Havre Trough that lies west of the volcanic arc. Historic
ali basaltic to basantic rocks forming the northernmost of a group of Quaternary volcanic fields of the Auckland Intraplate Province. Of the 19
 p of three volcanoes beginning with the Pleistocene Kaitoke Range. Fanthams Peak breaks the symmetry of Egmont on its south flank, and
  ice deposits mantle the caldera floor and walls, as well as the flanks of the volcano. Active hydrothermal venting has been observed on the l
 lts being aligned along a NE trend at the southern end of the volcanic field. The most recent eruption produced explosive activity and lava flo
0 rhyolitic lava domes or flows, mostly erupted along a SW-NE trend. Lesser amounts of basalt were also erupted. The latest dated magmat
k on mainland North Island. Post-caldera eruptions generated a series of lava domes and flows emplaced from NNE-trending vents within the
  the 16 x 26 km Pleistocene Haroharo caldera, which formed incrementally between 300,000 and 50,000 years before present (BP). The old
 was erupted after caldera collapse on the southern rim; two other rhyolitic domes, Kairuru and Pukekahu, were emplaced within the caldera
  eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A sin
s of about 200 m, 140 m, and 220 m were determined.


uption at Taupo, producing about 1170 cu km of tephra. This eruption was preceded during the late Pleistocene by the eruption of a large nu
 rs ago, producing the largest known eruptions at the Tongariro complex during the Holocene. North Crater stratovolcano, one of the largest f
arge cones SE of Whangarei, a NE-aligned group of scoria cones north of the city, and a group of lava flows east of the city along a major fau
 olckner Rocks, four sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NNE of White Island. Intermittent moderate phreatomagmatic and
 x. The shield volcano on Ofu is cut on the north by the A'ofa caldera; bathymetry suggests that a caldera may also exist on the Sili shield vol
ous lava flows that partially buried fringing reefs. Numerous cinder cones and lava cones dot the broad crest of Savai'i, which has a low-angle
at the NW and NE tips of the island. The NW corner of the island is extended by a tuff-cone complex that draped sea cliffs and ejected large
ytic lava domes. ENE-trending dike complexes are prominently exposed on Pago volcano. Following a lengthy period of erosion, submergen
 d to be as young as a few hundred to a few thousand years old, were erupted from vents near the crest of the island at its center and wester
nd east and west from the summit, parallel to the trend of the Samoan hotspot, and a third less prominent rift extends SE of the summit. The
 volcano and Matthew Island, the Eastern Gemini seamount, also known as Oscostar, is one of several seamounts along the southern subm
  ruptions have been noted since the 19th century. Large streams of lava were reported to be pouring from two craters on the eastern side of
stern cone contains a crater that is breached to the NW and is filled by a lava flow whose terminus forms the NW coast.VEI0?: 1956; VEI2: [

 cal grounds to be of Pleistocene to Recent age. Potassium-Argon ages of dated samples range from 0.5 to 0.08 million years old, but rocks
 nd eruption was reported in 1979 from a location 13 km north of Tafahi. VEI1:1979; VEI3:1973
 e" issuing from the site of Falcon Island. The latest explosive eruptions were reported in 1936. By 1949 the island had eroded beneath sea le
  caldera moat and reach the sea through notches in the northern and eastern caldera rims. In contrast to the andesitic and basaltic rocks of
006 produced widespread dacitic pumice rafts. VEI2?:2006; VEI3?:1984; VEI2: 1852
 acing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and
 upper slopes are almost vegetation free. No historical eruptions are known from Kao, and fresh-appearing lava flows are not seen, although
 r plateau 100-150 m below the summit, and on the NW coast. A graben-like structure on the NE flank contains two large pit craters, the lowe


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 Dacitic tuff cones formed during the first 20th-century eruptions in 1967 and 1979 were soon eroded beneath the sea surface. An eruption in
aldera lake, named Big Lake (or Vai Lahi), which contains several small islands and pyroclastic cones on its NE shore. Historical eruptions, m
 g reef partially encircles the island. No historical eruptions have been reported from Tafahi, but its youthful morphology, which resembles tha
s were constructed at the northern end of a cold fresh-water caldera lake, whose surface lies only 30 m above sea level. The easternmost co
 orted location of the 1907 eruption corresponds to sloping terrain at 1800 m depth on a 1982 bathymetric map, but a seamount of about 500
n eruption in 1999, when an ephemeral island was formed, the volcano rose nearly 1400 m to within 13 m of the sea surface. VEI0: [1923, 19
  cal fishermen observed an ash-rich eruption column that rose above the sea surface. No eruptive activity was reported after the 28th, but wa
   and vigorous gas discharge occurs near the explosion craters.
  partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post
   to Holocene.
 e largest of which is 6 km in diameter. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters of Lake Voui (also spelled Vui) and Lake
a to the east. Pomare volcano is the highest point on the island and has three well-preserved subsidiary cones to the east with youthful summ
  extensive ash eruptions. Construction of the historically active cone of Mount Garat (Gharat) and other small cinder cones in the SW part of
deposits on Tongoa Island suggest that the caldera formed about 500 years ago during one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the New Heb
   island, producing moderate explosive eruptions and lava flows that reached the coast. Historical eruptions at the 1413-m-high volcano date
 sh, 1975). Mere Lava was reported to have been smoking when it was first seen by the explorer Queiros in 1606.
eached on the southern side. The 411-m high point of Motlav is a remnant of older volcanics along the central ridge of the 12-km-long, NE-S
na, Pele, and Emao to a smaller caldera, but their submarine morphology is difficult to define. Pumiceous deposits of the Efaté Pumice Form
 iented along a NNE-SSW line, gives the low-angle volcano an irregular profile. The youngest cone, near the northern end of the chain, is the
w plateau to the NW is underlain by ash deposits distributed by southeasterly trade winds. The volcanoes initially formed an offshore island th
) did not find evidence for a caldera at this location. Pyroclastic rocks intruded by dikes are exposed on Ewose, whereas Buninga and Makur
ontained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped N




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 as observed in 1977 at Mount Kauffman, the northernmost volcano, which also has a morphologically distinct 3-km-wide summit caldera.
ms, producing the characteristic Antarctic fumarolic ice towers. The youngest dated tephra of a series of tephra layers in glacial ice at Mount M
 ring 1974. Satellite data suggested that an eruption of Webber Nunatak took place during 1985, although this has not been confirmed.
 the volcano argues that parts of it may be Holocene or even historical in age.
ublished maps is 26 km NE of the actual location. A possible eruption cloud observed on satellite images on September 18 and October 4, 1
 kahe. The latest stage of activity at Mount Takahe constructed cinder cones on the upper southern flanks and tuff cones and cinder cones o
 , which is almost entirely mantled by glaciers.
ed during the past 30,000 years. The youngest lavas are too young to date by Potassium-Argon. Satellitic cinder cones, some aligned along

stic cone with lava flows that are no older than Holocene (Almeida, 1961). Remnants of the crater of the 200-m-high cinder cone are still pres
ndissected lava field that extends primarily to the east.
   that have incorporated human artifacts and remains. Debris avalanches have entered the sea on the both the northern and southern sides o
 50 BC; all of these eruptions affected the southern two-thirds of the island. A period of voluminous eruptions between about 300 and 500 AD
ented a remarkable uplift of 18 m of Curtis Island during the past 200 years, with 7 m of uplift occurring between 1929 and 1964 (Doyle et al.,
no and formed a 12-km-wide, 1.1-km deep caldera during one of the largest eruptions identified in the SW Pacific. Following formation of the
 ubmarine caldera with a depth of more than 1500 m lies to the NNE. Numerous eruptions from Monowai have been detected from submarin
  ies west of the volcanic arc. Historical eruptions at Raoul during the 19th and 20th centuries have sometimes occurred simultaneously from
ckland Intraplate Province. Of the 19 eruptions known to have occurred within the past 20,000 years, only one eruptive center is known to ha
 try of Egmont on its south flank, and four lava domes are located on the lower north and south flanks. Multiple episodes of edifice collapse h
 l venting has been observed on the lower part of the southern caldera wall. The roughly 590-year-old sea-rafted Loisels Pumice deposit foun
oduced explosive activity and lava flows from four well-preserved scoria cones at Te Puke about 1300-1800 years ago, although the precise
 o erupted. The latest dated magmatic eruption took place about 14 ka, when the rhyolitic Puketarata tuff ring and lava domes were formed (
 d from NNE-trending vents within the caldera that have filled it to depths of at least 180 m. The latest eruption of Mayor Island has not been
0 years before present (BP). The oldest exposed rocks on the caldera floor are about 22,000 years old. The Tarawera complex at the southe
u, were emplaced within the caldera along a possible ring fault. The active Reporoa hydrothermal field lies within the caldera, and the Waiota
ve been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other ven



stocene by the eruption of a large number of rhyolitic lava domes north of Lake Taupo. Large explosive eruptions have occurred frequently d
 ter stratovolcano, one of the largest features of the massif, is truncated by a broad, shallow crater filled by a solidified lava lake that is cut on
 ows east of the city along a major fault. The youngest basalts were mapped as Holocene, although the age of the field is not well known and
  tent moderate phreatomagmatic and strombolian eruptions have occurred at White Island throughout the short historical period beginning in
a may also exist on the Sili shield volcano of Olosega. The Nu'utele tuff cone, forming a small crescent-shaped island immediately off the we
 rest of Savai'i, which has a low-angle, dome-like profile and reaches an elevation of 1858 m. Additional cones occur on the north-central flan
at draped sea cliffs and ejected large dunite xenoliths and coral blocks. Numerous Holocene post-caldera cones occur at the summit and flan
engthy period of erosion, submergence, and the construction of a barrier reef, the Leone volcanics were erupted during the Holocene along a
  of the island at its center and western side (Stearns, 1944). One of the youngest flows reached the north-central coast along a roughly 1.5-k
nt rift extends SE of the summit. The rift zones and escarpments produced by mass wasting phenomena give the seamount a star-shaped pa
seamounts along the southern submarine extension of the New Hebrides island arc. It consists of an elongated NNE-SSW-trending ridge of
m two craters on the eastern side of the island in 1895; the latest eruption apparently took place from the northern tip of the island. Fumarolic
s the NW coast.VEI0?: 1956; VEI2: [1954, 1949]

5 to 0.08 million years old, but rocks of Pleistocene or Holocene age are present.

the island had eroded beneath sea level, but the summit of the volcano remains at shallow depths. VEI2: [1936, 1933, 1927] Pre-1900 VEI3:
o the andesitic and basaltic rocks of other islands of the Tonga arc, Fonualei lavas are of dominantly dacitic composition. Eruptions have bee

oal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Submarine eruptions we
 ng lava flows are not seen, although the absence of sufficient time for erosion to produce deep gullies or high sea cliffs suggests a very rece
ontains two large pit craters, the lower of which is partially filled by a saltwater lake. Only two eruptions have occurred in historical time, both


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neath the sea surface. An eruption in 1995 produced an island with a diameter of 280 m and a height of 43 m following growth of a lava dom
n its NE shore. Historical eruptions, mostly from circumferential fissures on the west-to-south side of the island, have been recorded since 18
ful morphology, which resembles that of the larger Kao volcano in the Central Tonga Islands, suggests recent activity.
above sea level. The easternmost cone has three craters and produced young basaltic-andesite lava flows, some of which traveled into the c
c map, but a seamount of about 500 m depth is located about 10 km to the NE. A second eruption from this area was reported in late 1932.
m of the sea surface. VEI0: [1923, 1911]; VEI1: 1999
 y was reported after the 28th, but water discoloration was documented during the following month. In early November rafts and strandings o

hrough gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented

ake Voui (also spelled Vui) and Lake Manaro Ngoru about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui about 60 years later.
 cones to the east with youthful summit craters. Pomare volcano is truncated on its eastern side by the largely submarine East Epi caldera, w
 small cinder cones in the SW part of the caldera has left a crescent-shaped caldera lake. The symmetrical, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is
st Holocene eruptions in the New Hebrides arc. The submarine volcano Karua lies near the northern rim of the caldera and is one of the mos
ons at the 1413-m-high volcano date back to the mid-19th century. The island was evacuated following major eruptions in 1939 and 1960. Th

entral ridge of the 12-km-long, NE-SW-trending island.
s deposits of the Efaté Pumice Formation cover much of Vate (Efaté) Island and record a major trachydacitic explosive eruption about 1 milli
 the northern end of the chain, is the largest and contains a lake of variable depth within its 900-m-wide, 100-m-deep summit crater. Historic
s initially formed an offshore island that was joined to the mainland by uplift after volcanism ceased. A submarine vent offshore between the
Ewose, whereas Buninga and Makura are largely composed of tilted lava flows. Tongariki consists of remnants of a basaltic stratovolcano wi
constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fractu




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stinct 3-km-wide summit caldera.
tephra layers in glacial ice at Mount Moulton that was attributed to Mount Berlin had an age of about 14.5 +/- 3.8 thousand years (ka), and a
h this has not been confirmed.

s on September 18 and October 4, 1988 was considered to result from atmospheric effects after low-level aerial observations revealed no ev
ks and tuff cones and cinder cones on the lower SW and NE flanks.

c cinder cones, some aligned along radial fissures, are located on the SW flank.

 200-m-high cinder cone are still preserved. Lava flows traveled from the cone to the north, where they form an irregular shoreline and offsho

oth the northern and southern sides of the volcano. Onshore and offshore deposits as well as native legends indicate that several eruptions h
 tions between about 300 and 500 AD caused abandonment of the southern part the island of Taveuni until about 1100 AD. The latest known
between 1929 and 1964 (Doyle et al., 1979). An active submarine magmatic or solfataric vent is believed to exist near Curtis Island, but its ac
 W Pacific. Following formation of the caldera and substantial marine erosion, a partly submarine and partly subaerial eruption centered abou
  i have been detected from submarine acoustic signals since it was first recognized as a volcano in 1977. A shoal that had been reported in 1
 times occurred simultaneously from both calderas, and have consisted of small-to-moderate phreatic eruptions, some of which formed ephe
 ly one eruptive center is known to have been active during the Holocene (Smith and Allen, 1993). The Rangitoto eruption, about 600 years a
  ultiple episodes of edifice collapse have occurred in the past 50,000 years, and the present volcano is only about 10,000 years old. Explosiv
 a-rafted Loisels Pumice deposit found in many Holocene beach sequences of North Island, New Zealand and as far away as the Chatham Is
 800 years ago, although the precise date of the most recent eruption remains uncertain. Hot springs occur at three locations, including near
 f ring and lava domes were formed (Brooker et al., 1993). The Orakeikorako, Ngatamariki, Rotokaua, and Wairakei hydrothermal areas are
 uption of Mayor Island has not been dated, but was considered by Houghton et al. (1992) to perhaps have occurred only 500-1000 years ago
 The Tarawera complex at the southern end of Okataina consists of 11 rhyolitic lava domes and associated lava flows. The oldest domes we
 es within the caldera, and the Waiotapu and Broadlands (Ohaki) hydrothermal fields lie occur north and south of the poorly defined caldera m
  mit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive



eruptions have occurred frequently during the Holocene from many vents within Lake Taupo and near its margins. The most recent major er
by a solidified lava lake that is cut on the NW side by a small explosion crater. The youngest cone of the complex, Ngauruhoe, has grown to
age of the field is not well known and there are some indications that the latest eruption may have been during the late Pleistocene, about 30
 e short historical period beginning in 1826, but its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. Formation of many new vents during
shaped island immediately off the west end of Ofu Island, is Holocene in age. A submarine eruption took place in 1866 (VEI2) at the opposite
 cones occur on the north-central flank, and a large number are found in the south-central part of the island. Three eruptions, including two in
 a cones occur at the summit and flanks of the Lata shield volcano.
  erupted during the Holocene along a 5-km-long N-S-trending fissure over a broad area at the southernmost part of the island, forming a gro
h-central coast along a roughly 1.5-km-wide front east of Vailele Bay, and another traveled down the Lefaga River channel and reached the S
a give the seamount a star-shaped pattern. On July 10, 1973, explosions from Vailulu'u were recorded by SOFAR (hydrophone records of un
 ngated NNE-SSW-trending ridge of submarine volcanoes with satellitic cones. Several basaltic samples and one andesitic rock dredged from
e northern tip of the island. Fumarolic and solfataric areas are located at the northern tip of the island and the NE and SE coasts. VEI0: 1903




2: [1936, 1933, 1927] Pre-1900 VEI3:1; VEI2:1.
citic composition. Eruptions have been recorded since 1791, with the largest taking place in June 1846, when explosive eruptions produced l

active vent. Submarine eruptions were reported here in 1912 and 1937 and from a fissure 1 km SSE of Hunga Ha'apai in 1988. VEI0: 1988;
r high sea cliffs suggests a very recent origin.
ave occurred in historical time, both from NE-flank craters, which produced explosive activity and possible lava flows in 1790 and 1854 (both


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 43 m following growth of a lava dome above the surface. VEI0: 1991; VEI2: [1995, 1979, 1967] Pre-1900 3 VEI2 events, one VEI0, and one
  island, have been recorded since 1814 and have often damaged villages on this small ring-shaped island. A major eruption at Niuafo'ou in 1
 ecent activity.
 ws, some of which traveled into the caldera lake. The largest and northernmost of the cones, Lofia, has a steep-sided crater that is 70 m wid
 this area was reported in late 1932.

arly November rafts and strandings of dacitic pumice were reported along the coast of Kadavu and Viti Levu in the Fiji Islands. The depth of t

maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within

 ithin Lake Voui about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area ne
argely submarine East Epi caldera, which has been the source of all historical eruptions. Three small submarine basaltic and dacitic cones, k
 cal, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is topped by three pit craters. The onset of eruptive activity from a vent high on the SE flank of Mount Gara
 of the caldera and is one of the most active volcanoes of Vanuatu. It has formed several ephemeral islands since it was first observed in eru
major eruptions in 1939 and 1960. The latter eruption, from a NW-flank fissure vent, produced a pyroclastic flow that swept to the sea and a


acitic explosive eruption about 1 million years ago that originated from a submarine vent somewhere north of the island.
 100-m-deep summit crater. Historical activity, beginning during the 19th century, has been restricted to moderate explosive eruptions. VEI2
ubmarine vent offshore between the tip of the peninsula and Goat Island, 5 km to the NE, erupted in 1881, the only historical activity of the Er
mnants of a basaltic stratovolcano with dacitic pumiceous tuffs in low-lying areas.
t is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic se




                                                                   Page 80
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 5 +/- 3.8 thousand years (ka), and a younger undated tephra layer was present. A lava flow at the base of an ice cave below a fumarolic ice


 el aerial observations revealed no evidence of recent eruptions (Smithsonian Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin).




 orm an irregular shoreline and offshore islands. Smaller volcanic centers of the latest volcanic stage are found in the Morro Vermelho area in

 ends indicate that several eruptions have occurred at Nabukelevu during the Holocene. Block-and-ash flows related to dome growth have oc
 ntil about 1100 AD. The latest known eruption produced a lava flow at the southern tip of the island sometime between about 1450-1650 AD.
d to exist near Curtis Island, but its activity cannot unequivocally be associated with Curtis volcano (Lloyd, 1992).
  rtly subaerial eruption centered about 2 km north of present-day Macauley Island produced basaltic scoriae and lava flows. A reported possi
7. A shoal that had been reported in 1944 may have been a pumice raft or water disturbance due to degassing. Surface observations have in
  uptions, some of which formed ephemeral islands in Denham caldera. A 240-m-high unnamed submarine cone, one of several located alon
Rangitoto eruption, about 600 years ago, was the largest of the Auckland volcanic field and created the 6-km-wide Rangitoto Island, which co
  nly about 10,000 years old. Explosive activity, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lava dome growth, has occurred throughout
  d and as far away as the Chatham Islands, 650 km east of New Zealand, is chemically and texturally similar to pumices from Healy caldera.
cur at three locations, including near Lake Omapere, which was dammed by lava flows.
 nd Wairakei hydrothermal areas are located within or adjacent to the Whakamaru caldera. Large hydrothermal eruptions have occurred at th
 ve occurred only 500-1000 years ago.
 ted lava flows. The oldest domes were formed as late as about 15,000 years BP, and the youngest were formed in the Kaharoa eruption abo
  south of the poorly defined caldera margin. Eruptions within the caldera have not occurred since the late Pleistocene, but large hydrotherma
 Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics sugges



s margins. The most recent major eruption took place about 1800 years BP from at least three vents along a NE-SW-trending fissure centere
 complex, Ngauruhoe, has grown to become the highest peak of the massif since its birth about 2500 years ago. The symmetrical, steep-sid
during the late Pleistocene, about 30,000 years ago.
 Formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries has produced rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the cra
  place in 1866 (VEI2) at the opposite end of the two islands, 3 km SE of Olosega, along the ridge connecting Olosega with Ta'u Island.
 nd. Three eruptions, including two in the 20th century, occurred in historical time, and produced voluminous lava flows that reached the north

most part of the island, forming a group of initially submarine tuff cones and subsequent subaerial cinder cones that produced fresh-looking p
 aga River channel and reached the SW coast at Lefaga Bay. Apolima Island off the western tip of Upolu is a Holocene tuff cone too young to
y SOFAR (hydrophone records of underwater acoustic signals). An earthquake swarm in 1995 may have been related to an eruption from th
s and one andesitic rock dredged from this seamount in 1989 were described as glassy, vesicular, and extremely fresh.
 d the NE and SE coasts. VEI0: 1903; Three previous events identified of unknown size.




 when explosive eruptions produced large pumice rafts, and ashfall damaged crops on the island of Vavua (56 km away) and fell on vessels u

 Hunga Ha'apai in 1988. VEI0: 1988; VEI 2 [1937, 1912]

ble lava flows in 1790 and 1854 (both VEI2).


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0 3 VEI2 events, one VEI0, and one VEI2?]
nd. A major eruption at Niuafo'ou in 1946 forced evacuation of most of its 1200 inhabitants. VEI0: 1985, VEI2: [1946, 1943, 1935, 1929, 1912

 a steep-sided crater that is 70 m wide and 120 m deep and has been the source of historical eruptions, most recently during 1958-1960. The


evu in the Fiji Islands. The depth of the summit of the submarine cone following the eruption determined to be 40 m during a 2007 survey; th

ing historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-calde

 e population of the Nduindui area near the western coast. VEI2: []2005, 1995]; Pre-1900 VEI2?:1; and an additional two pre-historic events.
bmarine basaltic and dacitic cones, known as Epi A, Epi B, and Epi C, are located along the northern rim of the breached caldera. Ephemera
nt high on the SE flank of Mount Garat in 1962 ended a long period of dormancy. VEI2:9 [1982, 1977, 1976, 1973, 1971, 1969, 1968, 1967, 1
 nds since it was first observed in eruption during 1897. VEI0: 1974; VEI1: [1952]; VEI2: 3 [1971, 1959, from 1950-1900 one event]; VEI3: [fro
stic flow that swept to the sea and a lava flow that formed a new peninsula on the western coast.VEI0: [1970-1900 one event]; VEI1: 1976; V


rth of the island.
 moderate explosive eruptions. VEI2: [1965, 1961 (date uncertain)]; VEI2?: [1956]
 1, the only historical activity of the Erromango volcanoes. VEI0: 1881

n of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Re




                                                                  Page 82
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of an ice cave below a fumarolic ice tower was dated at about 10.3 +/- 2.7 ka.


work Bulletin).




 found in the Morro Vermelho area in the south-central part of the island.

ows related to dome growth have occurred within the past few hundred years.
etime between about 1450-1650 AD. 34 Pre-historic events recorded.

riae and lava flows. A reported possible eruption from "Brimstone Island," 45 km west of Macauley at a location with a depth of about 2000 m
assing. Surface observations have included water discoloration, vigorous gas bubbling, and areas of upwelling water, sometimes accompani
ne cone, one of several located along a fissure on the lower NNE flank of Raoul volcano, has also erupted during historical time, and satelliti
-km-wide Rangitoto Island, which consists of multiple scoria cones up to 260-m high that cap a low shield volcano with a broad apron of lava
 me growth, has occurred throughout the Holocene. Egmont's latest eruption took place in about 1755 AD. Twenty-one pre-historic events ar
milar to pumices from Healy caldera.

hermal eruptions have occurred at the Orakeikorako thermal area during the Holocene, the latest immediately prior to the 1800-year-old Tau

e formed in the Kaharoa eruption about 800 years BP. The NE-SW Tarawera vent lineation extends from the two dacitic cones of Maungaong
e Pleistocene, but large hydrothermal explosions took place from the Waiotapu thermal area immediately to the north at the time of the Kaha
nt, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptio



 ng a NE-SW-trending fissure centered on the Horomotangi Reefs. This extremely violent eruption was New Zealand's largest during the Hol
ears ago. The symmetrical, steep-sided Ngauruhoe, along with its neighbor Ruapehu to the south, have been New Zealand's most active vol

 floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining projec
 cting Olosega with Ta'u Island.
 ous lava flows that reached the northern coast along broad fronts up to about 15 km wide, destroying several villages and overtopping fringin

  cones that produced fresh-looking pahoehoe lava flows.
u is a Holocene tuff cone too young to be fringed by a coral reef, and other reef-free areas along the coastline may be formed by Holocene la
e been related to an eruption from the seamount. Turbid water above the summit shows evidence of ongoing hydrothermal plume activity.
extremely fresh.




ua (56 km away) and fell on vessels up to 950 km distant. In 1939 explosive and effusive activity occurred from summit and flank vents, and




                                                                   Page 83
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 VEI2: [1946, 1943, 1935, 1929, 1912; Pre-1900 2 events]; VEI4?:1; VEI0:1.

 most recently during 1958-1960. The fumarolically active crater of Lofia has a flat floor formed by a ponded lava flow. VEI2: 3 [1958, 1906, 1


d to be 40 m during a 2007 survey; the crater of the 2001 eruption (VEI2) was breached to the east.

 ting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations. VEI1:[1996]; VEI2:12+14=28 [2006, 1990, 1989

 n additional two pre-historic events.
m of the breached caldera. Ephemeral islands were formed during eruptions in 1920 and 1953, and the summit of the shallowest cone, Epi B,
 76, 1973, 1971, 1969, 1968, 1967, 1966]; VEI3: [1965]; VEI1?:[1981, 1980]; VEI2?: [1962]
 rom 1950-1900 one event]; VEI3: [from 1950-1900 two events]; VEI2?: [1958, one event from 1950-1900]; VEI1?: [1953]; Pre-1900 one pre-
1970-1900 one event]; VEI1: 1976; VEI2: 10+ 4:14[2007, 2005, 2005 (second event), 2004, 1982, 1979, 1978, 1975, 1974, 1970; 1970-1900




 ruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century. 3 pre-historic and one historic event recorded.




                                                                   Page 84
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ocation with a depth of about 2000 m and SW of Giggenbach submarine volcano, is l
welling water, sometimes accompanied by rumbling noises. VEI0: 17 [Seventeen events between 2006-1950].
ed during historical time, and satellitic vents at Raoul are concentrated along two par
ld volcano with a broad apron of lava flows.
D. Twenty-one pre-historic events are identified.


diately prior to the 1800-year-old Taupo eruption.

m the two dacitic cones of Maungaongaonga and Mangakakaramea on the SW to Mount Edgecumbe on the NE. Constru
 y to the north at the time of the Kaharoa eruption of neighboring Tarawera volcano about
 Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a s



New Zealand's largest during the Holocene and produced the thin but widespread phreatopl
been New Zealand's most active volcanoes during historical time. VEI0: [1953]; VEI1: [19

and workers at a sulfur-mining project. VEI1:1+2=3 [1995, from 1970- 1900 2 events];

everal villages and overtopping fringing reefs. 1905: VEI2; 1902:VEI1; 172


stline may be formed by Holocene lava flows.
going hydrothermal plume activity.




ed from summit and flank vents, and water spouts were reported 1.6 km SE o




                                                                  Page 85
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ded lava flow. VEI2: 3 [1958, 1906, 1906 (second event)]; Pre-1900 3 events VEI2,




6]; VEI2:12+14=28 [2006, 1990, 1989, 1986, 1984, 1983, 1981, 1979, 1979 (se


ummit of the shallowest cone, Epi B, was at 34 m below sea level at the t

0]; VEI1?: [1953]; Pre-1900 one pre-historic of VEI6, and one historic event identifed.
1978, 1975, 1974, 1970; 1970-1900 4 events]; VEI3: [2003, 2001, 1998, 1970-1900 3




 ric and one historic event recorded. Historic event VEI3: from 1774 to present.




                                                                   Page 86
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the NE. Constru




                                  Page 87
                          9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


Fentale                 LOCATION                     STATUS           LATITUDE NS   LONGITUDE
Jan Mayen               Atlantic-N-Jan Mayen         Historical          71.08 N        8.17
Kolbeinsey Ridge        Iceland-N of                 Historical          66.67 N        18.5
Tjörnes Fracture Zone   Iceland-N of                 Historical           66.3 N        17.1
Askja                   Iceland-NE                   Historical          65.03 N       16.75
Bárdarbunga             Iceland-NE                   Historical          64.63 N       17.53
Fremrinamur             Iceland-NE                   Tephrochronology    65.43 N       16.65
Grímsvötn               Iceland-NE                   Historical          64.42 N       17.33
Krafla                  Iceland-NE                   Historical          65.73 N       16.78
Kverkfjöll              Iceland-NE                   Historical          64.65 N       16.72
Loki-Fögrufjöll         Iceland-NE                   Historical          64.48 N        17.8
Theistareykjarbunga     Iceland-NE                   Tephrochronology    65.88 N       16.83
Tungnafellsjökull       Iceland-NE                   Holocene            64.73 N       17.92
Eyjafjöll               Iceland-S                    Historical          63.63 N       19.62
Hekla                   Iceland-S                    Historical          63.98 N        19.7
Katla                   Iceland-S                    Historical          63.63 N       19.05
Tindfjallajökull        Iceland-S                    Holocene            63.78 N       19.57
Torfajökull             Iceland-S                    Historical          63.92 N       19.17
Vatnafjöll              Iceland-S                    Tephrochronology    63.92 N       19.67
Vestmannaeyjar          Iceland-S                    Historical          63.43 N       20.28
Esjufjöll               Iceland-SE                   Historical          64.27 N       16.65
Öraefajökull            Iceland-SE                   Historical             64 N       16.65
Brennisteinsfjöll       Iceland-SW                   Historical          63.92 N       21.83
Grímsnes                Iceland-SW                   Tephrochronology    64.03 N       20.87
Hengill                 Iceland-SW                   Radiocarbon         64.18 N       21.33
Hofsjökull              Iceland-SW                   Holocene            64.78 N       18.92
Kerlingarfjöll          Iceland-SW                   Holocene            64.63 N       19.32
Krísuvík                Iceland-SW                   Historical          63.93 N        22.1
Langjökull              Iceland-SW                   Radiocarbon         64.75 N       19.98
Prestahnukur            Iceland-SW                   Radiocarbon          64.6 N       20.58
Reykjanes               Iceland-SW                   Historical          63.88 N        22.5
Reykjaneshryggur        Iceland-SW                   Historical          63.67 N       23.33
Ljósufjöll              Iceland-W                    Anthropology        64.87 N       22.23
Lysuhóll                Iceland-W                    Holocene            64.87 N       23.25
Snaefellsjökull         Iceland-W                    Radiocarbon          64.8 N       23.78




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EW   ELEV TYPE                   ESP     comments
W     2277 Stratovolcano         B0      Remote Jan Mayen Island, located in the Norwegian Sea along the Mid-Atlant
W        5 Submarine volcano     B0      A submarine eruption was reported in 1372 near the Kolbeinsey Ridge NW of
W          Submarine volcano     B0      The offshore Tjörnes Fracture Zone is an oblique transform zone that separat
W     1516 Stratovolcano         B0      Askja is a large basaltic central volcano that forms the Dyngjufjöll massif. It is
W     2000 Stratovolcano         B0      The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vat
W      939 Stratovolcano         B0      Fremrinamur central volcano, NNE of Askja and SE of Myvatn lake, is a volca
W     1725 Caldera               B0      Grímsvötn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies larg
W      650 Caldera               B1      The Krafla central volcano, located NE of Myvatn lake, is a topographically ind
W     1920 Stratovolcano         B0      Kverkfjöll is a large subglacial volcano at the NE end of the Vatnajökull icecap
W     1570 Subglacial volcano    B0      The subglacial Loki-Fögrufjöll volcanic system is located immediately WNW o
W      564 Shield volcano        B0      The Holocene Theistareykjarbunga basaltic shield volcano (also known as Th
W     1535 Stratovolcano         B0      The Tungnafellsjökull central volcano, located to the NW of the massive Vatna
W     1666 Stratovolcano         E0      Eyjafjöll, located immediately west of Katla volcano, consists of an E-W-trendi
W     1491 Stratovolcano         E2      One of Iceland's most prominent and active volcanoes, Hekla lies near the so
W     1512 Subglacial volcano    B0      Katla volcano, located near the southern end of Iceland's eastern volcanic zon
W     1463 Stratovolcano         B0      Tindfjallajökull is one of the oldest Holocene volcanoes of the eastern volcanic
W     1259 Stratovolcano         E0      The Torfajökull central volcano, located north of Myrdalsjökull and south of Th
W     1235 Fissure vents         B0      The Vatnafjöll volcanic system, lying immediately SE of Hekla volcano, is a 40
W      279 Submarine volcanoes   B0      The mostly submarine Vestmannaeyjar volcanic system is the southernmost a
W     1760 Stratovolcano         E0      The subglacial Esjufjöll volcano at the SE part of the Vatnajökull icecap, north
W     2119 Stratovolcano         B0      Öraefajökull, Iceland's highest peak, is a broad glacier-clad central volcano at
W      626 Crater rows           E0      The Brennisteinsfjöll volcanic system, located east of Kleifarvatn lake, consist
W      214 Crater rows           E0      Grímsnes is a relatively small volcanic system located SE of Thingvallavatn la
W      803 Crater rows           B0      The Hengill volcanic system, cutting through Thingvallavatn lake, consists of a
W     1782 Subglacial volcano    B0      Hofsjökull volcano lies along an east-west-trending area connecting the two p
W     1488 Stratovolcano         E0      Kerlingarfjöll is a glacially dissected, largely Pleistocene rhyolitic central volcan
W      379 Crater rows           B0      The Krísuvík volcanic system consists of a group of NE-SW-trending basaltic
W     1360 Stratovolcano         B0      The Langjökull central volcano lies at the northern end of an active volcanic zo
W     1390 Subglacial volcano    B0      The massive subglacial Prestahnukur volcano at the SW end of the Langjöku
W      230 Crater rows           B0      The Reykjanes volcanic system at the SW tip of the Reykjanes Peninsula, wh
W       80 Submarine volcanoes   B0      The submarine Reykjaneshryggur volcanic system off the SW tip of Iceland is
W      988 Fissure vents         B0      The Ljósufjöll volcanic system at the eastern end of the Snaefellsnes Peninsu
W      540 Pyroclastic cones     B0      Lysuhóll, Iceland's smallest volcanic system, consists of a chain of small alkal
W     1448 Stratovolcano         B0      Ice-clad Snaefellsjökull volcano anchors the western tip of the isolated Snaefe




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 an Sea along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge about 650 km NE of Iceland, consists of two volcanic complexes separated by a narrow isthmus. The la
 he Kolbeinsey Ridge NW of Grimsey Island. Kolbeinsey Island, the only subaerial expression of this portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is a sm
 transform zone that separates the northern volcanic zone of Iceland from the Kolbeinsey Ridge, part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of Icelan
s the Dyngjufjöll massif. It is truncated by three overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 8 km wide and may have been produced primaril
 eath the NW part of the Vatnajökull icecap, NW of Grímsvötn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure syste
SE of Myvatn lake, is a volcanic system that is being constructed over the basaltic Ketildyngja shield volcano. Associated fissure systems, inc
no in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajökull icecap. The caldera lake is covered by a 200-m-thick ice shelf, and only the sou
  ake, is a topographically indistinct 10-km-wide caldera that is cut by a N-S-trending fissure system. Eruption of a rhyolitic welded tuff about 1
 nd of the Vatnajökull icecap. Two elliptical ice-filled calderas, 8 x 5 km in diameter, have been identified. An associated fissure swarm can b
 ocated immediately WNW of Grímsvötn volcano. Two subglacial ridges extend from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Lok
  volcano (also known as Theistareykir) and its associated N-S fissure system extends from north of Myvatn lake to the northern coast of Icel
 he NW of the massive Vatnajökull icecap, contains two calderas. One is largely filled by the Tungnafellsjökull glacier, and the other ice-free c
 o, consists of an E-W-trending, elongated ice-covered basaltic-andesite stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Fissure-fed lava f
 noes, Hekla lies near the southern end of the eastern rift zone. Hekla occupies a rift-transform junction, and has produced basaltic andesites
 eland's eastern volcanic zone, is hidden beneath the Myrdalsjökull icecap. The subglacial basaltic-to-rhyolitic volcano is one of Iceland's mos
 noes of the eastern volcanic zone of Iceland and has produced rocks of basaltic-to-rhyolitic composition. Eruption of the rhyolitic and trachya
Myrdalsjökull and south of Thorisvatn lake, is cut by a 12-km-wide caldera that formed during the Pleistocene. Torjajokull consists of the large
 SE of Hekla volcano, is a 40-km-long, 9-km-wide collection of alkali basaltic fissures and crater rows. Volcanism has migrated from the SW
 ystem is the southernmost and youngest volcanic center of the eastern volcanic zone that cuts across east-central Iceland. It consists of a ro
 he Vatnajökull icecap, north of Öræfajökull volcano, may contain a central caldera. A minor eruption in 1927 that produced a large jökulhlaup
acier-clad central volcano at the SE end of the Vatnajökull icecap. A 4 x 5 km subglacial caldera truncates the summit of the dominantly basa
 t of Kleifarvatn lake, consists of a series of NE-SW-trending crater rows and small shield volcanoes. Postglacial and historical basaltic lavas
 ated SE of Thingvallavatn lake east of an en echelon group of volcanic fields extending across the Reykjanes Peninsula. Grímsnes lava flow
gvallavatn lake, consists of a series of NE-SW-trending fissure vents, crater rows, and small shield volcanoes occupying a strongly faulted gr
 g area connecting the two principal rift zones of Iceland. It bridges the gap between the Reykjanes-Langjökull rift on the west, which terminat
ocene rhyolitic central volcano located SW of the Hofsjökull icecap. Steep-sided Pleistocene rhyolitic lava domes and numerous hot springs o
 of NE-SW-trending basaltic crater rows and small shield volcanoes cutting the central Reykjanes Peninsula west of Kleifarvatn lake. Several
  end of an active volcanic zone that extends to the NE from the Reykjanes Peninsula. Langjökull volcano occupies the NE half of the massiv
 he SW end of the Langjökull icecap has associated rift zones to the north and SW that have erupted during the Holocene. Hot springs are a
he Reykjanes Peninsula, where the Mid Atlantic Ridge rises above sea level, comprises a broad area of postglacial basaltic crater rows and s
m off the SW tip of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is exposed subaerially in Iceland. Numerous submarine eruptions at Reykja
 of the Snaefellsnes Peninsula is composed of a group of alkali olivine basaltic cinder cones and lava flows along short fissures on a roughly
 ists of a chain of small alkali olivine basaltic cinder cones and vents along a WNW-ESE line cutting across the central Snaefellsnes Peninsu
ern tip of the isolated Snaefellsnes Peninsula in western Iceland. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the flanks of the 1448-m-high stratovolcan




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eparated by a narrow isthmus. The large Beerenberg basaltic stratovolcano (Nord-Jan) forms the NE end of the 40-km-long island, which is r
 tion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is a small, rapidly eroding island that formed during the late-Pleistocene or Holocene. Dredged glass shards in
  he Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of Iceland. A submarine eruption was reported during 1867-1868 at the SE part of the fissure system off the nort
 nd may have been produced primarily from subglacial ring-fracture eruptions rather than by subsidence. A major rhyolitic explosive eruption
  -deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivötn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajökull vo
 ano. Associated fissure systems, including the Sveinar fissure, extend 130 km to the northern coast of Iceland. The Kerlingardyngja shield v
  0-m-thick ice shelf, and only the southern rim of the 6 x 8 km caldera is exposed. The geothermal area in the caldera causes frequent jökulh
ption of a rhyolitic welded tuff about 100,000 years ago was associated with formation of the caldera. Krafla has been the source of many rifti
 . An associated fissure swarm can be traced 60 km to the NE. A half dozen ridges of subglacially erupted pillow lavas are now exposed and
  al Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fögrufjöll ridge to the SW. Tephra fall occurred during an eruption in 19
vatn lake to the northern coast of Iceland. The low, 564-m-high Theistareykjarbunga shield volcano is the northernmost subaerial volcanic sy
 jökull glacier, and the other ice-free caldera located to the SE contains Pleistocene rhyolitic lavas. Tungnafellsjökull volcano is largely of Pleis
  e summit caldera. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the eastern and western flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the weste
 and has produced basaltic andesites, in contrast to the tholeiitic basalts typical of Icelandic rift zone volcanoes. A 5.5-km-long fissure, Heklug
yolitic volcano is one of Iceland's most active and is a frequent producer of damaging jökulhlaups, or glacier-outburst floods. A large 9 x 14 km
  . Eruption of the rhyolitic and trachyandesitic Thórsmörk Ignimbrite accompanied formation of a 5-km-wide caldera about 54,500 years ago.
cene. Torjajokull consists of the largest area of silicic and intermediate volcanism in Iceland; about 225 cu km of silicic extrusive rocks are ex
olcanism has migrated from the SW to the NE during the early to late Holocene. This volcanic system has been one of Iceland's most active.
  ast-central Iceland. It consists of a roughly 30 x 40 km group of basaltic volcanic islands and submarine cones occupying a shallow shelf off
1927 that produced a large jökulhlaup is the only known historical activity from Esjufjöll. VEI1: 1927
es the summit of the dominantly basaltic and rhyolitic volcano. The extensive summit icecap is drained through deep glacial valleys dissectin
stglacial and historical basaltic lavas cover a wide area. An eruption in 1000 AD was dated by its occurrence at the time of a meeting of the Ic
 janes Peninsula. Grímsnes lava flows cover 54 sq km and were erupted from a group of 11 fissures that produced a series of NE-SW-trendi
anoes occupying a strongly faulted graben. Hengill is the easternmost of a series of four closely spaced basaltic fissure systems that cut diag
 jökull rift on the west, which terminates at Langjökull, and the eastern zone, which extends NE-ward across east-central Iceland. The roughly
 a domes and numerous hot springs occupy two calderas at the center of the 5 x 7 km wide complex. Holocene flank fissures on the NE side
sula west of Kleifarvatn lake. Several eruptions have taken place since the settlement of Iceland, including the eruption of a large lava flow fro
 o occupies the NE half of the massive Langjökull icecap, east of the prominent Pleistocene table mountain, Erikskökull. A summit caldera lie
 ring the Holocene. Hot springs are associated with the rhyolitic Prestahnukur central volcano. The classic Icelandic shield volcano Skjaldbrei
  postglacial basaltic crater rows and small shield volcanoes. The Reykjanes volcanic system is the westernmost of a series of four closely-sp
  erous submarine eruptions at Reykjaneshryggur dating back to the 12th century have been observed during historical time, some of which h
ws along short fissures on a roughly 90-km-long WNW-ESE line. The volcanic field is about 20-km wide at the eastern end and narrows to a
oss the central Snaefellsnes Peninsula in western Iceland. The slightly arcuate line of Quaternary vents extends to the northern coast of the p
  nks of the 1448-m-high stratovolcano, the only large central volcano in this part of Iceland. Lower-flank craters produced basaltic lava flows




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 d of the 40-km-long island, which is ringed by high cliffs. Beerenberg is a large 2277-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a 1-km-wide
 r Holocene. Dredged glass shards indicate submarine eruptive activity during the late-Pleistocene until at least 11,800 radiocarbon years ago
 part of the fissure system off the northern coast of Iceland along the Manareyjar Ridge immediately north of Manareyjar Island.
  A major rhyolitic explosive eruption from Dyngjufjöll about 10,000 years ago was in part associated with the formation of Askja caldera. Man
  ut 100 km SW to near Torfajökull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at
 celand. The Kerlingardyngja shield volcano to the south is also part of the Fremrinamur volcanic system. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake for
 in the caldera causes frequent jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam. Long N
afla has been the source of many rifting and eruptive events during the Holocene, including two in historical time, during 1724-29 and 1975-8
  d pillow lavas are now exposed and extend beyond the glacial icecap to the NE. Subglacial historical eruptions have been recorded since th
 fall occurred during an eruption in 1910 (VEI2), and possible subglacial eruptions were reported during 1986 and 1991.
e northernmost subaerial volcanic system along the eastern volcanic zone of Iceland. The Theistareykjarbunga segment is dominated by the
nafellsjökull volcano is largely of Pleistocene age, but postglacial flank fissures on the NE side have produced young basalts.
but are more prominent on the western side. Although the 1666-m-high volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active tha
 anoes. A 5.5-km-long fissure, Heklugjá, cuts across the 1491-m-high volcano and is often active along its full length during major eruptions.
cier-outburst floods. A large 9 x 14 km subglacial caldera with a long axis in a NW-SE direction is up to 750 m deep. Its high point reaches 1
 ide caldera about 54,500 years ago. The NW rim of the caldera is topped by the Tindfjallajökull icecap. About a dozen small eruptions took p
  u km of silicic extrusive rocks are exposed. The dominantly rhyolitic complex rises about 500 m above surrounding basaltic plains and is elo
as been one of Iceland's most active. More than two dozen fissure eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, most recently about 1200 ye
  cones occupying a shallow shelf off the south coast of Iceland. Vestmannaeyjar was the site of two of Iceland's most noted 20th-century eru

hrough deep glacial valleys dissecting the SW-to-SE flanks of the volcano. The largest-volume volcano in Iceland, 2119-m-high Öraefajökull
ence at the time of a meeting of the Icelandic outdoor parliament at Thingvellier. The most recent eruption at Brennisteinsfjöll took place in th
 t produced a series of NE-SW-trending crater rows. The eruptions of the basaltic Grímsnes lavas were restricted to a relatively short interval
basaltic fissure systems that cut diagonally across the Reykjanes Peninsula and lies at the triple junction of the Reykjanes Peninsula volcanic
 oss east-central Iceland. The roughly 7 x 11 km central caldera of Hofsjökull volcano lies beneath the western part of the massive Hofsjökull
olocene flank fissures on the NE side produced the Illahraun lava flow, which traveled more than 20 km to the south. Fumarolic activity at Ker
ng the eruption of a large lava flow from the Ogmundargigar crater row around the 12th century. The latest eruption at Krísuvík took place du
ain, Erikskökull. A summit caldera lies beneath the ice. Several shield volcanoes have been constructed along flank fissure zones, and postg
  c Icelandic shield volcano Skjaldbreidur was formed at the southern end of the Prestahnukur volcanic system, between Thorsjökull glacier a
ernmost of a series of four closely-spaced en-echelon fissure systems that extend diagonally across the Reykjanes Peninsula. Most of the vo
uring historical time, some of which have formed ephemeral islands. Basaltic rocks of probable Holocene age have been recovered during dr
  at the eastern end and narrows to about 10-km width on the west. Youthful-looking cinder cones and lava flows with morphologically pristine
extends to the northern coast of the peninsula. Lysuhóll is the central of three volcanic systems occupying the peninsula. The latest eruption
craters produced basaltic lava flows and upper-flank craters intermediate-to-silicic material. Holocene lava flows extend to the sea over the e




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ered stratovolcano with a 1-km-wide summit crater and numerous cinder cones that were erupted along flank fissures. It is composed primar
  t least 11,800 radiocarbon years ago. The island was 700 m long in 1616 AD, but had shrunk to 42 m long and 5 m high by 1985 and could
 h of Manareyjar Island.
h the formation of Askja caldera. Many postglacial eruptions also occurred along the ring-fracture. A major explosive eruption on the SE calde
us fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more th
 . Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed as a result of the eruption of the massive 70-km-long older Laxarhraun lava flow from Ketildyngja s
high enough to lift its ice dam. Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano. The most prominent of these is the no
 cal time, during 1724-29 and 1975-84. The prominent Hverfjall and Ludent tuff rings east of Myvatn were erupted along the 100-km-long fiss
uptions have been recorded since the mid-17th century. Several other historical eruptions once attributed to Kverkfjöll are now thought to hav
1986 and 1991.
 rbunga segment is dominated by the 30 cu km Storaviti shield volcano, which was formed slightly after deglaciation. The youngest dated eru
duced young basalts.
 rical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known.
 ts full length during major eruptions. Repeated eruptions along this rift, which is oblique to most rifting structures in the eastern volcanic zone
750 m deep. Its high point reaches 1380 m, and three major outlet glaciers have breached its rim. Although most historical eruptions have ta
About a dozen small eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, mostly from vents north and west of the caldera.
surrounding basaltic plains and is elongated in a WNW-ESE direction. Most rhyolitic lava flows were erupted subglacially, forming silicic hyalo
 olocene, most recently about 1200 years ago. 25 pre-historic events are identified.
celand's most noted 20th-century eruptions. The new island of Surtsey grew from the ocean floor during 1963-67. The island of Heimaey, 20

 n Iceland, 2119-m-high Öraefajökull was mostly constructed during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods. Holocene activity has been d
 n at Brennisteinsfjöll took place in the 14th century. Eight pre-1900 events identified.
restricted to a relatively short interval between about 6500 and 5500 years ago. Nine pre-historic events recorded.
n of the Reykjanes Peninsula volcanic zone, the Western volcanic zone, and the South Iceland seismic zone. Postglacial lava flows surface m
 estern part of the massive Hofsjökull icecap. A small Holocene shield volcano is located at the SW margin of the icecap. Flank fissures north
 o the south. Fumarolic activity at Kerlingarfjöll, mostly concentrated in the center of the complex, is the most vigorous in Iceland.
est eruption at Krísuvík took place during the 14th century. Nine pre-1400 events.
  along flank fissure zones, and postglacial lava flows flank Langjökull on the northern, western, and eastern sides. One of the most prominen
 ystem, between Thorsjökull glacier and Thingvallavatn lake. The broad, low-angle shield volcano produced 17 cu km of basaltic lava flows du
 Reykjanes Peninsula. Most of the volcanic system is covered by Holocene lavas and eruptions have occurred in historical time during the 13
 e age have been recovered during dredging operations, and tephra deposits from earlier Holocene eruptions are preserved on the nearby Re
 va flows with morphologically pristine surfaces testify to numerous eruptions during the Holocene. The latest eruption post-dated the settlem
ng the peninsula. The latest eruption from Lysuhóll is undated, but the volcanic field has been active during the Holocene.
 va flows extend to the sea over the entire western half of the volcano. Several Holocene silicic eruptions have originated from the summit cra




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 flank fissures. It is composed primarily of basaltic lava flows with minor amounts of tephra. Historical eruptions at Beerenberg date back to t
ong and 5 m high by 1985 and could be eroded below sea level in the early part of the 21st century. The Kolbeinsey Hydrothermal Field lies s

or explosive eruption on the SE caldera margin in 1875 was one of Iceland's largest during historical time. It resulted in the formation of a sm
ow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivötn fissure syst
xarhraun lava flow from Ketildyngja shield volcano about 3800 years ago. The latest eruption from Fremrinamur produced the Burfellshraun
he most prominent of these is the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which extends to the SW and produced the world's largest known historical la
e erupted along the 100-km-long fissure system, which extends as far as the north coast of Iceland. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed
d to Kverkfjöll are now thought to have originated from Bárdarbunga volcano to the west. 8 events recorded, 5 prior to 1900.

deglaciation. The youngest dated eruption produced the Theistareykjahraun lava flow about 2700 years ago.

 few Holocene lava flows are known. The sole historical eruption of Eyjafjöll, during December 1821 to January 1823, produced intermediate
ructures in the eastern volcanic zone, are responsible for Hekla's elongated ENE-WSW profile. Frequent large silicic explosive eruptions dur
ugh most historical eruptions have taken place from fissures inside the caldera, the Eldgjá fissure system, which extends about 60 km to the
ents north and west of the caldera.
pted subglacially, forming silicic hyaloclastites that form ridge and dome-shaped breccias. During postglacial times only a narrow fissure zone

 1963-67. The island of Heimaey, 20 km to the NE, was the site of dramatic eruptions in 1973 during which lava flows partially overran the to

periods. Holocene activity has been dominated by explosive summit eruptions, although flank lava effusions have also occurred. A major silic


 one. Postglacial lava flows surface much of the volcanic system. The latest eruption was radiocarbon dated about 1900 years before presen
gin of the icecap. Flank fissures north and east of the icecap have produced basaltic lava flows during the Holocene.
most vigorous in Iceland.

tern sides. One of the most prominent of these is a small shield volcano that was formed at the site of the massive Hallmundahraun lava flow
ced 17 cu km of basaltic lava flows during the early Holocene.
curred in historical time during the 13th century at several locations on the NE-SW-trending fissure system. Five pre-1300 events identified
 tions are preserved on the nearby Reykjanes Peninsula. VEI0: [1970?(date uncertain), 1966, 1926]; Pre-1900 14 events idnetified.
atest eruption post-dated the settlement of Iceland, and took place about 1000 years ago. 5 events identified in database, all pre-historic.
 ng the Holocene.
  have originated from the summit crater. The latest dated eruption took place about 1750 years ago; several lava flows may be even younge




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uptions at Beerenberg date back to the 18th century. The Sor-Jan group of pyroclastic cones and lava domes occupies the SW tip of Jan Ma
Kolbeinsey Hydrothermal Field lies south of the island. Thorarinsson (1965) roughly plotted the location of the 1372 eruption at about 66 deg

 e. It resulted in the formation of a smaller 4.5-km-wide caldera, now filled by Öskjuvatn lake, that truncates the rim of the larger central calde
al time from the Veidivötn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivötn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. Jökulhlaups (gl
 rinamur produced the Burfellshraun lava flow about 2500-3000 years ago. 3 events identified pre-historic.
 he world's largest known historical lava flow during an eruption in 1783. The 15-cu-km basaltic Laki lavas were erupted over a 7-month perio
 and's renowned Myvatn lake formed during the eruption of the older Laxarhraun lava flow from the Ketildyngja shield volcano of the Fremrina
 ded, 5 prior to 1900.



 anuary 1823, produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera. Two events identified prior to 1900, one pre-historic.
nt large silicic explosive eruptions during historical time have deposited tephra throughout Iceland, providing valuable time markers used to d
m, which extends about 60 km to the NE from the current ice margin towards Grímsvötn volcano, has been the source of major Holocene eru

acial times only a narrow fissure zone at the western end has been active, producing mostly silicic lava flows, lava domes, and tephras. The

ich lava flows partially overran the town of Vestmannaeyjar and threatened its harbor. Several other volcanoes have erupted during historica

ons have also occurred. A major silicic eruption in 1362 AD was Iceland's largest historical explosive eruption. It and another eruption during


ated about 1900 years before present. An eruption in the Hellisheidi area once thought to have occurred around 1000 AD at the time of a me



 e massive Hallmundahraun lava flow, which covers 200 sq km, and was erupted shortly after 900 AD. The Geysir thermal area, containing I

em. Five pre-1300 events identified
 -1900 14 events idnetified.
 ified in database, all pre-historic.

veral lava flows may be even younger. 10 events recorded in database, all pre-historic.




                                                                     Page 95
                                                9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls



omes occupies the SW tip of Jan Mayen. The Holocene Sor-Jan cinder cones, tephra rings, and trachytic lava domes were erupted from sho
of the 1372 eruption at about 66 degrees 40 minutes North (VEI2?). note that the location is uncertain, but could lie between the Kolbeinsey

 es the rim of the larger central caldera. The 100-km-long Askja fissure swarm, which includes the Sveinagja graben, is also related to the As
large tephra deposit. Jökulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bárdarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. Approx

s were erupted over a 7-month period from a 27-km-long fissure system. Extensive crop damage and livestock losses caused a severe fam
dyngja shield volcano of the Fremrinamur volcanic system about 3800 years before present (BP); its present shape is constrained by the rou




 r to 1900, one pre-historic.
ding valuable time markers used to date eruptions from other Icelandic volcanoes. Hekla tephras are generally rich in fluorine and are conseq
 en the source of major Holocene eruptions. An eruption from the Eldgjá fissure system about 934 AD produced a voluminous lava flow of ab

lows, lava domes, and tephras. The most recent silicic eruption produced the Hrafntinnuhraun lava flow about 900 AD. The fissure system is

canoes have erupted during historical time. Twenty-two postglacial eruption sites are known in the Vestmannaeyjar system, and all ten subae

uption. It and another eruption during 1727-28 were accompanied by major jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) that caused property damage


 around 1000 AD at the time of a meeting of the Icelandic parliament at Thingvellir is now known to have occurred at a vent about 5 km away



 he Geysir thermal area, containing Iceland's largest geysers, lies in the Haukadalur basin, near the southern end of the lengthy fissure syste




                                                                   Page 96
                                                9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls



ic lava domes were erupted from short fissures with a NE-SW trend. VEI1: 1973; VEI2:1985; VEI3: 1970; Four eruptions prior to 1900, one V
but could lie between the Kolbeinsey Ridge and Hóll Seamount. Other reports of submarine eruptions north of Iceland have an even more un

 agja graben, is also related to the Askja volcanic system, as are several small shield volcanoes such as Kollatadyngja. Twentieth-century er
ect drainages in all directions. Approximately 33 event 1902 and prior.

vestock losses caused a severe famine that resulted in the loss of one-fifth of the population of Iceland. VEI1: [1954, 1938, 1933]; VEI2:[1983
sent shape is constrained by the roughly 2000 years BP younger Laxarhraun lava flow from the Krafla volcanic system. The abundant pseud




nerally rich in fluorine and are consequently very hazardous to grazing animals. Extensive lava flows from Hekla's historical eruptions, which
roduced a voluminous lava flow of about 18 cu km, one of the world's largest known Holocene lava flows. Katla has been the source of frequ

 about 900 AD. The fissure system is along trend with and was active at the same time as the basaltic Veidivötn fissure system of Bárdarbun

mannaeyjar system, and all ten subaerial vents on Heimaey are of Holocene age. VEI3: [1973, 1963]; Pre-1900 2 events; Pre-historic 6 event

 floods) that caused property damage and fatalities. VEI4: 1727; VEI5:1362


e occurred at a vent about 5 km away in the Brennisteinsfjöll volcanic system. Geothermally heated greenhouses, hot springs, and geysers a



 hern end of the lengthy fissure system extending from Langjökull central volcano.




                                                                  Page 97
                                                9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls



0; Four eruptions prior to 1900, one VEI3, one VEI3?.
orth of Iceland have an even more uncertain location (1755) or have been discredited (1783 and 1838).

 Kollatadyngja. Twentieth-century eruptions at Askja have produced lava flows from vents located mostly near Öskjuvatn lake. VEI0:1 [1


VEI1: [1954, 1938, 1933]; VEI2:[1983, 1934, 1922]; VEI3: [2004, 1998]; VEI3?: 1996; VEI4: 1902. Plus 5 uncertain events. Pre-1900, 47 eve
olcanic system. The abundant pseudocraters that form a prominent part of the Myvatn landscape were created when the younger Laxarhrau




m Hekla's historical eruptions, which date back to 1104 AD, cover much of the volcano's flanks. VEI2: [1981, 1913]; VEI3: [2000, 199
s. Katla has been the source of frequent subglacial basaltic explosive eruptions that have been among the largest tephra-producers in Icelan

eidivötn fissure system of Bárdarbunga central volcano in 1477 AD. The small Torfajökull icecap lies mostly outside the SE rim of the calder

e-1900 2 events; Pre-historic 6 events.




 nhouses, hot springs, and geysers are found at the Hveragerdi thermal area. Eight pre-historic events.




                                                                  Page 98
                                                9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




y near Öskjuvatn lake. VEI0:1 [1


5 uncertain events. Pre-1900, 47 events.
created when the younger Laxarhraun lava flow en




981, 1913]; VEI3: [2000, 199
he largest tephra-producers in Iceland during

ostly outside the SE rim of the calder




                                                                Page 99
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Fentale                LOCATION                      STATUS           LATITUDE NS   LONGITUDE
Baluan                 Admiralty Is-SW Pacific       Holocene?            2.57 S      147.28
St. Andrew Strait      Admiralty Is-SW Pacific       Historical           2.38 S      147.35
Unnamed                Admiralty Is-SW Pacific       Hydrophonic          3.03 S      147.78
Barren Island          Andaman Is-Indian O           Historical         12.278 N      93.858
Narcondum              Andaman Is-Indian O           Holocene            13.43 N       94.28
Buckle Island          Antarctica                    Historical          66.78 S      163.25
Erebus                 Antarctica                    Historical          77.53 S      167.17
Melbourne              Antarctica                    Tephrochronology    74.35 S       164.7
Pleiades, The          Antarctica                    Potassium-Argon     72.67 S       165.5
Royal Society Range    Antarctica                    Holocene?           78.25 S      163.33
Sturge Island          Antarctica                    Uncertain            67.4 S      164.83
Unnamed                Antarctica                    Holocene?           73.45 S      164.58
Unnamed                Antarctica                    Holocene?           76.83 S         163
Young Island           Antarctica                    Fumarolic           66.42 S      162.47
Newer Volcanics Prov   Australia                     Radiocarbon         37.77 S       142.5




Banda Api              Banda Sea                     Historical         4.525 S      129.871
Emperor of China       Banda Sea                     Uncertain           6.62 S       124.22
Gunungapi Wetar        Banda Sea                     Historical         6.642 S       126.65




Manuk                  Banda Sea                     Fumarolic           5.53 S      130.292
Nieuwerkerk            Banda Sea                     Uncertain            6.6 S      124.675




Nila                   Banda Sea                     Historical          6.73 S        129.5




Serua                  Banda Sea                     Historical           6.3 S         130




                                          Page 100
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Teon                  Banda Sea                       Historical        6.92 S   129.125




Wurlali               Banda Sea                       Historical       7.125 S   128.675




Bombalai              Borneo                          Holocene?          4.4 N    117.88




Bagana                Bougainville-SW Pacific         Historical        6.14 S   155.195




Balbi                 Bougainville-SW Pacific         Holocene          5.92 S    154.98


Billy Mitchell        Bougainville-SW Pacific         Radiocarbon      6.092 S   155.225

Loloru                Bougainville-SW Pacific         Radiocarbon       6.52 S    155.62
Takuan Group          Bougainville-SW Pacific         Holocene         6.442 S   155.608
Tore                  Bougainville-SW Pacific         Holocene          5.83 S    154.93




Dawson Strait Group   D'Entrecasteaux Is              Hydration Rind    9.62 S    150.88
Goodenough            D'Entrecasteaux Is              Holocene          9.48 S    150.35




                                           Page 101
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Iamalele    D'Entrecasteaux Is              Holocene     9.52 S   150.53




Amasing     Halmahera-Indonesia             Holocene     0.53 S   127.48




Bibinoi     Halmahera-Indonesia             Holocene     0.77 S   127.72




Dukono      Halmahera-Indonesia             Historical   1.68 N   127.88




Gamalama    Halmahera-Indonesia             Historical    0.8 N   127.33




Gamkonora   Halmahera-Indonesia             Historical   1.38 N   127.53



Hiri        Halmahera-Indonesia             Holocene      0.9 N   127.32


                                 Page 102
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Ibu        Halmahera-Indonesia         Historical       1.488 N   127.63
Jailolo    Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene          1.08 N   127.42




Makian     Halmahera-Indonesia         Historical        0.32 N    127.4



Mare       Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene          0.57 N    127.4




Moti       Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene          0.45 N    127.4




Tarakan    Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene          1.83 N   127.83




Tidore     Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene         0.658 N    127.4




Tigalalu   Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene          0.07 N   127.42


Tobaru     Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene          1.63 N   127.67


                            Page 103
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Todoko-Ranu          Halmahera-Indonesia         Holocene           1.25   N    127.47
Unnamed              Indian O.-E                 Uncertain         11.75   N     80.75
Amsterdam Island     Indian O.-S                 Holocene          37.83   S     77.52
Boomerang Seamount   Indian O.-S                 Historical       37.721   S    77.825
Heard                Indian O.-S                 Historical       53.106   S    73.513
Kerguelen Islands    Indian O.-S                 Holocene?         49.58   S      69.5
McDonald Islands     Indian O.-S                 Historical        53.03   S      72.6
St. Paul             Indian O.-S                 Historical        38.72   S     77.53




Krakatau             Indonesia                   Historical        6.102 S     105.423




Arjuno-Welirang      Java                        Historical        7.725 S      112.58




Baluran              Java                        Holocene?          7.85 S      114.37




Cereme               Java                        Historical        6.892 S       108.4




                                      Page 104
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Dieng Volc Complex   Java                        Historical         7.2 S    109.92




Galunggung           Java                        Historical        7.25 S   108.058




Gede                 Java                        Historical        6.78 S    106.98




Guntur               Java                        Historical       7.143 S    107.84




                                      Page 105
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Ijen              Java                        Historical       8.058 S   114.242




Iyang-Argapura    Java                        Holocene          7.97 S    113.57




Kamojang, Kawah   Java                        Pleistocene      7.125 S     107.8




Karaha, Kawah     Java                        Fumarolic         7.12 S    108.08




Karang            Java                        Holocene?         6.27 S   106.042



Kawi-Butak        Java                        Holocene          7.92 S    112.45




                                   Page 106
                     9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Kelut              Java                        Historical        7.93 S   112.308




Kendang            Java                        Holocene          7.23 S    107.72
Kiaraberes-Gagak   Java                        Historical        6.73 S    106.65




Lamongan           Java                        Historical       7.979 S   113.342




Lawu               Java                        Historical       7.625 S   111.192



Lurus              Java                        Holocene          7.73 S    113.58
Malabar            Java                        Holocene?         7.13 S    107.65




                                    Page 107
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Malang Plain   Java                        Holocene          8.02 S    112.68




Merapi         Java                        Historical       7.542 S   110.442




Merbabu        Java                        Historical        7.45 S    110.43




Muria          Java                        Holocene          6.62 S    110.88




Papandayan     Java                        Historical        7.32 S    107.73




                                Page 108
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Patuha         Java                        Holocene          7.16 S     107.4




Penanggungan   Java                        Holocene          7.62 S    112.63




Perbakti       Java                        Fumarolic         6.75 S    106.68




Pulosari       Java                        Holocene         6.342 S   105.975




Raung          Java                        Historical       8.125 S   114.042




Salak          Java                        Historical        6.72 S    106.73




                                Page 109
            9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Semeru    Java                        Historical       8.108 S    112.92




Slamet    Java                        Historical       7.242 S   109.208




Sumbing   Java                        Historical       7.384 S    110.07




Sundoro   Java                        Historical         7.3 S   109.992




                           Page 110
                    9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Talagabodas       Java                        Fumarolic        7.208 S   108.07



Tampomas          Java                        Holocene          6.77 S   107.95




Tangkubanparahu   Java                        Historical        6.77 S    107.6




Telomoyo          Java                        Holocene          7.37 S    110.4




Tengger Caldera   Java                        Historical       7.942 S   112.95




                                   Page 111
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Ungaran        Java                         Holocene         7.18 S    110.33




Wayang-Windu   Java                         Fumarolic       7.208 S    107.63




Wilis          Java                         Holocene        7.808 S   111.758




Agung          Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.342 S   115.508




Batur          Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.242 S   115.375




                                 Page 112
                 9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Bratan         Lesser Sunda Is              Holocene         8.28 S    115.13




Ebulobo        Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.82 S    121.18




Egon           Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.67 S    122.45




Iliboleng      Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.342 S   123.258




Ililabalekan   Lesser Sunda Is              Fumarolic        8.55 S    123.38




Ilimuda        Lesser Sunda Is              Fumarolic       8.478 S   122.671




                                 Page 113
              9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Iliwerung   Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.53 S    123.57




Inielika    Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.73 S    120.98




Inierie     Lesser Sunda Is              Radiocarbon     8.875 S    120.95




Iya         Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.897 S   121.645




Kelimutu    Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.77 S    121.82




                              Page 114
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Leroboleng   Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.358 S   122.842




Lewotobi     Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.542 S   122.775




Lewotolo     Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.272 S   123.505




Ndete Napu   Lesser Sunda Is              Fumarolic        8.72 S    121.78




Paluweh      Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.32 S   121.708




Poco Leok    Lesser Sunda Is              Fumarolic        8.68 S    120.48




Ranakah      Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.62 S    120.52




                               Page 115
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Riang Kotang      Lesser Sunda Is              Fumarolic         8.3 S   122.892




Rinjani           Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.42 S    116.47




Sangeang Api      Lesser Sunda Is              Historical        8.2 S    119.07




Sano, Wai         Lesser Sunda Is              Holocene         8.72 S    120.02




Sirung            Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      8.508 S    124.13




Sukaria Caldera   Lesser Sunda Is              Fumarolic       8.792 S    121.77




                                    Page 116
                  9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Tambora         Lesser Sunda Is              Historical       8.25 S       118




Tara, Batu      Lesser Sunda Is              Historical      7.792 S    123.579




Yersey          Lesser Sunda Is              Uncertain        7.53 S     123.95



Bamus           New Britain-SW Pac           Anthropology       5.2 S    151.23
Bola            New Britain-SW Pac           Holocene         5.15 S     150.03
Dakataua        New Britain-SW Pac           Anthropology    5.056 S    150.108




Garbuna Group   New Britain-SW Pac           Historical       5.45 S     150.03
Garove          New Britain-SW Pac           Holocene        4.692 S      149.5
Garua Harbour   New Britain-SW Pac           Holocene?          5.3 S    150.07

Hargy           New Britain-SW Pac           Radiocarbon      5.33 S      151.1




                                  Page 117
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Langila   New Britain-SW Pac          Historical       5.525 S    148.42
Lolo      New Britain-SW Pac          Holocene?        5.468 S   150.507



Lolobau   New Britain-SW Pac          Historical        4.92 S   151.158




Mundua    New Britain-SW Pac          Holocene          4.63 S    149.35




Narage    New Britain-SW Pac          Pleistocene       4.55 S   149.125




Pago      New Britain-SW Pac          Historical        5.58 S    150.52




                           Page 118
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Rabaul (Tavurvur and Vulcan) New Britain-SW Pac          Historical      4.271 S    152.203
Sulu Range                   New Britain-SW Pac          Historical         5.5 S   150.942
Tavui                        New Britain-SW Pac          Radiocarbon      4.12 S      152.2




Ulawun                      New Britain-SW Pac           Historical       5.05 S     151.33

Unnamed                     New Britain-SW Pac           Uncertain        4.75 S     150.85
Unnamed                     New Britain-SW Pac           Uncertain         5.2 S     148.57
Crater Mountain             New Guinea                   Holocene?        6.58 S     145.08




Doma Peaks                  New Guinea                   Holocene?         5.9 S     143.15



Hydrographers Range         New Guinea                   Holocene            9S      148.37




Koranga                     New Guinea                   Holocene         7.33 S    146.708




                                              Page 119
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Lamington           New Guinea                  Historical        8.95 S    148.15




Madilogo            New Guinea                  Holocene           9.2 S    147.57




Managlase Plateau   New Guinea                  Anthropology      9.08 S    148.33
Musa River          New Guinea                  Hot Springs      9.308 S    148.13


Sessagara           New Guinea                  Holocene          9.48 S    149.13




Victory             New Guinea                  Historical         9.2 S    149.07




Waiowa (Garupu)     New Guinea                  Historical        9.57 S   149.075




Yelia               New Guinea                  Holocene?         7.05 S   145.858




                                     Page 120
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Bam           New Guinea-NE of              Historical     3.613 S   144.818




Blup Blup     New Guinea-NE of              Holocene       3.507 S   144.605




Boisa         New Guinea-NE of              Holocene?      3.994 S   144.963




Kadovar       New Guinea-NE of              Holocene        3.63 S   144.631




Karkar        New Guinea-NE of              Historical     4.649 S   145.964




Long Island   New Guinea-NE of              Historical     5.358 S    147.12




                                 Page 121
                  9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Manam           New Guinea-NE of              Historical      4.08 S      145.037




Ritter Island   New Guinea-NE of              Historical      5.52 S      148.121




Sakar           New Guinea-NE of              Holocene?      5.414 S      148.094

Umboi           New Guinea-NE of              Holocene       5.589 S      147.875



Unnamed         New Guinea-NE of              Uncertain      4.311 S      146.256




Yomba           New Guinea-NE of              Uncertain         4.9   S    146.75
Ambitle         New Ireland-SW Pacific        Radiocarbon     4.08    S    153.65
Lihir           New Ireland-SW Pacific        Holocene       3.125    S   152.642
Tanga           New Ireland-SW Pacific        Pleistocene       3.5   S    153.22




                                   Page 122
                           9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Awu                      Sangihe Is-Indonesia          Historical      3.67 N       125.5




Banua Wuhu               Sangihe Is-Indonesia          Historical     3.138 N     125.491




Karangetang [Api Siau]   Sangihe Is-Indonesia          Historical      2.78 N       125.4




Ruang                    Sangihe Is-Indonesia          Historical       2.3   N    125.37
Unnamed                  Sangihe Is-Indonesia          Uncertain       3.97   N    124.17
Tinakula                 Santa Cruz Is-SW Pacific      Historical     10.38   S     165.8
Coleman Seamount         Solomon Is-SW Pacific         Holocene        8.83   S    157.17




Gallego                  Solomon Is-SW Pacific         Holocene?       9.35 S      159.73
Kana Keoki               Solomon Is-SW Pacific         Holocene        8.75 S      157.03




                                            Page 123
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Kavachi          Solomon Is-SW Pacific           Historical      9.02 S    157.95




Nonda            Solomon Is-SW Pacific           Holocene        7.67 S     156.6




Savo             Solomon Is-SW Pacific           Historical      9.13 S    159.82
Simbo            Solomon Is-SW Pacific           Anthropology   8.292 S    156.52
Unnamed          Solomon Is-SW Pacific           Holocene        8.92 S    158.03



Ambang           Sulawesi-Indonesia              Historical      0.75 N    124.42




Colo [Una Una]   Sulawesi-Indonesia              Historical      0.17 S   121.608




                                      Page 124
                    9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Klabat            Sulawesi-Indonesia              Fumarolic     1.47 N    125.03




Lokon-Empung      Sulawesi-Indonesia              Historical   1.358 N   124.792




Mahawu            Sulawesi-Indonesia              Historical   1.358 N   124.858



Sempu             Sulawesi-Indonesia              Fumarolic     1.13 N   124.758




Soputan           Sulawesi-Indonesia              Historical   1.108 N    124.73
Tondano Caldera   Sulawesi-Indonesia              Fumarolic     1.23 N    124.83




Tongkoko          Sulawesi-Indonesia              Historical    1.52 N     125.2
Belirang-Beriti   Sumatra                         Fumarolic     2.82 S    102.18


                                       Page 125
                       9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




Besar                Sumatra                     Historical        4.43   S    103.67
Daun, Bukit          Sumatra                     Fumarolic         3.38   S    102.37
Dempo                Sumatra                     Historical        4.03   S    103.13
Geureudong           Sumatra                     Historical       4.813   N     96.82




Helatoba-Tarutung    Sumatra                     Pleistocene       2.03 N       98.93




Hulubelu             Sumatra                     Fumarolic         5.35 S       104.6


Hutapanjang          Sumatra                     Holocene          2.33 S       101.6
Imun                 Sumatra                     Holocene?        2.158 N       98.93




Kaba                 Sumatra                     Historical        3.52 S      102.62
Kembar               Sumatra                     Pleistocene       3.85 N      97.664
Kerinci              Sumatra                     Historical       1.697 S     101.264



Kunyit               Sumatra                     Fumarolic        2.592 S      101.63
Lubukraya            Sumatra                     Holocene?        1.478 N      99.209
Lumut Balai, Bukit   Sumatra                     Fumarolic         4.22 S      103.62




Marapi               Sumatra                     Historical       0.381 S     100.473
Pulau Weh            Sumatra                     Pleistocene       5.82 N       95.28
Patah                Sumatra                     Uncertain         4.27 S       103.3

Pendan               Sumatra                     Holocene          2.82 S      102.02
Peuet Sague          Sumatra                     Historical       4.914 N      96.329


                                      Page 126
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Rajabasa            Sumatra                     Fumarolic         5.78   S   105.625
Ranau               Sumatra                     Holocene?         4.83   S    103.92
Sarik-Gajah         Sumatra                     Holocene?         0.08   N     100.2
Sekincau Belirang   Sumatra                     Fumarolic         5.12   S    104.32
Seulawah Agam       Sumatra                     Historical       5.448   N    95.658
Sibayak             Sumatra                     Historical        3.23   N     98.52
Sibualbuali         Sumatra                     Holocene?        1.556   N    99.255
Sinabung            Sumatra                     Holocene          3.17   N    98.392
Sorikmarapi         Sumatra                     Historical       0.686   N    99.539
Sumbing             Sumatra                     Historical       2.414   S   101.728
Suoh                Sumatra                     Historical        5.25   S    104.27
Talakmau            Sumatra                     Holocene         0.079   N     99.98
Talang              Sumatra                     Historical       0.978   S   100.679
Tandikat            Sumatra                     Historical       0.433   S   100.317
Toba                Sumatra                     Holocene          2.58   N     98.83




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EW   ELEV     TYPE                   ESP
E       254   Stratovolcano          B0
E       270   Complex volcano        E0
E     -1300   Submarine volcano      S0
E       354   Stratovolcano          E2
E       710   Stratovolcano          E0
E      1239   Stratovolcano          B0
E      3794   Stratovolcano          E1
E      2732   Stratovolcano          E0
E      3040   Stratovolcano          E0
E      3000   Cinder cones           B0
E      1167   Stratovolcano          B0
E      2987   Scoria cones           B0
E      -500   Submarine volcano      S0
E      1340   Stratovolcano          E0
E      1011   Shield volcanoes       B0




E      640 Caldera                   E1
E    -2850 Submarine volcano ?       S0
E      282 Stratovolcano             E2




E      282 Stratovolcano             E0
E    -2285 Submarine volcano ?       S0




E      781 Stratovolcano             E1




E      641 Stratovolcano             E1




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E    655 Stratovolcano           E2




E    868 Stratovolcano           E1




E    531 Pyroclastic cone        B0




E   1750 Lava cone               E1




E   2715 Stratovolcano           E0


E   1544 Pyroclastic shield      E0

E   1887 Pyroclastic shield      E0
E   2210 Volcanic complex        E0
E   2200 Lava cone               E0




E    500 Volcanic field          E0
E    220 Volcanic field          E0




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E    200 Lava domes           E0




E   1030 Stratovolcanoes      E0




E    900 Stratovolcanoes      E0




E   1335 Complex volcano      E1




E   1715 Stratovolcanoes      E1




E   1635 Stratovolcano        E1



E    630 Stratovolcano        B0


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E   1325 Stratovolcano          E1
E   1130 Stratovolcano          E0




E   1357 Stratovolcano          E2



E    308 Stratovolcano          E0




E    950 Stratovolcano          E0




E    318 Pyroclastic cones      B0




E   1730 Stratovolcano          E0




E    422 Stratovolcano          E0


E   1035 Unknown                E0


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E    979 Calderas              E0
E        Submarine volcano ?   S0
E    881 Stratovolcano         B0
E   -650 Submarine volcano     S0
E   2745 Stratovolcano         B1
E   1840 Stratovolcanoes       E0
E    230 Complex volcano       E1
E    268 Stratovolcano         B0




E    813 Caldera               E1




E   3339 Stratovolcano         E1




E   1247 Stratovolcano         E0




E   3078 Stratovolcano         E1




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E   2565 Complex volcano      E1




E   2168 Stratovolcano        B2




E   2958 Stratovolcano        E1




E   2249 Complex volcano      E1




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E   2799 Stratovolcanoes      E1




E   3088 Complex volcano      E0




E        Fumarole field       E0




E   1155 Fumarole field       E0




E   1778 Stratovolcano        E0



E   2651 Stratovolcanoes      E0




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E   1731 Stratovolcano        E2




E   2608 Stratovolcano        E0
E   1511 Stratovolcano




E   1651 Stratovolcano        B1




E   3265 Stratovolcano        E1



E    539 Complex volcano      E0
E   2343 Stratovolcano        E0




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E    680 Maars                E0




E   2968 Stratovolcano        E1




E   3145 Stratovolcano        B1




E   1625 Stratovolcano        B0




E   2665 Stratovolcanoes      E1




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E   2434 Stratovolcano      E0




E   1653 Stratovolcano      E0




E   1699 Stratovolcano      E0




E   1346 Stratovolcano      E0




E   3332 Stratovolcano      E1




E   2211 Stratovolcano      E1




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E   3676 Stratovolcano      E1




E   3428 Stratovolcano      B1




E   3371 Stratovolcano      E0




E   3136 Stratovolcano      E1




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E   2201 Stratovolcano        B0



E   1684 Stratovolcano        E0




E   2084 Stratovolcano        E1




E   1894 Stratovolcano        E0




E   2329 Stratovolcanoes      E1




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E   2050 Stratovolcano      E0




E   2182 Lava dome          E0




E   2563 Stratovolcano      E0




E   3142 Stratovolcano      E0




E   1717 Caldera            E1




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E   2276 Caldera            E0




E   2124 Stratovolcano      E1




E   1703 Stratovolcano      E1




E   1659 Stratovolcano      B1




E   1018 Stratovolcano      B0




E   1100 Stratovolcano      E0




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E   1018 Complex volcano      B1




E   1559 Complex volcano      E1




E   2245 Stratovolcano        E0




E    637 Stratovolcano        B1




E   1639 Complex volcano      E1




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E   1117 Complex volcano      E1




E   1703 Stratovolcanoes      E1




E   1423 Stratovolcano        E1




E    750 Fumarole field       E0




E    875 Stratovolcano        E1




E   1675 Unknown              E0




E   2100 Lava domes           E0




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E    200 Fumarole field       E0




E   3726 Stratovolcano        E1




E   1949 Complex volcano      B2




E    903 Caldera              E0




E    862 Complex volcano      E1




E   1500 Caldera              E0




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E   2850 Stratovolcano          E3




E    748 Stratovolcano          B1




E   -3800 Submarine volcano ?   S0



E   2248 Stratovolcano          E0
E   1155 Stratovolcano          E0
E    400 Caldera                E0




E    564 Stratovolcanoes        E1
E    368 Stratovolcano          E0
E    565 Volcanic field         E0

E   1148 Stratovolcano          E0




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E   1330 Complex volcano      B1
E    805 Stratovolcano        E0



E    858 Caldera              B3




E    179 Complex volcano      B0




E    307 Stratovolcano        E0




E    742 Caldera              E1




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E    688 Pyroclastic shield      E1
E    610 Stratovolcanoes         E0
E    200 Caldera                 E0




E   2334 Stratovolcano           B1

E        Submarine volcano ?     S0
E        Submarine volcano ?     S0
E   3233 Stratovolcano           B0




E   3568 Stratovolcano           E0



E   1915 Stratovolcano           E0




E   1500 Maar                    E0




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E   1680 Stratovolcano           E2




E    850 Pyroclastic cone        B0




E   1342 Volcanic field          B0
E    808 Hydrothermal field      E0


E    370 Pyroclastic cones       EO




E   1925 Stratovolcano           E1




E    640 Pyroclastic cone        E2




E   3384 Stratovolcano           E0




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E    685 Stratovolcano        E2




E    402 Stratovolcano        E0




E    240 Stratovolcano        B0




E    365 Stratovolcano        E0




E   1839 Stratovolcano        E1




E   1280 Complex volcano      E1




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E   1807 Stratovolcano          B1




E    140 Stratovolcano          B1




E    992 Stratovolcano          B0

E   1548 Complex volcano        B0



E   -2000 Submarine volcano ?   S0




E        Submarine volcano ?    S0
E    450 Stratovolcano          E0
E    700 Volcanic complex       B0
E    472 Stratovolcano          E0




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E   1320 Stratovolcano           E1




E      -5 Submarine volcano      E1




E   1784 Stratovolcano           E1




E     725 Stratovolcano          E1
E   -5000 Submarine volcano ?    S0
E     851 Stratovolcano          E1
E         Submarine volcano      S0




E   1000 Volcanic field          E0
E   -700 Submarine volcano       S0




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E    -20 Submarine volcano      B1




E    760 Stratovolcano          EO




E    485 Stratovolcano       E2
E    335 Stratovolcanoes     E0
E   -240 Submarine volcanoes S0



E   1795 Complex volcano        E0




E    507 Stratovolcano          E2




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E   1995 Stratovolcano         E0




E   1580 Stratovolcano         E1




E   1324 Stratovolcano         E1



E   1549 Caldera               E0




E   1784 Stratovolcano         E1
E   1202 Caldera               E0




E   1149 Stratovolcano         E1
E   1958 Compound volcano      B0


                                           Page 154
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E   1899   Stratovolcano ?      E0
E   2467   Stratovolcanoes      B0
E   3173   Stratovolcano        E1
E   2885   Stratovolcanoes      E1




E          Pleistocene-Fumarolic E0




E   1040 Caldera                E0


E   2021 Stratovolcano          E0
E   1505 Unknown                E0




E   1952 Stratovolcano         E1
E        Pleistocene-Fumarolic E0
E   3800 Stratovolcano         E1



E   2151 Stratovolcano          E0
E   1862 Stratovolcano          E0
E   2055 Stratovolcano ?        E0




E   2891 Complex volcano        E1
E        Fumarole field         E0
E   2817 Unknown                E0

E        Unknown                E0
E   2801 Complex volcano        E1


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E   1281 Stratovolcano          E0
E   1881 Caldera                E0
E        Pyroclastic cones      E0
E   1719 Calderas               E0
E   1810 Stratovolcano          E0
E   2212 Stratovolcanoes        E0
E   1819 Stratovolcano          E0
E   2460 Stratovolcano          E0
E   2145 Stratovolcano          E1
E   2507 Stratovolcano          E1
E   1000 Calderas               E0
E   2919 Complex volcano        E0
E   2597 Stratovolcano          E1
E   2438 Stratovolcanoes        E1
E   2157 Caldera                E0




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comments
The circular, 5.5-km-wide island of Baluan in the Admiralty Islands is formed by a Pleistocene stratovolcano with a large summ
The St. Andrew Strait volcano, located in the Admiralty Islands north of Papua New Guinea, consists of a series of overlapping

Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only his
Narcondum volcano, an island possession of India in the Andaman Sea, is part of a volcanic arc that continues northward from
Buckle Island is in the center of a 160-km-long chain of volcanic islands forming the Balleny Islands off the coast of Antarctica's
Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. Th
Mount Melbourne is a large undissected stratovolcano along the western coast of the Ross Sea in Antarctica's northern Victoria
The Pleiades volcano consists of a small trachytic stratovolcano, Mount Pleiones, which along with several lava domes and cin
A large number of basaltic cinder cones and lava flows are located in the Royal Society Range of southern Victoria Land. Most
Sturge is the largest and southernmost of the Balleny Islands, which are located just off the coast of Antarctica's Victoria Land.
A large number of isolated basaltic scoria cones are located throughout Antarctica's northern Victoria Land near the western co
Magnetic and seismic data suggest that a submarine caldera with a central lava dome is present east of Granite Harbor and no
Young Island is the northernmost and second largest of the Balleny Islands off the coast of Antarctica's Victoria Land. Captain B
The voluminous Newer Volcanics province covers a broad 15,000 sq km area of SE Australia with nearly 400 small shield volca

The small island volcano of Banda Api is the NE-most volcano in the Sunda-Banda arc and has a
long period of historical observation because of its key location in the thriving Portuguese and Dutch
spice trade. The basaltic-to-rhyodacitic Banda Api is located in the SW corner of a 7-km-wide mostly
submerged caldera that comprises the northernmost of a chain of volcanic islands in the Banda
Sea. At least two episodes of caldera formation are thought to have occurred, with the arcuate
islands of Lonthor and Neira considered to be remnants of the pre-caldera volcanoes. Gunung Api
forms a conical peak rising to 640 m at the center of the 3-km-wide Banda Api island. Historical
eruptions have been recorded since 1586, mostly consisting of strombolian eruptions from the
summit crater, but larger explosive eruptions have occurred and occasional lava flows have reached
the coast. One possible VEI3 occurred in 1988. Prior to 1905 there are 13 VEI2; 7 VEI3 or higher,
and 2 VEI1; and 4 other eruptions that are uncertain as to occurrence.

Gunungapi Wetar volcano forms an isolated island in the Banda Sea north of Wetar Island. The small circular island reaches o
The small steep-sided island of Manuk is the easternmost volcano in the arcuate Banda volcanic
arc. The 282-m-high truncated andesitic cone rises 3000 m from the sea floor. No confirmed
historical eruptions are known from this uninhabited island, although there was an uncertain report
that a member of the 1874 Challenger Expedition saw smoke rising from the crater of Manuk.
Highly altered fumarolic areas are located within the crater and on its western rim and were once
the source of sulfur extraction by Chinese traders.

The 5 x 6 km Nila Island in the Banda Sea is comprised of a low-rimmed caldera whose rim is
breached at sea level on the south and east and contains a 781-m-high youthful forested cone.
Phreatic eruptions from the dominantly andesitic Nila, also known as Laworkawra, have occurred
from summit vents and flank fissures in historical time. A 1932 eruption from a fissure that extended
from the summit to the SE coast produced heavy ashfall that forced abandonment of Rumadai
village. VEI 1: 1968; VEI2: 1932, 1903; Possible VEI1 1964.

The small 2 x 4 km island of Serua is the emergent summit of a volcano rising 3600 m above the
Banda Sea floor. A truncated central cone surrounded by an old somma wall is capped by 641-m-
high Gunung Wuarlapna lava dome. The andesitic Serua volcano, also known as Legatala, lies near
the center of the Banda arc and is one of the most active of the Banda Sea volcanoes, with many
eruptions recorded since the 17th century. Prior to 1922 there were VEI2: 5; and prior to 1700
VEI3:1, with 2 ~VEI3 or larger and one VEI4. Two additional eruptions are uncertain to occurrence.




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Teon, an elongated island in the southwestern Banda arc, is also known as Serawerna, the name of
its active crater. Another smaller crater is located to the NNE of Serawerna. Explosive eruptions
have been recorded from the andesitic Teon volcano since the 17th century. The largest historical
eruption, in 1660, produced pyroclastic flows and surges and caused damage and fatalities. VEI2:
1904; VEI3 or larger: 1693, 1663, 1659; VEI4? 1660.
Wurlali volcano, also known as Damar, is the SW-most historically active volcano in the Banda arc.
The 868-m-high andesitic stratovolcano was constructed at the northern end of a 5-km-wide caldera
on the eastern side of Damar Island in the Banda Sea. Fumarolic activity occurs in the twin summit
craters and on the SE flanks, producing exploitable sulfur deposits. An explosive eruption in 1892 is
the only known historical activity. VEI2: 1892.

Mount Bombalai is part of a volcanic field on the Semporna Peninsula in the NE part of the island of
Borneo. The volcano is part of the Malaysian province of Sabah, across Cowie Harbor from the the
Indonesian province of Kalimantan. The low volcanic cone is located north of Sebatik Island and has
a roughly 300-m-wide crater breached to the south. Two young lava flows extend almost to the
coastal plain. The flows were considered younger than a lava flow radiocarbon dated at about
27,000 years before present, and the extrusion of basaltic lavas possibly continued into Recent
(Holocene) time. This marks the only known area of possible Holocene volcanism on Borneo. Other
areas of late Quaternary dacitic and basaltic volcanism occur along the Semporna Peninsula.
Eruptive activity at Bagana is frequent and is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous
lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally
producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped
lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.
Commonly Andesitic lava flows. VEI4: 1 [1952]; VEI3: 6 [1966, 1953, 1948-51,1938, 1937, 1883];
VEI2:15 [2000-current, 1972-1995, 1970-71, 1968, 1964-65, 1962-63, 1961, 1959-60; 1956, 1945-
47, 1939, 1894, 1865]; VEI1:1 [1943, 1842]. A couple of the listed eruptions have uncertain exact
start or enddates [1959-1960, etc] Possible eruptions in 1909 and 1899 are uncertain as to size,
date, etc. 1908 eruption is believed to be a VEI2, but uncertain.
The large Balbi stratovolcano forms the highest point on Bougainville Island. The 2715-m-high
summit of the complex andesitic volcano is part of a large number of coalesced cones and lava
domes. Five well-preserved craters occupy a NW-SE-trending ridge north of the summit cone,
which also contains a crater. Three large valleys with steep headwalls dissect the flanks of the
volcano. The age of the most recent eruption of Balbi volcano is not known precisely. An oral
tradition of a major eruption during the 19th century is now thought to be in error, but could refer to
minor eruptive activity from this relatively youthful-looking volcano. Fumaroles ares located within
600-m-wide Crater B and on its western flank.
No historical information, however radiocarbon data indicates two eruptions, a VEI 6 [1580 +/- 20
years] and VEI 5 [103-+/-25 years].
Has an ignimbrite apron that covers much of the southern part of the island; the summit consists of
two nested calderas, and a forested andesitic lava dome.
Andacite/Dacite stratovolcanos.
Some indication of recent activity, but no historical information/
The Dawson Straits contains a volcanic field with several volcanic centers that define a possible
partly submerged caldera. There have been no historical eruptions from this center, but morphology
suggests an extremely young age for some lava flows, and the area displays vigorous thermal
activity. Rhyolitic lava flows are exposed on the NE side of the cone. Dominantly volcaniclastic Oiau
cone has also produced obsidian lava flows.9o
Goodenough is a roughly circular volcanic island with several basaltic-andesite and andesitic Holocene eruptive centers. The yo




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An area of youthful volcanism and active thermal fields is located on the SW part of Fergusson
Island, in the center of the D'Entrecasteaux island group. The Iamalele-Fagululu area contains a
series of lava domes and lava flows of probable Holocene age in association with abundant hot
springs and fumaroles. Obsidian bearing rhyolitic dome. Six other lava domes are clustered around
Salt Lake on the western side of the area. Hot springs, boiling springs, fumaroles, and mud pools
are found in an area of siliceous sinter near Iamalele village.
Bukit Amasing (Amasing Hill) is the largest and NW-most of a group of three small andesitic
volcanoes of Holocene age. They are located along a NW-SE line on central Bacan Island, west of
the southern tip of Halmahera. Two smaller volcanoes, Cakasuanggi and Dua Saudara, were
constructed to the SE, north of the metamorphic complex of the Sibela Mountains. These mountains
separate the Amasing volcano group from another group of three andesitic Holocene volcanoes in
SE-most Bacan Island.

Bukit Bibinoi (Bibinoi Hill) is the largest and SE-most of a group of three andesitic Holocene
stratovolcanoes located along a NW-SE line near the SE tip of Bacan Island, west of the southern
tip of Halmahera. The smaller Songsu and Lansa volcanoes straddle a narrow isthmus separating
the SE-most peninsula of Bacan Island from the Sibela Mountains metamorphic complex. The
Bibinoi volcano group lies along the same trend as the Amasing volcano group, which is located to
the NW on the other side of the Sibela Mountains.
Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of
Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes
accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine
observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between
Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting
a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km
SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active
during historical time. VEI 2: 2 [1901, 1868 (date uncertain)]; VEI 3: 2[1933-continuing, 1550].
Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is 150 years.
Uncertain size eruption 1719 +/- a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of
Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The
island of Ternate was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several
centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three
cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which reaches 1715 m.
Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the
volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit
craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63. VEI1: [1918,
1911, 1897, 1895, 1842]; VEI2:42 [2003, 1994, 1993, 1988, 1980, 1962, 1938, 1933, 1932, 1922,
1907, 1898, 1884, 1871, 1868, 1864, 1864 (second event), 1862, 1849, 1847, 1846, 1843, 1839,
1838, 1835, 1833, 1831, 1814, 1812, 1811, 1773, 1773 (second event), 1763, 1739, 1737, 1686
(date uncertain), 1676 +/- 1, 1659, 1648, 1635, 1605, 1561] VEI3:5 [1983, 1840, 1775, 1771, 1770,
1608]; VEI3 or larger:4 [1687, 1653, 1538, 1510+/- 10]; eruption size uncertain: 1996 (VEI2?), 1991
The shifting of eruption centers on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has
produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava
flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first
recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate
explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that
inundated villages. VEI1:2 [1987, 1981], VEI2:7 [2007, 1952, 1951, 1950, 1949, 1917, 1885 +/- 5
years]. VEI3:1[1564+/- 1]. In addition, the following three eruptions are uncertain as to size: 1926
(VEI1?), 1911 (VEI2?), and 1673 (VEI5?).
Hiri, a small 3-km-wide forested island immediately north of Ternate Island, is the northernmost of a
chain of volcanic islands off the western coast of Halmahera. The conical volcano rises to 630 m,
but is dominated by its larger and higher neighbor to the south, historically active 1716-m-high
Ternate volcano. Hiri is mapped as Holocene in age.


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The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has
large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small
crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north
side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller
one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the western flank. A group of maars is located below the
northern and western flanks of the volcano. Only a few eruptions have been recorded from Ibu in
historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption
producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in
December 1998. VEI2: 2 [1998, 1911]. In addition two eruptions of uncertain date have occurred,
2004 (VEI 0?), and 2002, a VEI0.
The Jailolo volcanic complex forms a peninsula west of Jailolo Bay on the western coast of Halmahera Island. Jailolo stratovolc
Makian volcano forms a 10-km-wide island near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off
the west coast of Halmahera and has been the source of infrequent, but violent eruptions that have
devastated villages on the island. The large 1.5-km-wide summit crater, containing a small lake on
the NE side, gives the 1357-m-high peak a flat-topped profile. Two prominent valleys extend to the
coast from the summit crater on the north and east sides. Four parasitic cones are found on the
western flanks. Eruption have been recorded since about 1550; major eruptions in 1646, 1760-61,
1861-62, 1890, and 1988 caused extensive damage and many fatalities. VEI1:2 [1864, 1863];
VEI2:1 [1890]; VEI3:2 [1988, 1550 (could have been larger than a 3)]; Three eruptions of possible
VEI4 in size occured in 1861, 1760, and 1646. The following three eruptions are uncertain to
occurrence etc: 1860 (VEI1?), 1854 (VEI1?), and 1660.
The small volcanic island of Mare, immediately south of Tidore, was mapped as Holocene. The 2 x
3 km island, part of a chain of volcanic islands off the western coast of Halmahera Island, is
elongated in a NE-SW direction. A large breached crater at the andesitic Mare volcano is located off
the SW tip of the 308-m-high island.
The 5-km-wide island of Moti, also known as Motir, is part of a roughly N-S-trending chain of islands
off the western coast of Halmahera Island. Moti is located north of Makian volcano and south of
Mare and Tidore islands and is surrounded by coral reefs. The truncated, conical island rises to 950
m and contains a crater on its SSW side. Moti was mapped as Holocene. An insignificant eruption
was reported in 1774 or shorter before, but Gogarten (1918) indicated that this event was confused
with the October 1773 eruption of nearby Gamalama volcano, which could have dropped ash on
Moti.
Two large cinder cones are located near the shore of Galela Bay NE of Dukono volcano. Tarakan
Lamo and Tarakan Itji (large and small Tarakan) have well-formed summit craters 800 and 500 m in
diameter and 160 and 125 m deep, respectively. The cinder cones lie between Galela Bay and Lake
Galela, whose bottom lies below sea level. Supriatna (1980) mapped Tarakan as a basaltic volcano
of Holocene age.

The Tidore volcanic complex consists of two dramatically different volcanic structures. The
beautifully conical 1730-m-high Kiematabu peak on the south end of Tidore Island is the highest
volcano of the North Maluku island chain west of Halmahera. The broad, lower Sabale volcano on
the north side of the island is a caldera containing two cones. Maitara Island, 1 km off the NW
coast, forms another volcanic construct. Tidore was mapped as Holocene.

Gunung Tigalalu (Mount Tigalalu) is located at the northern end of Kayoa Island, which straddles the
equator and is the southernmost of a chain of small volcanic islands off the western coast of
Halmahera Island. Tigalalu forms a 422-m-high N-S-trending volcanic ridge at the north end of the
island, part of which is flanked by coral limestones. Although much less known than its historically
active neighbor to the north, Makian volcano, Tigalalu was mapped as Holocene in age.
Gunung Tobaru, also known as Gunung Lolodai, is located in northern Halmahera WSW of Dukono
volcano and NNE of Ibu volcano. Supriatna (1980) mapped the little known 1035-m-high andesitic
volcano as Holocene in age.


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The twin caldera complex of Todoko-Ranu is part of a large volcanic complex south of Gamkonora.
The 2-km-wide, lava-filled Todoko caldera is south of the 2 x 2.8 km wide nested Ranu calderas
and contains a young post-caldera cone, Sahu, on its south flank. The northern Ranu caldera
contains a caldera lake. Gunung Onu, NW of Ranu caldera, lies at the northern end of the Todoko-
Ranu complex. No historical eruptions have been reported from the complex, mapped as Holocene
by Supriatna (1980), but fumaroles are present at Ranu caldera and hot springs on Mt. Sahu.
Youthful-looking lava flows reach the sea from several locations within the complex.

The elliptical 7 x 10 km Amsterdam Island is the northernmost subaerial volcano on the Antarctic Plate. The basaltic volcano is
An active submarine volcano 18 km NE of Amsterdam Island was first discovered during a bathymetric survey in 1996. The vol
Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic
The Kerguelen Islands are composed primarily of Tertiary flood basalts and a complex of plutonic rocks. The trachybasaltic-to-
Historical eruptions have greatly modified the morphology of the McDonald Islands, located on the Kerguelen Plateau about 75
The uninhabited triangular island of St. Paul is located near the axis of the East Indian Ocean Ridge, 80 km south of Amsterdam
The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between
Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-
wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands;
subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-
1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and
Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in
Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating
tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40
km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half
century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the
1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has
been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. VEI1: [2001, 2000, 1992, 1981, 1978 and 2 prior to
1955]; VEI2: [2007-08, 1999, 1997, 1996, 1994, 1988, 1980, 1979, 1975, 1972, 1959, 1958 and 16

The twin volcanoes of Arjuno and Welirang anchor the SE and NW ends, respectively, of a 6-km-
long line of volcanic cones and craters. The Arjuno-Welirang complex overlies two older volcanoes,
Gunung Ringgit to the east and Gunung Linting to the south. The summit areas of both Arjuno and
Welirang volcanoes are unvegetated. Additional pyroclastic cones are located on the north flank of
Gunung Welirang and along an E-W-trending line cutting across the southern side of Gunung
Arjuno that extends to the lower SE flank. Fumarolic areas with sulfur deposition occur at several
locations on Gunung Welirang. VEI0 in 1952 and VEI2 in 1950.
The small 1247-m-high andesitic volcano of Baluran, dwarfed by its neighbor Ijen volcano to the
SW, occupies the very NE tip of Java. Gunung Baluran contains a broad horseshoe-shaped crater
breached to the NE. The volcano lies within a national park and game reserve featuring savannah
grasslands and monsoon forests. Baluran was considered by van Bemmelen (1949b) to be of
Holocene age.
The symmetrical stratovolcano Cereme, also known as Ciremai, is located closer to the northern
coast than other central Java volcanoes. A steep-sided double crater elongated in an E-W direction
caps 3078-m-high Gunung Cereme, which was constructed on the northern rim of the 4.5 x 5 km
Geger Halang caldera. A large landslide deposit to the north may be associated with the origin of
the caldera, although collapse may rather be due to a voluminous explosive eruption (Newhall and
Dzurisin, 1988). Eruptions, relatively infrequent in historical time, have included explosive activity
and lahars, primarily from the summit crater. VEI2:4 [1937, 1805, 1775, 1772]; 1698 VEI3; VEI2?
1951.




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The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic
scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century
AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small
craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was
truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to
youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the
plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic
eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The
abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal
prospect. VEI0: 1954; VEI1: [1996, 1993, 1986, 1979, 1964, 1956 and two eruptions prior to 1950];
VEI2: [1953, and 6 eruptions prior to 1950]; VEI3 or larger 1375 +/- 75 years; VEI1?: 1981, 1952,
and one prior to 1950.

The forested slopes of 2168-m-high Galunggung volcano in western Java are cut by a large
horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the SE that has served to channel the products of recent
eruptions in that direction. The "Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya" dotting the plain below the
volcano are debris-avalanche hummocks from the collapse that formed the breached caldera about
4200 years ago. Although historical eruptions, restricted to the central vent near the caldera
headwall, have been infrequent, they have caused much devastation. The first historical eruption in
1822 produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that killed over 4000 persons. More recently, a strong
explosive eruption during 1982-1983 caused severe economic disruption to populated areas near
the volcano. VEI1:2 [1984, 1918]; VEI3: 1894; VEI4: 1982; VEI5: 1822; and one radiocarboned
eruption around 2250BC +/- 150yr of VEI5?

Gede volcano is one of the most prominent in western Java, forming a twin volcano with Pangrango
volcano to the NW. The major cities of Cianjur, Sukabumi, and Bogor are situated below the
volcanic complex to the east, south, and NW, respectively. Gunung Pangrango, constructed over
the NE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera, forms the 3019 m high point of the complex. Many lava flows are
visible on the flanks of the younger Gunung Gede, including some that may have been erupted in
historical time. The steep-walled summit crater has migrated about 1 km to the NNW over time.
Two large debris-avalanche deposits on its flanks, one of which underlies the city of Cianjur, record
previous large-scale collapses of Gede volcano. Historical activity, recorded since the 16th century,
typically consists of small explosive eruptions of short duration. VEI1: 1909; VEI2: [1957, 1948, 1947
and 12 prior to 1900]; 2 of VEI2?; VEI3:2 prior to 1900; and one VEI3? also prior to VEI3.

Guntur is a complex of several overlapping stratovolcanoes about 10 km NW of the city of Garut in
western Java. Young lava flows, the most recent of which was erupted in 1840, are visible on the
flanks of the erosionally unmodified Gunung Guntur, which rises about 1550 m above the plain of
Garut. Guntur is one of a group of younger cones constructed to the SW of an older eroded group
of volcanoes at the NE end of the complex. Guntur, whose name means "thunder," is the only
historically active center, with eruptions having been recorded since the late-17th century. Although
Guntur produced frequent explosive eruptions in the 19th century, making it one of the most active
volcanoes of western Java, it has not erupted since. Prior to 1850: VEI2: 19; VEI3: 2; and 2 VEI2?.




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The Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes
constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a
prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes,
including Gunung Merapi stratovolcano, which forms the 2799 m high point of the Ijen complex.
Immediately west of Gunung Merapi is the renowned historically active Kawah Ijen volcano, which
contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid crater lake. Picturesque Kawah Ijen is the
world's largest highly acidic lake and is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation in which
sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and
craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of post-caldera
cones forms an E-W-trending zone across the southern side of the caldera. VEI 1: 3+1=4 [ 1994,
1993, 1952; and one prior to 1950]' Three VEI2 prior to 1950; and one possible VEI1 in 1999. Two
eruptions, uncertain to occurrence in 2002, 2000 (VEI1?).
The massive Iyang-Argapura volcanic complex dominates the landscape between Raung and
Lamongan volcanoes in eastern Java. Valleys up to 1000 m deep dissect the strongly eroded basal
Iyang volcano. Several Holocene volcanic cones have been constructed at the center of a N-S-
trending central rift. No major eruptions have occurred within at least the last 500 years, although
there was an unverified report of an eruption in 1597 AD. Fumaroles occur in some of the many
explosion pits found in the summit crater complex.

Kawah Kamojang, the first developed geothermal field in Indonesia, is located 7 km WNW of the
historically active Guntur volcano within the Pleistocene Pangkalan caldera. Kawah Kamojang was
included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang 1951) based on its
geothermal activity. The 1.2 by 0.7 km thermal area consists of fumaroles, steaming ground, hot
lakes, mud pots, and hydrothermally altered ground. The field is located along a WSW-ENE-
trending Quaternary volcanic chain that includes Gunung Rakutak, the Ciharus, Pangkalan, and
Gandapura complexes, Gunung Masigit, and Gunung Guntur. This chain is progressively younger to
the ENE. Kawah Kamojang is associated with the Pangkalan and Gandapura volcanic centers,
along the Kendeng fault, which extends SW to the Darajat geothermal field.
Kawah Karaha is a fumarole field in an area of eroded Quaternary volcanoes at the northern end of
a chain of volcanoes extending north from Galunggung. The Kawah Karaha fumarole field covers
an area of 250 x 80 m and contains a sulfur deposit. The age of the most recent eruption of Kawah
Karaha is not known, although the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van
Padang, 1951) reported an uncertain phreatic eruption in May, 1861.

Gunung Karang volcano in westernmost Java was constructed SE of the 15-km-wide Pleistocene
Danau caldera. Two craters, Kawah Welirang and Kawah Haji, display fumarolic activity and are
found on the eastern flanks of 1778-m-high Karang volcano, which may be of Holocene age (Bronto
1995, pers. comm.). The forested andesitic and basaltic volcano is the highest of a group of
stratovolcanoes in the Danau caldera area and lies across a low saddle from Pulosari volcano.
The broad Kawi-Butak volcanic massif lies immediately east of Kelut volcano and south of Arjuno-
Welirang volcano. The 2551-m-high Gunung Kawi was constructed to the NW of 2868-m-high
Gunung Butak. No historical eruptions are known from either volcano, but both are primarily of
Holocene age.




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The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that
has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes
cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava
domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in
general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions
have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake
during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have
caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an
eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort
lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50
million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200
deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the
1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic meters. VEI0 one prior to 1950; VEI1: 2+1=3 [1967].

The Quaternary Gunung Kendang volcano (also spelled Kendeng) is located immediately north of
Papandayan volcano. Kendang contains four fumarole fields, the most prominent of which is Kawah
Manuk, located in a broad 2.75-km-wide crater-like depression. Thermal activity consists of
fumaroles with sulfur sublimation, mud pots, and hot water pools with occasional mild water
ejections. The Darajat geothermal field is located on the eastern flank of Gunung Kendang. The
geothermal field is located along the Kendang fault, which extends NE to the Kawah Kamojang
geothermal field. The latest eruptions of Kendang volcano produced the very young Kiamis rhyolitic
lava dome and obsidian lava flows. Gunung Kiamis was labeled as Recent on a map of Whittome
and Salveson (1990) and is located 2 km NE of the Darajat geothermal field.


Lamongan, a small 1631-m-high stratovolcano located between the massive Tengger and Iyang-
Argapura volcanic complexes, is surrounded by numerous maars and cinder cones. The currently
active cone has been constructed 650 m to the SW of Gunung Tarub, the volcano's high point. As
many as 27 maars with diameters from 150 to 700 m, some containing crater lakes, surround the
volcano, along with about 60 cinder cones and spatter cones. Lake-filled maars, including Ranu
Pakis, Ranu Klakah, and Ranu Bedali, are located on the eastern and western flanks; dry maars are
predominately located on the northern flanks. None of the Lamongan maars has erupted during
historical time, although several of the youthful maars cut drainage channels from Gunung Tarub.
Lamongan was very active from the time of its first historical eruption in 1799 through the end of the
19th century, producing frequent explosive eruptions and lava flows from vents on the western side
of the volcano ranging from the summit to about 450 m elevation. About 39 VEI2 eruptions are
recorded prior to 1900, with a possible VEI 3 mixed in.
The massive compound stratovolcano Lawu contains an older, deeply eroded volcano on the north
separated by a crescentic rift valley from the younger Lawu volcano of Holocene age (van
Bemmelen, 1949b). Parasitic crater lakes and pyroclastic cones are found at the eastern side of the
rift. The younger Lawu volcano contains eroded crater rims; its latest activity, including construction
of a lava dome, occurred at the south end. A fumarolic area is located on the south flank at 2550 m.
The only reported historical eruption from Lawu took place in 1885, when rumblings and light ashfall
were reported (VEI1). A major eruption reported from Lawu in 1752 was from neighboring Kelut
volcano.
The small Lurus volcanic complex along the northern coast of eastern Java, north of the Iyang-
Argapura massif, produced leucite-bearing rocks followed by later eruptions of andesitic and
trachytic composition. This little known complex was mapped as subrecent-to-recent (Holocene) in
age by van Bemmelen (1949b).




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A group of nine ash cones, maars, and volcanic plugs of subrecent-to-recent (Holocene) age are
found on the Malang Plain, SE and NE of the city of Malang. Some of these may be partly parasitic
to Tengger Caldera, although others have no clear connection to any specific eruption center and
are situated on a distinct N-S zone of tectonic weakness.
Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated
areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. Merapi is the
youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old
Merapi volcano beginning during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about
2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano.
Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to
frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars
accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated
cultivated lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during
historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano
Observatory. VEI 1:1+15=16 [2001, 15 prior to 1950]; VEI2:5+20=25 [1992, 1986, 1972, 1967, 1953;
and 20 prior to 1950]; VEI3: 1+9= 10 [1961, 4 VEI3 and 9 VEI3 or larger prior to 1950]; VEI4:1 prior
to 1950. Of uncertain size prior to 1950 there are 4 (VEI1?); and 6 (VEI2?) and 1 (VEI3?). Eruption
Gunung Merbabu is a massive forested volcano that rises to the north above a broad 1500-m-high
saddle from the renowned Merapi volcano in central Java. The volcano is elongated in a NNW-SSE
direction, parallel to the trend of the long transverse volcanic chain extending from Merapi to
Ungaran volcano. Three prominent U-shaped radial valleys extend from the 3145-m-high summit of
Merbabu toward the NW, NE, and SE, dividing the volcano into three segments. The most recent
magmatic eruptions originated from a NNW-SSE fissure system that cut across the summit and fed
the large-volume Kopeng and Kajor lava flows on the northern and southern flanks, respectively.
Moderate explosive eruptions have occurred from the summit crater of Merbabu in historical time.
VEI2: 1997.

Muria stratovolcano forms the broad Muria Peninsula along the northern coast of central Java and
lies well north of the main volcanic chain. This 1625-m-high volcano occupies much of the peninsula
and is flanked by Genuk volcano, an eroded lava-dome complex near the coast at the northern
base of Muria. Muria (also spelled Muriah) is largely Pleistocene in age and displays deeply eroded
flanks. The summit of the high-potassium volcano is cut by several large N-S-trending craters, some
containing lava domes. Numerous flank vents include lava domes, cinder cones, and maars. The
most recent eruptive activity at Muria produced three maars on the SE and NE flanks and a lava
flow from a SE-flank vent that entered one of the maars. Conflicting late-Pleistocene to Holocene
age dates for these maars leave uncertainties about their ages, but their youthful morphology in
surrounding eroded terrain suggests a probable Holocene age, and they could be as young as
several thousand years.

Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was
breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields.
The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and
Gunung Puntang to the north gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of
collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have
impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically
active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater"). After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of
the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly
3000 persons, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began
in November 2002. VEI 1:1923; VEI2: 2002; VEI3:1772; VEI1? 1942.




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The forested twin volcano Gunung Patuha rises SW of the plain of Bandung. The andesitic volcano
contains two summit craters 600 m apart along a NW-SE line. The NW-most and highest summit
crater is dry, but the SE crater, Kawah Putih, contains a shallow greenish-white crater lake. Kawah
Putih is mined for sulfur. A large debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the volcano
extends to the NE. The volcano was formed during the late Pleistocene, but has a youthful
morphology. No historical eruptions are known from Patuha.
Gunung Penanggungan, one of Java's most revered mountains, is a small stratovolcano
constructed immediately north of the Arjuno-Welirang massif. Lava flows from flank vents descend
all sides of the 1653-m-high volcano and pyroclastic-flow deposits form an apron around it.
Penanggungan was considered to be extinct for at least 1000 years. Its last eruption may have
occurred about 200 AD.

Gunung Perbakti is a deeply eroded stratovolcano situated west of Salak volcano and east of
Kiaraberes-Gagak volcano. The summit ridge of Perbakti is elongated in a NW-SE direction, and
Gunung Endut volcano rises to 1474 m above a saddle SW of Perbakti. Two 2-km-wide
depressions on the northern and southern sides of Perbakti form the headwaters of the Kaluwung
Herang and Pamatutan rivers, respectively. The age of the latest eruptive activity from Perbakti is
not known. Fumaroles, mud pots and hot springs are located on the south and SE flanks.

Pulosari volcano at the western end of Java lies south of the 15-km-wide Pleistocene Danau
caldera. The summit of Pulosari stratovolcano contains a nearly 300-m-deep crater with active
solfataras on its wall. The 1346-m-high basaltic-to-andesitic Pulosari volcano lies across a low
saddle from the higher Karang volcano, which was constructed on the SE rim of Danau caldera.
Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that
was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung
Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent
historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large
debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung
contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung
stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively. VEI1: 8 [1995, 1994, 1993, 1987,
1978, 1975, 1973, 1971]; VEI2: 10+30= 40 [2007, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1991, 1990, 1985, 1977, 1976,
1974, and around 30 prior to 1950]; VEI3:3 +1= 4 [1982, 1956, 1953; and one prior to 1950]. Plus a
VEI4 and a VEI5 prior to 1950. Uncertain size eruptions (VEI2?): 2005, 2000, 1995, 1955; and a
VEI3? prior to 1950.

Salak volcano was constructed at the NE end of an eroded volcanic range. Satellitic cones occur on
the SW flank and at the northern foot of the forested volcano. Two large breached craters truncate
the summit of Gunung Salak. One crater is breached to the NE and the westernmost crater was the
source of a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 10 km WNW of the summit. Historical eruptions
from Gunung Salak have been restricted to phreatic explosions from craters in a prominent
solfataric area at 1400 m on the western flank. Salak volcano has been the site of extensive
geothermal exploration. VEI2: 5 [1938, 1935, 1919, 1902, 1780]




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Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a
volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to
as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung
Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-
filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and
lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of
craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-
moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive
eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.
Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967,VEI3. VEI2:8+47=55 [1950, 1946, 1946
(second event), 1945, 1941, 1913, 1912, 1911, and approx. 47 events prior to 1910].

Slamet, Java's second highest volcano at 3428 m and one of its most active, has a cluster of about
three dozen cinder cones on its lower SE-NE flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank.
Slamet is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on
the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone
on the upper eastern flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km to the east. Four
craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical
eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-
walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally
lasting a few days to a few weeks. VEI1:2 [1999, 1988]; VEI2: [1969, 1967, 1966, 1960, 1958, 1958
(second event), 1957, 1955, 1953, 1951, 1951 (second event), and 24 events prior to 1950]; there
are two events of VEI1? in 1973 and prior to 1950.

Gunung Sumbing is a prominent 3371-m-high stratovolcano that lies across a 1400-m-high saddle
from symmetrical Sundoro volcano in central Java. Prominent flank cones are located on the north
and SE sides of Sumbing, which is somewhat more dissected than Sundoro volcano. An 800-m-
wide horseshoe-shaped summit crater breached to the NE is partially filled by a lava dome that fed
a lava flow down to 2400 m altitude. Emplacement of the dome followed the eruption of extensive
pyroclastic flows down the NE flank. The only report of historical activity at Sumbing volcano, in
about 1730 AD, may have produced the small phreatic craters found at the summit (VEI1).

Gunung Sundoro, one Java's most symmetrical volcanoes, is separated by a 1400-m-high saddle
from Sumbing volcano. Parasitic craters and cones, the largest of which is Kembang, occur on the
NW-to-southern flanks, and all fed lava flows. A small lava dome occupies the summit crater of the
3136-m-high volcano, and numerous phreatic explosion vents were formed along radial fissure that
cut the dome and extend across the crater rim. Lava flows extend in all directions from the summit
crater. Deposits of a large prehistoric debris avalanche are located below the NE flank of Sundoro.
Pyroclastic-flow deposits dated at 1720 years before present extend as far as 13 km from the
summit. Historical eruptions typically have consisted of mild-to-moderate phreatic explosions,
mostly from the summit crater. Flank vents were also active in 1882 and 1903. VEI1: [2002]; VEI2: 8
[1971, 1906, 1903, 1887, 1883 (uncertain date), 1882, 1818, 1806 (uncertain date) ]




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Gunung Talagabodas stratovolcano lies immediately north of the more well-known Galunggung
volcano. Talagabodas, also spelled Telagabodas, is one of the older Quaternary volcanoes in an
arcuate N-S-trending volcano group east of the city of Garut and is built up of andesitic lavas and
pyroclastics. Younger pyroclastics from Gunung Putri-Eweranda overlap the Talagabodas products
in the north. The crater of Talagabodas has shifted 1.3 km north from the summit crater of Canar
and contains a large sulfur-saturated lake. Fumaroles, mud pots, and a warm spring are found
around the lake, which has an elevated temperature. The age of the most recent eruption from
Talagabodas is not known. Changes in lake color occurred in 1913 and 1921, and expanded
solfataric activity was reported in 1927. Suffocating gases have frequently killed animals that have
wandered into the Pajagalan valley on the NE flank and the Kawah Saat geothermal area south of
the crater lake.

Gunung Tampomas, the northernmost young volcano in western Java, is a small andesitic
stratovolcano overlooking the northern coastal plain about halfway between Tangkubanparahu and
Cereme volcanoes. Youthful-looking lava flows are found on the flanks of Tampomas volcano.

Tangkubanparahu (also known as Tangkuban Perahu) is a broad shield-like stratovolcano
overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung that was constructed within the 6 x 8 km
Pleistocene Sunda caldera. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the
mountain of the "upturned boat." The age the caldera-forming eruption exceeds the >40,000 year
range of radiocarbon dating (Newhall and Dzurisin, 1988). The rim of Sunda caldera forms a
prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the caldera rim is largely buried by deposits of
Tangkubanparahu volcano. The dominantly small phreatic historical eruptions recorded since the
19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit
depression. From 1983- 1952 there are 8 VEI1 eruptions; From 1910 to 1826 five VEI2 eruptions;
1929 VEI0; one VEI1? in 1926; 2 radiocarbon eruptions are also in the database.
Telomoyo volcano, also spelled Telemojo, was constructed over the southern flank of the eroded
Pleistocene Soropati volcano and is in part of Holocene age (van Bemmelen 1941). It lies along a
NNW-SSE-trending line of volcanoes extending from Ungaran in the north to Merapi in the south.
The eastern flank of Soropati volcano collapsed during the Pleistocene, leaving a U-shaped
depression. Telomoyo subsequently filled much of the southern side of this depression and grew to
a height of 600 m above its rim.

The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from
Semeru volcano. The massive Tengger volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago
and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes,
pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end
of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley.
The most recent of the Tengger calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of
the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An
overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera
within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active
and most frequently visited volcanoes.VEI1: 5+1=6 [2007, 1995, 1995, 1984, 1983, and one prior to
1950]; VEI2: 7+44= 51 [2004, 2000, 1980, 1972, 1956, 1955, 1950, and approximately 44 prior to
1950 that are historically recorded] ; and two VEI3 prior to 1950.




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Gunung Ungaran volcano, south of the northern coastal city of Semarang, lies at the northern end of
a transverse chain of Java volcanoes extending NNW from Merapi. Ungaran was formed in three
stages, with growth of the youngest edifice taking place during the late Pleistocene and Holocene.
The youngest Ungaran edifice was constructed south of three large remnant structural blocks of the
2nd Ungaran volcano. A group of pyroclastic cones was also constructed along the margins of the
older volcano. Ungaran is deeply eroded and no historical eruptions have been reported, but two
active fumarole fields are located on the volcano's flanks.
Wayang-Windu, the site of a geothermal prospect, is a twin-peaked lava dome of Quaternary age
about 40 km south of Bandung, immediately west of Kamojang volcano. Gunung Wayang, with a
750-m-wide crescentic crater open to the west, contains four groups of fumaroles. Gunung Windu,
1.6 to the SW, has a 350-m-wide crater open to the ESE. The age of the latest eruptive activity from
Wayang-Windu is not known
Gunung Wilis is a solitary volcanic massif surrounded by low-elevation plains on all but its southern
side. It was formed during three episodes dating back to the mid Pleistocene. Following destruction
of the 2nd edifice, the most recent cone grew during the Holocene. No confirmed historical
eruptions are known from Wilis volcano, although there was a report of an eruption in 1641 AD, the
same year as a major eruption of nearby Kelut volcano. Fumaroles and mud pots occur near Lake
Ngebel on the lower western flank of Gunung Wilis.

Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the
eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE
caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks of Agung extend to
the coast. The 3142-m-high summit of Agung contains a steep-walled, 500-m-wide, 200-m-deep
crater. The flank cone Pawon is located low on the SE side of Gunung Agung. Only a few eruptions
dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded from Agung in historical time. Agung's
1963-64 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall and
devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities. VEI 2: 2
[1843, 1808]; VEI5: 1963. Possible eruption, uncertain to occurrence 1821/ VEI2.

The historically active Batur volcano is located at the center of two concentric calderas NW of
Agung volcano. The outer 10 x 13.5 km wide caldera was formed during eruption of the Bali (or
Ubud) Ignimbrite about 29,300 years ago and now contains a caldera lake on its SE side, opposite
the satellitic cone of 2152-m-high Gunung Abang, the topographic high of the Batur complex. The
inner 6.4 x 9.4 km wide caldera was formed about 20,150 years ago during eruption of the
Gunungkawi Ignimbrite. The SE wall of the inner caldera lies beneath Lake Batur; Batur cone has
been constructed within the inner caldera to a height above the outer caldera rim. The 1717-m-high
Batur stratovolcano has produced vents over much of the inner caldera, but a NE-SW fissure
system has localized the Batur I, II, and III craters along the summit ridge. Historical eruptions have
been characterized by mild-to-moderate explosive activity sometimes accompanied by lava
emission. Basaltic lava flows from both summit and flank vents have reached the caldera floor and
the shores of Lake Batur in historical time. VEI1: [1999, 1998, 1994, 1971, 1970, 1966, 1965] VEI2:
4+12=16 [1974, 1972, 1968, 1963, and 12 prior to 1950]; Two other eruptions may have occurred
1976 and earlier; and one additional eruption occurred in 1973 but size is unknown.




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The 11 x 6 km wide Bratan caldera (also known as Catur or Tjatur caldera or the Buyan-Bratan
volcanic complex) in north-central Bali contains three caldera lakes. Several post-caldera
stratovolcanoes straddle its southern rim; the largest post-caldera cone, Batukau, is 10 km to the
SW. The cones are well-formed, but covered with thick soils and vegetation; they are thought to
have been inactive for hundreds or thousands of years (Wheller, 1986). Tapak and Lesong cones
are not covered by deposits of the youngest dacitic pumice eruptions of nearby Batur volcano, and
are thus <23,000 years old. The Buyan-Bratan geothermal field within the caldera has been
developed to produce electrical power, and hot springs are located in more than a dozen locations.

Ebulobo, also referred to as Amburombu or Keo Peak, is a symmetrical stratovolcano in central
Flores Island. The summit of 2124-m-high Gunung Ebulobo cosists of a flat-topped lava dome. The
250-m-wide summit crater of the steep-sided volcano is breached on three sides. The Watu Keli
lava flow traveled from the northern breach to 4 km from the summit in 1830, the first of only four
recorded historical eruptions of the volcano. VEI2: 4 [1924, 1910, 1888, 1830]; Eruptiosn of
uncertain size have also occurred in 1969 (VEI2?), 1941 (VEI0?) and 1938.

Gunung Egon volcano sits astride the narrow waist of eastern Flores Island. The barren, sparsely
vegetated summit region has a 350-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater that sometimes contains a lake.
Other small crater lakes occur on the flanks of the 1703-m-high volcano, which is also known as
Namang. A lava dome forms the southern 1671-m-high summit. Solfataric activity occurs on the
crater wall and rim and on the upper southern flank. Reports of historical eruptive activity prior to
explosive eruptions beginning in 2004 were inconclusive. A column of "smoke" was often observed
above the summit during 1888-1891 and in 1892. Strong "smoke" emission in 1907 reported by
Sapper (1917) was considered by the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van
Padang, 1951) to be an historical eruption, but Kemmerling (1929) noted that this was likely
confused with an eruption on the same date and time from Lewotobi Lakilaki volcano. VEI1: 2
[2005, 2004]; VEI2: 2 [2004, 1888]

Iliboleng stratovolcano was constructed at the SE end of Adonara Island across a narrow strait from
Lomblen Island. The volcano is capped by multiple, partially overlapping summit craters. Lava flows
modify its profile, and a cone low on the SE flank, Balile, has also produced lava flows. Historical
eruptions, first recorded in 1885, have consisted of moderate explosive activity, with lava flows
accompanying only the 1888 eruption. VEI 1:3 [1991, 1991 (second event), 1986 ] Event in 1993
uncertain to date/size, approximately VEI1. VEI2: 16 [1987, 1983, 1982, 1973, 1951, 1950, 1949,
1949 (second event), 1948, 1944, 1927, 1925, 1909, 1904, 1888, 1885]

Ililabalekan volcano is situated on a prominent peninsula in SW Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island.
A satellitic cone was constructed on the SE flank of the steep-sided volcano. Four craters, one of
which contains a lava dome and two small explosion pits, occur at the summit of Mount Labalekan.
No historical eruptions are known from the volcano, although fumaroles are found near its summit.

The broad Ilimuda volcano, located 6.5 km north of Lewotobi Lakilaki volcano opposite Konga bay in
eastern Flores Island, contains a 1-km-wide, 450-m-deep crescentic crater open to the SE. Satellitic
cones, including the Ilibotong lava dome, are located on the lower SE and NE flanks. No historical
eruptions are known from Gunung Ilimuda. A fumarole is located inside the NE crater rim.




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Constructed on the southern rim of the Lerek caldera, Iliwerung forms a prominent south-facing
peninsula on Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island. Craters and lava domes have formed along N-S
and NW-SE lines on the complex volcano; during historical time vents from the summit to the
submarine SE flank have been active. The Iliwerung summit lava dome was formed during an
eruption in 1870. In 1948 Iligripe lava dome grew on the eastern flank at 120 m altitude. Beginning
in 1973-74, when three ephemeral islands were formed, submarine eruptions began on the lower
SE flank at a vent named Hobal; several other eruptions took place from this vent before the end of
the century. VEI0: 1999, 1976, VEI1: 1983, 1952. VE2: 8 [1993, 1973, 1951, 1950, 1949, 1948,
1928, 1910]. VEI3: 1 [1870]

Inielika is a broad, low volcano in central Flores Island that was constructed within the Lobobutu
caldera. The complex summit of the 1559-m-high volcano contains ten craters, some of which are
lake filled, in a 5-sq-km area north of the city of Bajawa. The largest of these, Wolo Runu and Wolo
Lega North, are 750 m wide. The first historical eruption of Inielika, a phreatic explosion that formed
a new crater, did not occur until 1905 and was the volcano's only eruption during the 20th century.
Another eruption took place about a century later, in 2001. A chain of Pleistocene cinder cones, the
Bajawa cinder cone complex, extends southward to Ineri. VEI2: 2 [2001, 1905]

The symmetrical Gunung Inierie volcano in south-central Flores overlooks the Sawu Sea, and at
2245 m is the highest volcano on the island. A small steep-walled crater is oriented E-W
immediately east of the summit of the conical stratovolcano, whose upper slopes are unvegetated.
A somma wall lies west and NW of Inierie (also known as Rokka Peak). A NNW-SSE-trending chain
of volcanoes extends from across a low saddle to the NE of Inierie, including 1400-m-high Wolo
Bobo. These are part of the Pleistocene Bajawa cinder cone complex, which lies north to east of the
volcano. A column of "smoke" is sometimes visible from the crater of Inierie, as occurred in June
1911. The age of the latest eruption of Inierie is not known, although the volcano was mapped as
Holocene, and an eruption of Wolo Bobo was radiocarbon dated at about 10,000 years ago. Hot
springs are located at the northern flank of the volcano, and additional geothermal areas are located
to the east and NE.

Gunung Iya is the southernmost of a group of three volcanoes comprising a small peninsula south
of the city of Ende on central Flores Island. The cones to the north, Rooja and Pui, appear to be
slightly older than Iya and have not shown historical activity, although Pui has a youthful profile (a
reported 1671 eruption of Pui was considered to have originated from Iya volcano). Iya, whose
truncated southern side drops steeply to the sea, has had numerous moderate explosive eruptions
during historical time. VEI1 1971; VEI3: 1969; Possible VEI2 in 1953; and five VEI2 prior to 1900.

Kelimutu is a small, but well-known Indonesian volcano in central Flores Island with three summit
crater lakes of varying colors. The western lake, Tiwi Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is commonly
blue. Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched, or
Enchanted Lake), which share a common crater wall, are commonly green- and red-colored,
respectively, although lake colors vary periodically. Active upwelling, probably fed by subaqueous
fumaroles, occurs at the two eastern lakes. The scenic lakes are a popular tourist destination and
have been the source of minor phreatic eruptions in historical time. The summit of the compound
1639-m-high Kelimutu volcano is elongated 2 km in a WNW-ESE direction; the older cones of
Kelido and Kelibara are located respectively 3 km to the north and 2 km to the south. VEI1: 1968;
VEI2: [1938, 1865 +/- 5 years]




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Leroboleng volcano, also known as Lereboleng or Lewono, lies at the eastern end of a 4.5-km-long,
WSW-ESE-trending chain of three volcanoes straddling a narrow peninsula in NE Flores Island.
The summit of Gunung Leroboleng contains 29 small fissure-controlled craters, two containing
lakes. A small lava dome occupies one of the craters. Most of the craters originated along three N-S-
trending fissures immediately east of the summit of the volcano. The largest crater, 250-m-wide Ili
Gelimun, is located SSE of the summit and fed lava flows from a lower south-flank vent. Explosive
eruptions were reported from Burak crater during the 19th century. VEI3: 2003; VEI2: 3 [1881,1876,
1873]
The Lewotobi "husband and wife" twin volcano (also known as Lewetobi) in eastern Flores Island is
composed of the Lewotobi Lakilaki and Lewotobi Perempuan stratovolcanoes. Their summits are
less than 2 km apart along a NW-SE line. The conical 1584-m-high Lewotobi Lakilaki has been
frequently active during the 19th and 20th centuries, while the taller and broader 1703-m-high
Lewotobi Perempuan has erupted only twice in historical time. Small lava domes have grown during
the 20th century in the crescentic summit craters of both volcanoes, which are open to the north. A
prominent flank cone, Iliwokar, occurs on the east flank of Lewotobi Perampuan. VEI1: [2002, 1991,
1990]; VEI2:10 [2003, 1999, 1971, 1970, 1968, 1939, 1935, 1921, 1914, 1909] VEI3: [1932, 1907].
Prior to 1900 there were 6 VEI2; one VEI3 or larger, and one eruption that is uncertain to
occurrence.
Anchoring the eastern end of an elongated peninsula that is connected to Lembata (formerly
Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus and extends northward into the Flores Sea, Lewotolo rises to
1423 m. Lewotolo is a symmetrical stratovolcano as viewed from the north and east. A small cone
with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano's high
point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1660, have
consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater. VEI2:7 [1951, 1920, 1899, 1864, 1852, 1849,
1819]; and VEI3 or larger 1660.
The Ndete Napu fumarole field, located at 750 m elevation along the Lowomelo river valley in
central Flores Island, originated during 1927-29. In 1932 it contained mudpots and high-pressure
water fountains. The age of volcanism in the Ndete Napu area is not known precisely, but it was
included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang, 1951) based on its
thermal activity.

Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda, forms the 8-km-wide island of Paluweh north of the
volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. Although the volcano rises about 3000 m above the sea
floor, its summit reaches only 875 m above sea level. The broad irregular summit region contains
overlapping craters up to 900 m wide and several lava domes. Several flank vents occur along a
NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption of Paluweh occurred in 1928, when a strong
explosive eruption was accompanied by landslide-induced tsunamis and lava dome emplacement.
VEI1: 1985; VEI2:3 [1984, 1980, 1963]; VEI3: [1972, 1928, 1650 +/-50 years].
Poco Leok volcano in western Flores Island was considered to be an irregularly shaped caldera by
Kemmerling (1929) and the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World. However, the evidence for a
caldera at Poco Leok is problematical. No pyroclastic-flow deposits are associated with the
"caldera," which is poorly known geologically (Casadevall, 1989, pers. comm.). Volcanism is of
Quaternary age (van Bemmelen, 1949b), and four fumarole fields are located at elevations of 825-
1200 m within the depression.
A new lava dome, named Anak Ranakah (Child of Ranakah) was formed in 1987 in an area without
previous historical eruptions at the base of the large older lava dome of Gunung Ranakah. An
arcuate group of lava domes extending westward from Gunung Ranakah occurs on the outer flanks
of the poorly known Poco Leok caldera on western Flores Island. VEI1: 1991; VEI3: 1987; Data
inconclusive for size determination so default value given.




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The Riang Kotang fumarole field is located at the northern foot of Quaternary Ilikedeka volcano near
the eastern tip of Flores Island. Two fumarolic areas occur along the saddle on the northern foot of
the volcano. Hot springs are located along the SW side of Oka Bay on the southern coast and
Hadang Bay on the NW coast.

Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian
volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed
from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-
shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose
crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera.
Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist
of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake. VEI 0:
2 1965, one prior to 1950, and a possible one in 1953 (size uncertain); VEI1 1966, and one possible
VEI 1 (size uncertain) prior to 1950; VEI 2:8 [2004-2005, and seven prior to 1950). Possible VEI 3
(size uncertain) in 1994.
Sangeang Api volcano, one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands, forms a small 13-km-
wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island. Two large trachybasaltic-to-tranchyandesitic
volcanic cones, 1949-m-high Doro Api and 1795-m-high Doro Mantoi, were constructed in the
center and on the eastern rim, respectively, of an older, largely obscured caldera. Flank vents occur
on the south side of Doro Mantoi and near the northern coast. Intermittent historical eruptions have
been recorded since 1512, most of them during in the 20th century. VEI 1: 3 [1957, 1956, 1955];
VEI2:

Wai Sano is a low, elliptical caldera, 3.5 x 2.5 km wide, at the western end of Flores Island. Wai
Sano contains a large caldera lake whose surface is 260 m below the 903 m high point on the
southern caldera rim. The SE caldera wall truncated the slopes of 1632-m-high Gunung Cerak. Two
solfataras are located at the SE shore of the lake. No historical eruptions are known from Wai Sano,
which was mapped as Holocene in age (Ratman and Yasin, 1978).
Sirung volcano is located at the NE end of a 14-km-long line of volcanic centers that form a
peninsula at the southern end of Pantar Island. The low, 862-m-high volcano is truncated by a 2-km-
wide caldera whose floor often contains one or more small lakes. Much of the volcano is
constructed of basaltic lava flows, and the Gunung Sirung lava dome forms the high point on the
caldera's western rim. A number of phreatic eruptions have occurred from vents within the caldera
during the 20th century. Forested Gunung Topaki, the 1390-m high point of the volcanic chain, lies
at the SW end and contains a symmetrical summit crater. VEI1: 3 [1965, 1965 (second event),
1964]; VEI2: 2[1970, 1934]; Possible VEI2 in 1960 and 1953. Three eruptions uncertain to
occurrence, 1927, 1899, 1852.
The poorly known Sukaria caldera in central Flores Island, NE of Iya volcano, is 8 km in diameter. A
750-m-high northern caldera wall rises above the village of Sukaria in the center of the caldera. The
southern caldera wall is very irregular. A small fumarolic area on the western flank contains several
vents that eject geyser-like water columns with a smell of hydrogen sulfide. No historical eruptions
are known from the caldera.




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The massive Tambora stratovolcano forms the entire 60-km-wide Sanggar Peninsula on northern
Sumbawa Island. The largely trachybasaltic-to-trachyandesitic volcano grew to about 4000 m
elevation before forming a caldera more than 43,000 years ago. Late-Pleistocene lava flows largely
filled the early caldera, after which activity changed to dominantly explosive eruptions during the
early Holocene. Tambora was the source of history's largest explosive eruption, in April 1815.
Pyroclastic flows reached the sea on all sides of the peninsula, and heavy tephra fall devastated
croplands, causing an estimated 60,000 fatalities. The eruption of an estimated more than 150 cu
km of tephra formed a 6-km-wide, 1250-m-deep caldera and produced global climatic effects. Minor
lava domes and flows have been extruded on the caldera floor at Tambora during the 19th and 20th
centuries. VEI0: 1967+/- 20 yr; VEI2: 1819; VEI3 1880 +/- 30 years; and 1812 VEI7. Three
previous eruptions are uncertain to size and occure before 1000 AD
The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (fomerly
Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's
Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high
summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing
basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced
explosions and a lava flow. VEI2: 2007 (date uncertain), 1847. 2006 VEI?.

Old sea charts described a reef, presumed to result from a submarine eruption, at a location in the
southern Banda Basin where a 1929 survey showed a depth of 3800 m (Catalog of Active
Volcanoes of the World). A 600-m-high submarine ridge at this location is along trend with a ridge
extending from the active island volcanoes of Batu Tara and Gunungapi Wetar. However, the
existence of a submarine volcano at this location was considered questionable by Jezek


Andesitic eruptions with associated pyroclastic flow and explosive tendency. One past eruption
possibly a VEI3, though not enough data to verify.
The forested andesitic cone has a well-preserved, 400-m-wide crater with a 100-m-high eastern wall and a low western rim. Th
A N-S-trending line of post-caldera cones, explosion craters, and part of an arcuate inner caldera rim form a large peninsula tha

The basaltic-to-dacitic Garbuna volcano group consists of three volcanic peaks, Krummel, Garbuna,
and Welcker. They are located along a 7-km N-S line above a shield-like foundation at the southern
end of the Willaumez Peninsula. The central and lower peaks of the centrally located 564-m-high
Garbuna volcano contain a large vegetation-free area that is probably the most extensive thermal
field in Papua New Guinea. A prominent lava dome and blocky lava flow in the center of thermal
area have resisted destruction by thermal activity, and may be of Holocene age. The 854-m-high
Krummel volcano at the south end of the group contains a summit crater, breached to the NW. The
last major eruption from both it and Garbuna volcanoes took place about 1800 years ago. The first
historical eruption of the complex took place at Garbuna in October 2005. VEI2:1 [2005]; no
additional eruption data of any certainty provided.
No historical eruptions are known from Garove, but the preservation of fresh lava flow structures on the NW coast suggests an
The Garua (Talasea) Harbour volcanic field consists of a group of lava domes and ash cones of possible Holocene age. These
Caldera type though classified as stratovolcano, believed to have numerous small eruptions nothing
historic.




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One of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping
composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano.
Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been
recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit. VEI0:1[1890]; VEI1:18
[2006-07, 2005 (uncertain date), 2002-03, 1971-72, 1970, 1969, 1967, 1964, 1962, 1960, 1958,
1956, 1955, 1955 (second event), 1907, 1900, 1884, 1878], VEI3:2 [1973-2000, 1954]. Three
uncertain events to size or whether occurred: two in 2004 of VEI2; and one in 1942 +/-5 years of
VEI1.
Lava flows evidenced of unknown date.
Plinian flank vent, explosive erutpions and lava flows. This volcano has one historically documented
event: VEI4 [1911-1912]. There is an additional historical record of an unknown size plinian eruption
from 1904-1905; a possible but unverified eruption in 1908; and radiocarbon dating of an eruption
1100+/- 30 years of VEI4.
A cluster of basaltic volcanoes, the largest volcanic center is formed by the western tip of the 7-km-
wide, linear Mundua Island and the arcuate Wingoru Island immediately to the west. The crater of
this volcano is flooded by the sea through narrow channels on the northern and southern sides;
remnants of crater walls form Wingoru island and are exposed at the western tip of Mundua island.
Five small cones occupy the central and eastern sides of Mundua. Two of these have well-
preserved craters and are of Holocene age (Johnson and Blake, 1972).
The small island of Narage is the northernmost of the Witu Islands, which lie north of western New
Britain. Narage is the summit of a Pleistocene stratovolcano that displays strong thermal activity.
Narage was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Fisher, 1957) based on its
geothermal activity. Boiling springs and a geyser are found along the coast; in 1863 a geyser 45 m
high was observed at a sandbank 8 km offshore.
Multiple central vent and explosive eruptions. The gently sloping outer flanks of Witori volcano
consist primarily of dacitic pyroclastic-flow and airfall deposits produced during a series of five major
explosive eruptions from about 5600 to 1200 years ago, many of which may have been assocciated
with caldera formation. The post-caldera cone of Witori, Mount Pago, may have formed less than
350 years ago. Pago has grown to a height above that of the Witori caldera rim. A series of ten
dacitic lava flows from Pago covers much of the caldera floor. The youngest of these was erupted
during 2002-2003 from vents extending from the summit nearly to the NW caldera wall. Historically
VEI3:2 [2002, 1911], VEI2:1 [1933- exact date uncertain]; VEI1:2 [2007, 2004]; and VEI0:1 [1920+/-
2 years]. There are an additional 13 pre-historic eruptions reported, going as far back as 7510 BC
+/- 150. It should be noted that although the following dates are uncertain, the eruption size (with
the exception of the 3680 +/- 100 years) are fairly well documented and indicate higher activity than
has been seen historically. These larger plinian eruptions are VEI 6:3[750AD+/- 75; 1420BC +/- 100;
3680 +/- 100 years] and VEI5:2 [530AD +/- 150; 140AD +/-75]




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The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms
a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield
volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on
the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier
caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui
caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera
rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor
near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed
during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A
powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes
and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city. VEI2: 8 [2005, 2002 (date uncertain),1995,
1943, 1941, 1791(date uncertain), 1767]; VEI 3:1[1878]; VEI 4(?):2-4[2006 (size uncertain), 1994,
1937 (size uncertain)]:3; VEI6: 1 [1940 +/- 4; second one is possible 540 AD+/- 100 yrs through
radiocarbon dating]. Two other event of uncertain sized: 1850 (historical) and 1450 +/- 150
(tephrachronology).
No historical eruptions are known from the Sulu Range, although some of the cones display a relatively undissected morpholog
Not believed to be active currently.
Basalt and andesitic eruptions of earlier explosive behavior and more recently lava flow eruptions.
Most eruptions explosive. VEI1:5 [, 1999, 1994 (date uncertain), 1984, 1983]; VEI2:20 [2007, 2006,
2005 (date uncertain), 2004, 2003 (date uncertain), 2002 (date uncertain), 2001, 1993, 1989, 1973,
1967, 1963, 1960, 1941, 1927, 1919 (date uncertain), 1918 (date uncertain), 1878, 1700];
VEI3:7(2001(date uncertain), 1985, 1980, 1970, 1915, 1989], VEI4:1[2000]; additional possible
eruptions in 1937, 1951, 2007 (VEI1?).
Two uncertain reports of submarine activity NW of Lolobau Island, during 1951 and 1970, cannot be
definitively attributed to volcanic origin.
Two uncertain reports of submarine activity NW of Lolobau Island, during 1951 and 1970, cannot be definitively attributed to vo
The easternmost Agotu Valley contains several small craters, cinder cones, and maars of late-Pleistocene or Holocene age.. S

At the western end of a volcanic chain in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, it is dominated by two
westward-facing escarpments of probable landslide origin. Satellite cones and lava domes occur on
the NE and southern flanks of the dominantly andesitic volcano. There is no evidence for magmatic
eruptions within the last few hundred or possibly few thousand years.

The Hydrographers Range is a forested, deeply dissected andesitic volcanic massif. Most activity
took place during the Pleistocene, but perfectly preserved cinder cones and explosion craters on the
southern side of the range suggested that some activity took place during the Holocene.
Koranga Crater, a Pliocene-to-Holocene hydrothermal explosion vent complex is located in the
Morobe goldfields in the Owen Stanley Range SW of Huon Gulf. Gold mineralization is thought to
have been related to Pliocene maar formation and dacitic and andesitic lava dome extrusion. Gas
emission and a landslide from Koranga in May 1967 were considered to have had either a non-
volcanic or hydrothermal-eruption origin.




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Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano with a 1.3-km-wide breached summit crater containing a
lava dome.Had renowned devastating eruption in 1951, A summit complex of lava domes and
crater remnants rises above a low-angle base of volcaniclastic deposits that are dissected by radial
valleys. A prominent broad "avalanche valley" extends northward from the breached crater. Ash
layers from two early Holocene eruptions at Lamington have been identified. After a long quiescent
period, the volcano sprang suddenly to life in 1951, producing a powerful explosive eruption during
which devastating pyroclastic flows and surges swept all sides of the volcano, killing nearly 3000
persons. The eruption concluded with growth of a 560-m-high lava dome in the summit crater. VEI4
[1951]. Radiocarbon dating of ash also indicates two eruptions possible around 5000BC.
Madilogo is an isolated, well-preserved pyroclastic cone located on the SW side of the Owen
Stanley Range about 50 km NE of Port Moresby. A lava flow extends 1 km to the west from the
breached summit crater. The pyroclastic cone and lava flow were considered on the basis of
revegetation rates and soil profiles to probably be less than 1000 years old and possibly as young
as a few hundred years
Thirty small volcanic centers of late-Pleistocene to Holocene age are located in SE Papua New
Guinea on the Managlase Plateau. The fault-bounded plateau forms a triangular-shaped area
dotted with trachybasaltic lava cones and flows, scoria mounds, cinder cones, and explosion vents
of the Uoivi Volcanics and capped on its eastern side by rhyodacitic ash cones, lava domes, and
ashflow deposits of the Manna Volcanics . The date of the most recent eruption on the Managlase
Plateau is not known, but the trachybasaltic Kururui cinder cone and a nearby explosion crater were
active within memory of nearby villagers.
Hot springs and thermal vents at Musa River are located in metamorphic terrain with no obvious connection to recent volcanic a
A small alkalic andesitic volcanic field, with clear Holocene volcanic activity. Two of the cones north
of the Goropu Mountains display preserved summit craters and were probably active during the
Holocene; other cones may be of Pleistocene age.
The dominantly andesitic Mount Victory stratovolcano occupies the Cape Nelson area on the NE
coast of Papua New Guinea. The only confirmed historical activity of Mount Victory was a long-term
late-19th to early 20th-century eruption that provided a beacon for passing ships. Pyroclastic flows
that destroyed several villages and caused fatalities reached the coast. VEI2:1 [1890- 1935 +/- 5;]
Possible earlier eruption of uncertain size/ date from around 1810, possibly VEI2, data source
uncertain.

Isolated pyroclastic cone formed during 1943-44 [VEI 3] by explosive eruptions through Paleozoic to
pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks. The trachyandesitic volcano was born in an area of the eastern
Papuan Peninsula without previous volcanic activity. Intermittent minor explosions beginning
September 18, 1943 preceded the first major explosion on December 27. Additional large
explosions occurred on February 13 and July 23, 1944, leveling 80 sq km of forest. Following the
final eruption on August 31, the topographically insignificant volcano was capped by a 500-m-wide,
steep-walled crater that is now densely forested and contains a small lake.
Contains a group of andesitic lava domes in the summit area and NW flank. The last significant
eruption occurred about 18,000 years ago, and no direct evidence for Holocene eruptions has been
observed. Weak solfataric activity is present and there was an unverified report from local
inhabitants of an eruption during the early 1940's. Weak fumarolic activity continues in the summit
crater.




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The small 2.4 x 1.6 km island of Bam is the summit of a mostly submerged volcano that is one of
the more active in Papua New Guinea. A steep-walled summit crater that is 300 m wide and 180 m
deep is the source of Bam's recent eruptions, which have kept the upper half of the cone sparsely
vegetated. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1872, have been restricted to small-to-moderate
explosive activity from the summit crater. VEI 1: 1 [1957]VEI2: [1960, 1959, 1958, 1958 (second
event), 1954,1947, 1944, 1909, 1908, 1907, 1874], and VEI3: 2 [1877, 1872 +/- 4] A 1913 event was
uncertain as to size, and 5 additional events may have occurred but are also uncertain, not only to
size but to date as well [1936, 1897, 1888, 1885, 1883].

The small, 3.5-km-wide forested island contains lava flows with well-defined flow fronts. A weak
thermal area is located on the west coast. Most eruptive activity at the andesitic-dacitic volcano
originated from a thickly wooded summit crater about 800 m in diameter, although a lava dome may
be present on a ridge to the west, and a small satellite cone occurs along the SW coast. Reports of
eruptions during historical time are erroneous, but the island may have erupted during the Holocene

The small, 1.4 x 1.7 km Boisa, or Aris Island consists of a large basaltic-andesitic cone with a
summit crater open to the north whose rim extends to the island's east coast. No historical eruptions
or present-day thermal activity have been observed, although the last eruption may have been quite
recent judging by the youthful morphology of the island.
The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of
Holocene age. A 365-m-high lava dome forming the high point of the andesitic volcano fills an
arcuate landslide scarp that is open to the south. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low
cliffs along the coast. No certain historical eruptions are known; the latest activity was a period of
heightened thermal phenomena in 1976.
Karkar is a 19 x 25 km wide, forest-covered island that is truncated by two nested summit
calderas.Most historical eruptions, which date back to 1643, have originated from Bagiai cone, a
pyroclastic cone constructed within the steep-walled, 300-m-deep inner caldera. The floor of the
caldera is covered by young, mostly unvegetated andesitic lava flows. VEI2:4[1895; exact date
uncertain for the following events: 1979, 1974, 1974 (second event)]; VEI3:1[1043 (event may have
been larger than 3). The following events are uncertain to size/date: 1980 (VEI1?),1962 (VEI2?),
1885 (VEI2?), 1830, and six possible events identified by radiocarban between1070 +/- 200AD and
7140BC+/-150.
The broad profile of hexagonal-shaped Long Island is dominated by two steep-sided
stratovolcanoes, Mount Reaumur in the north and Cerisy Peak in the south. Collapse of the basaltic-
andesitic volcanic complex produced a large 10 x 12.5 km caldera, now filled by Lake Wisdom.
Caldera formation occurred during at least three major explosive eruptions, about 16,000, 4000, and
300 years ago. The latter was one of the largest historical eruptions in Papua New Guinea and
deposited andesitic tephra across the New Guinea highlands, prompting legends of a "Time of
Darkness." Post-caldera eruptions have constructed a small cone, Motmot Island, in the south-
central part of Lake Wisdom. Moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the 20th century
from vents at and near Motmot Island. Historical VEI1:2 [1993, 1976]; VEI2:2[1973, 1968]; VE3:2
[1955, 1953]; Two radiocarbon dated large eruptions of VEI6 [1660+/-20 yrs, 2040BC +/- 100 years.]
There are the eruptions that are uncertain to size: 1943, 1938, and 1933; and one eruption that is
uncertain as to size/date/occurrence: 1961.




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The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New
Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the
unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks.
These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic
avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near
the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present;
both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater,
concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley.
Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam
since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that
reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.
VEI1:22 [2003-04, 2003]; VEI2:21 [2002, 2001, 2000, 1965-66, 1963-64, 1963, 1962, 1961, 1959-
1960, 1959, 1954, 1953, 1932-34, 1926-28, 1920 (uncertain date), 1917, 1909-1914 (uncertain end

Prior to 1888, Ritter Island was a steep-sided, nearly circular island about 780 m high. The current
small, 140-m-high island is a topographically insignificant, 1900-m-long arcuate feature between
Umboi and Sakar Islands. Several historical explosive eruptions had been recorded prior to 1888,
when large-scale slope failure destroyed the summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic volcano,
leaving the arcuate 140-m-high island remnant with a steep west-facing scarp that descends below
sea level. Devastating tsunamis were produced by the collapse and swept the coast of Papua New
Guinea and offshore islands. Two minor post-collapse explosive eruptions, during 1972 and 1974,
occurred offshore within the largely submarine 3.5 x 4.5 km breached depression formed by the
collapse. VEI1:2 [1974,1972]; VEI2:2 [1887 (this event the location is uncertain), 1793];VEI3:1[1700
(possibly larger than a VEI3)]. Three additional eruptions with size uncertain include 2007 (VEI1?),
2006 (VEI1?), and 1988 (VEI2?). In addition there are four events that may have occurred but not
verified: 2002 (VEI2?), 1885, 1878, and 1848.
Sakar is an incised stratovolcano with a summit crater lake. An older volcano that forms much of the
island consists mainly of porphyritic basaltic rocks. A younger andesitic cone with a 1.5-km-wide
crater has been constructed within the older volcano's larger crater, whose rim is exposed on the
northern and eastern sides. No historical eruptions are known from Sakar, but warm springs are
found along the SW coast, and a pyroclastic cone on the southern flank of the 8 x 10 km wide island
may be of Holocene age.
Dominantly basaltic-andesitic with no historical eruptions, but activity of the post-caldera cones is
thought to have continued until the last few hundred years
Two reports of submarine disturbances, during 1944 and 1951, constitute the only evidence for a
submarine volcano NE of Karkar Island. The average sea floor depth in this area is 2000 m and it is
not certain that a submarine volcano exists at this location (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the
World).
The possible existence of a now-submerged volcano off the coast of Papua New Guinea is inferred
from oral tradition. Oral accounts from many villages along Madang coast report that the villagers
fled from Yomba Island 8-10 generations ago when the island was destroyed by an eruption
accompanied by a tsunami. The location of the former island is uncertain, but most informants
placed it in the vicinity of the present-day Hankow Reef which lies between Bagabag and Crown
Islands, NW of Long Island.
Central vent and explosive eruptions of unknown size possible; currently has several thermal areas, consisting of hot and boilin
Hydro-thermal activity with fumeroles.
Currently thermal activity.




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The massive Gunung Awu stratovolcano occupies the northern end of Great Sangihe Island, the
largest of the Sangihe arc. Deep valleys that form passageways for lahars dissect the flanks of the
1320-m-high volcano, which was constructed within a 4.5-km-wide caldera. Awu is one of
Indonesia's deadliest volcanoes; powerful explosive eruptions in 1711, 1812, 1856, 1892, and 1966
produced devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused more than 8000 cumulative fatalities.
Awu contained a summit crater lake that was 1 km wide and 172 m deep in 1922, but was largely
ejected during the 1966 eruption.VEI1:1 [1992]; VEI2:6 [2004, 1930 1913, 1893, 1885, 1883] VEI3:2
[1892, 1711]; VEI4: 1966; Additionally, three eruptions with size uncertain: 1856 (VEI3?), 1812
(VEI4?), 1646 +/-5 (VEI2?). Finally there are three eruptions with size/date/occurrence uncertain:
1968 (VEI2), 1699, 1640 (VEI3 or larger).
The Banua Wuhu submarine volcano in the Sangihe Islands rises more than 400 m from the sea
floor to form a shoal less than 5 m below sea level. Several ephemeral islands were constructed
during the 19th and 20th centuries. An island 90 m high was formed in 1835, but dwindled to only a
few rocks by 1848. A new island formed in 1889 was 50 m high in 1894. Five new craters were
formed during an eruption that built a new island in 1904. Another new island that formed in 1919
had disappeared by 1935. VEI2: [1904, 1904 (second event), 1895, 1889, 1835]; VEI3: [1918].
Eruption Uncertain VEI0: [1968].

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The
1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of
Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many
additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active
Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included
frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome
growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced
pyroclastic flows. VEI1:8 [2006, 1998, 1996, 1995, 1989, 1982, 1980, 1979, 1978, ] VEI2:34 [2004
(date uncertain), 1991, 1976, 1970, 1967, 1965, 1962, 1961, 1961 (date uncertain), 1953, 1952,
1949, 1948, 1947, 1942, 1941, 1940, 1935, 1930, 1930 (date uncertain), 1926, 1924, 1922, 1921,
1905, 1900, 1899, 1892 (date uncertain), 1887, 1886, 1883, 1864, 1825, 1712]; VEI3: 2 [1983,
1972]. Size uncertain 1999 (VEI3?); 1675 (VEI3 or larger).

Ruang volcano, not to be confused with the better known Raung volcano on Java, is the
southernmost volcano in the Sangihe Island arc, north of Sulawesi Island. The 4 x 5 km island
volcano rises to 725 m across a narrow strait SW of the larger Tagulandang Island. The summit of
Ruang volcano contains a crater partially filled by a lava dome initially emplaced in 1904. Explosive
eruptions recorded since 1808 have often been accompanied by lava dome formation and
pyroclastic flows that have damaged inhabited areas. VEI1:2 [1889, 1856]; VEI2: 7 [1949, 1914,
1874, 1871, 1840, 1836 (date uncertain), 1808]; VEI3:1 [1870]; Also eruptions in 2002 (VEI4?) and
1904 (VEI3?). One eruption is uncertain as to occurence, 1996.

The small 3.5-km-wide island of Tinakula is the exposed summit of a massive stratovolcano that rises 3-4 km from the sea floo
Thought to be andesitic, formed more recently than Kana Keoki.

Local traditions mention an historical eruption, but this could refer to an eruption from
Savo volcano (1991 pers. comm. from Coleman to R W Johnson). The International
Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (1973) considered
andesitic Mount Esperance to have been active during the past 2000 years.
Thought to be andesitic, formed recently.




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Kavachi, one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, occupies an isolated
position in the Solomon Islands far from major aircraft and shipping lanes. Also referred to as Rejo
te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), is located south of Vangunu Island only about 30 km north of the site
of subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate. The shallow submarine basaltic-
to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first
recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae
(Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier submarine
eruptions. The roughly conical volcano rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and
greater depths to the south. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions
produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs above the
sea surface. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the surface of ephemeral
islands. VEI0:4 [1998, 1972, 1958, 1957]; VEI 1:14 [2007 (uncertain date), 2004, 1999 (uncertain
date), 1999, 1997, 1986, 1985, 1980, 1977, 1977 (second event, uncertain date), 1976, 1975, 1974,
1942 (uncertain date)]; VEI 2:13 [1991, 1982, 1978, 1969, 1966, 1965, 1963, 1962, 1961, 1952,
Nonda volcano, the youngest volcanic feature of Vella Lavella Island, is a lava dome located within
a well-preserved crater. No historical eruptions have been reported, although inhabitants reported
"smoke" and explosive activity in the vicinity of andesitic Nonda Hill at the time of a major
earthquake in 1959. VNonda was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World based
on its geothermal activity. The Paraso thermal area displays solfataras, hot springs, and boiling mud
pots. 6 x 7 km island of Savo consists of a forested andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano with a
The
shallow, elliptical 1 x 1.5 km wide summit crater. Lava domes of historical age are located
on the crater floor and its NE rim, and older domes occur on the flanks of the volcano.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows traveled down valleys from the summit crater to form
debris fans along the coast. Thermal areas located in the summit crater, the south to SE
flanks, and offshore include areas of steaming ground, fumaroles, small geysers, and hot
springs. Spanish explorers arrived in 1568 during the first historical eruption of Savo.
Pyroclastic flows during the climactic phase killed almost all inhabitants of the island, and
oral traditions also note the expansion of the island on the northern side. Other eruptive
episodes occurred during the mid-17th century and during the 1830s to 1840s.Thermal
areas are located in the summit crater, the south to SE flanks, and offshore. Pyroclastic
flows / expansion of the island on the northern side. The 1568 eruption with VEI 3 appears
to be main data for Savo. An eruption 1650+/- 20 years was radiocarbon dated with no
size; an eruption in 1835 +/- 5 years with possible VEI3 is recorded; and a possible
eruption in 1865 +/- 30 years is indicated.
Phreatic?
Thermal plumes, appears to have been formed recently. Considered andesitic.
The compound Ambang volcano is the westernmost of the active volcanoes on the northern arm of
Sulawesi. The 1795-m-high stratovolcano rises 750 m above lake Danau. Several craters up to 400
m in diameter and five solfatara fields are located at the summit. Ambang's only known historical
eruption, of unspecified character, took place in the 1840s.
Colo volcano forms the isolated small island of Una-Una in the middle of the Gulf of Tomini in
northern Sulawesi. The broad, low volcano, whose summit is only 507 m above sea level, contains
a 2-km-wide caldera with a small central cone. Only three eruptions have been recorded in historical
time, but two of those caused widespread damage over much of the island. The last eruption, in
1983, produced pyroclastic flows that swept over most of the island shortly after all residents had
been evacuated. Three eruptions are recorded: 1983 VEI 4; 1938 +/- 10 years VEI1; and 1898
VEI3?.




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Klabat is an isolated symmetrical stratovolcano that rises to 1995 m near the eastern tip of the
elongated northern arm of Sulawesi Island. The volcano lies east of the city of Manado (also spelled
Menado) and is the highest in Sulawesi. Klabat has a shallow lake in its 170 x 250 m summit crater.
No verified historical eruptions have occurred from this volcano, but fumarolic activity has occurred
within historical time. A report of an eruption in 1683 probably was from nearby Tongkoko volcano.
The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among
the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks ( whose summits are
only 2.2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a
400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions
have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between
the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that
have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows
have also occurred. VEI1:6 [2007, 1988, 1973, 1965, 1962, 1949]; VE!2:14 [2002, 2000, 1986,
1975, 1971, 1969, 1966, 1963, 1961, 1958, 1942, 1930, 1893, 1829]; VEI 3:4 [2003, 1991,1951,
1775 +/- 25 years] In addition there is an eruption in or around 1375 +/-25 years of VEI3 or larger.
One eruption in 1984 is uncertain.

The elongated Mahawu volcano immediately east of Lokon-Empung volcano is the northernmost of
a series of young volcanoes along a SSW-NNE line near the margin of the Quaternary Tondano
caldera. Mahawu is capped by a 180-m-wide, 140-m-deep crater that sometimes contains a small
crater lake, and has two pyroclastic cones on its northern flank. Less active than its neighbor, Lokon-
Empung, Mahawu's historical activity has been restricted to occasional small explosive eruptions
recorded since 1789. In 1994 fumaroles, mudpots, and small geysers were observed along the
shores of a greenish-colored crater lake. VEI0: 1[1977] VEI2:3 [1904, 1846, 1789]. In addition
eruptions in 1958 and 1952 are VEI2?; and one eruption of unknown size occured in 1788.
The 1549-m-high Sempu stratovolcano was constructed within the 3-km-wide Sempu caldera.
Kawah Masem maar was formed in the SW part of the caldera and contains a crater lake. No
historical eruptions are known from Sempu. Sulfur has been extracted from fumarolic areas in the
maar since 1938. Possible erutpion in 1819 is uncertain.

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the
northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely
unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at
the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions
has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906
and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924. VEI1:4 [2006, 2005, 1971, and 1
eruption prior to 1970]; VEI2: 23 [2005, 1991, 1989, 1985, 1973, and 18 eruptions prior to 1970];
VEI3: 5[2007 (uncertain to date), 1984, 1982, and 2 eruptions prior to 1970]. In addition, an eruption
in 2004 and second eruption in 2000 may have been VEI3.
Tondano is an approximately 20 x 30 km Quaternary caldera in north Sulawesi containing post-caldera pyroclastic cones, obsid

The NE-most volcano on the island of Sulawesi, Tongkoko (also known as Tangkoko) has a summit
that is elongated in a NW-SE direction with a large deep crater that in 1801 contained a cone
surrounded by lake water. The slightly higher Dua Saudara stratovolcano is located only 3 km to the
SW of Tongkoko, and along with Tongkoko, forms the most prominent features of Gunung Dua
Saudara National Park, a noted wildlife preserve. Eruptions occurred from the summit crater of
Tongkoko in the 17th century and in 1801. The prominent, flat-topped lava dome Batu Angus
formed on the east flank of Tongkoko in 1801, and, along with an adjacent east flank vent, has been
the source of all subsequent eruptions. VEI0:1 [1821]; VEI1:1 [1880]; VEI2:2 [1843, 1801]; There
are three larger eruptions: 1694(VEI3?); 1683 (VEI3 or larger); 1680 VEI5.




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Gunung Besar is a 1899-m-high volcano in SE Sumatra with a minor sulfur deposit in its crater. A
major solfatara field, Marga Bayur, is located along its north and NW flanks along the Semangko
fault system. A minor phreatic eruption occurred in 1940 from Gemurah Ilahan, one of four solfatara
fields of the Marga Bayur field (VEI1).

Dempo is a prominent 3173-m-high stratovolcano that rises above the Pasumah Plain of SE Sumatra. Remnants of 7 craters a
The massive Bur ni Geureudong volcanic complex, one of the largest in northern Sumatra, consists of the two adjacent volcano
Helatoba-Tarutung, located in northern Sumatra south of Lake Toba, is a group of sulfurous hot
springs along a 40-km-long, NNW-SSE-trending stretch of the Renun-Toru fault zone. Adjacent
volcanics are of Pleistocene age (Aspden et al. 1982, Aldiss et al. 1983), but Helatoba-Tarutung
was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang 1951) based
on its geothermal activity.
Hulubelu is an elliptical, 4-km-long caldera or volcano-tectonic depression in SE Sumatra. The
caldera floor, about 700 m above sea level, is surrounded by steep walls. Post-caldera volcanism
formed central cones and basaltic and andesitic flank volcanoes. The age of its latest eruptions is
not known, although solfataric areas, mud volcanoes, and hot springs occur at several locations.
Thermal areas are aligned NE of and parallel to the Great Sumatran Fault, which runs the entire
length of the island of Sumatra.
Huatapanjang stratovolcano, located to the NW of Sumbing volcano, was classified as active by
Rock et al. (1982) and Posavec et al. (1973), with no additional information. Little is known of this
central Sumatran volcano.
Imun is a single small dacitic and/or rhyolitic cone south of Lake Toba with a youthful, undissected morphology, and is consider

Kaba, a twin volcano with Mount Hitam, has an elongated summit crater complex dominated by
three large historically active craters trending ENE from the summit to the upper NE flank. The SW-
most crater of 1952-m-high Gunung Kaba, Kawah Lama, is the largest. Most historical eruptions
have affected only the summit region of the volcano. They mostly originated from the central summit
craters, although the upper-NE flank crater Kawah Vogelsang also produced explosions during the
19th and 20th centuries. VEI1:200 and one prior to 1950; VEI2: [1956, 1952 and 7 prior to 1950]
The Gayolesten fumarole field is located on the flanks of the Pleistocene Gunung Kembar volcano. The Kembar complex, loca
The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatr

The summit of the dacitic Kunyit volcano contains two craters open to the south, the uppermost of
which has a small crater lake. The age of the latest eruptive activity from Kunyit is not known,
although fumarolic activity occurs at the youngest summit crater and on the northern flank.
Lubukraya is a well-defined andesitic stratovolcano of latest Pleistocene to possibly Holocene age with a broad crater breached
Bukit Lumut Balai is a heavily eroded volcano consisting of three eruption centers, two on Bukit Lumut and one on the NE side
Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better-known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's
most active volcano. Marapi is a massive complex stratovolcano that rises 2000 m above the
Bukittinggi plain in Sumatra's Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially
overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit
craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, with volcanism migrating to the west. More than 50
eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the
end of the 18th century; no lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported in historical
time. VEI1: [1984, 1983, 1982, 1982 (second event), and 9 recorded prior to 1980]; VEI2: [2004,
2001, 2000, 1999, 1987, and 14 prior to 1980]; Prior to 1980: VEI2?:25 events ; one VEI0; and one
eruption of unknown size.
Pulau Weh island off the NW tip of Sumatra has been interpreted as the remains of a partially collapsed older center breached

Pendan is a little-known volcano in central Sumatra that is listed as an active volcanic center by Rock et al. (1982) and Posavec
(1973), with no additional information.
Peuet Sague is a large volcanic complex that rises to 2801 m in NW Sumatra. The volcano, whose name means "square," con


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 The Sarik volcanic andesitic/basaltic center consists of two young cones with vegetated, but uneroded surfaces. The andesiti

Seulawah Agam at the NW tip of Sumatra is an extensively forested volcano of Pleistocene-Holocene age constructed within th
Sibayak and Pinto are twin volcanoes within a compound caldera open to the north. The 900-m-wide crater of Sibayak is partia
Sibualbuali is an eroded Pleistocene stratovolcano with two solfatara fields on the eastern flank. Rhyolitic-dacitic lava domes er
Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents
Sorikmarapi is a forested stratovolcano with a 600-m-wide summit crater containing a crater lake and substantial sulfur deposit
Smaller than its prominent namesake on Java, Sumatra's Sumbing volcano has a complicated summit region containing severa
    The 8 x 16 km Suoh (or Suwoh) depression appears to have a dominantly tectonic origin, but contains a smaller complex o
    Talakmau (also known as Talamau) is a massive compound volcano rising above the western coastal plain of Sumatra. Th
    Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW
    Tandikat and its twin volcano to the NNE, Singgalang, lie across the Bukittinggi plain from Marapi volcano. Volcanic activity
The 35 x 100 km Toba caldera, the Earth's largest Quaternary caldera, was formed during four major Pleistocene ignimbrite-pr




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volcano with a large summit crater and several flank vents. Some of these might be of Holocene age (Johnson 1990, pers. comm.). In contra
 of a series of overlapping Quaternary cones formed by rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastic materials on Lou and Tuluman Islands. Volcanism

man Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). T
t continues northward from Sumatra to Burma (Myanmar). The small 3 x 4 km wide conical island, located about 130 km east of North Andam
off the coast of Antarctica's Victoria Land. The islands are located at the southern end of a submarine ridge system that extends north to New
h station on Ross Island. The 3794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The sum
ntarctica's northern Victoria Land. The 2732-m-high glacier-clad stratovolcano lies at the center of a volcanic field containing both subglacial
 everal lava domes and cinder cones with well-preserved craters, rises 500-m above the broad Evans Neve plateau. The Pleiades are locate
uthern Victoria Land. Most vents are of Quaternary age. More than 50 basaltic vents, ranging from tiny scoria mounds to cinder cones up to
 Antarctica's Victoria Land. The 44-km-long island is completely mantled by an icecap and has a prominent summit, Russel Peak, at the nort
a Land near the western coast of the Ross Sea. One lava flow on the southern side of Cosmonaut Glacier, SW of Mount Overlord, spilled on
st of Granite Harbor and north of Ross Island, near the western coast of the Ross Sea. Apparent temperatures above the Curie temperature
a's Victoria Land. Captain Balleny, the discoverer of the islands, reported "smoke" issuing from Freeman Peak on Young Island on February
early 400 small shield volcanoes and explosive vents of Tertiary-to-Holocene age. Volumetrically the vast proportion of volcanic products con




all circular island reaches only 282 m above the sea surface but is the summit of a massive stratovolcano that towers 5000 m above the sea




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ne eruptive centers. The youngest volcanic features, which include the Walilagi Cones, are located at the SE end of the island and may have




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era Island. Jailolo stratovolcano at the center of the complex has youthful lava flows on its eastern flank. Small calderas are located west and




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ate. The basaltic volcano is located near the axis of the East Indian Ocean Ridge adjacent to the Indian Plate. Amsterdam volcano was forme
 ric survey in 1996. The volcano, named Boomerang Seamount, rises to within 650 m of the sea surface and has a 2-km-wide summit calder
 ent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island
 cks. The trachybasaltic-to-trachytic Mount Ross stratovolcano at the southern end was active during the late Pleistocene. The Rallier du Baty
 erguelen Plateau about 75 km west of Heard Island. The largest island, McDonald, is composed of a layered phonolitic tuff plateau cut by ph
  80 km south of Amsterdam Island. St. Paul is composed of a older tuff cone surmounted by a basaltic stratovolcano with a 1.8-km-wide cal




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 and a low western rim. Three large explosion craters occupy the NE flank of Bola. The most recent lava flow issued from the summit crater
m form a large peninsula that nearly bisects the horseshoe-shaped caldera lake. The peninsula includes the 350-m-high andesitic Mount Mak




 the NW coast suggests an age as young as a few hundred years (Johnson and Blake, 1972).
 sible Holocene age. These volcanic vents ring the harbor on the west and form Garua Island to the east. Much of the volcanic field, including




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ely undissected morphology. A vigorous new fumarolic vent opened in 2006, preceded by vegetation die-off, seismicity, and dust-producing l




definitively attributed to volcanic origin.
ocene or Holocene age.. Several small cones, lava domes, and associated lava flows north and NW of the Erun Anticline may in part be Hol




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nection to recent volcanic activity. Basement rocks are metamorphic schists, and Tertiary andesitic volcanics are found less than 1 km away




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consisting of hot and boiling springs, mud pools, and low-temperature fumaroles, are found on the western side of the caldera floor and near




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es 3-4 km from the sea floor at the NW end of the Santa Cruz islands. Tinakula resembles Stromboli volcano in containing a breached summ




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era pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows, and thermal areas. Lake Tondano lies against the well-defined eastern caldera rim. The historically act




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 a. Remnants of 7 craters are found at or near the summit, with volcanism migrating to the WNW with time. The historically active summit cra
 of the two adjacent volcanoes of Bur ni Geureudong and Bur ni Telong. The former is eroded and Pleistocene in age, but has solfataras and




morphology, and is considered to be of late-Pleistocene or Holocene age (Aldiss et al., 1983).




The Kembar complex, located at the junction of two fault systems, is an andesitic shield volcano capped by a complex of craters and cones (
 f the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. T




 ith a broad crater breached to the south and a prominent lava dome at the southern foot of the volcano (Aspden et al. 1982).
 ut and one on the NE side of Bukit Balai, 5 km to the east. Large lava flows occur on the north side of Bukit Balai. The age of the latest erupt




 sed older center breached to the NW and filled by the sea. Pulau Weh was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neuma

 k et al. (1982) and Posavec et al.

name means "square," contains four summit peaks, with the youngest lava dome being located to the north or NW. This extremely isolated v


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ded surfaces. The andesitic-dacitic Gajah center, 10 km to the SW, consists of a single cone with a rubbly lava flow. Both centers were cons

 e age constructed within the large Pleistocene Lam Teuba caldera. A smaller 8 x 6 km caldera lies within Lam Teuba caldera. The summit c
  crater of Sibayak is partially filled on the north by Pinto volcano. A lava flow traveled through a gap in the western crater wall from the summ
 olitic-dacitic lava domes erupted from fissure vents along the Toru-Asik fault to the south are late Pleistocene or possibly Holocene in age an
e migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical andesit
d substantial sulfur deposits. A smaller parasitic crater (Danau Merah) on the upper SE flank also contains a crater lake; these two craters an
mit region containing several crater remnants and a 180-m-long crater lake. Its only two known historical eruptions, in 1909 and 1921, produc
ntains a smaller complex of overlapping calderas oriented NNE-SSW. Historically active maars and silicic domes lie along the margins of the
oastal plain of Sumatra. The andesitic-dacitic volcano is constructed along a NE-SW line, rising to 2912 m, more than 700 m above its twin v
 ity of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang.
 i volcano. Volcanic activity has migrated to the SSW from Singgalang and only Tandikat has had historical activity. The summit of Tandikat h
 r Pleistocene ignimbrite-producing eruptions beginning at 1.2 million years ago. The latest of these produced the Young Toba Tuff (YTT) abo




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ohnson 1990, pers. comm.). In contrast to its neighboring islands to the north, Baluan has erupted basaltic rather than rhyolitic rocks. Sabrom
 Lou and Tuluman Islands. Volcanism is aligned on a curved arc extending through the 12-km-long Lou Island, which may represent an incip

 n Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2250 m. The
ed about 130 km east of North Andaman Island, rises to 710 m, but its base lies an additional 1000 m beneath the sea. The island is densely
dge system that extends north to New Zealand, but is offset by the Indian-Antarctic ridge system. The elongated, 21-km-long island is cappe
udely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic Mount Erebus has been modified by one or two generations of caldera
canic field containing both subglacial and subaerial vents that are situated along a dominantly N-S trend. A large number of scoria cones, lav
eve plateau. The Pleiades are located in the Melbourne volcanic province of Antarctica's northern Victoria Land near the western coast of the
 coria mounds to cinder cones up to 300-m high, occupy the foothills of the Royal Society Range. Tephra layers in the ice of Kempe Glacier,
ent summit, Russel Peak, at the northern end. "Volcanic activity" was reported on a U.S. Navy chart, but no indications of present or past act
er, SW of Mount Overlord, spilled onto the glacier and diverted it, but has not yet been removed by erosion or covered by ice. Nathan and Sc
 atures above the Curie temperature suggested the presence of magma and a Holocene age for the volcano (Behrendt et al., 1987), which is
n Peak on Young Island on February 12, 1839. The initial report of a 12,000 foot volcano on Young Island proved incorrect--the island has a
st proportion of volcanic products consist of flat-lying lava flows, although the most prominent features of the volcanic field are the numerous




o that towers 5000 m above the sea floor. The central crater contains a small cone. Three large landslide scarps, the largest of which forms




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e SE end of the island and may have erupted within the past few hundred years.




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Small calderas are located west and SW of Jailolo. The westernmost caldera, Idamdehe, truncates an older twin volcano of Jailolo. Hot sprin




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Plate. Amsterdam volcano was formed during two episodes of cone growth accompanied by the formation of small calderas. The caldera of t
  and has a 2-km-wide summit caldera that is 200 m deep. Rift zones extend SE and north of the basaltic volcano, giving it an arcuate shape
 Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is kn
  late Pleistocene. The Rallier du Baty Peninsula on the SW tip of the island contains two youthful subglacial eruptive centers, Mont St. Alloua
yered phonolitic tuff plateau cut by phonolitic dikes and lava domes. A possible nearby active submarine center was inferred from phonolitic p
stratovolcano with a 1.8-km-wide caldera. The entire NE half of the volcano was submerged following collapse along a NW-trending fault. Th




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a flow issued from the summit crater and flowed to the west. This viscous flow is at least 50 m thick, leaving an irregularity in the profile of the
the 350-m-high andesitic Mount Makalia stratovolcano, the largest of the post-caldera cones, which last erupted during the late-19th century




. Much of the volcanic field, including the two lava domes on Garua Island, consists of rhyolitic rocks. Active hot springs, boiling pools, fumar




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e-off, seismicity, and dust-producing landslides.




the Erun Anticline may in part be Holocene in age.




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anics are found less than 1 km away.




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ern side of the caldera floor and near the western edge of the central lava dome.




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cano in containing a breached summit crater that extends from the 851-m-high summit to below sea level. Landslides enlarged this scarp in




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stern caldera rim. The historically active andesitic-to-basaltic stratovolcanoes Soputan, Sempu, Lokon-Empung and Mahawu (described else




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me. The historically active summit crater of Gunung Dempo contains a 400-m-wide lake, located at the NW end of the crater complex. Histor
ocene in age, but has solfataras and hot springs on its flanks. The historically active Bur ni Telong volcano was constructed on the southern




 by a complex of craters and cones (Cameron et al. 1982). Gayolesten was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neuma
cted NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lie




Aspden et al. 1982).
ukit Balai. The age of the latest eruption of the volcano is not known, but active fumarole fields are found in two crescentic basins that open t




ctive Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang 1951) based on its geothermal activity. Volcanism was assumed to be of Pleistocene a



orth or NW. This extremely isolated volcano lies several days journey on foot from the nearest village and is infrequently visited. The first reco


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bly lava flow. Both centers were considered to be of Pleistocene or Holocene age (Rock et al., 1983).

  n Lam Teuba caldera. The summit contains a forested, 400-m-wide crater. The active van Heutsz crater, located at 650 m on the NNE flank
he western crater wall from the summit lava dome of Sibayak. Area residents record legends of eruptions. Neumann van Padang (1983) cited
ocene or possibly Holocene in age and are considered part of the Sibualbuali volcanic center (Aspden et al., 1982).
oungest crater of this conical andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. Solfataric activity was
  ns a crater lake; these two craters and a series of smaller explosion pits occur along a NW-SE line. Several solfatara fields are located on th
  eruptions, in 1909 and 1921, produced moderate explosions. Hot springs occur at the SW foot of the volcano. VEI2: 1921, 1909
 ic domes lie along the margins of the depression, which lies along the Great Sumatran Fault that extends the length of the island. Numerous
 m, more than 700 m above its twin volcano Pasaman to the SW, which has its own adventive cone, Bukit Nilam, lying 3.4 km to the SW. Thr
  ese is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Histor
 cal activity. The summit of Tandikat has a partially eroded 1.2-km-wide crater containing a large central cone capped by a 360-m-wide crater
  uced the Young Toba Tuff (YTT) about 74,000 years ago. The YTT represents the world's largest known Quaternary eruption, ejecting abou




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 ic rather than rhyolitic rocks. Sabroma, the elliptical summit crater, has a maximum width of about 1 km. The arcuate rim of the Batapona M
Island, which may represent an incipient caldera ring fracture. The historically active Tuluman Islands, 1.5 km south of Lou Island, were form

 s from a depth of about 2250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. T
eneath the sea. The island is densely vegetated, bounded by cliffs on the southern side, and capped by three peaks. No evidence of historica
ongated, 21-km-long island is capped by an gently sloping icecap that descends steeply to the sea between rocky cliffs. Dark eruption colum
by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3200-m altitude marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which form
  A large number of scoria cones, lava domes, viscous lava flows, and lava fields are exposed at the summit and upper flanks. A number of v
ia Land near the western coast of the Ross Sea. Three nested cones containing distinct craters cap Mount Pleiones. A Potassium-Argon age
a layers in the ice of Kempe Glacier, Potassium-Argon ages as young as 0.08 million years old, and well-preserved geomorphic forms all arg
 no indications of present or past activity were noted in 1959 (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). No detailed geologic studies have b
ion or covered by ice. Nathan and Schulte (1968) inferred a possible age for the lava flow of less than a thousand years.
cano (Behrendt et al., 1987), which is located near the southern end of the submarine Victoria Land Basin.
 d proved incorrect--the island has a broad plateau-like summit reaching 1340 m. The island is almost completely mantled by ice.
  the volcanic field are the numerous small scoria cones, tuff rings, and maars that rise above the lava plain. Several vents were active during




e scarps, the largest of which forms a prominent embayment on the NE coast, cut the flanks of the volcano. The youngest lava flow descend




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older twin volcano of Jailolo. Hot springs occur along the NW coast of the caldera. Kailupa cone forms a small volcanic island off the souther




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on of small calderas. The caldera of the youngest eruptive center, 2 km ENE of the earlier one, contained a lava lake that fed several stages
c volcano, giving it an arcuate shape. Boomerang Seamount lies along the axis of the Southeast Indian Ridge and marks the site of the Ams
 across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Ma
 cial eruptive centers, Mont St. Allouarn and Mont Henri Rallier du Baty. An active fumarole field is related to a series of Holocene trachytic la
 center was inferred from phonolitic pumice that washed up on Heard Island in 1992. Volcanic plumes were observed in December 1996 and
ollapse along a NW-trending fault. This breached the central caldera, leaving an 80-m-deep bay connected to the ocean by a narrow channel




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ving an irregularity in the profile of the volcano. Most recent eruption may have been only a few hundred years ago.
 erupted during the late-19th century. Thermal areas occur at several locations along the central peninsula. Evidenc of a VEI2 and possibly a




ctive hot springs, boiling pools, fumaroles, and mudpots are located in the area.




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el. Landslides enlarged this scarp in 1965, creating an embayment on the NW coast. The satellitic cone of Mendana is located on the SE sid




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mpung and Mahawu (described elsewhere in this compilation) lie astride the poorly defined southern and northern rims of the caldera. The a




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NW end of the crater complex. Historical eruptions have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity that produced ashfall near the
 no was constructed on the southern flank of Bur ni Geureudong, 4.5 km from its summit, and grew to a height of 2624 m, 34 m above that o




ctive Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang 1951) based on its geothermal activity. Active fumaroles and hot springs are present at
lly filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano




d in two crescentic basins that open to the north on Bukit Lumut.




 was assumed to be of Pleistocene age (Bennett et al., 1981), but fumaroles and hot springs are found a NW-E-trending line along the summ



d is infrequently visited. The first recorded historical eruption took place from 1918-21, when explosive activity and pyroclastic flows accompa


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r, located at 650 m on the NNE flank of Suelawah Agam, is one of several areas containing active fumarole fields. Sapper (1927) and the Ca
s. Neumann van Padang (1983) cited a report by Hoekstra of ash clouds that were emitted from the volcano in 1881 (VEI unknown).

ummit craters. Solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912, although no historical eruptions have been r
 eral solfatara fields are located on the eastern flank. Phreatic eruptions have occurred from summit and flank vents during the 19th and 20th
olcano. VEI2: 1921, 1909
 s the length of the island. Numerous hot springs occur along faults within the depression, which contains the Pematang Bata fumarole field.
 it Nilam, lying 3.4 km to the SW. Three craters along the same NE-SW trend occur at the summit of Talakmau; the NE-most and highest cra
 volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity fir
cone capped by a 360-m-wide crater with a small crater lake. The only three reported historical eruptions, in the late 19th and early 20th cen
n Quaternary eruption, ejecting about 2500-3000 cu km (dense rock equivalent) of ignimbrite and airfall ash from vents at the NW and SE en




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. The arcuate rim of the Batapona Mountain pyroclastic cone is prominent at the north edge of the island. Several small islands consisting of
.5 km south of Lou Island, were formed during a 1953-1957 eruption. Pam Lin and Pam Mandian Islands farther to the SE along the same a

  caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the west, was created during a major explosive eruption in the
three peaks. No evidence of historical volcanism is present, although the summit region is less densely vegetated. Volcanism at the andesiti
 een rocky cliffs. Dark eruption columns were reported during 1839 and 1899, but no detailed geological studies exist for Balleny Islands volc
m of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 6
mmit and upper flanks. A number of very young-looking cones are located at the summit and on the flanks. Tephra layers are found within an
unt Pleiones. A Potassium-Argon age of 3000 years was obtained from the Taygete cone NNE of Mount Pleiones, and the Pleiades appear t
 -preserved geomorphic forms all argued for young, possibly even Holocene ages (LeMasurier and Thomson 1990).
. No detailed geologic studies have been conducted in the inaccessible Balleny Islands.
 thousand years.

ompletely mantled by ice.
 ain. Several vents were active during the Holocene; another vent (Mount Tower) is now considered to be of late-Pleistocene age. Late-Pleist




ano. The youngest lava flow descended the SW flank to the coast. Explosive eruptions in 1512 and 1699 mark the only known historical activ




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small volcanic island off the southern coast of the peninsula. Hot mudflows were reported from Jailolo volcano shortly prior to 1883, but no e




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d a lava lake that fed several stages of lava outflows. Minor late-stage eruptions formed more than two dozen scoria cones and many small
Ridge and marks the site of the Amsterdam-St. Paul hotspot. This hotspot may have been the source of the Ninetyeast Ridge submarine vol
e ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the
d to a series of Holocene trachytic lava flows and lahars that extend beyond the icecap (Ballestracci and Nougier, 1984). Gagnevin et al. (20
ere observed in December 1996 and January 1997 from McDonald Island. During March of 1997 the crew of a vessel that sailed near the isl
 ed to the ocean by a narrow channel only a few meters deep. Geothermal areas are located near the 268-m-high caldera rim and along the




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ula. Evidenc of a VEI2 and possibly an earlier VEI6.




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of Mendana is located on the SE side. The dominantly andesitic Tinakula volcano has frequently been observed in eruption since the era of




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d northern rims of the caldera. The age of the latest eruptions within the caldera is not known, although thermal areas occur at Batu Kolok an




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activity that produced ashfall near the volcano. VEI1: [1994, and 2 prior to 1950]; VEI2: [1974, 1973, 1964, and 18 prior to 1950]; and one rec
 height of 2624 m, 34 m above that of Geureudong. The summit crater of Bur ni Telong has migrated to the ESE, leaving arcuate crater rims




aroles and hot springs are present at several locations.
he massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active




 NW-E-trending line along the summit of the island and near the western shore of Lhok Perialakot bay on the northern side of the island.



ctivity and pyroclastic flows accompanied summit lava-dome growth. The historically active crater is located SE of the Gunung Tutung lava d


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 role fields. Sapper (1927) and the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW) reported an explosive eruption in the early 16th century
cano in 1881 (VEI unknown).

h no historical eruptions have been recorded.
 flank vents during the 19th and 20th centuries. VEI1: 1986; VEI2: 1970, 1917, 1893, 1892, 1879, 1829

s the Pematang Bata fumarole field. Large phreatic explosions (0.2 cu km tephra) occurred at the time of a major tectonic earthquake in 193
akmau; the NE-most and highest crater is filled by a lava dome. Reports of historical eruptions, including one with rumblings and "smoke" em
mall-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper
s, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, produced only mild explosive activity. VEI1: [1924, 1914, 1889]
ash from vents at the NW and SE ends of present-day Lake Toba. Resurgent doming forming the massive Samosir Island and Uluan Penin




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d. Several small islands consisting of cone remnants are located within a kilometer of the north coast. Warm springs occur along the coast. T
 s farther to the SE along the same arc contain fresh rhyolitic obsidian similar to that found on Tuluman. VEI2: 1953, 1883

ng a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclas
vegetated. Volcanism at the andesitic volcano is considered to have continued into the Holocene (Krishnan, 1957). The island's name mean
 studies exist for Balleny Islands volcanoes. VEI2: [1899, 1839]
was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wi
ks. Tephra layers are found within and on top of ice layers, and the most recent eruption may have been only a few hundred years ago. The v
 Pleiones, and the Pleiades appear to be among the youngest volcanic centers in Antarctica. Other dates of 12-40,000 years support a youth




e of late-Pleistocene age. Late-Pleistocene to Holocene eruptions are characterized by small volume and low explosivity, forming a series of




9 mark the only known historical activity of Gunungapi Wetar; VEI3 or larger.




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olcano shortly prior to 1883, but no eruptions are known during historical time.




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dozen scoria cones and many small lava flows. No historical eruptions are known, although the fresh morphology of the latest volcanism at D
  the Ninetyeast Ridge submarine volcanoes on the Australian Plate prior to its "capture" by the Southeast Indian Ridge, after which volcanism
 -6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subg
d Nougier, 1984). Gagnevin et al. (2003) dated a trachytic ignimbrite that was considered to represent the last major eruptive event on the Ke
ew of a vessel that sailed near the island noted vigorous steaming from a vent at the northern side of the island along with possible pyroclast
68-m-high caldera rim and along the margins of the caldera bay. The only recorded historical eruption took place in 1793 from a vent on the l




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observed in eruption since the era of Spanish exploration began in 1595. In about 1840, an explosive eruption apparently produced pyroclast




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hermal areas occur at Batu Kolok and Sarangson, and at the Tampusu cinder cone and Lahendong maar.




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4, and 18 prior to 1950]; and one recorded VEI0 prior to 1950.
the ESE, leaving arcuate crater rims. Lava flows are exposed on the southern flank. Explosive eruptions were recorded during the 19th and




 a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded




on the northern side of the island.



ated SE of the Gunung Tutung lava dome and has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions.[VEI1: [199, 1998]; VEI2: [2000,


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 ive eruption in the early 16th century, and the CAVW also listed an eruption from the van Heutsz crater in 1839. Rock et al. (1982) found no




of a major tectonic earthquake in 1933 [VEI4]. Very minor hydrothermal explosions produced two 5-m-wide craters at the time of a February 1
g one with rumblings and "smoke" emission in 1937, are considered doubtful, but eruptive activity has occurred during the Holocene.
small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank. VEI1: [2006, 2001, 1967]; VEI2 [2007, 2007 (second event), 2005, 1968, 1963 and 4 events p

 ive Samosir Island and Uluan Peninsula structural blocks postdated eruption of the YTT. Additional post-YTT eruptions include emplacemen




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arm springs occur along the coast. The only historical activity is an uncertain report of a submarine eruption near the island in 1931.
VEI2: 1953, 1883

 The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical erupt
nan, 1957). The island's name means "pit of hell," although the name could have been mistakenly transferred from the historically active Barr

an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain Ja
 only a few hundred years ago. The volcano displays fumarolic activity that is concentrated along a NNE-SSW line cutting through the summ
es of 12-40,000 years support a youthful age despite the large analytical uncertainties.




 d low explosivity, forming a series of scoria cones, maars, tuff rings, and major valley filling lava flows. The youngest dated eruptions took pl




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orphology of the latest volcanism at Dumas Crater on the NE flank suggests it may have occurred as recently as a century ago (Nougier, 198
st Indian Ridge, after which volcanism was restricted to the Antarctic Plate. Very short half-life radionuclide dating of fresh volcanic glass sam
 on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infreq
e last major eruptive event on the Kerguelen Archipelago at 26,000 +/- 3000 years.
e island along with possible pyroclastic deposits and lava flows. A satellite image taken in November 2001 showed the island to have more th
ok place in 1793 from a vent on the lower SW flank.VEI2: 1973.




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uption apparently produced pyroclastic flows that swept all sides of the island, killing its inhabitants. Frequent historical eruptions have origina




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 were recorded during the 19th and 20th centuries. VEI2: [1919, 1856, 1839, 1837]; unknown size in 1937.




osive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. VEI1: 1996, and one prior to 1950; VEI2: [2004, 2001, 1999, 1990, 1969, 1968, 1967




ions.[VEI1: [199, 1998]; VEI2: [2000, 1991, 1986, 1979, 1918]


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in 1839. Rock et al. (1982) found no evidence for historical eruptions. However the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia noted that although n




de craters at the time of a February 1994 earthquake.
ccurred during the Holocene.
nt), 2005, 1968, 1963 and 4 events prior to 1900]

t-YTT eruptions include emplacement of a series of lava domes, growth of the solfatarically active Pusukbukit volcano on the south margin o




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 tion near the island in 1931.


d during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during
 erred from the historically active Barren Island volcano, 140 km to the SSW.

 ting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger
 -SSW line cutting through the summit area and along a line of phreatomagmatic craters on the southern rim of the summit crater. Prominen




The youngest dated eruptions took place at Mount Schank and Mount Gambier about 5000 years ago, when explosive activity formed severa




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 ently as a century ago (Nougier, 1982).
 de dating of fresh volcanic glass samples recovered during the 1996 expedition indicated that Boomerang Seamount had erupted only abou
d volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred. VEI0: [2006, 2003, 1992]; VEI2: [2000, 1954, 1953, 195

01 showed the island to have more than doubled in area since previous reported observations in November 2000. The high point of the island




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uent historical eruptions have originated from a cone constructed within the large breached crater. These have left the upper flanks of the vo




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2001, 1999, 1990, 1969, 1968, 1967, 1966, 1964, 1963, 1960, 1952 and 7 eruptions recorded prior to 1950]; VEI2?: five eruptions, one in 19




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ey of Indonesia noted that although no historical eruptions have occurred from the main cone, the reported NNE-flank explosive activity may




kbukit volcano on the south margin of the caldera, and formation of Tandukbenua volcano at the NW-most rim of the caldera. Lack of vegeta




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 sea along the western coast during historical eruptions. VEI2: [2005, and 4 prior to 1850]; VEI3: [1994, 1991]; VEI2? one prior to 1850.


ons, punctuated by occasional larger strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has
n rim of the summit crater. Prominent ice towers and pinnacles were formed from steam condensation around fumarolic vents.




hen explosive activity formed several maars and associated lava flows.




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ng Seamount had erupted only about 5 months earlier (Johnson et al., 2000). Water column temperature anomalies above the seamount su
1992]; VEI2: [2000, 1954, 1953, 1950, 1910]; VEI2? [1993, 1985]

ber 2000. The high point of the island group had shifted to the northern end of McDonald Island, which had merged with Flat Island. VEI0:[ 2




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e have left the upper flanks of the volcano and the steep apron of lava flows and volcaniclastic debris within the breach unvegetated. VEI1: [




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950]; VEI2?: five eruptions, one in 1998 and 4 prior to 1950.




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ed NNE-flank explosive activity may have been hydrothermal and not have involved new magmatic activity. VEI2: [1939, 1510 +/-10 years]




ost rim of the caldera. Lack of vegetation suggests that this volcano may be only a few hundred years old (Chesner and Rose, 1991).




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1991]; VEI2? one prior to 1850.


een documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history. VEI0: [196
round fumarolic vents.




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e anomalies above the seamount suggest the presence of hydrothermal activity within the caldera. VEI0: 1995


had merged with Flat Island. VEI0:[ 2005, 1992]; VEI1? [2001, 1996];




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ithin the breach unvegetated. VEI1: [2002, 1989] VEI2: [2006, 1984, 1971, and 5 events prior to 191




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ity. VEI2: [1939, 1510 +/-10 years]




d (Chesner and Rose, 1991).




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Fentale                     LOCATION                        STATUS         LATITUDE NS    LONGITUDE
Acigöl-Nevsehir             Turkey                          Anthropology      38.57 N        34.52
Adwa                        Ethiopia                        Holocene          10.07 N        40.84
Afderà                      Ethiopia                        Holocene?         13.08 N        40.85
Agua de Pau                 Azores and Madeira              Historical        37.77 N        25.47
Alayta                      Ethiopia                        Historical        12.88 N        40.57
Alban Hills                 Italy                           Holocene?         41.73 N         12.7
Ale Bagu                    Ethiopia                        Holocene          13.52 N        40.63
Alid                        Ethiopia                        Holocene          14.88 N        39.92
Alu                         Ethiopia                        Holocene          13.82 N        40.55
Alutu                       Ethiopia                        Radiocarbon        7.77 N        38.78
Ambre-Bobaomby              Madagascar                      Holocene           12.6 S        49.15
Ankaizina Field             Madagascar                      Holocene           14.3 S        48.67
Ankaratra Field             Madagascar                      Holocene           19.4 S         47.2
Aragats                     Armenia                         Holocene          40.53 N         44.2
Ararat                      Turkey                          Historical         39.7 N         44.3
Ardoukôba                   Djibouti                        Historical        11.58 N        42.47
Arhab, Harra of             Arabia-S                        Historical        15.63 N        44.08
Asavyo                      Ethiopia                        Holocene          13.07 N         41.6
Ascensión                   Atlantic-C                      Holocene           7.95 S        14.37
Assab Volc Field            Ethiopia                        Holocene          12.95 N        42.43
Atakor Volc Field           Africa-N
Ayelu                       Ethiopia                        Holocene        10.082    N     40.702
Bal Haf, Harra of           Arabia-S                        Holocene         14.05    N      48.33
Barrier, The                Africa-E                        Historical        2.32    N      36.57
Bayuda Volc Field           Africa-N                        Radiocarbon      18.33    N      32.75
Bazman                      Iran                            Fumarolic        28.07    N         60
Beru                        Ethiopia                        Holocene          8.95    N      39.75
Bilate River Field          Ethiopia                        Holocene          7.07    N       38.1
Bir Borhut                  Arabia-S                        Holocene?        15.55    N      50.63
Birk, Harrat al             Arabia-W                        Holocene         18.37    N      41.63
Bishoftu Volc Field         Ethiopia                        Holocene          8.78    N      38.98
Biu Plateau                 Africa-W                        Holocene?        10.75    N         12
Bora-Bericcio               Ethiopia                        Holocene          8.27    N      39.03
Borale Ale                  Ethiopia                        Holocene        13.725    N       40.6
Borawli                     Ethiopia                        Holocene         11.63    N      41.45
Borawli                     Ethiopia                        Holocene          13.3    N      40.98
Boset-Bericha               Ethiopia                        Holocene         8.558    N     39.475
Bouvet                      Atlantic-S                      Magnetism        54.42    S       3.35
Brava                       Cape Verde Is                   Holocene         14.85    N      24.72
Bufumbira                   Africa-C                        Holocene?         1.23    S      29.72
Bunyaruguru Field           Africa-C                        Holocene            0.2   S      30.08
Butajiri-Silti Field        Ethiopia                        Holocene          8.05    N      38.35
Calatrava Volc Field        Spain
Cameroon                    Africa-W                        Historical       4.203    N       9.17
Campi Flegrei               Italy                           Historical      40.827    N     14.139
Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia   Italy                           Historical        37.1    N       12.7
Central Island              Africa-E                        Holocene            3.5   N     36.042
Chaîne des Puys             France                          Radiocarbon     45.775    N       2.97
Chiracha                    Ethiopia                        Holocene?         6.65    N      38.12
Chyulu Hills                Africa-E                        Anthropology      2.68    S      37.88
Cochons, Ile aux            Indian O.-S                     Holocene          46.1    S      50.23


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Corbetti Caldera          Ethiopia                        Holocene             7.18    N    38.43
Corvo                     Azores and Madeira              Holocene           39.699    N   31.111
Dabbahu                   Ethiopia                        Historical           12.6    N    40.48
Dabbayra                  Ethiopia                        Holocene            12.38    N    40.07
Dacht-i-Navar Group       Afghanistan                     Holocene?           33.95    N    67.92
Dalaffilla                Ethiopia                        Holocene           13.792    N    40.55
Dallol                    Ethiopia                        Historical         14.242    N     40.3
Dama Ali                  Ethiopia                        Historical          11.28    N    41.63
Damavand                  Iran                            Holocene           35.951    N   52.109
Dar-Alages                Armenia                         Anthropology         39.7    N   45.542
Dhamar, Harras of         Arabia-S                        Historical          14.57    N    44.67
Dofen                     Ethiopia                        Holocene             9.35    N    40.13
Don Joao de Castro Bank   Azores and Madeira              Historical          38.23    N    26.63
Druze, Jabal ad           Syria                           Holocene           32.658    N   36.425
Dubbi                     Ethiopia (Eritrea)              Historical          13.58    N   41.808
East Zway                 Ethiopia                        Holocene             7.95    N    38.93
Eburru, Ol Doinyo         Africa-E                        Holocene             0.65    S    36.22
Elbrus                    Russia-SW                       Tephrochronology    43.33    N    42.45
Elmenteita Badlands       Africa-E                        Holocene             0.52    S    36.27
Emuruangogolak            Africa-E                        Radiocarbon            1.5   N    36.33
Erciyes Dagi              Turkey                          Holocene?           38.52    N    35.48
Erta Ale                  Ethiopia                        Historical           13.6    N    40.67
Es Safa                   Syria                           Historical         33.308    N   37.308
Est, Ile de l'            Indian O.-S                     Holocene?           46.43    S     52.2
Etna                      Italy                           Historical         37.734    N   15.004
Fayal                     Azores and Madeira              Historical           38.6    N    28.73
Fentale                   Ethiopia                        Historical          8.975    N    39.93
Flores                    Azores and Madeira              Radiocarbon        39.462    N   31.216
Fogo                      Cape Verde Is                   Historical          14.95    N    24.35
Fort Portal Field         Africa-C                        Holocene               0.7   N    30.25
Fournaise, Piton de la    Indian O.-W                     Historical         21.231    S   55.713
Fuerteventura             Canary Is                       Holocene           28.358    N    14.02
Furnas                    Azores and Madeira              Historical          37.77    N    25.32
Gabillema                 Ethiopia                        Holocene            11.08    N    41.27
Gada Ale                  Ethiopia                        Holocene           13.975    N   40.408
Gedamsa Caldera           Ethiopia                        Holocene             8.35    N    39.18
Ghegam Ridge              Armenia                         Anthropology       40.275    N    44.75
Girekol                   Turkey                          Holocene            39.17    N    43.33
Göllü Dag                 Turkey                          Holocene?           38.25    N    34.57
Graciosa                  Azores and Madeira              Holocene            39.02    N    27.97
Gran Canaria              Canary Is                       Radiocarbon             28   N    15.58
Grille, La                Indian O.-W                     Holocene            11.47    S    43.33
Groppo                    Ethiopia                        Holocene            11.73    N    40.25
Gufa                      Ethiopia                        Holocene            12.55    N    42.53
Hanish                    Red Sea                         Holocene            13.72    N    42.73
Harrah, Al                Arabia-W                        Holocene            31.08    N    38.42
Haruj                     Africa-N                        Holocene            27.25    N     17.5
Hasan Dagi                Turkey                          Anthropology        38.13    N    34.17
Haylan, Jabal             Arabia-S                        Anthropology        15.43    N    44.78
Hayli Gubbi               Ethiopia                        Holocene             13.5    N    40.72
Hertali                   Ethiopia                        Holocene             9.78    N    40.33
Hierro                    Canary Is                       Radiocarbon         27.73    N    18.03


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Hobicha Caldera         Ethiopia                        Holocene?              6.78 N       37.83
Homa Mountain           Africa-E                        Holocene               0.38 S        34.5
Igwisi Hills            Africa-E                        Holocene               4.87 S       31.92
In Ezzane Volc Field    Africa-N
Ischia                  Italy                           Historical            40.73    N   13.897
Itasy Volc Field        Madagascar                      Radiocarbon               19   S    46.77
Ithnayn, Harrat         Arabia-W                        Holocene              26.58    N     40.2
Izumbwe-Mpoli           Africa-E                        Holocene               8.93    S     33.4
Jalua                   Ethiopia                        Holocene             15.042    N    39.82
Kabargin Oth Group      Georgia                         Holocene              42.55    N       44
Karaca Dag              Turkey                          Holocene              37.67    N    39.83
Karapinar Field         Turkey                          Holocene              37.67    N    33.65
Karisimbi               Africa-C                        Potassium-Argon          1.5   S    29.45
Kars Plateau            Turkey                          Holocene?             40.75    N     42.9
Karthala                Indian O.-W                     Historical            11.75    S    43.38
Kasbek                  Georgia                         Tephrochronology       42.7    N     44.5
Katunga                 Africa-C                        Holocene              0.471    S   30.191
Katwe-Kikorongo Field   Africa-C                        Holocene               0.08    S    29.92
Khaybar, Harrat         Arabia-W                        Historical                25   N    39.92
Kieyo                   Africa-E                        Historical             9.23    S    33.78
Kilimanjaro             Africa-E                        Holocene               3.07    S    37.35
Kishb, Harrat           Arabia-W                        Holocene               22.8    N    41.38
Kone                    Ethiopia                        Historical               8.8   N   39.692
Korath Range            Ethiopia                        Holocene?                5.1   N    35.88
Korosi                  Africa-E                        Holocene               0.77    N    36.12
Kos                     Greece                          Pleistocene-Fumarolic36.852    N   27.251
Koussi, Emi             Africa-N                        Holocene               19.8    N    18.53
Kula                    Turkey                          Holocene              38.58    N    28.52
Kunlun Volc Group       China-W                         Historical            35.52    N     80.2
Kurub                   Ethiopia                        Holocene              11.88    N   41.208
Kutum Volc Field        Africa-N                        Holocene?             14.57    N    25.85
Kyatwa Volc Field       Africa-C                        Holocene?              0.45    N    30.25
La Palma                Canary Is                       Historical            28.57    N    17.83
Lanzarote               Canary Is                       Historical            29.03    N    13.63
Larderello              Italy                           Historical            43.25    N    10.87
Lengai, Ol Doinyo       Africa-E                        Historical            2.764    S   35.914
Liado Hayk              Ethiopia                        Holocene?              9.57    N    40.28
Lipari                  Italy                           Historical            38.48    N    14.95
Longonot                Africa-E                        Anthropology          0.914    S   36.446
Lunayyir, Harrat        Arabia-W                        Historical            25.17    N    37.75
Ma Alalta               Ethiopia                        Holocene              13.02    N     40.2
Madeira                 Azores and Madeira              Radiocarbon           32.73    N    16.97
Mallahle                Ethiopia                        Holocene?             13.27    N    41.65
Manda Hararo            Ethiopia                        Historical            12.17    N    40.82
Manda-Inakir            Ethiopia                        Historical            12.38    N     42.2
Manengouba              Africa-W                        Holocene?              5.03    N     9.83
Manzaz Vol. Field       Africa-N                        Holocene              23.92    N     5.83
Marha, Jabal el-        Arabia-S                        Holocene              15.28    N    44.22
Marion Island           Indian O.-S                     Historical             46.9    S    37.75
Marra, Jebel            Africa-N                        Radiocarbon           12.95    N    24.27
Marsabit                Africa-E                        Holocene?              2.32    N    37.97
Mat Ala                 Ethiopia                        Holocene               13.1    N    41.15


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May-ya-moto             Africa-C                        Fumarolic            0.93    S    29.33
Mega Basalt Field       Ethiopia                        Holocene             4.08    N    37.42
Meidob Volc Field       Africa-N                        Holocene            15.32    N    26.47
Menengai                Africa-E                        Tephrochronology       0.2   S    36.07
Meru                    Africa-E                        Historical           3.25    S    36.75
Methana                 Greece                          Historical         37.615    N   23.336
Mílos                   Greece                          Radiocarbon        36.699    N   24.439
Monaco Bank             Azores and Madeira              Historical           37.6    N    25.88
Mousa Alli              Ethiopia                        Holocene            12.47    N     42.4
Muhavura                Africa-C                        Holocene             1.38    S    29.67
Nabro                   Ethiopia (Eritrea)              Holocene?           13.37    N     41.7
Namarunu                Africa-E                        Tephrochronology     1.98    N    36.43
Nemrut Dagi             Turkey                          Historical          38.65    N    42.23
Ngaoundere Plateau      Africa-W                        Holocene?            7.25    N    13.67
Ngozi                   Africa-E                        Holocene             8.97    S    33.57
Nisyros                 Greece                          Historical         36.586    N    27.16
North Island            Africa-E                        Holocene             4.07    N    36.05
Nosy-Be                 Madagascar                      Holocene            13.32    S    48.48
Nyambeni Hills          Africa-E                        Holocene             0.23    N    37.87
Nyamuragira             Africa-C                        Historical          1.408    S     29.2
Nyiragongo              Africa-C                        Historical           1.52    S    29.25
O'a Caldera             Ethiopia                        Holocene             7.47    N    38.58
Oku Volc Field          Africa-W                        Uncertain            6.25    N     10.5
Ol Kokwe                Africa-E                        Holocene             0.62    N   36.075
Olkaria                 Africa-E                        Radiocarbon         0.904    S   36.292
Olot Volc Field         Spain                           Holocene?           42.17    N     2.53
Paka                    Africa-E                        Ar/Ar                0.92    N    36.18
Pantelleria             Italy                           Historical          36.77    N    12.02
Pico                    Azores and Madeira              Historical          38.47    N     28.4
Picos Volc System       Azores and Madeira              Historical          37.78    N    25.67
Porak                   Armenia                         Anthropology        40.02    N    45.78
Possession, Ile de la   Indian O.-S                     Holocene            46.42    S    51.75
Prince Edward Island    Indian O.-S                     Holocene            46.63    S    37.95
Qal'eh Hasan Ali        Iran                            Holocene?            29.4    N    57.57
Rahah, Harrat ar        Arabia-W                        Anthropology         27.8    N    36.17
Rahat, Harrat           Arabia-W                        Historical          23.08    N    39.78
Rungwe                  Africa-E                        Holocene             9.13    S    33.67
Sabalan                 Iran                            Holocene            38.25    N    47.92
Sahand                  Iran                            Holocene            37.75    N    46.43
San Carlos              Africa-W                        Holocene             3.35    N     8.52
San Joaquin             Africa-W                        Holocene             3.35    N     8.63
San Jorge               Azores and Madeira              Historical          38.65    N    28.08
Santa Isabel            Africa-W                        Historical           3.58    N     8.75
Santorini               Greece                          Historical         36.404    N   25.396
Sao Tome                Africa-W                        Holocene?              0.2   N     6.58
Sao Vicente             Cape Verde Is                   Holocene            16.85    N    24.97
Sawâd, Harra es-        Arabia-S                        Historical          13.58    N    46.12
Segererua Plateau       Africa-E                        Holocene             1.57    N     37.9
Sete Cidades            Azores and Madeira              Historical          37.87    N    25.78
Sharat Kovakab          Syria                           Holocene            36.53    N    40.85
Silali                  Africa-E                        Ar/Ar                1.15    N    36.23
Sodore                  Ethiopia                        Holocene             8.43    N    39.35


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Sork Ale                   Ethiopia                        Holocene?           13.18    N   41.725
South Island               Africa-E                        Historical           2.63    N     36.6
Stromboli                  Italy                           Historical         38.789    N   15.213
Süphan Dagi                Turkey                          Holocene            38.92    N    42.82
Suswa                      Africa-E                        Holocene            1.175    S    36.35
SW Usangu Basin            Africa-E                        Holocene             8.75    S     33.8
Taftan                     Iran                            Holocene             28.6    N    61.13
Tahalra Volc Field         Africa-N
Tair, Jebel at             Red Sea                         Historical          15.55    N    41.82
Tat Ali                    Ethiopia                        Holocene            13.28    N    41.07
Tendürek Dagi              Turkey                          Historical          39.37    N    43.87
Tenerife                   Canary Is                       Historical         28.271    N   16.641
Tepi                       Ethiopia                        Holocene             7.42    N    35.43
Terceira                   Azores and Madeira              Historical          38.73    N    27.32
Thompson Island            Atlantic-S                      Uncertain           53.93    S       5.5
Tianshan Volc Group        China-W                         Historical           42.5    N     82.5
Tin Zaouatene Volc Field   Africa-N
Todra Volc Field           Africa-N
Tôh, Tarso                 Africa-N                        Holocene            21.33    N    16.33
Tombel Graben              Africa-W                        Holocene             4.75    N     9.67
Tosa Sucha                 Ethiopia                        Holocene             5.93    N    37.57
Toussidé, Tarso            Africa-N                        Holocene            21.03    N    16.45
Tshibinda                  Africa-C                        Holocene             2.32    S    28.75
Tskhouk-Karckar            Armenia                         Tephrochronology    39.73    N    46.02
Tullu Moje                 Ethiopia                        Anthropology        8.158    N    39.13
Turfan                     China-W                         Historical           42.9    N    89.25
Umm Arafieb, Jebel         Africa-N                        Holocene?           18.17    N    33.83
Unnamed                    Africa-E                        Holocene             8.63    S    33.57
Unnamed                    Arabia-S                        Uncertain           12.25    N       45
Unnamed                    Atlantic-C                      Uncertain              4.2   N    21.45
Unnamed                    Atlantic-C                      Uncertain                7   N    21.83
Unnamed                    Atlantic-C                      Uncertain            0.72    S    20.53
Unnamed                    Atlantic-C                      Uncertain              3.5   S     24.5
Unnamed                    Atlantic-N                      Uncertain           39.95    N    25.83
Unnamed                    Ethiopia                        Holocene             5.65    N    37.67
Unnamed                    Ethiopia                        Holocene             8.07    N    39.07
Unnamed                    Ethiopia                        Holocene             8.62    N    38.95
Unnamed                    Ethiopia                        Holocene               8.7   N    39.63
Unnamed                    Georgia                         Holocene            41.55    N     43.6
Unnamed                    Georgia                         Holocene            42.45    N    44.25
Unnamed                    Iran                            Holocene            39.33    N    45.17
Unnamed                    Iran                            Holocene?           28.17    N    60.67
Unnamed                    Syria                           Historical          36.67    N       37
Unnamed                    Syria                           Holocene                33   N    36.43
Unnamed                    Syria                           Holocene            33.15    N   36.258
Unnamed                    Syria                           Holocene           33.308    N   36.925
'Uwayrid, Harrat           Arabia-W                        Anthropology        27.08    N    37.25
Vakak Group                Afghanistan                     Holocene?           34.25    N    67.97
Vesuvius                   Italy                           Historical         40.821    N   14.426
Visoke                     Africa-C                        Historical           1.47    S   29.492
Voon, Tarso                Africa-N                        Fumarolic           20.92    N    17.28
Vulcano                    Italy                           Historical         38.404    N   14.962


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Vulsini                 Italy                       Historical         42.6   N    11.93
Wau-en-Namus            Africa-N                    Holocene?         25.05   N    17.55
West Eifel Volc Field   Germany                     Radiocarbon       50.17   N     6.85
Yali                    Greece                      Holocene         36.671   N    27.14
Yangudi                 Ethiopia                    Holocene          10.58   N   41.042
Yar, Jabal              Arabia-W                    Historical        17.05   N    42.83
Zubair, Jebel           Red Sea                     Historical        15.05   N    42.18
Zukur                   Red Sea                     Holocene          14.02   N    42.75




                                         Page 452
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EW   ELEV    TYPE                ESP       comments
E     1689   Caldera             E0        Acigöl-Nevsehir caldera is located in central Turkey and is traversed by the na
E     1733   Stratovolcano       E0        Adwa, also known as Aabida, Amoissa, or Dabita, is a stratovolcano in the so
E     1295   Stratovolcano       E0        Afderà is an isolated rhyolitic stratovolcano located between the Erta Ale, Tat
W      947   Stratovolcano       E0        Agua de Pau stratovolcano in central Sao Miguel Island contains an outer 4 x
E     1501   Shield volcano      B0        The massive Alayta shield volcano covers an area of 2700 sq km in the weste
E      949   Caldera             E0        The Alban Hills (Monte Albano) complex immediately SE of Rome contains a
E     1031   Stratovolcano       B0        Ale Bagu, also known as Ummuna, is an elongated, 1031-m-high stratovolcan
E      904   Stratovolcano       E0        Alid is an isolated, dissected volcano in the central Danakil depression. The vo
E      429   Fissure vents       B0        The summit region of Alu volcano, lying immediately NW of conical Dalaffilla v
E     2335   Stratovolcano       E0        Alutu, between lakes Zway and Mirrga (Langano), is a stratovolcano with mult
E     1475   Volcanic field      B0        The Ambre-Bobaomby volcanic field at the northern tip of Madagascar consis
E     2878   Cinder cones        B0        The Ankaizina volcanic field, covering portions of the Tsaratanana and Ambon
E     2644   Cinder cones        E0        The Ankaratra volcanic field is the most prominent and volcanologically divers
E     4095   Stratovolcano       E0        Aragats is a large andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano in NW Armenia about 40 k
E     5165   Stratovolcano       E0        The 5165-m-high, double-peaked stratovolcano Mount Ararat, also known as
E      298   Fissure vents       B0        The Ardoukôba (Asal) Rift in Djibouti, trending NW from the Red Sea, contain
E     3100   Volcanic field      B0        The Quaternary Harra of Arhab lava field in Yemen, north of the capital city of
E     1200   Shield volcano      B0        Asavyo is the SW-most of three large silicic stratovolcanoes constructed along
W      858   Stratovolcano       B0        Ascensión Island, located just west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, was discovered
E      987   Volcanic field      B0        The Assab volcanic field near the Red Sea coast in southern Eritrea forms a s
                                 B0        The massive Atakor volcanic field is the largest in the Hoggar (or Ahaggar) vo
E     2145   Stratovolcano       E0        Ayelu is a vegetated rhyolitic stratovolcano, located south of the Asbahri plain
E      233   Volcanic field      B0        The Harra of Bal Haf is a small volcanic field along the Gulf of Aden in southe
E     1032   Shield volcano      E1        The Barrier volcanic complex separates Lake Turkana from the broad Suguta
E      670   Cinder cones        B0        The Bayuda volcanic field is located in the Bayuda Desert of NE Sudan, south
E     3490   Stratovolcano       E0        Bazman is a 3490-m-high stratovolcano in a remote region in SE Iran. A well-
E     1100   Volcanic field      B0        An area of Holocene basaltic lava flows is located along the Main Ethiopian R
E     1700   Maars               E0        The Bilate River basin west of Lake Awasa contains a group of lake-filled maa
E            Volcanic field      B0        Arabic reports exist of an active volcano in eastern Hadramaut that erupted in
E      381   Volcanic field      B0        The Harrat al Birk volcanic field, also known as Harrat Hayil or Hubhub al She
E     1850   Fissure vents       B0        The Bishoftu volcanic field, also known as Debre Zeit, consists of an area of fi
E            Volcanic field      B0        The Biu Plateau in NE Nigeria is composed of basaltic lava flows. A large num
E     2285   Pumice cones        E0        The silicic Bora and Bericcio pumice cones, among the most youthful volcano
E      668   Stratovolcano       B0        Borale Ale is a complex volcano located near the center of the Erta Ale Range
E      875   Lava domes          E0        The Borawli complex consists of a group of rhyolitic lava domes on the floor o
E      812   Stratovolcano       B0        Borawli stratovolcano, of Holocene age, rises above the eastern shore of Lake
E     2447   Stratovolcanoes     E0        Boset (Boseti-Gudda) and Bericha (Boseti-Bericcia) are composite dominantly
E      780   Shield volcano      B0        The solitary ice-covered shield volcano of Bouvet Island is located just off the
W      900   Stratovolcano       E0        Brava Island, 20 km west of Fogo, is the westernmost of the southern Cape V
E     2440   Cinder cones        B0        The Bufumbira volcanic field in SW Uganda consists of a group of about 40 ci
E     1554   Maars               E0        The late-Plestocene to Holocene Bunyaruguru volcanic field, also known as th
E     2281   Fissure vents       B0        The Butajiri-Silti volcanic field consists of a large group of basaltic cinder cone
                                 B0        The dominantly Pliocene Calatrava volcanic field lies in central Spain near Ciu
E     4095   Stratovolcano       B1        Mount Cameroon, one of Africa's largest volcanoes, rises to 4095 m above th
E      458   Caldera             E0        Campi Flegrei is a large 13-km-wide caldera on the outskirts of Naples that co
E       -8   Submarine volcanoes B0        Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia (Phlegraean Fields of the Sicily Sea) is compo
E      550   Tuff cones          B0        Central Island, also known as Crocodile Island, occupies the middle of Lake T
E     1464   Cinder cones        B0        The Chaîne des Puys, prominent in the history of volcanology, form a N-S-tren
E     1650   Stratovolcano       E0        Chiracha is a rhyolitic stratovolcano located on the Wonji fault belt NE of Lake
E     2188   Volcanic field      B0        The 100-km-long NW-SE-trending Chyulu Hills volcanic field is located 150 km
E      775   Stratovolcano       B0        The 8 x 10 km wide Ile aux Cochons, at the western end of the Crozet Islands


                                             Page 453
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E   2320   Caldera                E0        The 15-km-wide Corbetti caldera overlaps the NW margin of the older 30 x 40
W    718   Stratovolcano          B0        The small 3.5 x 6 km island of Corvo is located at the NW end of the Azores a
E   1442   Stratovolcano          E0        Dabbahu, also known as Boina, Boyna, or Moina, is a Holocene volcanic mas
E   1302   Shield volcano         B0        Dabbayra, the westernmost volcano of the Afar depression, was constructed a
E   3800   Lava domes             E0        The Dacht-i-Navar volcanic field is a group of 15 trachyandesitic lava domes l
E    613   Stratovolcano          B0        Dalaffilla, also referred to as Gabuli, is a small, but steep-sided conical stratov
E    -48   Explosion craters      E0        Numerous phreatic explosion craters dot the Salt Plain NNE of the Erta Ale R
E   1068   Shield volcano         B0        Dama Ali is a broad shield volcano that rises above the NW shore of Lake Ab
E   5670   Stratovolcano          E0        Damavand volcano towers dramatically 50 km to the NE above Iran's capital c
E   3329   Pyroclastic cones      E0        A group of six cinder and lava cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age is locate
E   3500   Volcanic field         B0        The lava fields surrounding the town of Dhamar are part of a volcanic field ext
E   1151   Stratovolcano          E0        Dofen, also called Dofane, is known as the "smoking mountain." It is a 1151-m
W    -14   Submarine volcano      B0        Don Joao de Castro Bank is a large submarine volcano that rises to within 13
E   1800   Volcanic field         B0        The Jabal ad Druze volcanic field, the southernmost in Syria, lies in the Hauru
E   1625   Stratovolcano          B0        Dubbi, located east of the Erta Ale Range and south of the crystalline baseme
E   1889   Fissure vents          B0        A large area of Recent-to-prehistorical basaltic cinder cones and lava flows lie
E   2856   Complex volcano        E0        Eburru volcano is elongated perpendicular to the Gregory Rift NW of Lake Na
E   5633   Stratovolcano          E0        Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus Mountains of SW Russia, is a large
E   2126   Pyroclastic cones      B0        The Elmenteita Badlands, located between Lake Elmenteita and Eburru volca
E   1328   Shield volcano         E0        The broad Emuruangogolak shield volcano is situated at a narrow constriction
E   3916   Stratovolcano          E0        The massive, eroded stratovolcano Erciyes Dagi at the northern end of the Su
E    613   Shield volcano         B1        Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield volcano that is the most active volcano in
E    979   Volcanic field         B0        The Es Safa volcanic field, in southern Syria SE of the capital city of Damasca
E   1090   Stratovolcano          B0        Ile de l'Est, the easternmost island in the Crozet archipelago, is a glacially ero
E   3350   Stratovolcanoes        B1        Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of th
W   1043   Stratovolcano          E0        The island of Fayal, also spelled Faial, is the nearest of the central Azorean is
E   2007   Stratovolcano          E0        Fentale, also known as Fantale, is a large stratovolcano at the northern end o
W    914   Stratovolcano          B0        Flores Island and Corvo Island to its north are located far west of the rest of th
W   2829   Stratovolcano          E0        The island of Fogo consists of a single massive stratovolcano that is the most
E   1524   Tuff cones             B0        The carbonatite lavas and tuffs of the Fort Portal volcanic field in Uganda, NE
E   2632   Shield volcano         B1        The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French islan
W    529   Fissure vents          B0        Pleistocene and Holocene cinder cones and lava flows cover large portions of
W    805   Stratovolcano          E0        Furnas volcano lies at the eastern end of Sao Miguel Island, immediately wes
E   1459   Stratovolcano          E0        Gabillema is a rhyolitic stratovolcano along the axis of the Addado graben. Th
E    287   Stratovolcano          B0        Gada Ale, also known as Kebrit Ale, is the most prominent volcano at the nort
E   1984   Caldera                E0        The Gedamsa caldera is located along the Main Ethiopian Rift east of Lake K
E   3597   Volcanic field         E0        The Ghegam Ridge, located in west-central Armenia between the capital city
E          Unknown                E0        Girekol is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene calc-alkaline to alkaline volcanic center l
E   2143   Lava dome              E0        Göllü Dag, a 2143-m-high rhyolitic-to-rhyodacitic lava dome complex in centra
W    402   Stratovolcano          B0        The SE end of Graciosa, the northernmost of the central Azorean islands, con
W   1950   Fissure vents          B0        The largely Miocene-to-Pliocene island of Gran Canaria in the middle of the C
E   1087   Shield volcano         B0        La Grille shield volcano at the northern end of Grand Comore Island (also kno
E    930   Stratovolcano          E0        Groppo volcano is a small 930-m-high alkali rhyolitic stratovolcano located in t
E    600   Volcanic field         B0        The Gufa volcanic field, located along the Eritrea/Djibouti border, consists of a
E    422   Shield volcano         B0        The Hanish Islands are formed from a series of volcanic vents along a NE-SW
E   1100   Volcanic field         B0        Al Harrah, a large basaltic volcanic field in northwestern Saudi Arabia near the
E   1200   Volcanic field         B0        The extensive Pliocene-to-Holocene Haruj volcanic field covers a broad 45,00
E   3253   Stratovolcano          E0        The massive double-peaked stratovolcano Hasan Dagi in Central Anatolia ha
E   1550   Volcanic field         B0        The Jabal Haylan area contains a 75-km-long chain of tuff cones and associa
E    521   Shield volcano         B0        Hayli Gubbi is the southernmost volcano of the Erta Ale Range. Recent tecton
E    900   Fissure vent           B0        Hertali is a basaltic fissure vent that fed lava flows at the south end of the Awa
W   1500   Shield volcano         B0        The triangular island of Hierro is the SW-most and least studied of the Canary


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E   1800 Caldera                   B0        Hobicha Caldera, north of Lake Abaya, is a large caldera of Pleistocene age.
E   1751 Complex volcano           B0        Homa Mountain is a large carbonatitic complex that forms a broad peninsula o
E        Tuff cones                E0        Three kimberlitic volcanoes of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age are located in the
                                   B0        The In Ezzane volcanic field lies in SE Algeria, near the border with Niger. The
E    789   Complex volcano         E0        The Ischia volcanic complex forms a rectangular, 6 x 9 km island immediately
E   1800   Scoria cones            E0        The Itasy volcanic field in central Madagascar contains a diverse assemblage
E   1625   Volcanic field          B0        The 4000 sq km Harrat Ithnayn volcanic field contains scattered shield volcan
E   1568   Pyroclastic cones       E0        Two melanephelinite cones of probable Holocene age, Izumbwe and Mpoli, ar
E    713   Stratovolcano           B0        Jalua, the northernmost volcano in the Eritrea/Ethiopia area, occupies an isola
E   3650   Cinder cones            E0        The Kabargin Oth volcano group consists of a dozen andesitic-to-dacitic cinde
E   1957   Shield volcano          B0        Karaca Dag (also known as Karacalidag) is a broad, 1957-m-high basaltic shi
E   1302   Cinder cones            B0        The basaltic Karapinar volcanic field is comprised of five cinder cones, two lav
E   4507   Stratovolcano           B0        Karisimbi, the highest of the Virunga volcanoes, is a complex volcano with a s
E   3000   Volcanic field          E0        The Kars Plateau is a broad calc-alkaline to alkaline volcanic field of largely P
E   2361   Shield volcano          B1        The southernmost and largest of the two shield volcanoes forming Grand Com
E   5050   Stratovolcano           E0        The 5050-m-high, glacier-covered Kasbek stratovolcano in the Caucasus Mou
E   1707   Tuff cone               E0        Katunga, an isolated tuff cone with associated lava flows located east of Lake
E   1067   Tuff cones              E0        The Katwe-Kikorongo volcanic field, stretching from the NE shore of Lake Edw
E   2093   Volcanic field          B0        Harrat Khaybar, one of Saudi Arabia's largest volcanic fields, covers an area o
E   2175   Stratovolcano           E0        Late-stage activity of the Kieyo trachytic stratovolcano, NW of Lake Malawi (L
E   5895   Stratovolcano           E0        Massive Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, consists of three large stratov
E   1475   Volcanic field          B0        The 5900 sq km Harrat Kishb volcanic field, located east of a N-S-trending lin
E   1619   Calderas                E0        The Kone volcanic complex, also known as Gariboldi, is composed of a series
E    912   Tuff cones              B0        The Korath Range is an isolated group of tuff cones and lava flows in souther
E   1446   Shield volcano          E0        The trachytic Korosi shield volcano lies at the north end of Lake Baringo. Unlik
E          Calderas                E0        The island of Kos is dominantly non-volcanic but contains Miocene to Pleistoc
E   3415   Pyroclastic shield      E0        The large volcano of Emi Koussi at the SE end of the Tibesti Range forms the
E    750   Cinder cones            B0        The Kula volcanic field, the westernmost area of young volcanism in Turkey, l
E   5808   Pyroclastic cones       E0        The Kunlun volcano group in NW Tibet contains 70 well-preserved pyroclastic
E    625   Shield volcano          B0        The small Holocene Kurub shield volcano lies in the Saha Plain, SE of the Ma
E          Scoria cones            B0        The Kutum basaltic volcanic field in the northern Dafur area of western Sudan
E   1430   Tuff cones              E0        The Kyatwa volcanic field, also known as the Ndale volcanic field, occupies th
W   2426   Stratovolcanoes         B0        The 47-km-long wedge-shaped island of La Palma, the NW-most of the Cana
W    670   Fissure vents           B0        The 60-km-long island of Lanzarote at the NE end of the Canary Islands conta
E    500   Explosion craters       E0        Larderello, one of the world's most productive geothermal areas, is located in
E   2962   Stratovolcano           E1        The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to
E    878   Maars                   E0        The Liado Hayk volcanic field (Liado Lake) consists of a dozen closely spaced
E    602   Stratovolcanoes         E0        Lipari, the largest of the Aeolian Islands, is located immediately north of Vulca
E   2776   Stratovolcano           E0        The trachytic Longonot stratovolcano SE of Lake Naivasha in the Gregory Rift
E   1370   Volcanic field          B0        Harrat Lunayyir is a basaltic volcanic field in NW Saudi Arabia, east of the Red
E   1815   Stratovolcano           E0        Ma Alalta volcano, also known as Pierre Pruvost, is an 1815-m-high stratovolc
W   1862   Shield volcano          B0        Madeira Island is the emergent top of a massive shield volcano that rises abo
E   1875   Stratovolcano           E0        Mallahle is the central of three NE-SW-trending stratovolcanoes in the Danaki
E    600   Shield volcanoes        B0        The southernmost axial range of western Afar, the Manda Hararo complex is
E    600   Fissure vents           B0        Manda-Inakir volcano consists of a series of NW-trending fissure vents and py
E   2411   Stratovolcano           B0        The well-preserved Manengouba stratovolcano rises to 2411 m across the To
E          Scoria cones            B0        The Manzaz volcanic field, north of the Atakor volcanic field in the Hoggar (Ah
E   2650   Tuff cone               B0        Jabal el-Marha is an isolated ca. 2500-m-high, crescent-shaped tuff cone abo
E   1230   Shield volcanoes        B1        Marion Island, South Africa's only historically active volcano, lies at the SW en
E   3042   Volcanic field          B0        The most prominent feature of the vast Jebel Marra volcanic field, located in t
E   1707   Shield volcano          B0        Marsabit is a massive, 6300 sq km basaltic shield volcano located 170 km ea
E    523   Shield volcano          B0        Mat Ala is a low, 523-m-high shield volcano in the southern Tat Ali Range, eas


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E    950   Fumarole field         E0        May-ya-moto, also known as Maji ja moto, is an isolated hydrothermal field in
E   1067   Pyroclastic cones      B0        The Mega Basalt field, straddling the Ethiopia-Kenya border, is referred to in K
E   2000   Scoria cones           B0        The alkaline Meidob volcanic field in western Sudan, at the NE end of the Daf
E   2278   Shield volcano         E0        The massive Menengai shield volcano occupies the floor of the East African R
E   4565   Stratovolcano          E0        Meru volcano, Africa's fourth highest mountain, is dwarfed by neighboring Kilim
E    760   Lava domes             E0        Methana volcano consists of a basaltic-andesite to rhyodacitic lava dome com
E    751   Stratovolcanoes        E0        Mílos and adjacent small islands have grown from submarine and subaerial v
W   -197   Submarine volcano      S0        Monaco Bank is a submarine volcano constructed along a NW-SE-trending fis
E   2028   Stratovolcano          E0        The Mousa Alli volcanic complex is a large Holocene stratovolcano constructe
E   4127   Stratovolcano          B0        Muhavura volcano rises to 4127 m at the NE end of the Virunga Range. It is a
E   2218   Stratovolcano          E0        The 2218-m-high Nabro stratovolcano is the highest volcano in the Danakil de
E    817   Shield volcano         B0        The largely Pliocene Namarunu trachytic shield volcano is topped by parasitic
E   2948   Stratovolcano          E0        Nemrut Dagi is the westernmost of a group of volcanoes near Lake Van in ea
E          Volcanic field         B0        The Ngaoundere volcanic field is located within a larger late-Miocene region o
E   2622   Caldera                E0        Ngozi caldera is the most prominent volcanic feature of the Poroto Ridge, a tr
E    698   Stratovolcano          E0        The easternmost volcano of the Aegean arc forms the 9-km-wide island of Nis
E    520   Tuff cones             E0        The small, 2-km-wide North Island in Lake Turkana is the northernmost and s
E    214   Cinder cones           E0        Nosy-Be island off the NW coast of Madagascar contains very recent basaltic
E    750   Shield volcano         B0        The broad NE-SW-trending Nyambeni shield volcano is capped by numerous
E   3058   Shield volcano         B1        Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira is a massive high-potassium basal
E   3470   Stratovolcano          E1        One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in i
E   2075   Caldera                E0        O'a caldera along the central Ethiopian Rift is the country's largest rift-valley c
E   3011   Stratovolcano          B0        Numerous maars and basaltic cinder cones lie on or near the deeply dissecte
E   1130   Shield volcano         B0        The elongated Ol Kokwe Island in the center of Lake Baringo SW of Korosi vo
E   2434   Pumice cones           E0        The Olkaria volcanic complex, located immediately south of Lake Naivasha an
E    893   Pyroclastic cones      B0        The Olot volcanic field (also known as the Garrotxa volcanic field) occupies th
E   1697   Shield volcano         E0        The dominantly Pleistocene Paka shield volcano in the Gregory Rift contains a
E    836   Shield volcano         E0        The island of Pantelleria is constructed above a drowned continental rift in the
W   2351   Stratovolcano          B0        A prominent 2351-m-high stratovolcano occupying the western end of Pico Isl
W    350   Pyroclastic cones      B0        Nearly 200 scoria cones of the Picos volcanic system dot the "waist" of Sao M
E   2800   Stratovolcano          E0        The mid-Pleistocene Porak volcano lies in the Vardeniss volcanic ridge about
E    934   Stratovolcano          B0        Ile de la Possession, located immediately west of Ile de l'Est in the Crozet arc
E    672   Shield volcano         B0        Uninhabited 5 x 10 km wide Prince Edward Island lies opposite Marion Island
E          Maars                  B0        The Qal'eh Hasan Ali volcanic field in SE Iran contains 14 maars of late Quate
E   1950   Volcanic field         B0        Harrat ar Rahah is the northernmost of a series of Quaternary volcanic fields p
E   1744   Volcanic field         B0        Saudi Arabia's largest lava field, 20,000 sq km Harrat Rahat extends for 300 k
E   2961   Stratovolcano          E0        Rungwe volcano, the largest in the Karonga basin NW of Lake Malawi (Lake N
E   4811   Stratovolcano          E0        Sabalan volcano (Kuhha-ye-Sabalan) lies in NW Iran, about 90 km west of the
E   3707   Stratovolcano          E0        Sahand volcano (Kuh-e-Sahand) is located in NW Iran, about 60 km east of L
E   2260   Shield volcano         B0        San Carlos, a 2260-m-high basaltic shield volcano with a broad summit calde
E   2009   Shield volcano         B0        San Joaquin, also known as Pico Biao or Pico do Moka, is a 2009-m-high bas
W   1053   Fissure vent           B0        The remarkably linear island of San Jorge (Sao Jorge) is 54 km long and only
E   3007   Shield volcano         B0        Santa Isabel is the largest and highest of three coalescing basaltic shield volc
E    367   Shield volcanoes       E0        Renowned Santorini (Thera), with its steep-walled caldera rim draped by white
E   2024   Shield volcano         B0        Sao Tome is a roughly conical island in the Gulf of Guinea that rises to a heig
W    725   Stratovolcano          B0        The 15 x 25 km island of Sao Vicente contains mafic Holocene lavas covering
E   1737   Volcanic field         B0        The Harra es-Sawâd (or Shuqra) volcanic field in southern Yemen extends fo
E    699   Pyroclastic cones      B0        A large number of late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic cones, lava flows, an
W    856   Stratovolcano          E0        Sete Cidades volcano at the western end of Sao Miguel Island contains a 5-km
E    534   Volcanic field         B0        Sharat Kovakab is a truncated basaltic cone of Holocene age located in NW S
E   1528   Shield volcano         E0        The 30-km-wide Silali trachytic shield volcano, the largest Quaternary volcano
E   1765   Pyroclastic cones      B0        The Sodore volcanic field is an extensive 15 x 25 km wide group of Pleistocen


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E   1611    Stratovolcano         B0       Sork Ale is a silicic stratovolcano located in the Danakil horst SE of Mallahle v
E    800    Stratovolcano         B0       The southernmost and largest of the three volcanic islands in Lake Turkana, S
E    924    Stratovolcano         E1       Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have lon
E   4158    Stratovolcano         E0       Süphan Dagi is a 4158-m-high basaltic-to-rhyolitic stratovolcano located imme
E   2356    Shield volcano        E0       The southernmost caldera of the Kenya rift, Suswa contains a prominent lava
E   2179    Lava domes            E0       A group of late-Pleistocene to Holocene phonolitic lava domes is located at th
E   3940    Stratovolcano         E0       Taftan is a strongly eroded andesitic stratovolcano with two prominent summi
                                  B0       The elongated, E-W-trending Tahalra volcanic field covers an area of about 1
E    244    Stratovolcano         B1       The basaltic Jebel at Tair volcano rises from a 1200 m depth in the south-cen
E    700    Shield volcano        B0       Tat Ali volcano is the dominant feature of the Tat Ali Range, east of Lake Afre
E   3584    Shield volcano        B0       Tendürek Dagi, also known as Tendürük Dagi, is an elongated shield volcano
W   3715    Stratovolcano         E0       The large triangular island of Tenerife is composed of a complex of overlappin
E   2728    Shield volcano        B0       The densely forested Tepi basaltic shield volcano, morphologically unmodified
W   1023    Stratovolcanoes       B0       Terceira Island contains four stratovolcanoes constructed along a prominent E
E           Submarine volcano ?   E0
E           Volcanic field        E0       The Tianshan volcano group in the Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang Province i
                                  B0       A small volcanic field in the Tin Zaouatene area of Iforas province in eastern M
                                  B0       The Todra volcanic field covers a broad area of about 1050 sq km in the Tuar
E   2000    Volcanic field        B0       The Tarso Tôh Pleistocene-to-Holocene volcanic field in the NW part of the T
E    500    Cinder cones          B0       Young cinder cones and maars dot the low-lying Tombel Graben (also referre
E   1650    Cinder cones          B0       A group of cinder cones at Tosa Sucha on the north shore of Lake Chamo in
E   3265    Stratovolcano         E0       Tarso Toussidé, a broad volcanic massif at the western end of the Tibesti Ran
E   1460    Cinder cones          B0       The Tshibinda volcanic field, located west of the SW end of Lake Kivu near th
E   3000    Pyroclastic cones     E0       A group of pyroclastic cones is located in the central part of the Siunik volcani
E   2349    Pumice cone           E0       Tullu Moje is a youthful trachytic-to-rhyolitic pumice cone with a 700-m-wide s
E           Cone                  E0       An isolated volcanic cone near the city of Turfan in Xinjiang Province of NW C
E           Shield volcano        B0       The Jebel Umm Arafieb volcanic field, also known as Jebel Umm Marafieb, is
E           Pyroclastic cone      B0       A small unnamed basaltic tephra cone on the edge of the Usangu escarpmen
E           Submarine volcano     S0
W   -2900   Submarine volcano     S0
W   -1415   Submarine volcano ?   S0
W   -1528   Submarine volcano     S0
W   -5300   Submarine volcano     S0
W   -2835   Submarine volcano     S0
E    1200   Cinder cones          B0       A group of unnamed cinder cones erupted from NNE-trending fissures SE of L
E    1800   Fissure vents         B0       A large unnamed area of Holocene basalts is located on the floor of the Ethiop
E    1800   Fissure vents         B0       A small isolated area of basaltic spatter cones and Recent-to-prehistorical lav
E    1300   Pyroclastic cones     B0       An unnamed area of Holocene basaltic lava flows occupies both sides of the a
E    3400   Lava cones            E0       An unnamed group of seven early Pleistocene to Holocene lava cones is loca
E    3750   Cinder cones          E0       An unnamed group of five early Pleistocene to Holocene andesitic-to-dacitic c
E           Volcanic field        E0       A large Holocene lava field is located in the very NW corner of Iran, near the b
E           Volcanic field        B0       Very fresh-looking Quaternary basaltic lava flows have issued from vents of a
E           Unknown               B0       An eruption that produced lava flows was reported to have occurred in 1222 A
E    945    Unknown               B0       An unnamed subalkaline basaltic volcanic field in SW Syria, south of Damasc
E   1197    Volcanic field        B0       ?
E    945    Volcanic field        B0       ?
E   1920    Volcanic field        B0       The Harrat 'Uwayrid, located in NW Saudi Arabia along the Bedouin pilgrim ro
E   3190    Volcanic field        E0       The Vakak Group (also spelled Wakak) consists of 18 dacitic and trachytic vo
E   1281    Somma volcano         E0       One of the world's most noted volcanoes, Vesuvius (Vesuvio) forms a dramat
E   3711    Stratovolcano         E0       The symmetrical Visoke volcano is the NE-most of a cluster of large stratovolc
E   3100    Stratovolcano         E0       The broad summit of Tarso Voon volcano, located in the west-central part of t
E    500    Stratovolcanoes       B0       The word volcano is derived from Vulcano stratovolcano in Italy's Aeolian Islan


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E    800   Caldera              E0        The Vulsini volcanic complex in central Italy covers about 2200 sq km at the n
E    547   Caldera              B0        The isolated Wau-en-Namus volcanic field (also spelled Waw an Namous or U
E    600   Maars                E0        The West Eifel volcanic field in the Rhineland district of western Germany SW
E    180   Lava domes           E0        Yali, a small island between the northern coast of Nisyros Island and the SW
E   1383   Complex volcano      E0        Yangudi volcano, lying in the Addado graben of the northern Ethiopian rift, is a
E    305   Volcanic field       B0        Jabal Yar, the southernmost young volcanic field in Saudi Arabia, is a small ol
E    191   Shield volcano       B0        The 5-km-long Jebel Zubair Island is the largest of a group of 10 small islands
E    624   Shield volcano       B0        Zukur (Zugar), the northernmost large island of the Zukur-Hanish island group




                                            Page 458
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  ey and is traversed by the national highway between the towns of Acigöl and Nevsehir. The elliptical 7 x 8 km wide late-Pleistocene caldera
a, is a stratovolcano in the southern Afar area immediately east of Ayelu volcano. Adwa is younger than the vegetated Ayelu and is a stratovo
ed between the Erta Ale, Tat Ali, and Alayta ranges. It lies at the intersection of three fault systems. Young rhyolitic lava domes are aligned N
   Island contains an outer 4 x 7 km caldera formed about 30,000 to 45,000 years ago and an inner 2.5 x 3 km caldera that was created about
  a of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression SW of Lake Afrera. A series of very recent craters is aligned along the NNW-trending ax
ately SE of Rome contains a large Pleistocene stratovolcano with a 10 x 12 km wide caldera. The caldera was formed during an eruptive per
 ed, 1031-m-high stratovolcano located SW of Erta Ale volcano. It is the highest of the Erta Ale Range volcanoes and is located west of the a
 al Danakil depression. The volcano is elongated in an E-W direction perpendicular to the orientation of the Alid graben. Alid consists of a stru
 tely NW of conical Dalaffilla volcano, is an ellipsoidal volcanic horst, elongated in a NNW-SSE direction, and formed primarily of older basalt
 ), is a stratovolcano with multiple vents aligned along NNE-SSW and E-W fissures along a narrow graben between the two lakes. This silicic
 ern tip of Madagascar consists of Miocene volcanics capped by very recent cones. The earliest volcanism produced a large basaltic massif a
   the Tsaratanana and Ambondrona massifs in northern Madagascar, was active until the very recent Quaternary. An initial dominantly silicic
 nt and volcanologically diverse on Madagascar. It covers a 100-km-long area in central Madagascar between Avivonimamo and Antsirabe. A
 no in NW Armenia about 40 km NW of the capital city of Yerevan. The 4095-m-high main edifice of Aragats is dissected by glaciers and is o
Mount Ararat, also known as Agri Dagi, is Turkey's highest, largest volume, and easternmost volcano. Glacier-clad Ararat, along with its twin
W from the Red Sea, contains a broad area of youthful fissure vents between Lake Asal and the Ghoubbat al Kharab gulf. The rift is subaeria
 en, north of the capital city of Sana'a, consists of a 1500 sq km basaltic plateau capped by a few small stratovolcanoes and about 60 scoria c
 ovolcanoes constructed along a NE-SW-trending line in the Danakil horst. A large 12-km-wide caldera truncates the summit of the volcano. B
  antic Ridge, was discovered on Ascensión Day, 1501, by the Portuguese navigator Joao da Nova. Ascensión is the broad emergent summit
   in southern Eritrea forms a spectacular range of basaltic cinder cones and associated lava flows. The massive lava field covers a 55 x 90 km
n the Hoggar (or Ahaggar) volcanic province of southern Algeria and covers an area of 2150 sq km. Basaltic (mostly basanitic) scoria cones
 ed south of the Asbahri plain in the southern Afar region. On its eastern side, 2145-m-high Ayelu is cut by regional faults and is overlain by ig
ng the Gulf of Aden in southern Yemen that contains tuff cones and large aa lava fields. The volcanic field lies along the coast about 100 km
 rkana from the broad Suguta Trough to the south, the site of a former lake. The volcano is comprised of four overlapping shield volcanoes, w
  a Desert of NE Sudan, south of the major Abu Hamed bend of the Nile River about 300 km north of capital city of Khartoum. More than 90 e
 ote region in SE Iran. A well-preserved, 500-m-wide crater caps the summit of the dominantly andesitic volcano. Its satellitic lava cones have
d along the Main Ethiopian Rift at Beru, between Fentale and Kone (Gariboldi) volcanoes.
  ins a group of lake-filled maars and tuff rings of Pleistocene and probable Holocene age. Active hot springs and fumaroles are located in this
 rn Hadramaut that erupted in the 10th century and was reported to be still smoking in 1813. Geologic maps of the Arabian Peninsula show Q
Harrat Hayil or Hubhub al Sheikh, is the only Saudi Arabian volcanic field that lies directly along the Red Sea coast. It covers an 1800 sq km a
   Zeit, consists of an area of fissure-fed Holocene lava flows, cinder cones, tuff rings, and maars. Several of the maars are filled by lakes, wh
asaltic lava flows. A large number of recent cinder cones with well-defined craters are aligned in a NNW-SSE direction. Cinder cones and lav
  ng the most youthful volcanoes of the Ethiopian Rift valley, rise 350-500 m above the floor of the rift. Bora has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater,
   center of the Erta Ale Range. The earliest activity formed submarine lava flows partially covered by Quaternary reef deposits. An embryonic
 itic lava domes on the floor of the southern Kali plain, north of Aysa'iyta. A 1631 eruption (sometimes listed as 1627) attributed possibly to Am
ove the eastern shore of Lake Afrera, also known as Lake Giulietti. The upper part of the 812-m-high conical volcano consists of trachytic lav
cia) are composite dominantly rhyolitic-to-trachytic volcanoes rising 1000 m and 800 m, respectively, above the floor of the Ethiopian Rift valle
 t Island is located just off the Southwest Indian Ridge, east of the triple junction between the African, South American, and Antarctic plates. T
  most of the southern Cape Verde islands. The 10-km-wide island contains 15 morphologically youthful craters located along two or three line
sists of a group of about 40 cinder cones lying north of the large stratovolcanoes of the NE part of the Virunga Mountains. The cinder cones o
olcanic field, also known as the Kichwambe volcanic field, lies along the eastern side of the Western Rift Valley, south of Lake George. It con
  group of basaltic cinder cones, maars, and lava flows in an 80-km-long, NE-SW-trending area near the west margin of the Ethiopian Rift. At
  lies in central Spain near Ciudad Real. The more than 300 basaltic-to-foiditic pyroclastic cones, maars, and lava domes cover an area of mo
  es, rises to 4095 m above the coast of west Cameroon. The massive steep-sided volcano of dominantly basaltic-to-trachybasaltic compositi
 he outskirts of Naples that contains numerous phreatic tuff rings and pyroclastic cones. The caldera margins are poorly defined and on the s
ds of the Sicily Sea) is composed of a group of submarine volcanoes SW of Sicily. The volcanoes were constructed within a submarine depr
  ccupies the middle of Lake Turkana and is composed of more than a dozen craters and cones, three of which are filled by small lakes. The
   volcanology, form a N-S-trending chain of basaltic and trachytic cinder cones, basaltic maars, and trachytic lava domes in France's Massif C
  e Wonji fault belt NE of Lake Abaya. All rift zone volcanoes are thought to be Pleistocene-to-Holocene in age, with the possible exception of
 olcanic field is located 150 km east of the Kenya Rift. It contains several hundred small cones and flows, including numerous Recent cinder
 ern end of the Crozet Islands, is a single stratovolcano with a small summit caldera and more than 60 scoria cones. The production of phrea


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W margin of the older 30 x 40 km Awasa caldera. Urji volcano was subsequently constructed in the center of Corbetti caldera, which also con
 t the NW end of the Azores archipelago. Corvo and its neighbor to the south, Flores, are the only two Azorean volcanoes located west of the
 , is a Holocene volcanic massif forming an axial range of the Afar depression SSW of the Alayta massif. Pantelleritic obsidian flows, lava dom
 epression, was constructed along an offshoot of the Ethiopian escarpment, SW of the Teru plain. In contrast to structural trends in other par
 trachyandesitic lava domes located in west-central Afghanistan SW of Kabul. The domes lie along the southern margin of Dacht-i-Navar. Th
 ut steep-sided conical stratovolcano that rises 300 m above surrounding lava fields SE of Alu volcano. This morphology, unusual for the Erta
  Plain NNE of the Erta Ale Range in one of the lowest areas of the desolate Danakil depression. These craters mark Earth's lowest known s
 ve the NW shore of Lake Abbe (also known as Lake Abhe) in eastern Ethiopia. The 25-km-wide volcano was constructed at the southern en
  the NE above Iran's capital city of Tehran. The 5670-m-high stratovolcano is the highest volcano in the Middle East and was constructed ab
 ne-to-Holocene age is located in southern Armenia on the western slopes of the Vardeniss volcanic ridge, south of Lake Sevan. The andesit
are part of a volcanic field extending 80 km to the east that includes several stratovolcanoes and many youthful volcanic cones. Basaltic lava
 king mountain." It is a 1151-m-high stratovolcano that rises 450 m above the Awash plain in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. Numerous cind
 olcano that rises to within 13 m of the sea surface roughly halfway between Terceira and San Miguel Islands. Pillow lavas form the base of th
 ost in Syria, lies in the Haurun-Druze Plateau in SW Syria near the border with Jordan. The most prominent feature of this volcanic field is 1
 uth of the crystalline basement rocks of the Danakil Alps, is a large volcanic massif that rises to 1625 m above the western shore of the Red
 nder cones and lava flows lies immediately east and south of Lake Zway (also spelled Zwai, Zeway, and Ziway) and forms islands along the
  Gregory Rift NW of Lake Naivasha. The 2856-m-high, E-W-trending main edifice is eroded, but young partly vegetated rhyolitic domes occu
ains of SW Russia, is a large glaciated stratovolcano with twin summits. The 5595-m-high eastern summit has a 250-m-wide, well-preserved
  Elmenteita and Eburru volcano, is an area of pyroclastic cones and lava flows of varying ages. Large basaltic lava flows and basaltic ash co
uated at a narrow constriction in the Gregory Rift and almost completely straddles it. A 5 x 3.5 km summit caldera formed about 38,000 years
  at the northern end of the Sultansazligi Basin in central Anatolia covers an area of about 1300 sq km. Growth of the modern volcano began
 t is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide volcano rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil de
of the capital city of Damascas (Dimashq), consists of a lava field with broad areas containing Holocene volcanic vents. The basaltic field (al
archipelago, is a glacially eroded basaltic stratovolcano with scoria cones concentrated on its eastern flank. A metamorphosed gabbroic com
 ond largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of b
 rest of the central Azorean islands to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The island is composed of a complex large andesitic-to-trachytic stratovolcano
volcano at the northern end of the Main Ethiopian Rift. It consists primarily of rhyolitic obsidian lava flows with minor tuffs. Welded pantelleritic
cated far west of the rest of the Azores islands and are the only two Azorean volcanoes lying west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Growth of an init
stratovolcano that is the most prominent of the Cape Verde Islands. The roughly circular 25-km-wide island is truncated by a large 9-km-wide
  volcanic field in Uganda, NE of Mount Ruwenzori between Lake Albert and Lake Edward, consists of a group of tuff cones and maars. Abou
d volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its >530,000 ye
  flows cover large portions of elongated Fuerteventura Island at the SE end of the Canary Islands. The youngest lavas are found at the north
 guel Island, immediately west of the older Nordeste shield volcano and its Povoaçao caldera. Furnas contains at least two calderas, a young
xis of the Addado graben. The volcano was constructed at the intersection of the central Afar rift zone with the northern end of the NE-SW-tr
prominent volcano at the northern end of the Erta Ale Range. It is formed of interstratified lava flows and hyaloclastites. Fumarolic activity is c
 Ethiopian Rift east of Lake Koka and SW of the Wonji Sugar Estate Farm. The 7 x 9 km wide caldera (also spelled Gadamsa or Gedemsa) i
enia between the capital city of Yerevan and Lake Sevan, contains a broad concentration of lava domes and pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene
e to alkaline volcanic center located directly north of the NE arm of Lake Van in eastern Anatolia.
 lava dome complex in central Anatolia, lies between the Hasan Dagi and Acigöl-Nevsehir volcanic complexes. Fission track ages on obsidia
  central Azorean islands, contains a small 0.9 x 1.6 km caldera with active fumaroles. The 402-m-high SE caldera rim is the high point of the
Canaria in the middle of the Canary archipelago has been strongly eroded into steep-walled radial gorges called barrancos. Three major volc
 and Comore Island (also known as Ngazidja) lacks a summit caldera like its larger and more well-known neighbor to the south, Karthala volc
 litic stratovolcano located in the western Afar near the Ethiopian escarpment, NE of Dessye. The volcano was considered to have been activ
 /Djibouti border, consists of a group of basaltic scoria cones and lava flows aligned in an E-W direction NE of the large Mousa Alli stratovolc
volcanic vents along a NE-SW trend, and include the Holocene Great Hanish, Little Hanish, and many other small islands and submarine sho
western Saudi Arabia near the Jordanian border, covers an area of 15,200 sq km. The volcanic field forms the southern third of the massive H
nic field covers a broad 45,000 sq km area in central Libya and contains very well-preserved basaltic scoria cones, lava flows, and explosion
 n Dagi in Central Anatolia has undergone four episodes of caldera collapse, the latest of which formed a 4-5 km wide caldera at the summit.
 ain of tuff cones and associated olivine basaltic lava flows in eastern Yemen. The chain crosses a NW-SE-trending fault extending between
 rta Ale Range. Recent tectonism has created a graben at the summit of 521-m-high volcano. A symmetrical scoria cone with a 200-m-wide c
 s at the south end of the Awash plain, about 50 km NNE of Dofen volcano. Hertali may have been active during the late Pleistocene to Holoc
nd least studied of the Canary Islands. The massive Hierro shield volcano is truncated by a large NW-facing escarpment formed as a result o


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   caldera of Pleistocene age. Fissures cutting the SE margin of the caldera produced numerous pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene
hat forms a broad peninsula on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria. The 1751-m-high flat-topped summit of the volcano rises about 600 m ab
 locene age are located in the Igwisi Hills, WNW of the city of Tabora in NW Tanzania. The volcanoes were erupted through granitic gneisses
ear the border with Niger. The alkaline In Ezzane volcanic field, part of which extends into Niger, covers about 500 sq km at the eastern end
 , 6 x 9 km island immediately SW of the Campi Flegrei area at the western side of the Bay of Naples. The eruption of the trachytic Green Tu
 ntains a diverse assemblage of volcanic landforms, including scoria cones, lava domes, and maars. Activity began in the Pliocene and has c
ntains scattered shield volcanoes and scoria cones. It merges with the much larger Harrat Khaybar volcanic field to the south. The Harrat Ithn
e age, Izumbwe and Mpoli, are located WNW of Ngozi caldera. These pyroclastic cones represent the youngest eruptive activity within the S
hiopia area, occupies an isolated location in the arid Danakil depression. It contains a large, central volcanotectonic depression that is open t
ozen andesitic-to-dacitic cinder cones and lava domes of lower-Pleistocene to Holocene age. These volcanoes were constructed near the Ge
oad, 1957-m-high basaltic shield volcano in SE Turkey about 100 km north of the Syrian border. The volcano lies on the Arabian foreland abo
d of five cinder cones, two lava fields and several explosion craters and maars located on the Konya-Eregli plain SW of the Karacadag strato
  s a complex volcano with a symmetrical sharp-peaked summit. The 2-km-wide Branca caldera, located SE of the 4507-m-high summit, is fil
  ine volcanic field of largely Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene age in the NE corner of Turkey (Innocenti et al., 1982; Yilmaz, 1990). Hantke (1962)
  olcanoes forming Grand Comore Island (also known as Ngazidja Island), Karthala contains a 3 x 4 km summit caldera generated by repeate
 volcano in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia, just south of the border with Russia, has produced long lava flows down flank valleys. Next t
va flows located east of Lake Edward, is the southernmost feature of a N-S-trending chain of high-potassium foditic volcanic fields in the We
 om the NE shore of Lake Edward to the western shore of Lake George, is the most extensive of a series of volcanic fields in the Western Rif
  canic fields, covers an area of more than 14,000 sq km north of Madinah (Medina). A spectacular 100-km-long N-S linear vent system conta
 cano, NW of Lake Malawi (Lake Nyassa), consisted of the formation of numerous maars and cinder cones. Maars, some of which contain la
  onsists of three large stratovolcanoes constructed along a NW-SE trend. The ice-capped, 5895-m-high summit towers 5200 m above the su
 ted east of a N-S-trending line of volcanic fields in central Saudi Arabia, is comprised of basaltic scoria cones, tuff rings and maars, and phon
boldi, is composed of a series of silicic calderas and young basaltic cinder cones and lava flows about 30 km SW of Fentale volcano. As man
nes and lava flows in southern Ethiopia that were erupted along the Turkana Rift, which extends north from Kenya. About 20 tuff cones occup
rth end of Lake Baringo. Unlike other rift valley volcanoes, it does not contain a summit caldera. Lava domes on the northern flanks have fed
  contains Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic centers. The Kamari caldera is of mid-Pleistocene age and contains the 1.0-0.55 million-year-old,
 f the Tibesti Range forms the highest summit of the Sahara. The 60 x 80 km massif was constructed over a basement of Cretaceous and Pa
  young volcanism in Turkey, lies about 450 km WNW of its closest Holocene neighbor in central Turkey, the Karapinar volcanic field. The Ku
 70 well-preserved pyroclastic cones. The trachyandesitic Ashikule volcano group at the western end of the Kunlun Mountains is the site of at
 the Saha Plain, SE of the Manda Hararo complex in the South Danakil region. Wind-blown sand fills the summit crater of the young basaltic
 Dafur area of western Sudan, is located SW of the larger Meidob volcanic field. As with other Saharan volcanic fields, Kutum (also known as
ale volcanic field, occupies the Western Rift Valley, east of the Ruwenzori Mountains halfway between Lake Edward and Lake Albert. The Ky
ma, the NW-most of the Canary Islands, is composed of two large volcanic centers. The older 2426-m-high northern one is cut by the massiv
  d of the Canary Islands contains the largest concentration of youthful volcanism in the Canaries. Pleistocene-and-Holocene cinder cones an
 othermal areas, is located in the southern part of the Tuscany region of Italy. This extensive solfatara field lies in an area underlain by sedim
   is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as
 sts of a dozen closely spaced maars and cinder cones with associated lava fields in the Awash plain NE of Dofen volcano. The morphology o
ed immediately north of Vulcano Island. The irregular-shaped island contains numerous small stratovolcanoes, craters, and lava domes on a
   Naivasha in the Gregory Rift valley contains a 8 x 12 km caldera. Formation of the caldera accompanied large explosive eruptions about 21
  Saudi Arabia, east of the Red Sea port of Umm Lajj. It contains about 50 volcanic cones that were constructed over Precambrian crystalline
    is an 1815-m-high stratovolcano located well to the west of the Danakil depression at the foot of the regional Ethiopian scarp. The volcano i
  shield volcano that rises about 6 km from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean and forms the largest island of the Madeira Archipelago, about 90 k
stratovolcanoes in the Danakil horst SW of Dubbi volcano, and lies SSW of Nabro volcano. These two volcanoes, along with Bara Ale and So
  e Manda Hararo complex is located in the Kalo plain, SSE of Dabbahu volcano. The massive complex is 105 km long and 20-30 km wide, a
 -trending fissure vents and pyroclastic cones along the Ethiopia-Djibouti border. The elongated complex represents an uplifted mid-ocean rid
  ses to 2411 m across the Tombel Graben from Mount Cameroon and has two concentric summit calderas, Elengoum and Eboga. The older
  lcanic field in the Hoggar (Ahaggar) volcanic district of Algeria, consists of a large number of scoria cones and associated lava flows. The vo
  escent-shaped tuff cone about 11 km south of the center of Sana'a, the capital city of Yemen. A very fresh-looking basaltic aa lava flow was
 ve volcano, lies at the SW end of a submarine plateau immediately south of the SW Indian Ocean Ridge, opposite Prince Edward Island. Th
 rra volcanic field, located in the Darfur province of western Sudan, is the youthful Deriba caldera. The 5-km-wide, steep-walled caldera, loca
d volcano located 170 km east of the center of the East African Rift. Its slopes are dotted with 22 maars and 180 cinder cones, most of which
e southern Tat Ali Range, east of Afderà volcano. A 300-m-deep, 2.5 x 3.5 km wide caldera is found at the summit of the volcano, whose flan


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 solated hydrothermal field in the Albert National Park south of Lake Edward. The thermal area is located at an altitude of 950 m in the easter
  nya border, is referred to in Kenya as the Dukana volcanic field. The Ethiopian portion was considered to have been active during the Holoce
dan, at the NE end of the Dafur volcanic province, covers an area of 5000 sq km with nearly 700 Pliocene-to-Holocene vents. The volcanic fi
 the floor of the East African Rift. Construction of a 30 cu km shield volcano beginning about 200,000 years ago was followed by the eruption
 s dwarfed by neighboring Kilimanjaro volcano, but is an impressive peak in its own right. Seen from the west, Meru has a conical profile, but
 to rhyodacitic lava dome complex forming the Methana Peninsula in the Sarronian Gulf on the NE side of Peloponnesus. Potassium-Argon a
m submarine and subaerial volcanism that initially was dominantly andesitic and basaltic, but ended with predominately rhyolitic eruptions. Th
 d along a NW-SE-trending fissure 20-km south of the western tip of Sao Miguel Island. The linear volcano is located along regional tectonic
  ene stratovolcano constructed along the border between Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti. The 2028-m-high trachytic-to-rhyolitic volcano is the
   of the Virunga Range. It is a relatively youthful stratovolcano with a small 40-m-wide lake in its summit crater. The 3474-m-high Gahinga (M
hest volcano in the Danakil depression of northern Ethiopia and Eritrea. Located at the SE end of the Danakil Alps, Nabro lies in the Danakil h
  olcano is topped by parasitic cones and lava flows of upper Pleistocene and Holocene age. Voluminous basaltic effusive and explosive activ
 lcanoes near Lake Van in eastern Anatolia and the only one that has erupted in historical time. Nemrut Dagi contains a 9 x 5 km caldera par
   larger late-Miocene region of plateau basalts, plug domes and a single large basanitic-to-trachytic stratovolcano, Nganha. Quaternary volca
 ture of the Poroto Ridge, a transverse structure at the northern end of the Karonga basin. The trachytic-to-phonolitic caldera, containing a 1.5
ms the 9-km-wide island of Nisyros, which is truncated by a 3-4 km wide caldera. The island was constructed during the past 150,000 years, w
  na is the northernmost and smallest of three volcanic islands in the lake. North Island is the summit of Kenya's northernmost rift valley volca
  contains very recent basaltic lava flows from well-preserved cinder cones. Many large crater lakes are found in the central part of the island.
 cano is capped by numerous phonolitic cumulodomes and basaltic cones and lava flows of late-Pleistocene to Holocene age (Hackman et a
  assive high-potassium basaltic shield volcano that rises about 25 km north of Lake Kivu across the broad East African Rift Valley NW of Nyir
 ngo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks
   country's largest rift-valley caldera. The caldera forms the eastern portion of the 15 x 25 km dumbbell-shaped Lake O'a (also known as Lak
 n or near the deeply dissected rhyolitic and trachytic Mount Oku massif along the Cameroon volcanic line. The Mount Oku stratovolcano is c
  ake Baringo SW of Korosi volcano consists of young basaltic scoria cones that cap a trachytic shield volcano. The volcano is the smallest in
ely south of Lake Naivasha and west of Longonot volcano, comprises up to 80 individual commenditic and other peralkaline rhyolitic centers.
  xa volcanic field) occupies the NE corner of Spain south of the Pyrenees Mountains about 90 km NNE of Barcelona. The Olot volcanic field
  in the Gregory Rift contains a small 1.5-km-wide summit caldera. Eruption of large volumes of trachytic pyroclastic rocks around the end of t
drowned continental rift in the Strait of Sicily and has been the locus of intensive volcano-tectonic activity. Two large Pleistocene calderas dom
ng the western end of Pico Island is the highest volcano in the Azores. Pico volcano lies west of on an older linear volcano with numerous flan
 stem dot the "waist" of Sao Miguel Island between Sete Cidades and Agua de Pau volcanoes. This monogenetic fissure-controlled, dominan
ardeniss volcanic ridge about 20 km SE of Lake Sevan. The volcanic field straddles the Armenia/Azerbaijan border, and lava flows extend int
 f Ile de l'Est in the Crozet archipelago, consists of a stratovolcano intruded by ring and cone dikes and modified by block faulting, marine ero
 d lies opposite Marion Island at the northern end of a submarine plateau on the Antarctic Plate immediately south of the SW Indian Ocean R
 ntains 14 maars of late Quaternary age. The maars were erupted through desert alluvium, granodioritic rocks, and Eocene volcanics in an ar
of Quaternary volcanic fields paralleling the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. The olivine basaltic volcanic field of Harrat ar Raha lies south of t
 arrat Rahat extends for 300 km south of the holy city of Al Madinah (Medina). Four coalescing lava fields erupted from offset NNW-trending
 n NW of Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa), is capped by a 4-km-wide caldera that is breached to the west. The western flanks of the volcano conta
  Iran, about 90 km west of the Caspian Sea and west of the city of Ardabil. The andesitic volcano reaches a height of 4811 m; it forms the hig
W Iran, about 60 km east of Lake Urmia and 40 km SSE of the city of Tabriz. The massive, extensively eroded calc-alkaline stratovolcano is
  o with a broad summit caldera, forms the toe on the SW side of boot-shaped Bioko (Fernando Poo) Island. San Carlos was classified as hav
o Moka, is a 2009-m-high basaltic shield volcano on the SE side of Bioko (Fernando Poo) Island. A small lake-filled caldera cuts the summit o
Jorge) is 54 km long and only 5 km wide. It was formed by fissure-fed eruptions beginning in the eastern part of the island. The western two-t
 oalescing basaltic shield volcanoes forming Bioko (Fernando Poo) Island. Lying on the continental shelf along the Cameroon Line, Santa Isa
 d caldera rim draped by whitewashed villages overlooking an active volcanic island in the center of a caldera bay, is one of the scenic highlig
 of Guinea that rises to a height of 2024 m from a depth of 3000 m below sea level. The southern and western parts of the island are more dis
mafic Holocene lavas covering prominent peninsulas on the eastern and NE sides (Mitchell-Thome, 1976). The island has an irregular shoreli
   southern Yemen extends for nearly 100 km along the Gulf of Aden, east of the city of Shuqra (Shaqra). The volcanic field is oriented WSW-
basaltic cones, lava flows, and maars occur along a roughly 50-km-long NE-SW trend on the Segererua and Rusarus Plateaus and areas to
  Miguel Island contains a 5-km-wide summit caldera, occupied by two caldera lakes, that is one of the scenic highlights of the Azores. The st
  olocene age located in NW Syria (Malki, in International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, 1973). One other c
 e largest Quaternary volcano in the northern Gregory Rift, completely straddles the East African Rift. An impressive 5 x 8 km summit caldera
   km wide group of Pleistocene and Holocene pyroclastic cones and lava flows that covers the floor of the eastern side of the Ethiopian Rift V


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Danakil horst SE of Mallahle volcano. Sork Ale, also known as Asdaga, was constructed perpendicular to the NE-SW orientation of three larg
nic islands in Lake Turkana, South Island contains numerous tuff cones. Fresh-looking lava flows, erupted from a N-S fissure extending the 1
 t Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has
 c stratovolcano located immediately north of Lake Van. A glacial icecap mantles the summit of the volcano, the 2nd highest in Turkey. Durin
wa contains a prominent lava cone on the south side of its 8 x 12 km caldera. Suswa lies south of Longonot volcano and about 50 km WNW
 c lava domes is located at the SW end of the Usangu Basin, NE of the Poroto Mountains. Vents of the SW Usangu Basin volcanic field are l
no with two prominent summits. The volcano was constructed along a volcanic zone in Beluchistan, SE Iran, that extends into northern Pakis
eld covers an area of about 1800 sq km in the Hoggar Province of southern Algeria. The large volcanic field lies WSW of the town of Tamanr
200 m depth in the south-central Red Sea, forming an oval-shaped island about 3 km long. Jebel at Tair (one of many variations of the name
  Ali Range, east of Lake Afrera. The low Holocene shield volcano has an elongated summit depression and has produced a variety of rock ty
  an elongated shield volcano that rises 1800 m above the plain of Dogubayazit, near the Iranian border, south of Mount Ararat. An E-W-trend
 ed of a complex of overlapping Miocene-to-Quaternary stratovolcanoes that have remained active into historical time. The NE-trending Cord
o, morphologically unmodified in a region of high rainfall, is capped by prominent cinder cones and small craters. Three satellitic centers are
nstructed along a prominent ESE-WNW-trending fissure zone that cuts across the island. Historically active Santa Barbara volcano at the we

 untains of Xinjiang Province in NW China contains the historically active cone of Pechan (Whitford-Stark, 1987). The volcano was reported t
of Iforas province in eastern Mali, near the border with Algeria and Niger, was assigned a Holocene age (Liegeois et al., 2005). The alkaline T
about 1050 sq km in the Tuareg shield in the southern Aïr region of Niger. Activity began with the eruption of about 30 trachytic and phonolitic
  field in the NW part of the Tibesti Range of Chad contains 150 scoria cones and two maars. Basaltic lava flows of the Tarso Tôh volcanic fi
 Tombel Graben (also referred to as the Tombel Plain) between Mount Cameroon and Mount Manengouba. Activity in the 10-20 km wide gra
orth shore of Lake Chamo in the southern Ethiopian Rift has produced unvegetated olivine basaltic lava flows and may have been active as r
western end of the Tibesti Range, is capped by the Toussidé stratovolcano, constructed at the western end of the 14-km-wide ignimbritic Yirri
 SW end of Lake Kivu near the Congo-Rwanda border, consists of a group of three basaltic cinder cones and associated lava flows. Their ag
 tral part of the Siunik volcanic ridge along the Armenia/Azerbaijan border about 60 km SE of Lake Sevan. The Tskhouk-Karckar volcano gro
 ce cone with a 700-m-wide summit crater, located in the middle of one of the most active parts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. A large silicic lava
 in Xinjiang Province of NW China has recorded eruptions during the Song Dynasty. The History of the Song Dynasty recorded activity consis
 n as Jebel Umm Marafieb, is located in the Bayuda desert of NE Sudan, immediately west of the Nile River, NE of the capital city of Khartou
 ge of the Usangu escarpment, overlooking the Usangu basin north of the Poroto Mountains, was considered by Ebinger et al. (1989) to be of




NNE-trending fissures SE of Lake Chamo, along the southern Ethiopian Rift, has produced unvegetated olivine basaltic lava flows that may h
 ated on the floor of the Ethiopian Rift Valley SW of Tulu Moje volcano. The flows occupy a NE-SW-trending zone near the active eastern ma
nd Recent-to-prehistorical lava flows lies on the floor of the western Main Ethiopian Rift about 10 km NE of the prominent 2800-m-high Ziqua
s occupies both sides of the axis of the Main Ethiopian Rift. They were erupted from pyroclastic cones located between Kone and Boset-Beri
  Holocene lava cones is located in the Obul-Samarask upland of southern Georgia. The volcanic cones are located SW of the capital city of
olocene andesitic-to-dacitic cinder cones and lava cones is located in northern Georgia SW of Kasbek volcano and SE of the Karbagin Oth v
 NW corner of Iran, near the border with Azerbaijan, about 40 km east of the Iranian city of Maku (Karakhanian et al., 2002). The volcanic fiel
  have issued from vents of an unnamed volcanic field between Taftan and Bazman volcanoes in SE Iran (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the
 d to have occurred in 1222 AD at an unknown location near Kilis (also spelled Killis), in NW Syria near the border with Turkey (Catalog of Ac
  SW Syria, south of Damascas (Dimashq) is the SW portion of a large area mapped as containing Holocene volcanic vents. This volcanic fie


 along the Bedouin pilgrim route to Syria, contains young basaltic scoria and tuff cones and associated lava fields. The massive alkali olivine
 of 18 dacitic and trachytic volcanoes located WSW of Kabul. It is the northernmost of a group of small volcanic fields in the Ghanzi region an
us (Vesuvio) forms a dramatic backdrop to the Bay of Naples. The historically active cone of Vesuvius was constructed within a large calder
of a cluster of large stratovolcanoes at the southern end of the Virunga Range on the border of the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwan
d in the west-central part of the Tibesti Range, is truncated by a shallow 14 x 18 km wide caldera. Ignimbrite deposits surround the caldera t
volcano in Italy's Aeolian Islands. Vulcano was constructed during six volcanic stages during the past 136,000 years. Two overlapping calder


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 rs about 2200 sq km at the northern end of the Roman magmatic province. Following lava extrusion and explosive eruptions that constructe
spelled Waw an Namous or Uaw en Namus) lies in the Sahara desert of south-central Libya, south of the Haruj volcanic field. A 4-km-wide,
trict of western Germany SW of the city of Bonn is a dominantly Pleistocene group of 240 scoria cones, maars, and small stratovolcanoes co
f Nisyros Island and the SW coast of Kos Island, consists of rhyolitic obsidian domes and pumice deposits. Yali is located within the inferred
he northern Ethiopian rift, is a complex rhyolitic stratovolcano with an elliptical summit caldera. A trachytic lava flow originating in the caldera
 in Saudi Arabia, is a small olivine basaltic volcanic field along the Red Sea coast at the SW tip of Saudi Arabia. It contains three groups of v
of a group of 10 small islands and submerged shoals that rise from a shallow platform in the Red Sea rift. The platform and eruptive vents fo
he Zukur-Hanish island group in the southern Red Sea, is formed of Holocene basaltic pyroclastic cones and spatter cones that issued youth




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   8 km wide late-Pleistocene caldera is part of a now partially buried larger caldera and contains a group of maars, lava domes, basaltic lava
 the vegetated Ayelu and is a stratovolcano with a 4 x 5 km caldera that originated following eruption of voluminous ignimbrites. A small 2.5-k
ng rhyolitic lava domes are aligned N-S at its southern foot. Only a few late-stage satellitic cones are of basaltic composition. Eruptions were
 3 km caldera that was created about 15,000 years ago. The younger caldera is partially filled by the Lagoa do Fogo caldera lake. Several po
s aligned along the NNW-trending axis of the basaltic-to-trachytic shield. The Alayta lava field, covered by very fresh lava flows, was erupted
  a was formed during an eruptive period with six major explosive eruptions producing at least 280 cu km of ejecta between about 560,000 an
olcanoes and is located west of the axis of the range. In contrast to other volcanoes of the Erta Ale Range, Ale Bagu is mantled by basaltic p
 he Alid graben. Alid consists of a structural dome of uplifted sedimentary rocks, capped by basaltic-to-rhyolitic lava flows, that rises 700 m ab
   and formed primarily of older basaltic lava flows. Very recent fractures along the axis of the chain cut the main volcanic horst. Major fumaro
en between the two lakes. This silicic volcanic center lies along the regional Wonji Fault Belt and has produced abundant pumice-flow and pu
 m produced a large basaltic massif and minor pyroclastic flows. Tertiary to Quaternary volcanic rocks span a wide geochemical spectrum, in
uaternary. An initial dominantly silicic phase included pyroclastic-flow formation and was accompanied by the emission of minor basaltic lava
 ween Avivonimamo and Antsirabe. Activity at the Ankaratra volcanic massif took place from the Miocene until the very recent Quaternary (Be
gats is dissected by glaciers and is of Pliocene-to-Pleistocene age. Satellitic cones and fissures are located on all sides of the volcano and w
  lacier-clad Ararat, along with its twin volcano, 3925-m-high Kucuk Ararat (or Lesser Ararat), covers an area of 1000 sq km at the eastern end
bat al Kharab gulf. The rift is subaerially exposed over a 12 km distance between these two bodies of water and contains numerous basaltic
  tratovolcanoes and about 60 scoria cones, two of which have erupted in historical time. Cones in the volcanic field (also known as the Sana'
runcates the summit of the volcano. Basaltic lava flows blanket the flanks of Asavyo, which merge into the Mogorros plains to the south. Alth
ensión is the broad emergent summit of a massive stratovolcano that rises 3000 m above the sea floor. The isolated island, 1130 km from th
massive lava field covers a 55 x 90 km area, and flows reached the Red Sea along a broad front. The vents of the Assab volcanic field were
  altic (mostly basanitic) scoria cones and lava flows of Pleistocene-Holocene age lie near spectacular older trachytic and phonolitic lava dome
by regional faults and is overlain by ignimbrites erupted from Adwa volcano immediately to the east. Ayelu was constructed by a series of thic
 ld lies along the coast about 100 km SW of the city of Al Mukalla. Lava flows erupted from cinder cones blanket much of the volcanic field an
   four overlapping shield volcanoes, with the youngest, Kakorinya, located over the axis of the East African Rift. Kalolenyang volcano lies wes
  ital city of Khartoum. More than 90 eruptive centers along a WNW-ESE line were constructed over Precambrian and Paleozoic granitic rock
 volcano. Its satellitic lava cones have been the source of fresh-looking viscous lava flows of olivine basaltic composition. A steep-sided lava

 ngs and fumaroles are located in this area.
aps of the Arabian Peninsula show Quaternary mafic volcanic rocks in this area, which lies south and west of the Wadi al Masilah river valley
Sea coast. It covers an 1800 sq km area west of the town of Abha and separates the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. Vo
 l of the maars are filled by lakes, which are popular recreational destinations from the nearby capital city of Addis Ababa. Most of the craters
 SSE direction. Cinder cones and lava flows of the Biu Plateau often contain abundant peridotite xenoliths. The age of the most recent eruptio
 ra has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater, and the more conical Bericcio is capped by a small summit crater and has a 1-km-wide crater on its sou
aternary reef deposits. An embryonic shield volcano is located on the SW side of the complex and is cut by curvilinear faults; youthful chains
ted as 1627) attributed possibly to Amado dome (United Nations, 1973) was considered more likely to be from Dama Ali (Gouin, 1979). This
 nical volcano consists of trachytic lava flows overlying older basaltic flows. Young pantelleritic obsidian domes south of the volcano are the p
ove the floor of the Ethiopian Rift valley. Initial basaltic-to-trachytic activity at Boset (also known as Gudda) was followed by rhyolitic effusive a
uth American, and Antarctic plates. The 780-m-high basaltic-to-rhyolitic island, also referred to as Bouvetoya, was discovered by and later na
craters located along two or three lineaments intersecting along the crest of the island. The youthfulness of the craters and numerous minor e
runga Mountains. The cinder cones occur in clusters and were erupted along lineaments. They are typically breached on one side by lava flo
  Valley, south of Lake George. It contains more than 130 maars, 27 of which contain lakes with water ranging from fresh to saline. Friable ca
 west margin of the Ethiopian Rift. At least 13 maars, many filled by lakes, are located near the town of Debre Zeit, SE of the capital city of Ad
 and lava domes cover an area of more than 5000 sq km. The Calatrava volcanic field is mostly of Pliocene or late-Pleistocene age, although
y basaltic-to-trachybasaltic composition forms a volcanic horst constructed above a basement of Precambrian metamorphic rocks covered w
 rgins are poorly defined and on the south lie beneath the Gulf of Pozzuoli. Episodes of dramatic uplift and subsidence within the dominantly t
constructed within a submarine depression about 1000 m deep in the Strait of Sicily between the SW coast of Sicily and the NE tip of Tunisia
  which are filled by small lakes. The two largest lakes partially fill craters up to a km wide and about 80 m deep whose floors lie near sea leve
hytic lava domes in France's Massif Central that has been active into the Holocene. Construction of the present-day Chaîne des Puys began
n age, with the possible exception of Chiracha, which may be pre-Holocene. The nearby Holocene fissure basalts located to the west (Mohr
 , including numerous Recent cinder cones. Two of these, Shaitani and Chainu, erupted during the mid-19th century. Volcanic activity began
coria cones. The production of phreatomagmatic breccias inter-bedded with thin lava flows was followed by block faulting and the eruption of


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 er of Corbetti caldera, which also contains young lava flows. Chabbi volcano, a large obsidian dome that grew on the SE caldera rim, has eru
zorean volcanoes located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. A 2-km-wide caldera centered on the north side of the island is the most prominent
 . Pantelleritic obsidian flows, lava domes, and pumice cones form the summit and upper flanks of the volcano, which rises above the Teru Pl
ntrast to structural trends in other parts of Afar, Dabbayra (also known as Bar-Ali) consists of a basaltic shield volcano elongated in an ENE-W
  outhern margin of Dacht-i-Navar. The age of the volcanoes is not known precisely; they were tentatively considered to be of Pleistocene age
  his morphology, unusual for the Erta Ale Range volcanoes, results from the extrusion of viscous, silicic lava flows with primary slopes up to a
 craters mark Earth's lowest known subaerial volcanic vents. The most recent of these craters, Dallol, lies 48 m below sea level and was form
o was constructed at the southern end of the Kalo Plain. Nested circular craters are located at the summit of the dominantly basaltic volcano
  Middle East and was constructed above the southern rim of a 9-km-wide caldera. The well-preserved summit crater of the trachyandesite-to
ge, south of Lake Sevan. The andesitic Dar-Alages volcano, also known as Daly-Tapa, formed in postglacial times (Sviatlovsky, 1959). The V
  outhful volcanic cones. Basaltic lava flows overlie older rhyolitic flows. Harras of Dhamar was the source of the only 20th-century eruption in
n Main Ethiopian Rift. Numerous cinder cones, constructed along a 10-km-long, N-S-trending line, dot the flanks of the dominantly rhyolitic vo
 ands. Pillow lavas form the base of the volcano, which is capped by basaltic hyaloclastites. A submarine eruption during December 1720 (VE
nent feature of this volcanic field is 1800-m-high Jabal ad Druze (also known variously as Djebel Al-Arab, Jabal ed Duruz, Jabal al Druz, Jeb
    above the western shore of the Red Sea. About 20 small cinder cones are located at the summit, and extensive basaltic lava fields to the no
d Ziway) and forms islands along the east shore of the lake. About 80 vents were formed along the East Zway segment of the Wonji Fault Be
partly vegetated rhyolitic domes occur on the east flank and are probably of Holocene age (Thompson and Dodson, 1963). Pleistocene phon
mit has a 250-m-wide, well-preserved crater, separated by a low saddle from the 5633-m-high western summit. Products of Mount Elbrus cov
asaltic lava flows and basaltic ash cones of Holocene age post-date the 10,000-year-old high-stand of Lake Elmenteita.
  it caldera formed about 38,000 years ago. Since then trachytic and basaltic lava flows were erupted on the northern and southern flanks and
  rowth of the modern volcano began about 0.9 million years ago, following Pliocene caldera collapse of the Kocdag complex. Numerous para
  ow sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The 613-m-high
   volcanic vents. The basaltic field (also referred to as As Safa) contains numerous vents erupted from NW-SE-trending fissures. A boiling lav
  nk. A metamorphosed gabbroic complex is cut by a dense network of dikes and cone sheets that fed younger volcanic rocks. The 10 x 19 k
   to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and
    andesitic-to-trachytic stratovolcano that contains a 2-km-wide summit caldera. Thick deposits of trachytic airfall pumice, pyroclastic flows, a
   with minor tuffs. Welded pantelleritic ash flows accompanied formation of a 2.5 x 4.5 km summit caldera, which has steep-sided walls up to
   Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Growth of an initially submarine volcano included Pleistocene explosive activity associated with formation of small calder
and is truncated by a large 9-km-wide caldera that is breached to the east and has a headwall 1 km high. The caldera is located asymmetrica
 group of tuff cones and maars. About 50 volcanic vents, some of which now contain crater lakes, were erupted through basement rocks of P
   volcanoes. Much of its >530,000 year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW.
youngest lavas are found at the northern and central portions of the arid, sparsely vegetated island. Malpais de la Arena, the Northern Malpa
 ntains at least two calderas, a younger one that is 6-km wide and a larger older one that is less topographically distinct. The eastern wall of th
 ith the northern end of the NE-SW-trending Ethiopian rift. Rhyolitic lava domes are located on the flanks of the volcano, and a 5 x 17 km bas
    hyaloclastites. Fumarolic activity is continuing, and a small lake filled by boiling mud occupies the crater. Like other Erta Ale Range volcano
also spelled Gadamsa or Gedemsa) is cut by many NNE-SSW-trending regional faults of the Ethiopian Rift, particularly on the east side of th
   and pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age. The volcanoes and associated lava flows cover a 65-km-long, 35-km-wide area wes

plexes. Fission track ages on obsidians from Göllü Dag ranged from between 1.33 to 0.84 million years old (Bigazzi et al., 1995). A large num
SE caldera rim is the high point of the small 4 x 8 km island. The caldera has been the source of eruptions producing significant tephra falls, p
s called barrancos. Three major volcanic structures form the circular 60-km-wide island, which has been modified by caldera collapse, gravit
n neighbor to the south, Karthala volcano. The basaltic La Grille volcano also contrasts with Karthala in its abundance of pyroclastic cones up
 o was considered to have been active during the past 2000 years.
NE of the large Mousa Alli stratovolcano. A second E-W-trending chain of cones is located to the north of the principal chain, most of which l
 her small islands and submarine shoals. The Zukur-Hanish island group, in contrast to other Red Sea islands such as Jebel at Tair or the Zu
ms the southern third of the massive Harrat Ash Shamah volcanic field, which extends from Syria through Jordan into northern Saudi Arabia.
oria cones, lava flows, and explosion craters. The youngest lava flows of the Haruj field (also known as Al-Haruj al Aswad or Djebel Haroudj)
a 4-5 km wide caldera at the summit. The modern edifice is the youngest of four major basaltic-to-rhyolitic volcanic complexes dating back to
SE-trending fault extending between the highlands and desert lowlands to the east. One of the lava flows covers alluvial terraces that accum
 rical scoria cone with a 200-m-wide crater displaying fumarolic activity occupies the center of the graben. An older shield volcano is covered
e during the late Pleistocene to Holocene on the basis of its youthful-looking morphology.
cing escarpment formed as a result of gravitational collapse of El Golfo volcano about 130,000 years ago. The steep-sided 1500-m-high scar


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 tic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age (WoldeGabriel 1987, pers. comm.). This area of young basaltic volcanism is also referred to as the
  of the volcano rises about 600 m above the lake. This dominantly Miocene-to-Pleistocene volcanic complex contains numerous flank vents,
ere erupted through granitic gneisses and are located on the western side of the Tanzanian Craton far from other Tanzanian volcanoes, whic
 about 500 sq km at the eastern end of Hoggar (Ahaggar) volcanic province and was assigned a Recent age (Liegeois et al., 2005). This poo
he eruption of the trachytic Green Tuff ignimbrite about 55,000 years ago was followed by caldera formation. The high point on the island, 78
 ivity began in the Pliocene and has continued into the Holocene. Early eruptions produced trachytic lava domes and basanitic lava flows. Lat
  nic field to the south. The Harrat Ithnayn volcanic field overlies Cambrian sandstones and Precambrian basement rocks. Vents of Harrat Ithn
 oungest eruptive activity within the Songwe Basin
 anotectonic depression that is open to the Zula Gulf and an isolated central cone. Jalua lies NW of basaltic lava flows of the Alid graben and
  anoes were constructed near the Georgia-Russia border SW of Kasbek volcano.
cano lies on the Arabian foreland about 150 km SW of the boundary with the Anatolian Plate and has been active since the Pliocene along a
egli plain SW of the Karacadag stratovolcano. The 300-m-high Meke Dagi is one of the largest cinder cones in Central Anatolia. The explosio
  SE of the 4507-m-high summit, is filled by viscous lava flows and two explosion craters. The large, 1.2-km-wide Muntango pit crater is locate
  1982; Yilmaz, 1990). Hantke (1962) reported that historical eruptions have occurred, but Keller (1980, pers. comm.) considered the reports
summit caldera generated by repeated collapse. Elongated rift zones extend to the NNW and SE from the summit of the Hawaiian-style basa
  lava flows down flank valleys. Next to Mount Elbrus, Kasbek is the highest volcano in Caucasus Mountains. The summit cone and the latest
 sium foditic volcanic fields in the Western Rift Valley of Uganda. Katunga is the type locality of the rock type katungite, an olivine-melilitite. Th
s of volcanic fields in the Western Rift Valley of Uganda. The volcanic field contains a group of foiditic tuff cones and maars, some of which a
  m-long N-S linear vent system contains felsic lava domes, tuff rings, the Jabal Qidr stratovolcano, as well as numerous small basaltic cones
nes. Maars, some of which contain lakes, surround the Kieyo area, and young basaltic cinder cones and lava flows cover an extensive area s
  summit towers 5200 m above the surrounding plains. The older cone of Shira forms the broad WNW shoulder of Kilimanjaro, and the exten
  ones, tuff rings and maars, and phonolitic lava domes and flows. Most of Harrat Kishb is of Pleistocene age; Holocene flows are restricted to
0 km SW of Fentale volcano. As many as eight silicic calderas are accompanied by ignimbrite outflow sheets. Gariboldi, the youngest calder
om Kenya. About 20 tuff cones occupy the Korath Range, many of which issued lava flows from their flanks that traveled up to about 5 km. T
 mes on the northern flanks have fed trachytic lava flows. The major stage of Korosi volcanism spanned a period between 0.4 and 0.1 million
ontains the 1.0-0.55 million-year-old, post-caldera Zini lava dome. The widespread Kos Plateau Tuff (160,000 years ago), which blankets mu
 er a basement of Cretaceous and Paleozoic sandstones. Two nested calderas, 12 x 15 km in size, truncate the dominantly trachytic volcano
  the Karapinar volcanic field. The Kula field consists of a broad area of Quaternary alkaline basanitic-to-phonotephritic cinder cones and maa
 he Kunlun Mountains is the site of at least 10 volcanoes of Pliocene-to-Holocene age, including Ashi Shan volcano, the youngest in China. T
   summit crater of the young basaltic volcano. Initial subaqueous activity occurred along NNW-trending fissures. Fumarolic activity observed i
  olcanic fields, Kutum (also known as the Tagabo Hills or Berti Hills) contains very well-preserved cones, lava flows, and explosion craters. T
 ake Edward and Lake Albert. The Kyatwa tuff cones and lake-filled maars are part of a group of Pleistocene-to-Recent volcanic fields in wes
 gh northern one is cut by the massive steep-walled Caldera Taburiente, one of several massive collapse scarps produced by edifice failure t
 cene-and-Holocene cinder cones and lava flows erupted along NE-SW-trending fissures are found throughout the low-altitude arid island an
  ld lies in an area underlain by sediments of Eocene-to-Pliocene age. The geothermal activity is considered to be related to a cooling granitic
  nt volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Va
   of Dofen volcano. The morphology of the cones and maars suggested a late Pleistocene or Holocene age.
anoes, craters, and lava domes on a basement of submarine volcanic deposits. Lipari was formed in three major eruptive cycles, the first of w
 d large explosive eruptions about 21,000 years ago. A large central cone that was constructed within the caldera forms the 2776-m-high sum
 tructed over Precambrian crystalline rocks along a N-S axis. Harrat Lunayyir is one of the smallest of the Holocene lava fields of Saudi Arabi
gional Ethiopian scarp. The volcano is situated between two large horsts of uplifted basement blocks. A large trachytic and rhyolitic stratovolc
 the Madeira Archipelago, about 90 km in length. Construction of the volcano along E-W-trending rift zones from the Miocene to about 700,00
olcanoes, along with Bara Ale and Sork'Ale, form the Bidu volcanic complex. The complex Mallahle stratovolcano is truncated by a steep-wa
 s 105 km long and 20-30 km wide, and represents an uplifted segment of a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. A small basaltic shield volcan
   represents an uplifted mid-ocean ridge spreading center now exposed above sea level. An elongated dome of basement rocks is cut by two
 ras, Elengoum and Eboga. The older 6-km-wide Elengoum caldera is poorly defined and probably formed between about 800,000 and 600,0
es and associated lava flows. The volcanic field covers an area of 1500 sq km, overlying Precambrian metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the
esh-looking basaltic aa lava flow was erupted from this little-known volcano (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World), although the age of th
e, opposite Prince Edward Island. The low profile of 24-km-wide dominantly basaltic and trachybasaltic Marion Island is formed by two young
  km-wide, steep-walled caldera, located at the southern end of the volcanic field, was formed about 3500 years ago at the time of the eruptio
  and 180 cinder cones, most of which are concentrated along NW- and NE-trending belts that cut across the thickly vegetated summit region
 he summit of the volcano, whose flanks are cut by numerous N-S-trending faults. Mat Ala has been active during the Holocene, and fumarol


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d at an altitude of 950 m in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo NW of the Virunga Mountains about 38 km north of the tow
 o have been active during the Holocene (Mohr, 1979; Davidson, 1983). The Kenyan portion was mapped as Pleistocene in age, with one Po
  e-to-Holocene vents. The volcanic field was constructed over an uplifted Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement and is elongated
ars ago was followed by the eruption of two voluminous ash-flow tuffs, each preceded by major pumice falls. The first took place about 29,00
west, Meru has a conical profile, but it contains a 5-km-wide breached caldera on the east side that formed about 7800 years ago when the s
of Peloponnesus. Potassium-Argon ages for the older part of the complex range from 900,000 to 320,000 years. The youngest dome, Kamen
   predominately rhyolitic eruptions. The oldest volcanic rocks are Pliocene submarine rhyolitic pyroclastic-flow deposits overlying basement m
 no is located along regional tectonic trends connecting Sete Cidades volcano with Santa María Island, SE of Monaco Bank. The summit of th
gh trachytic-to-rhyolitic volcano is the most prominent topographic feature in this area and towers above its neighbor to the SW, Manda Inakir
 crater. The 3474-m-high Gahinga (Mgahinga) volcano is joined to Muhavura on the west by a broad saddle. The two volcanoes have produc
 nakil Alps, Nabro lies in the Danakil horst. Nabro is the most prominent and NE-most of three volcanoes with large summit calderas aligned
   basaltic effusive and explosive activity took place during the early Holocene on the lower northern, eastern, and southern flanks along the a
Dagi contains a 9 x 5 km caldera partially filled on its western side by a caldera lake. Post-caldera volcanism, of basaltic to rhyolitic compositi
 ovolcano, Nganha. Quaternary volcanism is situated east of Ngaoundere and Wakwa, and consists of scoria cones and lava flows, maars, a
 to-phonolitic caldera, containing a 1.5 x 2.5 km caldera lake, is bounded by steep-walled cliffs 150-300 m high. Numerous pyroclastic cones
 cted during the past 150,000 years, with three cone-building stages including explosive and effusive andesitic eruptions and effusive and ext
Kenya's northernmost rift valley volcano and is primarily composed of trachyandesitic-to-trachytic phreatomagmatic deposits from overlapping
 ound in the central part of the island. Nosy-Be volcanics, which are dominantly of low-silica foiditic compositions, overlie Mesozoic limestones
 ene to Holocene age (Hackman et al., 1989). The basaltic cinder cones are the youngest features of Nyambeni Hills volcano. They are cluste
ad East African Rift Valley NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Nyamuragira, also known as Nyamulagira, has a volume of 500 cu km, and extensive
astrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, 3470-m-high Nyirag
  haped Lake O'a (also known as Lake Shalla). Formation of the caldera about 240,000 years ago was accompanied by the eruption of two ig
 e. The Mount Oku stratovolcano is cut by a large caldera. The Oku volcanic field is noted for two crater lakes, Lake Nyos to the north and La
 lcano. The volcano is the smallest in the northern part of the Kenya rift valley. N-S-trending faults cut the complex, producing west-facing sca
nd other peralkaline rhyolitic centers. A thick, geochemically diverse basal complex is overlain by a dominantly silicic lava-dome and lava-flow
of Barcelona. The Olot volcanic field consists of a large number of strombolian pyroclastic cones and associated alkali basaltic lava flows and
  pyroclastic rocks around the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene formed a NW-trending ridge of pyroclastic cones acro
  . Two large Pleistocene calderas dominate the island, which contains numerous post-caldera lava domes and cinder cones and is the type lo
 der linear volcano with numerous flank cones that forms most of the 48-km-long island. The conical, dominantly basaltic Pico volcano was co
 ogenetic fissure-controlled, dominantly basaltic volcanism, much of which post-dates the roughly 5000-year-old Fogo eruption, cannot be ass
  jan border, and lava flows extend into both countries. The flanks of the volcano are dotted with 10 satellitic cones and fissure vents. Porak v
modified by block faulting, marine erosion, and uplift. The structural center of the volcano is located on the western side of the 14 x 19 km wid
 tely south of the SW Indian Ocean Ridge. The low-angle Prince Edward Island is a remnant of a large shield volcano formerly centered off th
 rocks, and Eocene volcanics in an area several hundred km away from the closest Quaternary volcanoes. The maars produced tephritic pyro
  field of Harrat ar Raha lies south of the Plain of El-'Hisma, south of the town of Tabuk. There are fewer young volcanoes in Harrat ar Rahah
 s erupted from offset NNW-trending vent systems comprise Harrat Rahat, which has an average width of 60 km. Lava flows extend as far as
e western flanks of the volcano contain hummocky terrain from a debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the summit and western f
es a height of 4811 m; it forms the highest point in NW Iran and is the country's 2nd highest volcano, exceeded only by Damavand. Seven gla
eroded calc-alkaline stratovolcano is one of the highest peaks in the Azarbaijan region and reaches a height of 3707 m. Numerous lava dome
and. San Carlos was classified as having been active during the last 2000 years, although little is known of its geologic history.
 l lake-filled caldera cuts the summit of the forested shield volcano, and a crater lake lies on the NE flank of the volcano. San Joaquin was cla
   part of the island. The western two-thirds of dominantly basaltic San Jorge contains youthful, fissure-fed lava flows resembling those on neig
  along the Cameroon Line, Santa Isabel is modified by the same NNE faults as Mt. Cameroon across the Gulf of Guinea on the African main
  dera bay, is one of the scenic highlights of the Aegean. The circular island group is composed of overlapping shield volcanoes cut by at leas
estern parts of the island are more dissected, and dramatic phonolitic and trachytic spines rise vertically out of the rain forest. Most of the lava
  ). The island has an irregular shoreline. The largest indentation is formed by a caldera on the NW coast that is breached by the sea and form
   The volcanic field is oriented WSW-ENE and contains about a hundred cones that have produced a 40 x 95 km lava field that blankets fault
  and Rusarus Plateaus and areas to the SW. This volcanic region is located well east of the East African Rift, south of the massive Marsabit
cenic highlights of the Azores. The steep-walled, 500-m-deep caldera was formed about 22,000 years ago, and at least 22 post-caldera erup
  e Earth's Interior, 1973). One other cone is located nearby.
   impressive 5 x 8 km summit caldera with 300 m deep walls is thought to have formed about 63,000 years ago. Caldera formation is thought
  e eastern side of the Ethiopian Rift Valley, north of the town of Malkassa, between Boset-Bericha and Gedamsa volcanoes. The basaltic lava


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   the NE-SW orientation of three larger stratovolcanoes of the Nabro volcanic range at the southern end of the Danakil Alps. A small, roughly
ed from a N-S fissure extending the 11-km length of the island, form much of the eastern shoreline. South Island (sometimes referred to as H
  NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much
ano, the 2nd highest in Turkey. During construction of the volcano andesitic-dacitic lava flows alternated with fluid basaltic flows, followed by c
  not volcano and about 50 km WNW of the capital city of Nairobi. Construction of an early shield volcano was followed by eruption of volumin
SW Usangu Basin volcanic field are located along NNE-trending normal faults
 ran, that extends into northern Pakistan. The higher, 3940-m SE summit cone is well preserved and has been the source of very fresh-lookin
  eld lies WSW of the town of Tamanrasset and was active from the Miocene to the Holocene, producing alkaline strombolian cones and lava
  (one of many variations of the name, including Djebel Teyr, Jabal al Tayr, and Jibbel Tir ) is the northernmost known Holocene volcano in th
 and has produced a variety of rock types, ranging from basalts to pantellerites. NNW-SSE-trending fissures cutting the volcano have fed bas
  south of Mount Ararat. An E-W-trending summit ridge, developed north of an arcuate caldera structure exposed only on the southern side, c
  istorical time. The NE-trending Cordillera Dorsal volcanic massif joins the Las Cañadas volcano on the SW side of Tenerife with older volcan
   craters. Three satellitic centers are located along an E-W line north of the main shield, whose 2728-m-high summit forms Ethiopia's highest
 tive Santa Barbara volcano at the western end of the island is truncated by two calderas. The youngest of these formed about 15,000 years a

k, 1987). The volcano was reported to have erupted during the first and seventh centuries. Pechan is also known by a variety of other names
  (Liegeois et al., 2005). The alkaline Tin Zaouatene volcanic field covers an area of about 50 sq km in the Adrar des Iforas massif of the Tuar
 n of about 30 trachytic and phonolitic volcanoes through Precambrian basement rocks. This was followed by the formation of about 130 bas
  va flows of the Tarso Tôh volcanic field fill valleys and plains over an area of 80 km in an E-W direction and 20-30 km in a N-S direction in th
uba. Activity in the 10-20 km wide graben began with the emission of large lava flows over a basement of Precambrian metamorphic rocks an
 flows and may have been active as recently as historical time (Ebinger et al., 1993). The cones and flows on the eastern end of the Chamo B
 nd of the 14-km-wide ignimbritic Yirrigue caldera of Pleistocene age. The 6000 sq km Toussidé massif was constructed over a basement of
s and associated lava flows. Their age is not known precisely, but they may have been active within the past 2000 years.
  n. The Tskhouk-Karckar volcano group was constructed within offset segments of the major Pambak-Sevan strike-slip fault trending SE from
 hiopian Rift Valley. A large silicic lava flow at Giano was erupted about two centuries ago from a regional fissure. Flank fissures have produc
  ong Dynasty recorded activity consisting of frequent smog from the volcano on cloudless days and a nighttime blaze like a torch. The northe
  ver, NE of the capital city of Khartoum. Jebel Umm Arafieb consists of a low-angle shield volcano of basanitic-to-trachybasaltic composition
 ered by Ebinger et al. (1989) to be of probable Holocene age based on lack of vegetative cover. A lava flow traveled westward away from the




 olivine basaltic lava flows that may have erupted as recently as historical time
ding zone near the active eastern margin of the rift valley, NE of Lake Zwai and NW of the massive, 4000-m-high Pleistocene Ch'llalo (Cilallo
 of the prominent 2800-m-high Ziquala volcano.
ocated between Kone and Boset-Bericha volcanoes, SE of the capital city of Addis Ababa.
 are located SW of the capital city of Tbilisi, near the borders with Turkey and Armenia. Many of the craters have well-preserved morphologie
 olcano and SE of the Karbagin Oth volcano group.
hanian et al., 2002). The volcanic field lies between two major NW-SE-trending fault systems, the Maku Fault on the south and the Sardarap
n (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). Perfectly preserved cones and craters were erupted amongst a dramatic group of rugged Cret
 he border with Turkey (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). The city of Kilis lies just across the border in Turkey. Miocene-to-Quaterna
 cene volcanic vents. This volcanic field lies within the northern part of the massive alkaline Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic field that extends from


 ava fields. The massive alkali olivine basaltic lava field reaches a height of 1920 m; it extends about 125 km in a NW-SE direction and is con
volcanic fields in the Ghanzi region and consists of endogenous lava domes, one of which occupies an old caldera. The age of the volcanoes
was constructed within a large caldera of the ancestral Monte Somma volcano, thought to have formed incrementally beginning about 17,000
 ocratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. The 3711-m-high stratovolcano contains a 450-m-wide lake in its summit crater. A NE-SW-trending
 brite deposits surround the caldera to distances of 15-35 km. Tarso Voon was constructed over a basement of Precambrian schists. Youthfu
 6,000 years. Two overlapping calderas, the 2.5-km-wide Caldera del Piano on the SE and the 4-km-wide Caldera della Fossa on the NW, w


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d explosive eruptions that constructed the main Vulsini complex, the 16-km-wide, lake-filled Bolsena caldera on the east and the 8 x 11 km L
 e Haruj volcanic field. A 4-km-wide, 100-m-deep caldera contains a post-caldera scoria cone, Wau-en-Namus. An apron of dark basaltic tep
  maars, and small stratovolcanoes covering an area of about 600 sq km. The West Eifel volcanic field lies about 40 km SW of the smaller, b
 its. Yali is located within the inferred location of the large submarine caldera associated with the eruption of the voluminous Kos Plateau Tuff
 c lava flow originating in the caldera covers part of the southern flank. Rhyolitic obsidian domes on the NW flank are surrounded by younger
  Arabia. It contains three groups of volcanoes, Qummatain, Djar'atain-Harra, and 'Ukwatain. Hot springs occur south of Djar'atain and betwe
 t. The platform and eruptive vents forming the islands and shoals are oriented NNW-SSE, parallel to the rift. An early explosive phase was f
s and spatter cones that issued youthful-looking pahoehoe lava flows. This island group, in contrast to other Red Sea islands such as Jebel a




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  of maars, lava domes, basaltic lava flows, and pyroclastic cones. Three groups of obsidian lava flows have been dated; pre-collapse flows b
 oluminous ignimbrites. A small 2.5-km-wide caldera cuts a trachytic dome extruded in the older caldera. Scoria cones are located on the floo
basaltic composition. Eruptions were reported in 1907 and 1915 from Afderà (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). However, on morph
 oa do Fogo caldera lake. Several post-caldera lava domes were emplaced on the northern and western flanks of the volcano, but activity in
  y very fresh lava flows, was erupted from N-S-trending fissures along the east side of the shield volcano and laps up against the western flan
   of ejecta between about 560,000 and 350,000 years ago. Subsequent eruptions occurred from a new 5-km-wide central cone and from man
ge, Ale Bagu is mantled by basaltic pyroclastic rocks. Summit craters are elongated along a NNW-SSE trend. The main crater is a steep-wal
  yolitic lava flows, that rises 700 m above the graben floor. Late-stage rhyolitic eruptions during the late Pleistocene ejected rhyolitic pumice.
  e main volcanic horst. Major fumarolic activity is located on the numerous parallel faults, some of which have uplifts of 100 m. Fissure vents
  duced abundant pumice-flow and pumice-fall deposits, along with lesser rhyolitic lava flows. Obsidian lava flows erupted from craters along
pan a wide geochemical spectrum, including basaltic, andesitic, rhyolitic, trachytic, phonolitic, and foiditic compositions. The young volcanoes
y the emission of minor basaltic lava flows. An earlier now-eroded basaltic phase was followed by the most recent activity, which produced a
e until the very recent Quaternary (Besairie, 1973). Trachytic lava domes were erupted during the initial stage and massive fissure eruptions
 ted on all sides of the volcano and were the source of large lava flows that descended its lower flanks. Several of these were considered to b
  rea of 1000 sq km at the eastern end of a SSW-ESE line of volcanoes extending from Nemrut Dagi. Construction of the Greater and Lesser
ater and contains numerous basaltic cinder and spatter cones. Magma-water interaction has produced tuff cones, some of which form island
 lcanic field (also known as the Sana'a or the Sana'a-Amran volcanic field) are commonly aligned along a north-NW trend above a 100-250-m
he Mogorros plains to the south. Although the age of the volcano is not known precisely, Asavyo was considered to have erupted during last
The isolated island, 1130 km from the nearest land, is dotted with more than 100 youthful parasitic cones and lava domes, many aligned alon
  nts of the Assab volcanic field were constructed along a broad E-W-trending line that extends to the coastal city of Assab.
der trachytic and phonolitic lava domes and volcanic necks that form some of the most dramatic scenery of northern Africa. The latest stage
  u was constructed by a series of thick rhyolitic lava flows, creating a higher and steeper-sided volcano than its neighbor Adwa. Hot springs a
  blanket much of the volcanic field and produce an irregular shoreline. One fresh-looking basaltic flow may be of historical age (Catalog of Ac
an Rift. Kalolenyang volcano lies west of Kakorinya, and Likaiu West and Likaiu East volcano are located to the ENE. A 3.8-km-wide summit
  ambrian and Paleozoic granitic rocks near the center of the Bayuda Desert. Most vents of the Bayuda field are cinder cones that produced la
  ltic composition. A steep-sided lava cone on the north flank produced a viscous lava flow that traveled to the north before diverging to the NW


est of the Wadi al Masilah river valley.
m and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. Volcanic activity dates back to the Miocene and concluded with the formation of Holocene cinder cones (B
y of Addis Ababa. Most of the craters and cones are aligned NE-SW, parallel to the direction of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The 750 x 1000 m w
  s. The age of the most recent eruption in the volcanic field is not known.
and has a 1-km-wide crater on its south flank. Small silicic pyroclastic cones are found on the east flanks of both Bora and Bericcio. All volcan
  by curvilinear faults; youthful chains of spatter cones follow this same curvilinear pattern and form concentric semi-circles. The 668-m-high s
 e from Dama Ali (Gouin, 1979). This 875-m-high complex is one of several volcanic features in Ethiopia named Borawli.
domes south of the volcano are the probable source of rounded pumice fragments found around Lake Afrera.
 a) was followed by rhyolitic effusive and explosive eruptions that resulted in caldera formation. A remnant of the caldera rim is found on the N
etoya, was discovered by and later named for Captain Lozier-Bouvet during his 1739 search for the "great southern continent." About 95% of
  of the craters and numerous minor earthquakes in recent years indicate that a significant volcanic hazard still exists (Wolff and Turbeville, 1
 ally breached on one side by lava flows. Their age is not known precisely, but they are considered younger than the stratovolcanoes of the V
 nging from fresh to saline. Friable calcareous volcanic tuffs are inter-bedded with Pleistocene and Recent sediments. Only a few foiditic lava
Debre Zeit, SE of the capital city of Addis Ababa. The maars were erupted through Pleistocene rhyolitic lava flows and tuffs. Eruptions of the y
ene or late-Pleistocene age, although late-stage phreatomagmatic activity at Columba volcano was dated at the mid-Holocene. The volcanic
mbrian metamorphic rocks covered with Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments. More than 100 small cinder cones, often fissure-controlled par
nd subsidence within the dominantly trachytic caldera have occurred since Roman times. The earliest known eruptive products are dated 47,
 ast of Sicily and the NE tip of Tunisia, forming submarine banks that are capped by cones that rise to near sea level. Submarine eruptions w
m deep whose floors lie near sea level. The highest point on the dominantly basaltic island reaches 550 m, about 170 m above the lake surfa
 present-day Chaîne des Puys began about 70,000 years before present (BP), and was largely completed by the beginning of the Holocene. H
 re basalts located to the west (Mohr and Wood 1976, WoldeGabriel 1987, pers. comm.), may be those of the northern Lake Abaya area of th
19th century. Volcanic activity began about 1.4 million years ago with eruptions in the northern Chyulu Hills and migrated to the SE, where a l
   by block faulting and the eruption of scoria cones and lava flows along four radial fracture systems. Bellair (1964) considered the Morne Ro


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 t grew on the SE caldera rim, has erupted lava flows onto the caldera floor. The age of the latest eruptive activity at Corbetti caldera is not kn
 e of the island is the most prominent feature of Corvo. The caldera floor contains several small cinder cones and two shallow lakes. Two sou
  lcano, which rises above the Teru Plain and was built over a base of basaltic-to-trachytic lava flows of a shield volcano. Late-stage basaltic f
  hield volcano elongated in an ENE-WSW direction. The only silicic volcanic rocks are a NNW-trending line of lava domes and lava flows nea
   considered to be of Pleistocene age (Lapparent et al., 1965) and were listed as Recent by Bordet (International Association of Volcanology
 lava flows with primary slopes up to about 35 degrees. These silicic flows extend primarily to the east; on the west they are blocked by walls
 s 48 m below sea level and was formed during an eruption in 1926. Colorful hot brine springs are found in the Dallol area. VEI1: 1926.
mit of the dominantly basaltic volcano, which also displays an older caldera rim. An arcuate chain of rhyolitic lava domes occupies the norther
ummit crater of the trachyandesite-to-trachytic volcano contains a small lake, and young lava flows from summit and flank vents cover the we
acial times (Sviatlovsky, 1959). The Vaiyots-Sar and Smbatassar pyroclastic cones of Holocene age (Karakhanian et al., 2002) are located in
e of the only 20th-century eruption in the Arabian Peninsula, where possible explosive activity occurred in 1937 (VEI2).
  e flanks of the dominantly rhyolitic volcano. The northern cones are younger, have well-preserved morphologies, and display strong fumaroli
   eruption during December 1720 (VEI3) produced an ephemeral island that attained a length of 1.5 km and an altitude of about 250 m before
b, Jabal ed Duruz, Jabal al Druz, Jebel Duraz, Djebel ed Drouz). The alkaline volcanic field consists of a group of 118 basaltic volcanoes acti
extensive basaltic lava fields to the north and NE, known as the Edd lava field, cover an area of 2700 sq km and reach the Red Sea coast. Th
  Zway segment of the Wonji Fault Belt. The youngest lava flows at East Zway are unaffected by the latest tectonic faulting along the Ethiopia
 nd Dodson, 1963). Pleistocene phonolitic and trachytic lava flows are overlain by rhyolitic obsidian lava flows forming much of the northern a
ummit. Products of Mount Elbrus cover 260 sq km; its longest lava flow traveled 24 km down the NNE flank. The most recent lava flows from
ake Elmenteita.
  he northern and southern flanks and within the caldera. A NNE-SSW-trending chain of lake-filled basaltic maars extends along the floor of th
 he Kocdag complex. Numerous parasitic cones and lava domes are found mostly on the north flank of the modern edifice, many along radia
  the Erta Ale Range. The 613-m-high volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger
  W-SE-trending fissures. A boiling lava lake was observed in the Es Safa volcanic area in the middle of the 19th century. This volcanic field li
ounger volcanic rocks. The 10 x 19 km wide Ile de l'Est is the oldest of the Crozet Islands, but contains five younger oxidized scoria cones, m
 ano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was cons
 tic airfall pumice, pyroclastic flows, and lahars related to formation of the caldera blanket the island. Formation of the steep-walled 500-m-de
  a, which has steep-sided walls up to 500 m high. The WNW-ESE-trending elliptical caldera has an orientation perpendicular to the Ethiopian
ociated with formation of small calderas. The 10 x 15 km island of Flores is dotted by numerous pyroclastic cones and craters. Following a lo
 . The caldera is located asymmetrically NE of the center of the island and was formed as a result of massive lateral collapse of the ancestral
erupted through basement rocks of Precambrian gneiss in an WSW-ENE-trending area north of the town of Fort Portal. Several additional ve
es Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastwar
pais de la Arena, the Northern Malpais, and the Lobos Island areas at the northern tip of Fuerteventura are the sites of broad fields of youthfu
phically distinct. The eastern wall of the 500-m-deep caldera of Furnas overlaps the western wall of the Povoaçao caldera of Nordeste volcan
   of the volcano, and a 5 x 17 km basaltic lava field that covers the Ado Bad plain north of the volcano originated from a broad area of fissure
 r. Like other Erta Ale Range volcanoes, Gada Ale is considered to be of Holocene age (Barberi and Varet, 1970). A fissure on the SE flank h
Rift, particularly on the east side of the caldera. The caldera is steep-sided, with 100-200 m high walls whose upper part consists primarily of
  a 65-km-long, 35-km-wide area west of Lake Sevan and south of the Hrazdan River and are concentrated along 3 NNW-SSE-trending align

old (Bigazzi et al., 1995). A large number of cinder cones are located adjacent to Göllü Dag, many along N-S-trending fissures north of the la
ns producing significant tephra falls, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and lava flows. An important fumarole field is located in a volcanic cave inside
 modified by caldera collapse, gravitational edifice failure, and extensive erosion. Middle Quaternary scoria cones and lava flows are found in
ts abundance of pyroclastic cones up to 800 m in height. The cones were erupted along fissures paralleling the summit ridge, which has an i

of the principal chain, most of which lies in Eritrea, and fed long lava flows that descend to the north, in the direction of the Red Sea.
slands such as Jebel at Tair or the Zubair Islands, lies in shallow waters south of the Red Sea median trough. Spatter cones, cinder cones, a
h Jordan into northern Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian portion of the Harrat Ash Shamah volcanic field extends across a 210-km-long, roug
Al-Haruj al Aswad or Djebel Haroudj) were considered by Klitzsch (1968) to be Holocene in age and are located at the northern side of the fie
 c volcanic complexes dating back to the mid Miocene and was constructed within the latest caldera. Andesitic-to-dacitic lava domes form the
s covers alluvial terraces that accumulated behind man-made dams dating back to about 800-1200 BC.
n. An older shield volcano is covered on the north by recent fissure-fed lava flows. Lava flows from the axial portion of a fissure system exten

o. The steep-sided 1500-m-high scarp towers above a low lava platform bordering 12-km-wide El Golfo Bay, and three other large submarine


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 ic volcanism is also referred to as the Northern Lake Abaya volcanic field.
  plex contains numerous flank vents, including the carbonatitic and ultramafic Lake Simbi maar on the lower east flank. The Chiewo, Got Oja
  om other Tanzanian volcanoes, which are located near the Gregory Rift. Two well-preserved craters rising 15 to 45 m above the plain occur
  age (Liegeois et al., 2005). This poorly known and isolated volcanic field was erupted through basement rocks at the western end of the Sah
 tion. The high point on the island, 789-m-high Monte Epomeo, is a volcanic horst composed of the Green Tuff ignimbrite deposit that was su
   domes and basanitic lava flows. Later activity produced trachytic lava flows and recent vulcanian eruptions. A trachytic maar was formed ne
  basement rocks. Vents of Harrat Ithnayn form a general N-S pattern, but are more scattered than those of Harrat Khaybar. Harrat Ithnayn ro

 ltic lava flows of the Alid graben and south of the Zula Gulf. No historical eruptions are known, although fumarolic activity continues on its we

  en active since the Pliocene along a N-S-trending set of fissures and craters associated with the nearby Akcakale graben. Potassium-Argon
 nes in Central Anatolia. The explosion craters and maars are located along a SW-NE line consistent with the elongation of Karacadag volcan
km-wide Muntango pit crater is located south of the summit of the basanitic-to-trachytic volcano. A broad lava plain, formed from lava flows e
  ers. comm.) considered the reports to be uncertain. Feraud (1992, pers. comm.) considered the youngest activity to be Holocene in age.
he summit of the Hawaiian-style basaltic shield, which has an asymmetrical profile that is steeper to the south. The lower SE rift zone forms t
ains. The summit cone and the latest lava flows are of postglacial age, and the latest andesitic-dacitic lava flow was radiocarbon dated at abo
  ype katungite, an olivine-melilitite. The undissected tuff cone was erupted through metamorphic basement rocks and its rim and flanks are b
ff cones and maars, some of which are filled by lakes. Lake Katwe is a shallow 3-km-long body of water that occupies two of three intersectin
ell as numerous small basaltic cones. At least seven post-neolithic (<4500 years old) and eight "historical" (<1500 years old) lava flows are p
  lava flows cover an extensive area south of Kieyo. The latest eruption around 1800 AD (VEI2) took place from two parasitic tephritic cones t
houlder of Kilimanjaro, and the extensively dissected Mawenzi forms a prominent, sharp-topped peak on the ESE flank. Numerous satellitic c
  age; Holocene flows are restricted to three areas in the western half of the field. Jabal Aslaj cone and its associated lava flows contain abun
heets. Gariboldi, the youngest caldera, is an elliptical 5 x 7.5 km wide caldera trending E-W and oriented perpendicular to the Main Ethiopian
 nks that traveled up to about 5 km. The apparent youngest flow issued from the central crater and flowed through a breach in its rim. The ab
  a period between 0.4 and 0.1 million years ago and included the eruption of voluminous fluid basaltic lava flows and pyroclastic cone format
0,000 years ago), which blankets much of the western half of Kos, originated from a submarine source between Kos and Nisyros islands and
cate the dominantly trachytic volcano, whose 3415 m high point lies on the southern caldera rim of the low-angle pyroclastic shield volcano. T
 phonotephritic cinder cones and maars erupted along a roughly E-W-trending line SW of the city of Selendi. Most of the Kula volcanoes are
  an volcano, the youngest in China. This and several other young cones lie in the area around Ashi (Aqqikkol) and Wuluke (Ulugkol) lakes. C
 ssures. Fumarolic activity observed in the 1930s was not seen during field work in the 1970s.
 , lava flows, and explosion craters. They were considered to be of late-Pleistocene or even Holocene age (Almond, 1974). Franz et al. (1997
cene-to-Recent volcanic fields in western Uganda.
e scarps produced by edifice failure to the SW. The younger 1949-m-high Cumbre Vieja, the southern volcano, is one of the most active in th
ughout the low-altitude arid island and on smaller islands to the north. The largest historical eruption of the Canary Islands took place during
red to be related to a cooling granitic pluton of Pliocene age beneath sedimentary and metamorphic rocks ranging from Paleozoic to Tertiary
of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage of the volcano ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic

 ee major eruptive cycles, the first of which took place from about 223 to 188 thousand years ago (ka) from N-S-trending fissures on the west
e caldera forms the 2776-m-high summit of the volcano. The younger cone is truncated by a circular, 1.8-km-wide crater. Post-caldera lavas
e Holocene lava fields of Saudi Arabia, but individual flow lobes radiate long distances from the center of the Harrat, and flows reached the R
 large trachytic and rhyolitic stratovolcano at the center of the Ma Alalta complex contains nested oval-shaped summit calderas, 8 x 5 km and
  es from the Miocene to about 700,000 years ago was followed by a period of extensive erosion and possible edifice collapse. Two steep-wa
  ovolcano is truncated by a steep-walled 6-km-wide caldera. Mallahle is formed of rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastics. Basaltic lava flows bla
 center. A small basaltic shield volcano is located at the northern end of the complex, south of which is an area of abundant fissure-fed lava fl
 ome of basement rocks is cut by two axial rifts, the northern of which was active during historical time. Basaltic cinder cones along marginal
ed between about 800,000 and 600,000 years ago. Large lava flows traveled down the NE flanks from a breach on the eastern caldera rim. T
metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Tuareg shield. Many cones are breached, and the dominantly basaltic and basanitic volcanic products
s of the World), although the age of the flow is not known. The flow traveled 1.8 km east from the cone over alluvial deposits on a broad plain
Marion Island is formed by two young shield volcanoes that rise above a flat-topped submarine platform. The 1230-m-high island is dotted by
0 years ago at the time of the eruption of voluminous airfall pumice and pyroclastic flows that traveled more than 30 km from the volcano. Th
s the thickly vegetated summit region. The main phase of shield construction occurred during the Pliocene. Quaternary activity shifted to expl
 ve during the Holocene, and fumarolic activity occurs along a fissure SW of the volcano.


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untains about 38 km north of the town of Rutschuru. The May-ya-moto thermal area contains fumaroles and hot springs with temperatures o
 d as Pleistocene in age, with one Potassium-Argon date of about 0.9 million years ago (Charsely, 1987). The 1.8-km-wide Gof Dukana basa
amorphic basement and is elongated in an E-W direction. Basaltic scoria cones and associated lava flows dominate, but trachytic-phonolitic
 alls. The first took place about 29,000 years ago and produced a large caldera. The second major eruption, producing about 30 cu km of com
  ed about 7800 years ago when the summit of the volcano collapsed. Associated massive debris avalanches and lahars traveled as far as th
 0 years. The youngest dome, Kameno Vouno, on the NW side of the peninsula, was formed in the 3rd century BC and produced a lava flow
  -flow deposits overlying basement metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The latest activity during the late Pleistocene was concentrated in th
  E of Monaco Bank. The summit of the volcano rises to within 197 m of the sea surface. Submarine eruptions took place during 1907, when
 its neighbor to the SW, Manda Inakir. Rhyolitic lava domes and lava flows are found in the summit region, which is truncated by a caldera.
  dle. The two volcanoes have produced basanitic-to-trachyandesitic lavas. A small parasitic crater has been recently active, but the age of the
   with large summit calderas aligned in a NE-SW direction SW of Dubbi volcano. These three volcanoes, along with Sork Ale volcano, collect
 ern, and southern flanks along the axis of the East African Rift, producing fissure-controlled subaerial basaltic scoria cones and lava flows, a
nism, of basaltic to rhyolitic composition, initially occurred along the caldera rim and floor. Pyroclastic flows and the emission of glassy obsidia
 coria cones and lava flows, maars, and tuff cones. A single Potassium-Argon date of 0.9 million years ago has been obtained from a lava flo
m high. Numerous pyroclastic cones are situated along the ridge. The youngest activity appears to have originated from the caldera and from
  esitic eruptions and effusive and extrusive dacitic and rhyolitic activity. The age of the caldera is variously considered to be <24,000 years be
omagmatic deposits from overlapping eroded tuff cones or tuff rings. The center of the island consists of a young tuff ring about 1 km in diam
 ositions, overlie Mesozoic limestones and other sedimentary rocks. Two periods of activity occurred at Nosy-Be. Initial eruptions of fluid lava
 ambeni Hills volcano. They are clustered in a NE-trending belt along the crest of the shield, in a N-S-trending area including the Mula Hills, a
 volume of 500 cu km, and extensive lava flows from the volcano blanket 1500 sq km of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volc
no, Nyamuragira, 3470-m-high Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit cr
ccompanied by the eruption of two ignimbrite deposits, the first of which was strongly welded. The only post-caldera activity consists of two p
  akes, Lake Nyos to the north and Lake Monoun to the south, that recently produced catastrophic carbon-dioxide gas release events. The Au
e complex, producing west-facing scarps. Smaller islands to the north and south are faulted basaltic lava flows; Parmalok Island to the SW is
 nantly silicic lava-dome and lava-flow complex active from about 20,000 years ago to the present. The youngest known eruption originated fr
sociated alkali basaltic lava flows and is part of the NE Volcanic Province, which includes the Ampurdán and Selva areas to the SE. The pyro
ending ridge of pyroclastic cones across the summit region; collapse of this area formed the summit caldera and associated craters. A secon
es and cinder cones and is the type locality for peralkaline rhyolitic rocks, pantellerites. The 15-km-long island is the emergent summit of a la
minantly basaltic Pico volcano was constructed over the Montanha volcanic complex on the eastern side of the island and is capped by a 500
  ear-old Fogo eruption, cannot be assigned to either volcano and appears related to en-echelon fissures overlying a fracture zone. Thick pum
 itic cones and fissure vents. Porak volcano was constructed along the active Pambak-Sevan strike-slip fault, which has bisected the mid-Ple
 e western side of the 14 x 19 km wide island, which has an irregular shoreline. The stratovolcano was formed during at least five stages dati
hield volcano formerly centered off the current NW shore of the island. Pleistocene and Holocene scoria cones and tuff cones are located thr
es. The maars produced tephritic pyroclastic deposits. The diameters of the maars range from 150 to 1200 m; the largest, known as Great C
 young volcanoes in Harrat ar Rahah than in other harrats (lava fields) to the south. Harrat ar Rahah is erosionally divided into two segments
of 60 km. Lava flows extend as far as 100 km west of the axis of the field. Basaltic scoria cones dominate Harrat Rahat, but the volcanic field
 collapse of the summit and western flank. The trachytic caldera is largely filled by a series of youthful-looking uneroded and sparsely vegetat
ceeded only by Damavand. Seven glaciers descend from the summit, and rock glaciers are also present. Potassium-Argon dates at Sabalan
 ight of 3707 m. Numerous lava domes dot the lower flanks of the volcano. Pleistocene Potassium-Argon dates from 1.2-0.8 million years ago
 of its geologic history.
   of the volcano. San Joaquin was classified as having been active during the last 2000 years, although little is known about its geologic histo
d lava flows resembling those on neighboring Pico Island. Subaerial lava flows issued from three locations above the south-central coast dur
e Gulf of Guinea on the African mainland. The 3007-m-high volcano contains numerous satellitic cinder cones. Santa Isabel is the only Bioko
pping shield volcanoes cut by at least four partially overlapping calderas. The oldest southern caldera was formed about 180,000 years befor
 out of the rain forest. Most of the lavas erupted over the last million years are basaltic in composition. The youngest dated volcanic rock on S
   that is breached by the sea and forms the setting for the port of Mindelo, the island's largest village.
   x 95 km lava field that blankets faulted basement limestones. Most of the volcanic field is Holocene in age (Cox et al., 1977), and in many c
n Rift, south of the massive Marsabit shield volcano. The two plateaus host most of the vents and are bounded by the Milgis River on the nor
go, and at least 22 post-caldera eruptions have occurred. A large group of Pleistocene post-caldera trachytic lava domes, lava flows, and pyr

ars ago. Caldera formation is thought to have been incremental, related to eruption of the Kantenmening basaltic and trachytic lava flows. A s
 edamsa volcanoes. The basaltic lava flows extend beyond the western flanks of Boset and Bericha volcanoes as far north as the village of W


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 of the Danakil Alps. A small, roughly 1-km-wide, 300-m-deep steep-walled caldera is found at the summit of the 1611-m-high volcano. Basa
th Island (sometimes referred to as Hohnel Island) rises 320 m above the lake to a height of 800 m and is part of a volcanic horst that extend
terized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that
with fluid basaltic flows, followed by construction of a large lava dome over the central vent. The flanks of the volcano are dotted with numero
 was followed by eruption of voluminous Pleistocene pumice flows and lava flows that accompanied incremental formation of the caldera. Th

 been the source of very fresh-looking lava flows. Highly active, sulfur-encrusted fumaroles occur at the summit of the SE cone. The deeply
 alkaline strombolian cones and lava flows. The high point of the volcanic field, which was constructed over a basement of Precambrian met
nmost known Holocene volcano in the Red Sea and lies SW of the Farisan Islands. Youthful basaltic pahoehoe lava flows from the steep-sid
ures cutting the volcano have fed basaltic lava flows; those NE of Lake Afrera are of prehistorical age. Late-stage volcanism produced youthf
exposed only on the southern side, contains two well-developed cones. The higher western cone is capped by a steep-walled crater with a tr
SW side of Tenerife with older volcanoes, creating the largest volcanic complex of the Canary Islands. Controversy surrounds the formation
high summit forms Ethiopia's highest Holocene volcano. Lava flows have traveled down pre-existing valleys. Tepi lies at the northern end of
of these formed about 15,000 years ago. Comenditic lava domes fill and surround the caldera. Pico Alto lies north of the fissure zone in the n

 o known by a variety of other names, including Peishan, Baishan, Hochan, Aghie, Bichbalick, Khala, and Boschan. Two eruptions of unknow
e Adrar des Iforas massif of the Tuareg shield.
ed by the formation of about 130 basaltic cones that typically produced a valley filling lava flow. A series of NW-SE-trending faults control volc
 and 20-30 km in a N-S direction in the arid Tibesti Range north of the more well-known Tarso Toussidé volcano. The flows were erupted ove
 f Precambrian metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous sandstones and concluded with explosive activity forming numerous cinder cones. The 8
 s on the eastern end of the Chamo Basin were erupted along NNE-trending fissures between Lake Chamo and Lake Abaya to the north. So
was constructed over a basement of Precambrian schists on the east and Paleozoic sandstones on the west. The summit of Toussidé conta
past 2000 years.
evan strike-slip fault trending SE from Lake Sevan. Eight pyroclastic cones produced three generations of Holocene lava flows (Karakhanian
 l fissure. Flank fissures have produced silicic lava flows as recently as about 1900 AD. The same fissures have also erupted prehistorical ba
ghttime blaze like a torch. The northern Song Dynasty ruled from 960-1127 AD and the southern Song Dynasty from 1127-1279 AD.
sanitic-to-trachybasaltic composition formed of several overlapping aa lava flows erupted from a vent now capped by a spatter cone. Very we
 low traveled westward away from the rift valley along the back-tilted flank of the rift.




0-m-high Pleistocene Ch'llalo (Cilallo) volcano, one of the largest volcanic structures of the central Ethiopian Rift Valley.


ers have well-preserved morphologies.

 Fault on the south and the Sardarapat-Nakhichevan Fault on the north. The roughly L-shaped lava field extends about 30 km in an east-wes
ngst a dramatic group of rugged Cretaceous limestone peaks.
order in Turkey. Miocene-to-Quaternary volcanic fields are found near the Aazaz area on the Syrian side of the border.
 haam volcanic field that extends from southern Syria through NW Jordan to Saudi Arabia. VEI0?: 1222.


5 km in a NW-SE direction and is contiguous with the Harrat ar Rahat volcanic field to the NW. The Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World
 ld caldera. The age of the volcanoes is not known precisely; they were tentatively considered to be of Pleistocene age (Lapparent et al., 196
ncrementally beginning about 17,000 years ago. The Monte Somma caldera wall has channeled lava flows and pyroclastic flows primarily to
 ts summit crater. A NE-SW-trending fissure zone has produced many cinder cones NE of the trachyandesitic volcano. An eruption in 1957 (
ment of Precambrian schists. Youthful-looking Quaternary basaltic lava flows have been erupted from vents near the caldera rim over a 180
e Caldera della Fossa on the NW, were formed at about 100,000 and 24,000-15,000 years ago, respectively, and volcanism has migrated to


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dera on the east and the 8 x 11 km Latera caldera on the west were formed during major Pleistocene explosive eruptions at about 0.3 and 0
Namus. An apron of dark basaltic tephra extends 10-20 km around the caldera in stark contrast to the light-colored desert sand prominent in
es about 40 km SW of the smaller, but better known East Eifel volcanic field. Individual vents, most of which cover a broad NW-SE-trending
n of the voluminous Kos Plateau Tuff, dated about 160,000 years before present. This eruption produced extensive ignimbrites that blanket m
NW flank are surrounded by younger basaltic lava flows. Very recent scoria cones and lava flows are located south of Yangudi along the eas
 occur south of Djar'atain and between it and 'Ukwatain. A single historically documented eruption from Jabal Yar took place at the beginning
e rift. An early explosive phase was followed by a brief period of marine erosion, and then by renewed explosive activity accompanied by the
her Red Sea islands such as Jebel at Tair or the Zubair Islands, lies in shallow waters south of the Red Sea median trough. Products of phre




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 ave been dated; pre-collapse flows between about 190,000 and 180,000 years before present (BP), 75,000 yrs BP lava domes (such as Tas
  Scoria cones are located on the floor of a circular summit caldera and on its NW and SW flanks. Extensive young basaltic lava flows cover
es of the World). However, on morphological grounds Afderà appears to be substantially older than adjacent volcanoes, and the reported eru
  flanks of the volcano, but activity in the caldera did not resume until about 5000 years ago. The 3-cu-km Fogo-A plinian pumice-fall deposit,
o and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano. Two historical eruptions that were formerly attributed to Afderà volcano actually ori
 -km-wide central cone and from many phreatomagmatic craters and cones within the Artemisio-Tuscolana caldera and on its outer flanks. T
 rend. The main crater is a steep-walled, 750 x 450 m depression occupied by a steep-sided lava cone that has fed trachytic lava flows over t
Pleistocene ejected rhyolitic pumice. Steep-sided lava flows drape the flanks of the structural dome, which was produced by intrusion of a sili
  have uplifts of 100 m. Fissure vents west of the horst have fed silicic lava flows, and other fissures to the south have produced voluminous y
 va flows erupted from craters along the fissures have descended the flanks in all directions. Cinder cones, lava domes, phreatic explosion c
  compositions. The young volcanoes have very well-preserved morphologies and were mapped as Recent (Besairie, 1973). Other very recen
ost recent activity, which produced a series of perfectly preserved cinder cones and lava flows that traveled down current valley floors in the B
stage and massive fissure eruptions created a series of tectonic lakes. The latest activity occurred in the southern part of the massif and prod
Several of these were considered to be of Holocene age, but later Potassium-Argon dating indicated mid- to late-Pleistocene ages. The youn
 nstruction of the Greater and Lesser Ararat volcanoes was followed by a period of extensive flank eruptions, many erupted along N-S-trendin
uff cones, some of which form islands or are breached by the sea. The most recent lava flows are younger than lake sediments deposited 53
a north-NW trend above a 100-250-m-thick volcanic plateau. Pliocene-to-Holocene volcanic rocks have a dominantly basaltic-to-hawaiitic com
nsidered to have erupted during last 2000 years. A large post-caldera cone was constructed near the center of the caldera, and smaller pyro
 s and lava domes, many aligned along two fissures. Basaltic rocks dominate on the 858-m-high island, although trachytic lava domes are als
astal city of Assab.
y of northern Africa. The latest stage of activity began around 1.95 million years and continued almost to the present. Lava flows cover Holoc
han its neighbor Adwa. Hot springs are located on the western flank of Ayelu.
 ay be of historical age (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). At-Tabâb tuff cone along the coast rises from the sea to 233 m and has a
d to the ENE. A 3.8-km-wide summit caldera was formed at Kakorinya volcano about 92,000 years ago. Youthful-looking trachytic and phono
 eld are cinder cones that produced lava flows which breached the cones. About 10% of vents in the field are explosion craters, the largest of
o the north before diverging to the NW and NE. No historical eruptions are known from Bazman, but minor fumarolic activity has been report



 rmation of Holocene cinder cones (Brown et al., 1984). The Quaternary Harrat al Birk lava flows are of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition
 pian Rift Valley. The 750 x 1000 m wide Haro Maja tuff ring and its neighbor, lake-filled Kilole, are offset to the east. The cones and maars o

s of both Bora and Bericcio. All volcanic products in this area are considered to be Holocene in age. Vigorous fumarolic activity continues at B
entric semi-circles. The 668-m-high summit of the Borale Ale complex is located on the NE side of the massif and consists of a silicic stratov
 named Borawli.

nt of the caldera rim is found on the NW flank of Boset. Elsewhere post-caldera activity has produced very recent pantelleritic obsidian fissure
at southern continent." About 95% of the uninhabited 10-km-wide island is covered by glaciers. The most prominent feature is the 3.5-km-wid
 rd still exists (Wolff and Turbeville, 1985). Most of the younger eruptions originated from the interaction of phonolitic magmas with a large gr
ger than the stratovolcanoes of the Virunga Range, some of which are Holocene in age. The Bufumbira rocks are noted for their unusual ultr
 nt sediments. Only a few foiditic lava flows are found in the volcanic field. Although no dated eruptions are known, volcanic activity probably
ava flows and tuffs. Eruptions of the younger basaltic cinder cones were contemporaneous with those that produced the maars. Some of the
 d at the mid-Holocene. The volcanic field lies in a continental rift setting and contains several lake-filled maars. Fumarolic activity was record
er cones, often fissure-controlled parallel to the long axis of the massive 1400 cu km volcano, occur on the flanks and surrounding lowlands.
 own eruptive products are dated 47,000 years before present (BP). The Campi Flegrei caldera formed following two large explosive eruption
ear sea level. Submarine eruptions were reported at the Giulia-Ferdinandeo and Pinne banks during the first Punic war (264-241 BC), and fro
m, about 170 m above the lake surface. An E-W-trending chain of small explosion craters cuts the eastern side of the 3-km-wide island. Sev
d by the beginning of the Holocene. Holocene eruptions constructed lava domes such as the Puy de Dôme, whose growth was accompanied
of the northern Lake Abaya area of the Hobicha Caldera.
 lls and migrated to the SE, where a large number of Holocene cones are found. Many of the cinder cones are aligned along dominantly NW-
 lair (1964) considered the Morne Rouge cone on the eastern coast to be even younger than an estimated several-hundred-year-old cone on


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e activity at Corbetti caldera is not known, although many lava flows are too young to date by the Potassium-Argon method. Fumarolic activit
ones and two shallow lakes. Two southward-breached pyroclastic cones erupted along a N-S-trending fissure and fed lava flows that formed
  shield volcano. Late-stage basaltic fissure eruptions occurred at the NW base of the volcano. Abundant fumaroles are located along the cre
 ine of lava domes and lava flows near the crest of the 1302-m-high volcano.
 national Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, 1973).
n the west they are blocked by walls of a horst structure along the crest of the Erta Ale range. Other basaltic lava flows from regional fissures
  in the Dallol area. VEI1: 1926.
 itic lava domes occupies the northern, western, and southern flanks. Youthful basaltic lava flows surround these domes and blanket the flan
  summit and flank vents cover the western side of the volcano. The earliest lava flows are thought to post-date roughly 38,500 year old terrac
 rakhanian et al., 2002) are located in this part of the Vardeniss volcanic ridge. Vaiyots-Sar volcano lies just north of the major Areni-Zanghez
n 1937 (VEI2).
hologies, and display strong fumarolic activity. A major fumarole in a wide south-flank crater has precipitated large amounts of sulfur. The lat
and an altitude of about 250 m before it was eroded beneath the sea surface two years later. The volcano (also spelled Dom Joao de Castro
 group of 118 basaltic volcanoes active from the lower-Pleistocene to the Holocene. The large SW Plateau depression is filled by basaltic lav
 km and reach the Red Sea coast. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The forme
st tectonic faulting along the Ethiopian Rift.
 lows forming much of the northern and NE slopes of the main massif. A prominent late-Pleistocene rhyolitic lava flow from a SE-flank vents
ank. The most recent lava flows from Elbrus are fresh-looking, and the latest eruptions took place during the Holocene (Catalog of Active Vo

 ic maars extends along the floor of the rift from the lower flanks of the volcano. Young lava flows were also erupted from vents along rift valle
 he modern edifice, many along radial fissures. The youngest dated rock was from an 83,000-year-old dacitic lava flow, but rhyodacitic eruptio
  eep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located to the SE o
 he 19th century. This volcanic field lies within the northern part of the massive alkaline Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic field that extends from so
 ve younger oxidized scoria cones, most of which are on the eastern side of the island. The young scoria cones may be Holocene in age (LeM
  by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent mor
mation of the steep-walled 500-m-deep caldera was followed by construction of fissure-fed basaltic lava fields and small volcanoes that form
ntation perpendicular to the Ethiopian Rift, and post-caldera vents occur along the same orientation. Trachytic and obsidian lava flows occur
stic cones and craters. Following a long period of quiescence beginning about 200,000 years ago, several young phreatomagmatic craters an
ssive lateral collapse of the ancestral Monte Armarelo edifice. A very youthful steep-sided central cone, Pico, rises more than 1 km above the
n of Fort Portal. Several additional vents are located in the Kasekere (Rusekere) area to the NE. The Fort Portal volcanic field was considere
00 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flank
are the sites of broad fields of youthful cinder cones and lava flows. The Malpais Chico, Malpais Grande, and Malpais de Jacomar areas on t
Povoaçao caldera of Nordeste volcano. Volcanic activity at Furnas dates back about 100,000 years. At least 11 trachytic pumice layers, all er
  ginated from a broad area of fissure vents and spatter cones on the north side of Gabillema volcano. Young lava flows also occur south and
et, 1970). A fissure on the SE flank has produced spatter cones and a cinder cone; the latter fed lava flows that reach to Lake Bakili. The sym
hose upper part consists primarily of rhyolitic lava flows, and formed as a result of the eruption of a series of trachytic ignimbrites. Late-Pleisto
 ed along 3 NNW-SSE-trending alignments. Lava flows from the central and eastern clusters flowed into Lake Sevan. Initial explosive eruptio

   N-S-trending fissures north of the lava dome complex and south of the Erdas Dag massif; some of these cones were considered by Keller (
d is located in a volcanic cave inside the caldera, and a submarine fumarole occurs off the NW coast of Graciosa. Scoria cones erupted alon
oria cones and lava flows are found in the northern and eastern parts of the massive shield volcano, which is cut by a major NW-SE-trending
 ling the summit ridge, which has an irregular profile and is elongated in a N-S direction, and from radial fissures that reach as far as the coas

he direction of the Red Sea.
ough. Spatter cones, cinder cones, and ash cones line the crest of the 20-km-long Great Hanish island. Short lava flows reach the coast on b
 extends across a 210-km-long, roughly 75-km-wide NW-SE-trending area on the NE flanks of the Wadi Sirhan and reaches its 1100 m high
located at the northern side of the field. The Haruj field contains about 150 volcanoes, 30 of which are small shield volcanoes with heights of
desitic-to-dacitic lava domes form the two principal summits, of which the westernmost is the highest and is capped by two nested craters. L

xial portion of a fissure system extending to the south have reached the floor of the Giulietti Plain south of the Erta Ale Range. The open fissu

Bay, and three other large submarine landslide deposits occur to the SW and SE. Three prominent rifts oriented NW, NE, and south at 120 d


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wer east flank. The Chiewo, Got Ojawa, and Got Oloo vents on the southern and western sides of Homa Mountain were formed during the l
ng 15 to 45 m above the plain occur at Igwisi, with a less pristine crater in between. The NE crater is the largest, 370 m in diameter, and has
t rocks at the western end of the Saharan meta-craton.
n Tuff ignimbrite deposit that was submerged after its eruption and then uplifted. Volcanism on the island has been significantly affected by t
ons. A trachytic maar was formed near Saovinandriana at the beginning of the Holocene, and several other crater lakes are present. Mild se
 of Harrat Khaybar. Harrat Ithnayn rocks are of basaltic and basanitic composition and lack the silicic components present in neighboring Ha

 fumarolic activity continues on its western flank. The nomenclature of volcanic features in the Afar region reflects that of the two dominant et

   Akcakale graben. Potassium-Argon dates of mid-Pleistocene age have been obtained from Karaca Dag lava flows, but Landsat imagery su
 h the elongation of Karacadag volcano. The maars evolved from hyaloclastite tuff rings to maars to cinder cones, reflecting varying lake wate
d lava plain, formed from lava flows erupted within the caldera and along a chain of parasitic cones, extends SW. More than 100 parasitic co
est activity to be Holocene in age.
south. The lower SE rift zone forms the Massif du Badjini, a peninsula at the SE tip of the island. Historical eruptions have modified the morp
va flow was radiocarbon dated at about 6000 years ago. Gushchenko (1979) listed an 800-700 BC eruption from Kasbek.
ent rocks and its rim and flanks are blanketed with ejected schists. Katunga contains a freshwater lake in its summit crater. Two lava flows tr
  that occupies two of three intersecting craters immediately NE of Lake Edward. Local folk tales suggest that volcanism in the Katwe-Kikoron
al" (<1500 years old) lava flows are present. In the latter category is the prominent 55-km-long Habir lava flow as well as Jabal Qidr stratovolc
ce from two parasitic tephritic cones that were constructed along a NW-trending fissure: Sarabwe and Fiteko. The eruption produced lava flo
   the ESE flank. Numerous satellitic cones occupy a rift zone to the NW and SE of Kibo, the central stratovolcano. A 2.4 x 3.6 km caldera giv
s associated lava flows contain abundant granitic blocks from basement rocks and ultramafic nodules. Jabal Hil is a large scoria cone with a
   perpendicular to the Main Ethiopian Rift. The rim of the caldera rises about 100 m above the caldera floor; the eastern rim overlaps with a s
 d through a breach in its rim. The absolute age of the dominantly basanitic-tephritic lava flows is unknown, but a shell adhering to the younge
 va flows and pyroclastic cone formation along a NNE-trending fissure cutting across the axis of the shield volcano. This was followed by the
  etween Kos and Nisyros islands and resulted in the formation of a large caldera. The caldera dimensions are uncertain, but may extend as m
ow-angle pyroclastic shield volcano. The calderas contain several explosion craters, lava domes, and young scoria cones, along with lava flow
  ndi. Most of the Kula volcanoes are Pleistocene in age, between about 1.1 million and 10,000 years old. The initial stage produced lava flow
 ikkol) and Wuluke (Ulugkol) lakes. China's most recent volcanic eruption was observed by a road-building crew on May 27, 1951, at Ashi Sh

 e (Almond, 1974). Franz et al. (1997), however, assigned only Tertiary age ranges for rocks from Tagabo Hills.

olcano, is one of the most active in the Canaries. The elongated volcano dates back to about 125,000 years ago and is oriented N-S. Eruptio
he Canary Islands took place during 1730-36, when long-term eruptions from a NE-SW-trending fissure formed the Montañas del Fuego and
ks ranging from Paleozoic to Tertiary age, although the area is cut by faults with hydrothermal mineralization related to Pliocene-to-Quaterna
 ars ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have con

om N-S-trending fissures on the western side of the island. The second eruptive period from about 102 to 53 ka included the formation of the
8-km-wide crater. Post-caldera lavas are found on the caldera floor and the volcano's flanks, marking a late stage of effusive eruptions. A we
f the Harrat, and flows reached the Red Sea in two places. Lava flows are basaltic to basanitic in composition, and the Holocene flows are al
 aped summit calderas, 8 x 5 km and 5 x 2.5 km wide. Ignimbrite deposits, perhaps associated with formation of the larger caldera, extend b
 sible edifice collapse. Two steep-walled amphitheaters open to south in the central part of the island. Late-stage eruptions are scattered thro
d pyroclastics. Basaltic lava flows blanket the slopes of the volcano. Recent obsidian flows are found on the NW flank of Mallahle and older o
n area of abundant fissure-fed lava flows. Two basaltic shield volcanoes, the largest of which is Unda Hararo, occupy the center of the comp
Basaltic cinder cones along marginal faults of the rift have produced lava flows that traveled down the flanks of the structural dome, producing
 breach on the eastern caldera rim. The younger 3-km-wide Eboga caldera is thought to have formed about 250,000 years ago. Younger volc
 altic and basanitic volcanic products are rich in peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths and megacrysts. The youngest volcanoes rest on Neolithic
 ver alluvial deposits on a broad plain that is partly covered with bombs and lapilli from the eruption.
  The 1230-m-high island is dotted by about 150 cinder cones, smaller scoria cones, and coastal tuff cones. The earliest dated eruptions took
 ore than 30 km from the volcano. The Jebel Marra volcanic field covers a broad area of the Marra Mountains and contains early basaltic lava
ne. Quaternary activity shifted to explosive activity that formed maars accompanied by further extensive effusion of lava flows. The youngest




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  and hot springs with temperatures of less than 100 degrees Centigrade. Although the age of volcanic activity was not stated, May-ya-moto w
 . The 1.8-km-wide Gof Dukana basaltic maar is surrounded by ejecta containing abundant basement igneous and metamorphic rocks. Abou
ws dominate, but trachytic-phonolitic lava domes, tuff rings, and maars are among the youngest volcanic products. Basaltic scoria cones are
 ion, producing about 30 cu km of compositionally zoned peralkaline trachytic magma about 8000 years ago, was associated with formation o
 ches and lahars traveled as far as the western flank of Kilimanjaro volcano. Parasitic cones and lava domes are located on all sides; a maar
century BC and produced a lava flow that traveled 500 m beyond the coastline. VEI3: 258 +/- 18 yr.
te Pleistocene was concentrated in the eastern half of the low, U-shaped Mílos Island, forming lava domes and phreatic explosion craters, an
ptions took place during 1907, when a submarine cable was ruptured, and 1911. VEI0: 1907, VEI1: 1911.
 n, which is truncated by a caldera.
een recently active, but the age of the latest eruption of Muhavura is not known.
 , along with Sork Ale volcano, collectively comprise the Bidu volcanic complex. The complex Nabro stratovolcano is truncated by nested cald
asaltic scoria cones and lava flows, and partially or completely sublacustral tuff cones, tuff rings, and pillow lavas. Fluid olivine basalts were a
ws and the emission of glassy obsidian lava flows accompanied construction of lava domes within the caldera; later activity formed a series o
 go has been obtained from a lava flow east of Wakwa, although some volcanoes are possibly of Holocene age (Vincent 1992, pers. comm.).
  originated from the caldera and from youthful-looking pyroclastic cones to the north.
 ly considered to be <24,000 years before present (BP) (Keller et al., 1990) and >44,000 years BP (Limburg and Varekamp, 1991). Five large
  a young tuff ring about 1 km in diameter nested inside an older tuff ring. Two fresh unvegetated lava flows that reach the lake shore from th
Nosy-Be. Initial eruptions of fluid lava flows from the western side of the massif were followed by the construction of numerous strombolian ci
nding area including the Mula Hills, and in the Giaki area.
  Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with its steep-sided neighbor Nyiragongo. The 3058-m-high summit of Nyam
 steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older
post-caldera activity consists of two pyroclastic cones north of the caldera, one silicic and the other basaltic, and a group of tuff rings, spatter
n-dioxide gas release events. The August 15, 1984, gas release at Lake Monoun was attributed to overturn of stratified lake water, triggered
a flows; Parmalok Island to the SW is a breached trachytic tuff cone that fed a small lava flow. The latest eruptive activity at Ol Kokwe was es
 oungest known eruption originated from the Ololbutot fissue on the SE side of the complex produced lava flows and a pumice flow and has a
  and Selva areas to the SE. The pyroclastic cones are preferentially located at the intersection of E-W and NW-SE faults that cut sedimentar
dera and associated craters. A second large crater SE of the caldera is 0.5 x 1 km wide and contains a pumice cone. The summit caldera is
 sland is the emergent summit of a largely submarine edifice. The 6-km-wide Cinque Denti caldera, the youngest of the two calderas, formed
e of the island and is capped by a 500-m-wide summit crater that is overtopped by a small steep-sided cone. Historical eruptions have been r
  overlying a fracture zone. Thick pumice deposits thought to originate from the Picos volcanic system may have originated from vents or a ca
 fault, which has bisected the mid-Pleistocene Khonarassar volcano, separating its two halves by about 800 m. Two large lava flows from Por
ormed during at least five stages dating back to the Miocene. The eruption of plateau basalts from a rift system during stage IV was followed
  cones and tuff cones are located throughout the unglaciated 672-m-high island, which was active contemporaneously with nearby Marion Is
 00 m; the largest, known as Great Crater, is 1.2 km wide and 200-300 m deep. The ages of the maars have been roughly estimated by degr
 rosionally divided into two segments and is about 35 km wide at its broadest extent on the west, narrowing down to less than a kilometer in w
 e Harrat Rahat, but the volcanic field has also produced more silicic trachy-basaltic to trachytic rocks. Small shield volcanoes and pelean-typ
oking uneroded and sparsely vegetated pumice cones, lava domes, and explosion craters. The latter are also found on the southern and nor
 . Potassium-Argon dates at Sabalan ranged from 5.6 to 1.4 million years ago (Innocenti et al., 1982), but Karakhanian et al. (2002) indicated
n dates from 1.2-0.8 million years ago have been obtained (Innocenti et al., 1982), but Karakhanian et al. (2002) stated that eruptions at Saha

 ittle is known about its geologic history.
ns above the south-central coast during 1580, producing lava flows that reached the sea. In 1808 a series of explosions took place from vent
 cones. Santa Isabel is the only Bioko Island volcano with reported historical eruptions, although they are poorly documented. Three eruption
as formed about 180,000 years before present (BP), followed by the Skaros caldera about 70,000 years BP, and then the Cape Riva caldera
he youngest dated volcanic rock on Sao Tome is 0.1 million years old. However, the Sao Tome shield volcano is dotted with numerous morp

age (Cox et al., 1977), and in many cases the flows and cones are essentially uneroded. Although eruptions may have occurred in historical t
 unded by the Milgis River on the north and the Merille River to the south. Other vents lie to the SW, east of the Kauro River, and another larg
hytic lava domes, lava flows, and pyroclastic-flow deposits is found on the western-to-northern flanks. A nearly circular ring of six Holocene p

 basaltic and trachytic lava flows. A series of summit-area lava benches formed by eruptions from circumferential fissures has produced a vo
 anoes as far north as the village of Welenchiti.


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mit of the 1611-m-high volcano. Basaltic lava flows are prominent on the eastern side of the volcano, and satellite vents are located on the SE
 is part of a volcanic horst that extends 10 km to the north beneath the lake surface. Early stage tuff cone formation may have been associat
  emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostro
of the volcano are dotted with numerous lava domes and pyroclastic cones erupted along radial and circumferential fissures, particularly on t
remental formation of the caldera. The 2356-m summit of the phonolitic-to-trachytic volcano is formed by the post-caldera lava cone of Ol Do

  summit of the SE cone. The deeply dissected NW cone is of Pleistocene age. In January 1902 the volcano was reported to be smoking hea
 ver a basement of Precambrian metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Tuareg shield, lies near its eastern end. A dozen trachytic-to-rhyolitic
 hoehoe lava flows from the steep-sided central vent, Jebel Duchan, cover most of the island. They drape a circular cliff cut by wave erosion o
ate-stage volcanism produced youthful basaltic lava flows on the floor of the summit depression, which is also the site of prominent fumarolic
ped by a steep-walled crater with a trachytic spine at its eastern edge. The flatter eastern crater contains a warm lake. The shield volcano de
Controversy surrounds the formation of the dramatic 10 x 17 km Las Cañadas caldera, which is partially filled by 3715-m-high Teide stratovol
 eys. Tepi lies at the northern end of the Turkana rift, about 300 km west of the center of the main Ethiopian rift and was constructed along a
  lies north of the fissure zone in the north-central part of the island and contains a Pleistocene caldera largely filled by lava domes and lava fl

d Boschan. Two eruptions of unknown size have occurred

of NW-SE-trending faults control volcano locations. The date of the latest eruption of the Todra volcanic field is not known, but may have bee
volcano. The flows were erupted over a basement of Precambrian schists on the east and Paleozoic sandstones on the west. Sediments wi
ming numerous cinder cones. The 800 sq km Tombel Graben volcanic field erupted basanitic, basaltic, and trachybasaltic rocks and contain
mo and Lake Abaya to the north. Some cones form islands in Lake Chamo.
west. The summit of Toussidé contains numerous fumaroles and very youthful lava flows that would be of historical age in an inhabited regio

of Holocene lava flows (Karakhanian et al., 2002). Abundant petroglyphs, burial kurgans, and masonry walls were found on flows of the olde
es have also erupted prehistorical basaltic lava flows.
ynasty from 1127-1279 AD.
w capped by a spatter cone. Very well-preserved cones, lava flows, and explosion craters were considered by Almond (1974) to be of late-P




 pian Rift Valley.




 extends about 30 km in an east-west direction and about 25 km in a NW-SE direction.

 of the border.



alog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Pandang, 1963a) indicated that an eruption in about 640 AD (VEI2?) at Harrat 'Uwayrid
 eistocene age (Lapparent et al., 1965) and were listed as Recent by Bordet (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the E
 ws and pyroclastic flows primarily to the south and west. Eight major explosive eruptions have taken place in the last 17,000 years, often acc
desitic volcano. An eruption in 1957 (VEI1) formed two small cones on the north flank, 11 km from the summit.
ents near the caldera rim over a 180 degree area extending counterclockwise from the NE and from Ehi Mousgau, a 3100-m-high stratovolca
 ively, and volcanism has migrated to the north over time. La Fossa cone, active throughout the Holocene and the location of most of the hist


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xplosive eruptions at about 0.3 and 0.16 million years ago, respectively. Five major plinian fall deposits were erupted from vents at or near La
ght-colored desert sand prominent in satellite views. Three small salt lakes of variable color contribute to the name of the volcano, which mea
hich cover a broad NW-SE-trending area extending about 50 km from the towns of Ormont on the NW to Bad Bertrich on the SE, were erupt
d extensive ignimbrites that blanket much of the western half of the island of Kos and produced a caldera whose dimensions are uncertain, b
 ated south of Yangudi along the eastern graben faults.
 Jabal Yar took place at the beginning of the 19th century. VEI2: 1810 +/- 10 yr.
xplosive activity accompanied by the extrusion of basaltic pahoehoe lava flows. This latest phase of activity occurred on the morphologically y
 Sea median trough. Products of phreatic eruptions at Zukur form small islands and coastal cones. Late-stage trachytic lava domes produced




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000 yrs BP lava domes (such as Taskesik Tepe on the eastern side of the caldera) post-dating formation of the Acigöl-Nevsehir caldera, and
 sive young basaltic lava flows cover the flanks of Adwa and overlap a sedimentary plain to the SE. Many fumaroles occur within the caldera
 cent volcanoes, and the reported eruptions were probably from Alayta volcano to the west. The age of the most recent eruption of Afderà is
m Fogo-A plinian pumice-fall deposit, the product of the largest-known Holocene eruption in the Azores, was emplaced at this time. Numerou
 ributed to Afderà volcano actually originated from Alayta. One of those eruptions, in 1907, produced a large lava flow from a SE-flank vent. F
ana caldera and on its outer flanks. The post-caldera eruptions have buried the western side of the caldera rim. The largest of the post-calde
hat has fed trachytic lava flows over the crater floor. Silicic lavas from the axial regional fissure extend to the NW and SE.
ch was produced by intrusion of a silicic magma body. A 2 x 3 km graben cuts the top of the dome, and the crater that produced the plinian e
 e south have produced voluminous youthful basaltic lava flows that extend north as far as Lake Bakili.
es, lava domes, phreatic explosion craters, and thermal springs are structurally controlled. The oldest known eruptions from Alutu produced
ent (Besairie, 1973). Other very recent cones are located at the southern end of the massif, and crater lakes are also present.
 led down current valley floors in the Bealanana region.
  southern part of the massif and produced well-preserved strombolian basanitic cinder cones. Vulcanian eruptions formed several lake-filled
 - to late-Pleistocene ages. The youngest lower-flank flows have not been precisely dated, but are constrained as occurring between the end
 ons, many erupted along N-S-trending fissures. The initial stage of flank eruptions produced a cluster of cinder cones and dacitic-rhyolitic lav
ger than lake sediments deposited 5300 years ago. These lavas were thought to have been erupted during the past 3000 years (Delibrias et
 a dominantly basaltic-to-hawaiitic composition and overlie the northern end of an area of extensive Oligocene-Miocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic ro
 nter of the caldera, and smaller pyroclastic cones occur within the caldera and on its flanks.
although trachytic lava domes are also present, mostly on the eastern side. Although no eruptive activity has occurred since its discovery dur

 the present. Lava flows cover Holocene lake sediments dated at about 10,000 year Before Present (BP) and alluvial terraces in which Neolit

ses from the sea to 233 m and has a 1.5-km-wide crater partially filled by a cinder cone and associated lava flows. An adjacent tuff cone to th
 Youthful-looking trachytic and phonolitic lava domes and flows erupted within the caldera and along its ring fracture fill much of the caldera f
d are explosion craters, the largest of which, named Hosh ed Dalam, is 1.3 km wide and up to 500 m deep. The youngest basalts of the Bayu
nor fumarolic activity has been reported.



basaltic to trachybasaltic composition and contain ultramafic inclusions. Cinder cones are scattered throughout the volcanic field, and a few o
 to the east. The cones and maars of the Bishoftu volcanic field were erupted through rhyolitic welded tuffs.

orous fumarolic activity continues at Bora-Bericcio.
massif and consists of a silicic stratovolcano that is the largest of the Erte Ale Range. It has produced steep-sided viscous lava flows that hav


ry recent pantelleritic obsidian fissure-fed lava domes and flows that have buried the caldera wall, and flank eruptions from fissures parallel t
 t prominent feature is the 3.5-km-wide Wilhelmplataet caldera, which is breached to the sea on the NW side. A late-stage rhyolitic lava dome
of phonolitic magmas with a large groundwater reservoir contained within an older volcanic series characterized by thick welded ignimbrites
rocks are noted for their unusual ultrapotassic chemistry.
 re known, volcanic activity probably continued into historical times (Reece, 1955).
 at produced the maars. Some of the lava flows associated with the cinder cones are very young and are considered to be prehistorical in ag
maars. Fumarolic activity was recorded in the Sierra de Valenzuela area during the 16th-18th centuries.
he flanks and surrounding lowlands. A large satellitic peak, Etinde (also known as Little Cameroon), is located on the southern flank near the
ollowing two large explosive eruptions, the massive Campanian ignimbrite about 36,000 years BP, and the >40 cu km Neapolitan Yellow Tuf
 first Punic war (264-241 BC), and from the 17th to 20th centuries, sometimes producing ephemeral islands. The 1831 eruption at Graham Is
ern side of the 3-km-wide island. Several small islands to the SE represent partially submerged crater rims, and other cones and lava plugs li
me, whose growth was accompanied by pyroclastic flows, cinder cones that fed lengthy lava flows, and maars. The latest well-documented a

es are aligned along dominantly NW-trending older faults and younger NNE-trending fissures. The silica contents of the lava flows increased
ed several-hundred-year-old cone on Possession Island.


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 ium-Argon method. Fumarolic activity continues at the post-caldera cones of Urji, Chabbi, and an unnamed pyroclastic cone on the west rim
ssure and fed lava flows that formed a platform that underlies the village of Corvo at the southern end of the island. The youngest eruption on
t fumaroles are located along the crest of the volcano and extend NE towards Alayta volcano. The first historical eruption of Dabbahu took pl


altic lava flows from regional fissures surround the 613-m-high volcano. Fumarolic activity occurs in the 100-m-wide summit crater and has w

nd these domes and blanket the flanks of the volcano, and recent flows cover the young sediments of the Kalo and Abhe basins. The Asmar
st-date roughly 38,500 year old terraces. The absence of Pleistocene glacial erosion suggests that the main stage of edifice construction occ
ust north of the major Areni-Zanghezour Fault, near the town of Vaik, and produced a fissure-fed lava flow several thousand years ago that d

 ated large amounts of sulfur. The latest eruptions of Dofen occurred during the Holocene.
no (also spelled Dom Joao de Castro) was named after the Portuguese hydrographic survey vessel that surveyed the bank in 1941. Two you
 au depression is filled by basaltic lava flows from volcanoes aligned in a NW-SE direction. This volcanic field lies within the northern part of t
d NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 AD. The second created 19 small craters at the

olitic lava flow from a SE-flank vents extends almost to Lake Naivasha. Extensive fumarolic activity occurs at cinder cones and craters constr
g the Holocene (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). Weak solfataric activity near the summit continues, and hot springs are present o

 lso erupted from vents along rift valley faults. Well-preserved parasitic cones erupted along rift-parallel faults cutting the volcano abound; the
acitic lava flow, but rhyodacitic eruptions and lava dome growth occurred later at the Perikartin dome. The latest documented event is an edif
 Erta Ale range is located to the SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows
 m volcanic field that extends from southern Syria through NE Jordan to Saudi Arabia. VEI0 1850 +/- 10 yrs.
a cones may be Holocene in age (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990).
eld volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the eas
 fields and small volcanoes that form a peninsula extending to the west. This area is covered by the youngest volcanic products on the island
chytic and obsidian lava flows occur on the caldera floor, and fresh-looking lava flows descend the flanks from satellitic vents. An eruption fro
 al young phreatomagmatic craters and associated lava flows were erupted during the Holocene, including two about 3000 years ago. The Ca
Pico, rises more than 1 km above the caldera floor to about 100 m above the caldera rim, forming the 2829 m high point of the island. Pico, w
 rt Portal volcanic field was considered to be upper-Pleistocene to Recent in age by Nixon and Hornung (1973), based on analogy with young
 r of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava
  and Malpais de Jacomar areas on the south-central part of the island represent smaller zones of youthful volcanism, as do the volcanoes o
east 11 trachytic pumice layers, all erupted during the past 5000 years, post-date the caldera. The most prominent post-caldera feature is the
oung lava flows also occur south and east of the volcano, the latter along E-W-trending fissures. This period of rejuvenation, perhaps not dire
 ws that reach to Lake Bakili. The symmetrical Catherine tuff ring is located along this same SE trend west of Lake Bakili, and other tuff rings
 s of trachytic ignimbrites. Late-Pleistocene to Holocene volcanics form a chain of rhyolitic lava flows and pumice deposits, known as Ittisa, th
  Lake Sevan. Initial explosive eruptions at the Ghegam Ridge volcanic field were followed by the extrusion of rhyolitic obsidian lava domes an

se cones were considered by Keller (1980, pers. comm.) to be Holocene in age due to their freshly preserved features. The lava domes and
Graciosa. Scoria cones erupted along several widely spaced NE-SW-trending fissures fed a youthful lava field that forms the NW end of the
ch is cut by a major NW-SE-trending rift zone that extends across the island and fed flows primarily to the NE. Very young basaltic cones and
fissures that reach as far as the coast. Recent lava flows, some perhaps as young as a few hundred years, have reached the sea from fissur


Short lava flows reach the coast on both sides of the island. As with the Zukur group to the north, initial eruptions were phreatic. Subsequent
 Sirhan and reaches its 1100 m high point at Jabal al Amud. Activity began during the Miocene; a younger eruptive stage, at the SE end of th
mall shield volcanoes with heights of between 100 and 400 m. The Haruj volcanics are located along the SE extension of the Hon graben sy
d is capped by two nested craters. Lava domes and associated pyroclastic-flow deposits blanket more than half the flanks of the Mount Hasa

of the Erta Ale Range. The open fissures extend for more than 10 km and are lined with dozens of small spatter cones and pit craters. The d

oriented NW, NE, and south at 120 degree angles form prominent topographic ridges. The subaerial portion of the volcano consists of flat-ly


                                                                    Page 484
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a Mountain were formed during the latest stage of carbonatitic activity. Legends of inhabitants near the Lake Simbi maar suggest that it may
e largest, 370 m in diameter, and has been breached on the ENE side, the source of a small lava flow about 1 km in length and width. The S

 d has been significantly affected by tectonism that formed a series of horsts and grabens; at least 800 m of uplift has formed as a result of re
 her crater lakes are present. Mild seismicity and thermal activity in the form of hot springs continues at Itasy.
 mponents present in neighboring Harrat Khaybar. The youngest lava flows from Harrat Ithnayn are less than 4500 years old. An uncertain re

 n reflects that of the two dominant ethnic groups, the Afar (on the Ethiopian side) and the Issas (in the SE Afar depression). Each group has

 g lava flows, but Landsat imagery suggests that some lava flows, particularly those on the east flank, may perhaps be only a few thousand ye
 er cones, reflecting varying lake water levels during the eruption.
 nds SW. More than 100 parasitic cones erupted along a NNE-SSW zone that extends to the shores of Lake Kivu. The youngest Potassium-

 al eruptions have modified the morphology of the compound, irregular summit caldera. More than twenty eruptions have been recorded sinc
 ion from Kasbek.
n its summit crater. Two lava flows traveled to the NE from vents on the north and NE flanks. The age of the cone is uncertain, but it is conte
  that volcanism in the Katwe-Kikorongo area has continued into historical times.
a flow as well as Jabal Qidr stratovolcano, the only stratovolcano in the Harrats of western Saudi Arabia. An eruption was reported at Harrat K
 teko. The eruption produced lava flows that overran several villages.
 ovolcano. A 2.4 x 3.6 km caldera gives the summit of Kibo an elongated, broad profile. Most of Kilimanjaro was constructed during the Pleist
 abal Hil is a large scoria cone with a 300-m-wide crater that was filled and overtopped by a lava lake. Harrat Kishb includes several tuff rings
oor; the eastern rim overlaps with a smaller elliptical caldera. Roughly N-S-trending regional fissures cut across the caldera and its flanks. Th
wn, but a shell adhering to the youngest flow was radiocarbon dated at 7900 years before present (BP) (Brown et al., 1969). Davidson (1983)
 d volcano. This was followed by the eruption of trachytic lava domes and pumice/scoria cones. The youngest activity, consisting of fissure-fe
ns are uncertain, but may extend as much as 20 km from Kefalos Bay in SW Kos Island to Nisyros Island. Kos was included in the Catalog o
ung scoria cones, along with lava flows of recent and pre-modern age (Geze et al., 1959). The spectacular Era Kohor (Trou au Natron du Ko
  The initial stage produced lava flows from vents along the ring fracture of caldera identified from satellite images. The second and third stag
ng crew on May 27, 1951, at Ashi Shan (also known as Ka-er-daxi or Vulkan) pyroclastic cone. The eruption began with a loud detonation an



ears ago and is oriented N-S. Eruptions during the past 7000 years have originated from the abundant cinder cones and craters along the ax
 formed the Montañas del Fuego and produced voluminous lava flows that covered about 200 sq km. The lava flows reached the western co
ation related to Pliocene-to-Quaternary Tuscan magmatism. The only surficial morphological manifestation of volcanism is a series of about a
ocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra eruptions and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of

 o 53 ka included the formation of the Monte San Angelo and Costa d'Agosto stratovolcanoes in the center of the island. The third eruptive cy
 ate stage of effusive eruptions. A well-preserved satellitic cone is located on the NE flank. Masai tradition records a lava flow on the northern
 sition, and the Holocene flows are alkali olivine basalts. One of the cones may have erupted around the 10th century AD or earlier.
mation of the larger caldera, extend beyond the volcano primarily to the NE and SE. Young basaltic lava flows were erupted on the NW, SE, a
 te-stage eruptions are scattered throughout the island and lasted until the Holocene, producing scoria cones and intracanyon lava flows man
 the NW flank of Mallahle and older obsidian flows were erupted on the northern caldera floor. Flank spatter and scoria cones are most nume
araro, occupy the center of the complex. The dominant part of the complex lies to the south, where the Gumatmali-Gablaytu fissure system i
 nks of the structural dome, producing a shield-like morphology. An eruption in 1928 or 1929 at the SE end of the Manda-Inakir rift near the to
bout 250,000 years ago. Younger volcanism of unknown age has constructed a SW-NE line of crater lakes and cinder cones across the calde
 youngest volcanoes rest on Neolithic terraces and are of Holocene age.

 es. The earliest dated eruptions took place about 450,000 years ago, but much of the island is covered by Holocene aa and pahoehoe lava f
 tains and contains early basaltic lava flows overlain by thick sequences of pyroclastic-flow deposits. The northern part of the volcanic field di
 effusion of lava flows. The youngest dated lava flow at Marsabit has a Potassium-Argon age of 0.68 +/- 0.16 million years ago, but more rece




                                                                    Page 485
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ctivity was not stated, May-ya-moto was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Richard and Neumann van Padang, 1957)
neous and metamorphic rocks. About 50 pyroclastic cones with associated lava flows rise to about 150 m above the lava platform in northern
 products. Basaltic scoria cones are scattered throughout the field; their lavas have produced a broad lava plateau. The central part of the fie
ago, was associated with formation of the present-day 12 x 8 km summit caldera. More than 70 post-caldera lava flows cover the caldera flo
mes are located on all sides; a maar field is present on the lower north flank. The historically active Ash Cone forms a prominent symmetrica

 es and phreatic explosion craters, and on Antimílos Island to the NW, where a composite volcano was constructed. The youngest magmatic



tovolcano is truncated by nested calderas, 8 and 5 km in diameter. The larger caldera is widely breached to the SW. Nabro was constructed
ow lavas. Fluid olivine basalts were also erupted from a breached scoria cone forming the summit of Namarunu. The youngest eruptions pos
aldera; later activity formed a series of cinder cones and lava domes erupted along N-S-trending fissures on the northern flank. The most rec
 ne age (Vincent 1992, pers. comm.). The most recent eruptive activity originated from a chain of cinder cones aligned in a WNW-ESE direct

urg and Varekamp, 1991). Five large post-caldera lava domes completely fill the western part of the caldera. The NE-most (Boriatiko) and S
ws that reach the lake shore from the central tuff ring form lava deltas at the northern and western sides of the island; the northern delta is a
struction of numerous strombolian cinder cones on the western plain. Little is known about the age of the volcanic field, and the only K-Ar da

 o. The 3058-m-high summit of Nyamuragira is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical erup
 nce the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. A
 tic, and a group of tuff rings, spatter cones, and lava flows of Holocene (perhaps as young as prehistorical) age near the SW shore of the lak
urn of stratified lake water, triggered by an earthquake and landslide. The Lake Nyos event on August 21, 1986, caused at least 1700 fatalitie
  eruptive activity at Ol Kokwe was estimated to have occurred within the past thousand years (Smith 1991, pers. comm.). Hot springs, boiling
va flows and a pumice flow and has a radiocarbon age of about 180 years. Fumarolic activity occurs at the Njorowa Gorge and at the Orengi
nd NW-SE faults that cut sedimentary and metamorphic basement rocks. The latest dated eruption at Olot occurred during the early Holocen
pumice cone. The summit caldera is narrowly breached on the north side, which has funneled post-caldera lava flows in this direction. The th
youngest of the two calderas, formed about 45,000 years ago and contains the two post-caldera shield volcanoes of Monte Grande and Mont
one. Historical eruptions have been restricted to the flanks of Pico volcano and to the SE-trending rift zone, the Sao Roque Piedade volcanic
 ay have originated from vents or a caldera destroyed and now buried by young basaltic volcanism. The most noteworthy of the young vents i
800 m. Two large lava flows from Porak volcano traveled up to 21 km north and NW, and fresh-looking lava flows form peninsulas extending
system during stage IV was followed by a glacial period and then by the eruption of scoria cones and lava flows. The young scoria cones are
  mporaneously with nearby Marion Island. Fifteen of the scoria cones and four tuff cones on the coastal plain were active during the Holocen
have been roughly estimated by degree of erosion as 5000-50,000 years.
 ng down to less than a kilometer in width at the divide at Matar. Lava flows are more numerous in the southern segment, where they rise up
mall shield volcanoes and pelean-type lava domes with associated pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits are also present. Activity has migrate
e also found on the southern and northern flanks. A large area of basaltic cones and lava flows are found on the NW flank of the volcano. Th
 t Karakhanian et al. (2002) indicated that activity at Sabalan continued into the Holocene.
 . (2002) stated that eruptions at Sahand continued into the Holocene.


es of explosions took place from vents along the south-central crest of the island; one of these fed a lava flow that also reached the southern
  poorly documented. Three eruptions, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries, have been reported form SE flank vents. The events un
 BP, and then the Cape Riva caldera about 21,000 years BP. The youngest caldera formed about 3600 years BP during the Late-Bronze-Age
olcano is dotted with numerous morphologically recent cinder cones, many of which are concentrated on the SE side of the island.

ons may have occurred in historical time, the only recorded event was a major, but poorly documented eruption in 1253 AD (VEI3).
t of the Kauro River, and another large area of basaltic lava flows lies west of the Segererua and Rusaurus Platueas.
 nearly circular ring of six Holocene pyroclastic cones occupies the caldera floor. These have been the source of a dozen trachytic pumice-fa

mferential fissures has produced a volcano morphologically similar to Galapagos Islands volcanoes. Northern, eastern, and southern flanks a




                                                                   Page 486
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d satellite vents are located on the SE flank. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (1973) listed S
e formation may have been associated with a high stand of Lake Turkana dated at about 10,000 years ago, and later subaerial activity postd
ern portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Str
 umferential fissures, particularly on the northern, souther, and eastern sides. The 1.5-km-wide, low-rimmed Aygirgölü maar was erupted on t
y the post-caldera lava cone of Ol Doinyo Onyoke ("The Red Mountain," also known as Ol Doinyo Nyukie) on the south side of the caldera. It

 ano was reported to be smoking heavily for several days, with occasional strong night-time glow. A lava flow was reported at Taftan in 1993,
ern end. A dozen trachytic-to-rhyolitic lava domes and spines formed during the Pliocene, and Pliocene-to Pleistocene activity formed about 1
e a circular cliff cut by wave erosion of an older edifice and extend beyond it to form a flat coastal plain. Pyroclastic cones are located along t
 s also the site of prominent fumarolic activity.
s a warm lake. The shield volcano developed during a period when highly mobile lava flows from the western crater covered an area of 500 s
 filled by 3715-m-high Teide stratovolcano, the highest peak in the Atlantic Ocean. The origin of the caldera has been considered to be due e
pian rift and was constructed along a zone of ENE-trending faults that extends in line with the Gulf of Aden. Tepi has associated active hot sp
 rgely filled by lava domes and lava flows. Guilherme Moniz caldera lies along the fissure zone immediately to the south, and 7-km-wide Cinq



field is not known, but may have been as recent as a few centuries ago.
ndstones on the west. Sediments within the Begour maar were radiocarbon dated at 8300 +/- 300 years.
and trachybasaltic rocks and contains three large lake-filled maars, including Barombi Mbo, a compound maar near the town of Kumba. Leg

of historical age in an inhabited region (Vincent 1992, pers. comm.). Fresh-looking trachytic and trachyandesitic lava flows from Toussidé co

walls were found on flows of the older two age groups, but not on the youngest. Lava flows from cinder cones of the Tskhouk-Karckar volcan


red by Almond (1974) to be of late-Pleistocene or Holocene age.




ut 640 AD (VEI2?) at Harrat 'Uwayrid may have been from either Hala-'l-Bedr or Hala-'l-'Ischia, or both. Bedouin legends say that Hala-'l-Bed
 Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, 1973).
ce in the last 17,000 years, often accompanied by large pyroclastic flows and surges, such as during the well-known 79 AD Pompeii eruption

 Mousgau, a 3100-m-high stratovolcano located to the NW. The Soborom solfatara field, the largest in the Tibesti Range, is located in an are
 e and the location of most of the historical eruptions of Vulcano, occupies the 3-km-wide Caldera della Fossa at the NW end of the elongate


                                                                    Page 487
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were erupted from vents at or near Latera caldera during the late Pleistocene. The latest major eruption formed unwelded pumice flows and w
  the name of the volcano, which means "Oasis of Mosquitoes." The youthful appearance of the central cone has suggested it may be as you
 o Bad Bertrich on the SE, were erupted above a mantle plume through Devonian sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Scoria cones, about
 a whose dimensions are uncertain, but which may extend from Kefalos Bay on the SW side of Kos Island to Nisyros Island, south of Yali. Th


vity occurred on the morphologically youngest islands of Zubair, Centre Peak, Saba, and Haycock. Historical explosive activity was reported f
 stage trachytic lava domes produced viscous lava flows. Vents on Zukur are aligned along a NE-SW trend.




                                                                 Page 488
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n of the Acigöl-Nevsehir caldera, and young lava domes on the western caldera floor about 20,000 to 15,000 years old. Thirteen scoria layers
y fumaroles occur within the caldera of Adwa. Satellitic pyroclastic cones and lava domes were considered to be only a few hundred years ol
he most recent eruption of Afderà is not known, although the south-flank rhyolitic lava domes are too young to be dated by the Potassium-Ar
 was emplaced at this time. Numerous flank cinder cones mark radial and concentric fissures, some of which have been active during historic
arge lava flow from a SE-flank vent. Fumarolic activity occurs at two locations in the southern part of the complex. VEI2: 1915, 1907
era rim. The largest of the post-caldera craters is Lake Albano, a 4 x 2.5 km wide compound maar constructed at the WSW margin of the cal
  the NW and SE.
 he crater that produced the plinian eruption occupies the western third of the summit depression. Vast lava fields of probable Holocene age

nown eruptions from Alutu produced the Hulo-Seyno Ignimbrite about 155,000 years ago. The latest eruptions produced obsidian flows and p
akes are also present.

n eruptions formed several lake-filled craters. Hot springs occur at Ranomafana.
 ained as occurring between the end of the late-Pleistocene and 3000 BC (Kharakanian et al., 2003). A 13-km-long, WSW-ENE-trending line
f cinder cones and dacitic-rhyolitic lava domes surrounding Greater Ararat and a series of pyroclastic cones and domes on the western flank
ng the past 3000 years (Delibrias et al., 1975). The Ardoukôba fissure erupted in 1978 (VEI1), producing a small cinder cone and lava flows
ocene-Miocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic rocks that extends to the SW tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The latest eruption at Harra of Arhab took plac

 has occurred since its discovery during the 16th century, many volcanic features on Ascensión have a very youthful appearance. Two of the

) and alluvial terraces in which Neolithic artifacts have been found. Historical pottery has been found within lava flows in the Tahifet area, and

 ava flows. An adjacent tuff cone to the east is lake filled. VEI0: 500+/-100yr; VEI2?:200AD.
ring fracture fill much of the caldera floor. Early Holocene fissure-related scoria cones and lava flows dot the volcano's southern and northern
ep. The youngest basalts of the Bayuda volcanic field appear to post-date the last period of moist climate in Sudan, which ended as recently




ughout the volcanic field, and a few outlying cones lie east of the main lava field. Isolated patches of freshly eroded ash surround a vent at Ja



eep-sided viscous lava flows that have traveled up to 5 km from the volcano. Strong fumarolic activity occurs within a 300-m-wide summit cra


ank eruptions from fissures parallel to the rift have produced voluminous pantelleritic lava flows. Bericha (also known as Bariccia) has produ
side. A late-stage rhyolitic lava dome forms the Cape Valdivia peninsula on the northern flank. The latest dated eruption produced a lava flow
cterized by thick welded ignimbrites and block-and-ash flow deposits. Carbonatitic lavas are also found on Brava.


e considered to be prehistorical in age (Di Paola, 1972).

ocated on the southern flank near the coast. Historical activity, the most frequent of west African volcanoes, was first observed in the 5th cen
 he >40 cu km Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) about 15,000 years BP. Following eruption of the NYT a large number of eruptions have taken p
nds. The 1831 eruption at Graham Island (also known as Graham Bank, Giulia-Ferdinandeo Bank, or Ferdinandea Bank) produced an ephe
ms, and other cones and lava plugs lie beneath the lake surface near the island. The youngest Central Islands tuffs and lavas may be as you
maars. The latest well-documented activity took place about 6000 years BP near Besse-en-Chandesse and included the powerful explosions

 contents of the lava flows increased with time. Early flows consisted of foidites; later Holocene lava flows are basanites and alkali basalts. 18




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med pyroclastic cone on the west rim.
  the island. The youngest eruption on Corvo produced a fissure-fed lava flow that reached the sea near Punta Negra.
 istorical eruption of Dabbahu took place from a fissure vent on the NE flank of the volcano in September 2005 and produced ashfall deposits


 100-m-wide summit crater and has weathered surrounding lava flows.

 e Kalo and Abhe basins. The Asmara basaltic pyroclastic cone located in the southern Kalo basin SW of the base of Dama Ali volcano and
main stage of edifice construction occurred during the Holocene (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). No historical eruptions are known
ow several thousand years ago that dammed the Arpah River and flowed to the west for 6 km. The youthful-looking Smbatassar cinder cone


 surveyed the bank in 1941. Two youthful parasitic craters, one tephra covered and the other sediment free, are located on the NW flank. Th
  field lies within the northern part of the massive alkaline Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic field that extends from southern Syria through NW Jord
econd created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more th

 rs at cinder cones and craters constructed along dominantly N-S-trending faults cutting the massif.
 tinues, and hot springs are present on the volcano's flanks.

 aults cutting the volcano abound; the latest eruption produced a trachytic lava flow dated from secular magnetic variation measurements at a
he latest documented event is an edifice-collapse that produced a large debris avalanche that extended to the east. Uncertainty remains rega
 ide. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is


 hoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with m
ngest volcanic products on the island and has been the source of all historical eruptions. A dramatic submarine eruption at Capelinhos during
s from satellitic vents. An eruption from Fentale during the 13th century destroyed an Abyssinian town and church south of the volcano. In 18
ng two about 3000 years ago. The Caldeira Funda de Lajes tuff ring formed about 3150 years ago, accompanied by a lava flow that traveled
829 m high point of the island. Pico, which is capped by a 500-m-wide, 150-m-deep summit crater, was apparently in almost continuous activ
(1973), based on analogy with young volcanic fields to the south. According to Holmes (1950), Kasensankaranga Crater in the Fort Portal are
anks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level
ful volcanism, as do the volcanoes of Pajara, which were constructed on the older plutonic massif west of the axis of the island. No historical
prominent post-caldera feature is the Pico do Gaspar lava dome, east of the Lagoa das Furnas caldera lake. A zone of late-Pleistocene to H
 riod of rejuvenation, perhaps not directly related to Gabillema, has included rhyolitic as well as basaltic volcanism. For the Ethiopian rift south
 st of Lake Bakili, and other tuff rings occur on the east side of the lake. A 2-km-wide salt dome west of Gada Ale has uplifted lava flows as m
  pumice deposits, known as Ittisa, that rises about 200-250 m above the floor of the caldera. A large 1-km-wide crater is located at the easte
on of rhyolitic obsidian lava domes and flows. The latest activity produced a series of andesitic and basaltic-andesite cinder cones and lava fl

erved features. The lava domes and cinder cones overlie the buried silicic Derinkuyu caldera complex of Tertiary age; hydrothermal alteration
 a field that forms the NW end of the island. The most recent eruption from Pico Tomao, NW of the caldera, produced a lava flow that reache
 e NE. Very young basaltic cones and lava flows of Holocene age are situated within a NW-trending zone from Berrazales to Bandama and a
ars, have reached the sea from fissures on the lower western, northern, and eastern flanks


eruptions were phreatic. Subsequently basaltic cinder cones were formed, and spatter cones produced fluid lava flows.
er eruptive stage, at the SE end of the volcanic field, occurred during the late-Pleistocene and Holocene.
e SE extension of the Hon graben system of late Cretaceous to Tertiary age, near the intersection of the Paleozoic southern Haruj uplift and
han half the flanks of the Mount Hasan volcanic complex. A group of more than 25 Quaternary cinder cones, maars, and lava flows dot the p

  spatter cones and pit craters. The distal portion of lava flows issuing from the fissure system cover 8200-year-old sedimentary deposits on t

 rtion of the volcano consists of flat-lying Quaternary basaltic and trachybasaltic lava flows and tuffs capped by numerous young cinder cones


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Lake Simbi maar suggest that it may have been formed in historical time.
bout 1 km in length and width. The SW crater is also breached on the ENE side, but no lava flow is visible.

m of uplift has formed as a result of resurgent doming during past 33,000 years. Many small monogenetic volcanoes were formed around the

 than 4500 years old. An uncertain report of an historical eruption in 1800 AD is considered unlikely by Camp et al. (1991), who mapped no e

SE Afar depression). Each group has their own names for physiographic features, and consequently more than one name may apply to the s

ay perhaps be only a few thousand years old (Pearce et al., 1990).

Lake Kivu. The youngest Potassium-Argon date obtained is about 10,000 years before present (de Mulder, 1985). The youngest eruptions fro

 y eruptions have been recorded since the 19th century from both summit and flank vents. Many lava flows have reached the sea on both sid

f the cone is uncertain, but it is contemporaneous with late-Pleistocene to Recent tuff cones in the Bunyaruguru area, and the undissected co

 An eruption was reported at Harrat Khaybar in early Mohammedan times during the 7th century AD. Lavas from Harrat Khaybar overlap olde

aro was constructed during the Pleistocene, but a group of youthful-looking nested summit craters are of apparent Holocene age.
arrat Kishb includes several tuff rings and maars, including the 800 x 600 m wide Al Wabah maar in the west-central part of the Harrat. The m
 across the caldera and its flanks. The youngest basalts were erupted during the first half of the 19th century from vents along a hinge line be
Brown et al., 1969). Davidson (1983) indicated an age for the Korath Range between 30,000 BP and 7900-9500 BP.
ngest activity, consisting of fissure-fed basaltic lava flows on the lower northern flanks between Korosi and Paka, was probably coeval with th
d. Kos was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Georgalas, 1962) based on its geothermal activity. Several solfatara fie
 lar Era Kohor (Trou au Natron du Koussi) caldera on the SE floor of the 2nd caldera is 2-3 km wide and 350 m deep. The latest activity in th
 e images. The second and third stages took place along an E-W-trending graben and produced lava flows with ultramafic xenoliths. Althoug
ption began with a loud detonation and ejected large blocks, emitting "smoke" for a number of days. An unconfirmed eruption was reported in



 nder cones and craters along the axis of Cumbre Vieja, producing fissure-fed lava flows that descend steeply to the sea. Historical eruptions
he lava flows reached the western coast along a broad, 20-km-wide front. The villages of Maretas and Santa Catalina were destroyed, along
on of volcanism is a series of about a dozen explosion craters 30-250 m in diameter. The Lago Vecchienna crater, now filled by a 250-m-wid
 arbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern cr

 er of the island. The third eruptive cycle (40 ka to the present) included the Monte Guardia sequence, erupted at the southern tip of the islan
 n records a lava flow on the northern flank during the 19th century. Similarly youthful-looking lava flows occur on the SW flank.
  10th century AD or earlier.
 lows were erupted on the NW, SE, and eastern flanks of the volcano. Recent silicic activity has produced pantelleritic obsidian domes and la
 ones and intracanyon lava flows mantling rocks of the older eroded edifice. The youngest activity at Madeira lies in the west-central part of th
atter and scoria cones are most numerous on the western side of the volcano. Extensive ignimbrite deposits associated with the collapse of M
Gumatmali-Gablaytu fissure system is located. Voluminous fluid lava flows issued from these NNW-trending fissures, and solidified lava lake
 nd of the Manda-Inakir rift near the town of Korili (in Djibouti) produced the Kammourta cinder cone and a lava flow. VEI2?: 1928 +/- 1 yr
 es and cinder cones across the caldera floor of the dominantly basaltic-to-trachytic volcano.


 by Holocene aa and pahoehoe lava flows, and more than 130 scoria cones formed during the Holocene. Many of these appear younger than
e northern part of the volcanic field displays trachytic lava plugs and spines forming residual inselbergs and young basaltic scoria cones and l
 0.16 million years ago, but more recent activity has also occurred. The youngest lava flows are unvegetated, and Key (1987) mapped the po




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rd and Neumann van Padang, 1957) based on its thermal activity.
m above the lava platform in northern Kenya.
va plateau. The central part of the field consists of younger phonolitic lava flows, trachytic pumice-fall deposits, ignimbrites, and maars. The
dera lava flows cover the caldera floor, the youngest of which may be only a few hundred years old. No historical eruptions are known from M
Cone forms a prominent symmetrical cone inside the breached caldera. A second vent between it and the caldera headwall has fed lava flow

constructed. The youngest magmatic eruptions took place about 90,000 years ago, but phreatic explosions, commonly producing overlapping



d to the SW. Nabro was constructed primarily of trachytic lava flows and pyroclastics. Post-caldera rhyolitic obsidian domes and basaltic lava
 marunu. The youngest eruptions postdated the drying out of Lake Sugata about 3000 years ago. Some could be as recent as the historical e
s on the northern flank. The most recent activity has been concentrated along a NNW-trending fissure cutting the eastern caldera floor and e
 cones aligned in a WNW-ESE direction.

dera. The NE-most (Boriatiko) and SW-most (Karaviotis) lava domes and flows are significantly younger than the other domes. A sixth post-c
s of the island; the northern delta is about 900 m wide. The two blocky lava flows are younger than a terrace that formed less than 10,000 yea
e volcanic field, and the only K-Ar dates are Tertiary in age, but the Nosy-Be volcanics were mapped as Recent.

  to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, frequently modifying the morphology of the caldera floor,
Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summi
cal) age near the SW shore of the lake. These were erupted along the Corbetti-Shalla segment of the Wonji Fault Belt, which extends north f
 1, 1986, caused at least 1700 fatalities. The emission of around 1 cu km of magmatic carbon dioxide has been attributed either to overturn o
 91, pers. comm.). Hot springs, boiling mud pools, and fumaroles are present along the faults on the NE peninsula of the island and are frequ
 he Njorowa Gorge and at the Orengingnai and Olkaria (Orgaria) pumice cones.
 lot occurred during the early Holocene, and stratigraphic evidence suggests that more recent eruptions have occurred.
era lava flows in this direction. The three youngest post-caldera pyroclastic cones on the NE flank may be only a few hundred years old. A se
 olcanoes of Monte Grande and Monte Gibele. Holocene eruptions have constructed pumice cones, lava domes, and short, blocky lava flows
 ne, the Sao Roque Piedade volcanic complex, which is dotted by pyroclastic cones. An eruption during 1562-64 from the SE rift zone produc
 most noteworthy of the young vents is 485-m-high Serra Gorda, SE of Siete Cidades, and the cone that produced a lava delta south of Agua
 ava flows form peninsulas extending into Lake Alagyol. Fifth century BC petroglyphs were interpreted to depict volcanic eruptions (Karakhan
 a flows. The young scoria cones are of probable Holocene age and are distributed over much of the island. They are concentrated at the stru
 plain were active during the Holocene.

outhern segment, where they rise up to 550 m above the Cambrian sandstone plain. On the southern and SW sides the sandstones and the
are also present. Activity has migrated to the north, resulting in eruptions in historical time near Madinah. The best-known eruption took place
d on the NW flank of the volcano. The most recent activity is of probable Holocene age.




a flow that also reached the southern coast. Submarine eruptions were reported on several occasions from vents off the southern and SW co
  form SE flank vents. The events unknown size: 1923, 1903, 1898 (date uncertain).
years BP during the Late-Bronze-Age Minoan eruption that forced abandonment of the thriving Aegean Sea island. Post-Minoan eruptions be
 the SE side of the island.

eruption in 1253 AD (VEI3).
rus Platueas.
ource of a dozen trachytic pumice-fall deposits erupted during the past 5000 years. Sete Cidades is one of the most active Azorean volcanoe

 thern, eastern, and southern flanks are cut by a prominent broad rift zone 10-km wide and 30-km long, dotted with numerous pyroclastic con




                                                                  Page 492
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 of the Earth's Interior (1973) listed Sork Ale as probably active during the last 2000 years, but Wood (1980 pers. comm.) considered Holoce
ago, and later subaerial activity postdates the last high stand of the lake about 3200 years ago. The dominantly basaltic lava flows are morph
 owed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent ho
med Aygirgölü maar was erupted on the lower southern flank. During the latest stage of activity, voluminous basaltic lava flows traveled as fa
e) on the south side of the caldera. Its large elongated summit crater is truncated on the north by a ring graben. This unusual 5-km-wide circ

flow was reported at Taftan in 1993, but may have been a mistaken observation of a molten sulfur flow.
o Pleistocene activity formed about 100 small strombolian basaltic (mostly basanitic) cones. The most recent activity during the Pleistocene
Pyroclastic cones are located along the NW and southern coasts, and fumarolic activity occurs from two uneroded scoria cones at the summ

stern crater covered an area of 500 sq km. Following summit caldera formation, numerous flank eruptions took place from N-S-trending fissu
era has been considered to be due entirely or in part to either a massive landslide (in a manner similar to the earlier formation of the massive
en. Tepi has associated active hot springs and was considered by Davidson (1983) to be of probable Holocene age.
ely to the south, and 7-km-wide Cinquio Picos caldera at the SE end of the island is the largest in the Azores. Historical eruptions have occu




d maar near the town of Kumba. Legends record an eruption of Le Djungo (also known as Mont Pelé) that destroyed a village, consistent wit

 ndesitic lava flows from Toussidé cover an area of 200 sq km and extend as far as 25 km from the summit on the western side. The steep-s

 ones of the Tskhouk-Karckar volcano group overlie petroglyphs dated to the end of the 4th millennium and beginning of the 3rd millennium B




Bedouin legends say that Hala-'l-Bedr erupted fire and stones, killing herdsmen and their cattle and sheep.

e well-known 79 AD Pompeii eruption. Intermittent eruptions since 79 AD were followed by a period of frequent long-term explosive and effus

he Tibesti Range, is located in an area of volcano-tectonic uplift 5 km west of the caldera rim. Its fumaroles, active mud pots, and boiling wat
Fossa at the NW end of the elongated, 3 x 7 km island. The Vulcanello lava platform forms a low, roughly circular peninsula on the northern


                                                                   Page 493
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 ormed unwelded pumice flows and welded airfall tuffs of the Pitigliano Formation, associated with collapse of the Vepe caldera about 166,00
cone has suggested it may be as young as a few thousand years, although the arid climate may mask its actual age. Yellow sulfur deposits a
 morphic rocks. Scoria cones, about half of which have produced lava flows, form two-thirds of the volcanic centers, and about 30% are maa
 d to Nisyros Island, south of Yali. The crescent-shaped island of Yali is oriented NNE-SSW and contains two distinct segments connected b


rical explosive activity was reported from Saddle Island in the 19th century. Spatter cones and pyroclastic cones were erupted along fissures




                                                                 Page 494
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 ,000 years old. Thirteen scoria layers from local tephras erupted between about 11,000 and 4300 years ago were found in sediment cores in
 ed to be only a few hundred years old.
ung to be dated by the Potassium-Argon method.
which have been active during historical time. The latest trachytic explosive eruption took place during 1563. Prominent hot springs are locate
 complex. VEI2: 1915, 1907
 ructed at the WSW margin of the caldera in multiple stages dating back to about 69,000 years ago. The age of the most recent eruptions fro

ava fields of probable Holocene age originating from fissure vents bank up against the flanks of Alid to the NW and SE. Small cones and cra

ptions produced obsidian flows and pumice breccias about 2000 years ago. Alutu eruptive products overlie recent basaltic lava flows to the w



13-km-long, WSW-ENE-trending line of craters and pyroclastic cones cuts across the northern crater rim and is the source of young lava flow
nes and domes on the western flank of Lesser Ararat. Late-stage activity formed large pyroclastic cones lower on the flanks of the two volca
g a small cinder cone and lava flows that covered part of the rift floor near the Red Sea.
 eruption at Harra of Arhab took place in pre-Islamic time between about 400 and 600 AD and produced a lava flow that traveled 9 km.

very youthful appearance. Two of the youngest lava flows were erupted from flank vents and reached the sea on the northern and southern c

hin lava flows in the Tahifet area, and oral traditions of the Tuareg people also suggest that eruptions were witnessed. Sporadic fumaroles an


  the volcano's southern and northern flanks. Solfataric fields are located within the caldera and on the western and southern flanks of the vo
 e in Sudan, which ended as recently as about 5000 years ago. One of the least eroded lava flows at Bayuda was dated at about 1100 years




 hly eroded ash surround a vent at Jabal Ba'a, east of the main field, suggesting an eruption during the last century.



 curs within a 300-m-wide summit crater. Regional faulting has fed very recent basaltic lava flows from a NNW-trending fissure that cuts the s


 (also known as Bariccia) has produced similar very recent obsidian flows and associated pumice flows. Fissures connecting Boset and Beri
st dated eruption produced a lava flow at Cape Meteor on the eastern flank about 2000 years ago.




oes, was first observed in the 5th century BC by the Carthaginian navigator Hannon. During historical time, moderate explosive and effusive e
 ge number of eruptions have taken place from widely scattered subaerial and submarine vents. Most activity occurred during three intervals:
erdinandea Bank) produced an ephemeral island that was promptly claimed by the navies of France, Britain, Spain, and Italy. Prior to 1900- 6
slands tuffs and lavas may be as young as Holocene (Karson and Curtis, 1992). Fumarolic activity is concentrated along the NE-to-SE rim of
 and included the powerful explosions that formed the Lac Pavin maar. The dating of younger tephras has not yet been confirmed, and report

 s are basanites and alkali basalts. 1855 +/- 5 years VEI2; one radiocarbon eruption 1470+/- 200 years.




                                                                   Page 495
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 Punta Negra.
 r 2005 and produced ashfall deposits and a small pumice dome. More than 6000 persons were evacuated from neighboring villages. VEI3?:




of the base of Dama Ali volcano and was considered to have had activity during the last 2000 years. Dama Ali is considered the most likely so
 ld). No historical eruptions are known, but hot springs are located on the volcano's flanks, and fumaroles are found at the summit crater.
hful-looking Smbatassar cinder cone is located 17 km to the NW and produced lava flows that traveled 11 and 17 km north and south, respe


  ee, are located on the NW flank. The submarine volcano has an impressive shallow fumarole field and remains seismically active.
 rom southern Syria through NW Jordan to Saudi Arabia.
  villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa's largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 e




magnetic variation measurements at about the beginning of the 20th century. Fumarolic activity and hot steaming ground occurs along NNE-tr
 to the east. Uncertainty remains regarding reported historical eruptions of Erciyes Dagi and their possible depiction on Roman Cappadocian
 owed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or p


 xplosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Cr
 marine eruption at Capelinhos during 1957-58, the best-studied of historical eruptions in the Azores, created a new island that soon merged
nd church south of the volcano. In 1820 (date uncertain, VEI0) basaltic lava flows were extruded onto the Main Ethiopian Rift from a 4-km-lon
 mpanied by a lava flow that traveled to the SE, reaching the coast at Lajes. The Caldeira Comprida tuff ring in Caldeira Seca, west-central Fl
apparently in almost continuous activity from the time of Portuguese settlement in 1500 AD until around 1760. Later historical lava flows, som
nkaranga Crater in the Fort Portal area means "spewer of roasted material," implying an historical age.
 ide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. VEI0:3+12+34=49 [2004, 1991, 1990;from 1990-1900 12 events; from 1900 throug
of the axis of the island. No historical eruptions have occurred on Fuerteventura.
 lake. A zone of late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-trachytic cinder cones and lava domes is located between Furnas and Agua de Pau
volcanism. For the Ethiopian rift south of 11 degrees north, official names from the new Ethiopian Geological Survey's 1:250,000 topo maps h
Gada Ale has uplifted lava flows as much as 100 m, and the structure of Gada Ale itself also appears to be related to salt diapir uplift.
  m-wide crater is located at the eastern part of the chain. A Holocene lava dome or flow is found on the SW flank of the volcano. Regional fa
 ltic-andesite cinder cones and lava flows. The central and eastern portions of the Ghegam Ridge contains large areas of Holocene eruptions

  Tertiary age; hydrothermal alteration and hot springs are present in the Sahin Kalesi resurgent dome complex west of Göllü Dag and on the
 era, produced a lava flow that reached the eastern coast NW of the village of Praia.
 e from Berrazales to Bandama and at Las Isletas, a peninsula on the NE coast. One cinder cone was radiocarbon dated at about 3000 years



 luid lava flows.

 Paleozoic southern Haruj uplift and the western edge of the Mesozoic Tibesti-Sirte uplift.
ones, maars, and lava flows dot the plains surrounding Hasan Dagi. Eruptions from Hasan Dagi impacted neolithic communities and were dra

 0-year-old sedimentary deposits on the Giuletti Plain.

ped by numerous young cinder cones and lava flows. Holocene cones and flows are found both on the outer flanks and in the El Golfo depres


                                                                   Page 496
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c volcanoes were formed around the uplifted block. Volcanism during the Holocene produced a series of pumiceous tephras, tuff rings, lava

 amp et al. (1991), who mapped no eruptive products younger than about 1500 years from Harrat Ithnayn.

 e than one name may apply to the same feature. A similar situation occurs throughout Ethiopia, where names often reflect local politics.



 er, 1985). The youngest eruptions from Karisimbi produced a group of dome-shaped parasitic vents east of the caldera, which fed viscous la

ws have reached the sea on both sides of the island, including during many 19th-century eruptions from the summit caldera and vents on the

aruguru area, and the undissected condition of the tuff cone and associated lava flows implies a young age.

vas from Harrat Khaybar overlap older lavas of Harrat Kura to the west and merge with lavas from Harrat Ithnayn to the north. VEI2?:1650 +/

f apparent Holocene age.
 west-central part of the Harrat. The most recent products of Harrat Kishb, which include the scoria cones and lava flows of Jabal Aslaj and J
ntury from vents along a hinge line between the smaller eastern caldera and the larger western one. VEI1: 1820 +/- 10 years
00-9500 BP.
 nd Paka, was probably coeval with the latest eruptions on Ol Kokwe to the south, which are only a few hundred to a few thousand years old (
othermal activity. Several solfatara fields are found on Kos island, including Vromotopos at Kefalos Isthmus on the western side of the island
  350 m deep. The latest activity in the calderas produced three maars, and numerous basaltic cinder cones and associated lava flows have b
 ws with ultramafic xenoliths. Although activity was considered to have continued until the beginning of the Holocene (Yilmaz, 1990), or almos
unconfirmed eruption was reported in the 19th century. VEI2: 1951



 eeply to the sea. Historical eruptions at La Palma, recorded since the 15th century, have produced mild explosive activity and lava flows that
anta Catalina were destroyed, along with the most fertile valleys and estates of the arid island. An eruption during 1824 produced a much sm
nna crater, now filled by a 250-m-wide lake, ejected blocks and ash during a phreatic eruption in about 1282 AD (VEI3?)
th and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls

upted at the southern tip of the island between about 22,600 and 16,800 years ago, and Holocene rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits and obsidian
occur on the SW flank.

ed pantelleritic obsidian domes and lava flows on the volcano's southern flank. Fumarolic activity continues at one of the domes.
deira lies in the west-central part of the island, and consists of cinder cones in the upper Sao Vicente valley, a series of intracanyon flows, an
 sits associated with the collapse of Mallahle and Nabro volcanoes blanket the countryside.
ding fissures, and solidified lava lakes occupy two large craters. The small Gablaytu shield volcano forms the SE-most end of the Manda Har
 a lava flow. VEI2?: 1928 +/- 1 yr



. Many of these appear younger than the 4020 BP peat layer overlying one of the flows (Verwoerd, 1981). Young unvegetated lava flows app
nd young basaltic scoria cones and lava flows. Ash eruptions at Deriba caldera may have continued into early historical time (Burton and Wi
ated, and Key (1987) mapped the post-shield cinder cones as Pleistocene to Recent in age.




                                                                    Page 497
                                                  9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




eposits, ignimbrites, and maars. The youngest dated eruptions about 5000 years ago produced a tuff ring and a lava flow. 6 Pre-historic erup
historical eruptions are known from Menengai. Fumarolic activity is restricted to the caldera. Radiocarbon eruption approx. 6050 BC of VEI 6
he caldera headwall has fed lava flows that cover much of the caldera floor.VEI0: 1986 (uncertain to date); VEI2: 1910, 1978 +/- 2 yr; one pri

ons, commonly producing overlapping craters rarely more than 1 km in diameter, continued from late-Pleistocene to Recent times. A lahar de



 itic obsidian domes and basaltic lava flows were erupted inside the caldera and on its flanks. Some very recent lava flows were erupted from
 could be as recent as the historical eruptions at The Barrier volcano to the north (Dunkley et al., 1993). Hot springs are located on some of t
utting the eastern caldera floor and extending beyond the north caldera rim; nearly two dozen cinder cones and lava domes were constructed


 than the other domes. A sixth post-caldera dome, outside the SW caldera rim, produced lava flows that reached the coast. Historical phreat
ace that formed less than 10,000 years ago during the last major high-water level of Lake Turkana (Key and Watkins, 1988). Geothermal ac


g the morphology of the caldera floor, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the sum
south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava fl
 onji Fault Belt, which extends north from Corbetti caldera. Fumarolic activity continues on all sides of the lake.
 s been attributed either to overturn of stratified lake waters as a result of a non-volcanic process, or to phreatic explosions or injection of hot
 peninsula of the island and are frequently visited by tourists.

have occurred.
e only a few hundred years old. A series of viscous trachytic lava flows were erupted from vents on the volcano's lower flanks. Young fissure
  domes, and short, blocky lava flows. Many Holocene vents are located on three sides of the uplifted Montagna Grande block on the SE side
1562-64 from the SE rift zone produced lava flows that reached the northern coast. An eruption from a nearby vent issued lava flows that trav
 produced a lava delta south of Agua de Paul village. The majority of the inhabitants of Sao Miguel Island occupy both coasts below this volca
 depict volcanic eruptions (Karakhanian et al., 2002). Porak volcano is referred to in a famous cuneiform inscription as Mount Bamni, and str
 nd. They are concentrated at the structural center on the west side and along a series of N-S and NE-trending fractures. The Mont Branca c


d SW sides the sandstones and the basaltic lava fields are dissected, and lava flows traveled mainly to the NE. Neumann van Padang (1963
. The best-known eruption took place in 1256 AD, when a 0.5 cu km lava flow erupted from six aligned scoria cones and traveled 23 km to w




om vents off the southern and SW coasts. VEI0: [1907, 1902, 1757]; VEI1: 1808, VEI2: 1800, VEI3?: 1580.

Sea island. Post-Minoan eruptions beginning in 197 BC constructed a series of lava domes and flows that form two islands near the center o




 of the most active Azorean volcanoes. Historical eruptions date back to the 15th century and have occurred from within the caldera and from

dotted with numerous pyroclastic cones. Lava domes on the upper eastern flank formed during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, unti




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980 pers. comm.) considered Holocene activity unlikely. The flanks of the volcano are extensively dissected on the SW to NE sides, but less
inantly basaltic lava flows are morphologically similar to the youthful Holocene flows of The Barrier volcano at the south end of Lake Turkana
the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope
ous basaltic lava flows traveled as far as 30 km from the summit. Potassium-Argon dates for Süphan Dagi range from 2 to about 0.1 million y
graben. This unusual 5-km-wide circular graben at the center of the older caldera isolates a tilted island block of caldera-floor lava flows. The


ecent activity during the Pleistocene and Holocene produced about 20 maars and cones along the northern margin of the volcanic field.
 uneroded scoria cones at the summit. Radial fissures extend from the summit, some of which were the sources of lava flows. The island is

ns took place from N-S-trending fissures, producing viscous trachytic lava domes and flows as well as fluid basaltic pahoehoe flows that exte
o the earlier formation of the massive La Orotava and Guimar valleys in the Cordillera Dorsal) or due to major explosive eruptions. The most

 ores. Historical eruptions have occurred from Pico Alto, the fissure zone between Pico Alto and Santa Barbara, and from submarine vents w




hat destroyed a village, consistent with its youthful, unvegetated morphology.

mit on the western side. The steep-sided, 1-km-deep, 8-km-wide Trou au Natron caldera cuts the SE rim of Yirrigue caldera and is one of th

and beginning of the 3rd millennium BC and are themselves used in gravesites dated at 4720 +/- 140 yrs ago. Following these eruptions, the




equent long-term explosive and effusive eruptions beginning in 1631 and lasting until 1944. The 1631 eruption was the largest since 79 AD a

les, active mud pots, and boiling waters are visited by Tibesti peoples for medicinal uses.
 y circular peninsula on the northern tip of Vulcano that was formed as an island beginning in 183 BC and was connected to Vulcano in abou


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 se of the Vepe caldera about 166,000 years ago at the NW end of Latera caldera. Post-caldera volcanism produced scoria cones and lava f
s actual age. Yellow sulfur deposits are found in the 150-m-wide crater. Other basaltic lava flows occur several tens of km NW of the volcano
nic centers, and about 30% are maars or tuff rings, many of which are occupied by lakes. About 230 eruptions have occurred during the pas
s two distinct segments connected by a narrow isthmus formed of modern reef sediments. The SW part of the island consists primarily of a l


c cones were erupted along fissures that form the low spine of Zubair Island. VEI2: 1824; possible eruption (unknown occurrence) in 1846).




                                                                 Page 500
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 ago were found in sediment cores in the late Pleistocene Eski Acigöl maar. An ash layer from the Acigöl-Nevsehir volcanic group overlies 23


 63. Prominent hot springs are located on the NW flank. VEI2: 1564, VEI5?: 1563. Pre-historic eruptions have included 5 of unknown size, an

 age of the most recent eruptions from the Albano maar is not known precisely; variable dates range from about 36,000 years ago to perhap

he NW and SE. Small cones and craters that were the source of the flows are localized along NNW-trending fissures. Fumarolic activity cont

 lie recent basaltic lava flows to the west. Strong fumarolic activity continues, and the volcano has been the object of a geothermal exploratio



m and is the source of young lava flows and lahars; the latter were considered to be characteristic of Holocene summit eruptions.
s lower on the flanks of the two volcanoes. Ararat appears to have been active during the 3rd millennium BC; pyroclastic-flow deposits overlie

 a lava flow that traveled 9 km.

e sea on the northern and southern coasts.

ere witnessed. Sporadic fumaroles and persistent small-scale seismicity has been noted during historical time.


 estern and southern flanks of the volcano. Historical eruptions from Teleki's and Andrew's cones on the northern and southern flanks, respe
yuda was dated at about 1100 years ago.




 NNW-trending fissure that cuts the stratovolcano.


  Fissures connecting Boset and Bericha have erupted youthful, prehistorical basaltic lava flows.




 e, moderate explosive and effusive eruptions have occurred from both summit and flank vents. A 1922 SW-flank eruption produced a lava fl
 tivity occurred during three intervals: 15,000-9500, 8600-8200, and 4800-3800 years BP. Two eruptions have occurred in historical time, one
 tain, Spain, and Italy. Prior to 1900- 6 events identified: VEI0:2, VEI2:2, VEI3:1 and one pre-historic event of unknown size.
ncentrated along the NE-to-SE rim of the central crater, and sprays of sulfur from the fumaroles were observed by visitors in the 1930s. In 19
as not yet been confirmed, and reports of historical eruptions as late as 1000 years BP have been discredited.




                                                                   Page 501
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 ed from neighboring villages. VEI3?: 2005




ma Ali is considered the most likely source of an eruption reported to have occurred in 1631. Major fumarolic activity occurs in the summit cra
s are found at the summit crater.
11 and 17 km north and south, respectively.


remains seismically active.

ical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast. VEI2?: 1400; VEI3?:1861; Two eruptions uncer




teaming ground occurs along NNE-trending fissures within the caldera and along the lower NW flanks. VEI0-6 events identified using radioc
e depiction on Roman Cappadocian coins. Historical counts possibly referring to eruptions could also be attributed to methane releases from
 been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the northern flank of Erta Ale.


minent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rat
 ated a new island that soon merged with the western peninsula. VEI2: 1957, 1672.
e Main Ethiopian Rift from a 4-km-long fissure on the south flank, and lava flows were erupted on the floor of the caldera. VEI0:2 [1967-Curre
ring in Caldeira Seca, west-central Flores, erupted about 2900 years ago. It produced a lava flow that traveled NW-ward and reached the coa
1760. Later historical lava flows, some from vents on the caldera floor, reached the eastern coast below the breached caldera. VEI2:2+5 =7

90-1900 12 events; from 1900 through end of historically recorded eruptions (1640) 34 events];VEI1: 12+8=20 [2006, 2005, 2005 (second ev

d between Furnas and Agua de Pau volcanoes. Two historical eruptions have occurred at Furnas, one sometime between 1439 and 1443 an
gical Survey's 1:250,000 topo maps have replaced earlier names published in the geological literature.
 be related to salt diapir uplift.
SW flank of the volcano. Regional faults have truncated the volcano, and small basaltic spatter cones have formed inside the caldera rim. W
ns large areas of Holocene eruptions with morphologically fresh lava flows devoid of vegetation.

omplex west of Göllü Dag and on the southern flank of the Erdas Dag massif north of Göllü Dag.

 diocarbon dated at about 3000 years before present, and other cones and flows may be less than 1000 years old.




d neolithic communities and were dramatically recorded in paintings that depict apparent caldera formation about 7600-7500 BC. Other pain



uter flanks and in the El Golfo depression. Hierro contains the greatest concentration of young vents in the Canary Islands. Uncertainty surro


                                                                   Page 502
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 f pumiceous tephras, tuff rings, lava domes, and lava flows, and a major collapse of Mount Epomeo produced a large submarine debris-aval



names often reflect local politics.



st of the caldera, which fed viscous lava flows that traveled as far as 12 km to the east, and lava flows from the SW-flank satellitic lava vents.

 the summit caldera and vents on the northern and southern flanks. An 1860 lava flow from the summit caldera traveled ~13 km to the NW, r



at Ithnayn to the north. VEI2?:1650 +/- 50 years.


 s and lava flows of Jabal Aslaj and Jabal Hil and the Jabal Shalman lava-dome, lava-flow, and scoria-cone complex, are stratigraphically you
 1: 1820 +/- 10 years

 undred to a few thousand years old (Dunkley et al. 1993). Fumaroles and hot steaming ground occur around the summit cones and NW flan
mus on the western side of the island and a group of thermal areas at the eastern side of Kos. Thermal activity consists of weak hydrogen sul
 nes and associated lava flows have been constructed both within the calderas and on their outer flanks. The Yi-Yerra thermal area is located
he Holocene (Yilmaz, 1990), or almost to historical times (Borsi et al., 1972), the age of the most recent eruption from the Kula field is not kno




  explosive activity and lava flows that damaged populated areas. The southern tip of the island is mantled by a broad lava field produced dur
 on during 1824 produced a much smaller lava flow that reached the SW coast. VEI2: 1824, VEI3: 1730; and two pre-historic eruptions of unk
 282 AD (VEI3?)
 tions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava

 itic pyroclastic deposits and obsidian lava flows at the NE end of the island. The latest eruption, at Monte Pilato on the NE tip of the island, fo


 es at one of the domes.
 ley, a series of intracanyon flows, and a tephra layer on top of the Paul da Serra plateau dated at about 6500 years ago.

 s the SE-most end of the Manda Hararo complex. Lava flows from Gablaytu and from Manda overlie 8000-year-old sediments. Hot springs a




 ). Young unvegetated lava flows appear to be only a few 100 years old (Verwoerd, 1967). The first historical eruption, during 1980, produced
o early historical time (Burton and Wickers, 1966), and fumarolic activity has been observed on the flanks of a small pyroclastic cone within th




                                                                     Page 503
                                                  9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




g and a lava flow. 6 Pre-historic eruptions identified in Smithsonian database.
n eruption approx. 6050 BC of VEI 6 and one previous eruption of unknown size noted in database other than described above.
e); VEI2: 1910, 1978 +/- 2 yr; one prior event radiocarbon.

eistocene to Recent times. A lahar deposit in SE Mílos, east of Fyriplaka tuff ring, buried walls of a Roman harbor town and overlies a coarse



y recent lava flows were erupted from NNW-trending fissures transverse to the trend of the Nabro volcanic range.
Hot springs are located on some of the young volcanic cones on the rift valley floor and on the eastern side of the rift along the base of the T
 es and lava domes were constructed on the caldera floor. Ash layers in Lake Van document numerous Holocene eruptions, and an historica


 reached the coast. Historical phreatic eruptions occurred from craters within the caldera between 1422 and 1888. Intense hydrothermal acti
 and Watkins, 1988). Geothermal activity occurs along a curvilinear ridge on the southern half of the island and on wave-cut platforms and b


 cano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lav
 nes are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks of the volcano, which is characterized by the eruption of

hreatic explosions or injection of hot gas into the lake.



volcano's lower flanks. Young fissure-fed basalts were also erupted to the south, between Paka and Korosi volcanoes. Surficial geothermal a
ontagna Grande block on the SE side of the island. A submarine eruption in 1891 from a vent off the NW coast is the only confirmed historica
 earby vent issued lava flows that traveled into the sea on the southern side of the island. A flank eruption from Pico in 1718 fed lava flows tha
d occupy both coasts below this volcanic zone. At least 18 eruptions have occurred during the past 2800 years, although the only historical e
  inscription as Mount Bamni, and stratigraphic and archeological evidence indicates that an explosive eruption also producing a lava flow oc
ending fractures. The Mont Branca cone on the western flank has been estimated by Bellair (1964) to be not more than a few centuries old.


the NE. Neumann van Padang (1963) in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World speculated that the Israelite account in Exodus 19:16-
scoria cones and traveled 23 km to within 4 km of Madinah. VEI2: 64; VEI3: 1256, uncertain as to occurrence eruption 1292, no size estimat




at form two islands near the center of the caldera. A submarine eruption took place in 1650 AD outside the caldera NE of Thera. The latest e




urred from within the caldera and from submarine vents off the west coast. VEI2: [1713, 1682, 1638]; VEI3: 1811; VEI4: 1444 (date uncertain

Pleistocene and early Holocene, until about 7 ka. Youthful parasitic cones abound on the caldera floor and on the northern and NE flanks; th




                                                                    Page 504
                                                  9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


cted on the SW to NE sides, but less dissected flows form the eastern-to-southern flanks.
ano at the south end of Lake Turkana. An eruption from a scoria cone on South Island was witnessed during Count von Teliki's 1888 expediti
 the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, whic
agi range from 2 to about 0.1 million years, but the latest basaltic eruption occurred about 10,000 years ago (Yilmaz et al., 1998).
 block of caldera-floor lava flows. The latest eruptions of Suswa have originated from satellitic vents that have issued still-unvegetated lava flo


 ern margin of the volcanic field.
 sources of lava flows. The island is of Holocene age, and explosive eruptions were reported in the 18th and 19th centuries. VEI2: [1883, 18

uid basaltic pahoehoe flows that extend 10-20 km to the north and south. The latest activity formed two major basaltic lava flows from large c
major explosive eruptions. The most recent stage of activity beginning in the late Pleistocene included the construction of the Pico Viejo and

Barbara, and from submarine vents west of Santa Barbara. Most Holocene eruptions have produced basaltic-to-rhyolitic lava flows from the fi




m of Yirrigue caldera and is one of the youngeset features of the massif. Ehi Timi and Ehi Sosso volcanoes and the smaller 1.5-km-wide exp

s ago. Following these eruptions, the area was not repopulated until the Middle Ages.




uption was the largest since 79 AD and produced devastating pyroclastic flows that reached as far as the coast and caused great destruction


d was connected to Vulcano in about 1550 AD. Vulcanello is capped by three pyroclastic cones and was active intermittently until the 16th ce


                                                                    Page 505
                                                 9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls


sm produced scoria cones and lava flows from vents within and to the west of Latera caldera and lasted until subrecent times. Youthful-lookin
 everal tens of km NW of the volcano.
 ptions have occurred during the past 730,000 years. The latest eruptions formed the Ulmener, Pulvermaar, and Strohn maars around the en
 of the island consists primarily of a layered pumice-fall unit about 200 m thick, and the NE part contains rhyolitic obsidian lava flows of simila


tion (unknown occurrence) in 1846).




                                                                    Page 506
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öl-Nevsehir volcanic group overlies 2300-1850 BC artifacts of Roman-Cappadocian age.


 have included 5 of unknown size, and two VEI5 (2990 BC?) and VEI3 (1850+/- 500 yr BC).

m about 36,000 years ago to perhaps the Holocene. Reported historical eruptions during the Roman period are uncertain, but seismic swarm

 ding fissures. Fumarolic activity continues from broad areas on the northern summit and flank.

 he object of a geothermal exploration program.



ocene summit eruptions.
 BC; pyroclastic-flow deposits overlie early Bronze Age artifacts and human remains. Karakhanian et al. (2002) reported historical evidence




 northern and southern flanks, respectively, have produced basaltic explosive activity and lava flows during the 19th and 20th centuries. VEI0




SW-flank eruption produced a lava flow that reached the Atlantic coast, and a lava flow from a 1999 south-flank eruption stopped only 200 m
 have occurred in historical time, one in 1158 at Solfatara and the other in 1538 that formed the Monte Nuovo cinder cone. There are two his
nt of unknown size.
served by visitors in the 1930s. In 1974 intense emission of molten sulfur and steam clouds were seen from the mainland.




                                                                 Page 507
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rolic activity occurs in the summit crater, and abundant hot springs are found on the volcano.




00; VEI3?:1861; Two eruptions uncertain to occurrence: 1900 and 1863 (perhaps confused w/ 1861 eruptions, VEI2?)




VEI0-6 events identified using radiocarbon/magnetism techniques; and 2 of unknown size.
  attributed to methane releases from a swamp in the Sultansazligi Basin.
 northern flank of Erta Ale.


ents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near th

 or of the caldera. VEI0:2 [1967-Current, 1960, 1940, 1906]; Three events uncertain to occurrence between 1904 and 1873 of VEI2.
aveled NW-ward and reached the coast at Faja Grande.
 the breached caldera. VEI2:2+5 =7 [1995, 1951, Prior to 1900 5 events]; VEI uncertain size 1909, and 2 prior to 1900. VEI1: one prior to 190

+8=20 [2006, 2005, 2005 (second event), 2003, 2002, 2001, 2001 (second event), 2000, 2000 (second event), 1999, 1998, 1992; from 1990-

sometime between 1439 and 1443 and the other in 1630. The latter was one of the largest Holocene explosive eruptions in the Azores and c


ave formed inside the caldera rim. Weak fumarolic activity was reported at two locations at Gedamsa.




ion about 7600-7500 BC. Other paintings illustrate eruptions producing pyroclastic flows and lava flows that destroyed towns and villages.



he Canary Islands. Uncertainty surrounds the report of an historical eruption in 1793.


                                                                   Page 508
                                                  9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




duced a large submarine debris-avalanche deposit. The latest eruption of Ischia, in 1302 AD (VEI unknown), produced a spatter cone and th




om the SW-flank satellitic lava vents.

caldera traveled ~13 km to the NW, reaching the western coast north of the capital city of Moroni. VEI0:1+4=5 [2006, and Pre-1900 4 events




 ne complex, are stratigraphically younger than a pluvial period dated about 6500-4000 years before present.


ound the summit cones and NW flanks over an area of 30 sq km.
ctivity consists of weak hydrogen sulfide emission, sulfur deposits, and two hot springs along the southeastern coast.
 The Yi-Yerra thermal area is located on the southern flank.
eruption from the Kula field is not known.




ed by a broad lava field produced during the 1677-1678 eruption. Lava flows also reached the sea in 1585, 1646, 1712, 1949, and 1971. VEI2
 and two pre-historic eruptions of unknown size.

ostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern

e Pilato on the NE tip of the island, formed the Rocche Rosse and Forgia Vecchia obsidian lava flows, which have been dated variously at ab



6500 years ago.

00-year-old sediments. Hot springs and fumaroles occur around Daorre lake. VEI2: 2007




rical eruption, during 1980, produced explosive activity and lava flows from a 5-km-long fissure that extended from the summit to the west co
s of a small pyroclastic cone within the caldera.




                                                                    Page 509
                                                  9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




er than described above.


an harbor town and overlies a coarse ash layer, and was considered to originate from a small phreatic explosion through basement rocks.




 ide of the rift along the base of the Tirr Tirr Plateau.
 Holocene eruptions, and an historical eruption in 1441 AD from a north-flank fissure involved compositionally bimodal lava flows. Pre- 1650 f


 and 1888. Intense hydrothermal activity continues in the form of many fumaroles on the caldera floor and hot springs along the coast. VEI2:
 nd and on wave-cut platforms and beaches on the SW shoreline.


 f a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu. VEI0 [
 ch is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundate




 osi volcanoes. Surficial geothermal activity is widespread at Paka both within the summit caldera and on extensive portions of the northern fl
W coast is the only confirmed historical activity. One VEI1 prior to 1900, and 5 pre-historic eruptions of unknown size.
 n from Pico in 1718 fed lava flows that reached both coasts. VEI2: [1720, 1718, 1562]
  years, although the only historical eruption occurred in 1652. The most recent activity has been basaltic, however two more-explosive trach
 ruption also producing a lava flow occurred at the time of a military battle dated to 782-773 BC.
e not more than a few centuries old.


 he Israelite account in Exodus 19:16-18 might refer to an eruption from Harrat ar Rahah.
 rence eruption 1292, no size estimation.




 he caldera NE of Thera. The latest eruption at Santorini produced a small lava dome and flow in 1950, accompanied by explosive activity. V




 I3: 1811; VEI4: 1444 (date uncertain). Pre-historic eruptions hav etotal of 8 identified: two VEI2, one VEI3, three VEI4.

 nd on the northern and NE flanks; the youngest lava flows may be little more than a few hundred years old (Williams et al. 1984). Geotherma




                                                                    Page 510
                                                 9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls



 ring Count von Teliki's 1888 expedition (VEI1).
 en constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosio
ago (Yilmaz et al., 1998).
 have issued still-unvegetated lava flows that may be only a century or so old.



 and 19th centuries. VEI2: [1883, 1863, 1833 +/- 1 yr, 1750 +/- 50 yr]; VEI2? 2007.

major basaltic lava flows from large cones on the NE and SE flanks. An eruption took place from a vent on the SE flank about 2500 years ag
he construction of the Pico Viejo and Teide edifices. Tenerife was perhaps observed in eruption by Christopher Columbus, and several flank

 altic-to-rhyolitic lava flows from the fissure zone transecting the island. VEI0:1998, VEI2: 1761, VEI3: 1867, and 12 pre-historic eruptions of u




oes and the smaller 1.5-km-wide explosion crater of Doon Kidimi are located on the NE-to-ESE flanks of the massif.




e coast and caused great destruction. Many towns are located on the volcano's flanks, and several million people live within areas potentially


s active intermittently until the 16th century. The latest eruption from Vulcano consisted of explosive activity from the Fossa cone from 1898 t


                                                                   Page 511
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until subrecent times. Youthful-looking remnants of ash cones in Lake Bolsena may have given rise to a legend of a pre-historical fire-god, V

aar, and Strohn maars around the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene.
 rhyolitic obsidian lava flows of similar thickness. No historical eruptions are known from Yali, but the most recent pumice eruptions of Yali ov




                                                                   Page 512
                                                9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




riod are uncertain, but seismic swarms of up to two years duration have




 (2002) reported historical evidence for a phreatic




ing the 19th and 20th centuries. VEI0: [on




uth-flank eruption stopped only 200 m from the sea. VEI2
Nuovo cinder cone. There are two historical eruptions in 153

rom the mainland.




                                                                Page 513
                                                9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




ptions, VEI2?)




progressively downward from near the su

een 1904 and 1873 of VEI2.

2 prior to 1900. VEI1: one prior to 1900.

event), 1999, 1998, 1992; from 1990-1900 8 events]; VEI2:1+40+4

plosive eruptions in the Azores and caused significant




that destroyed towns and villages.




                                                               Page 514
                                                9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




own), produced a spatter cone and the Arso lava flow, whic




1+4=5 [2006, and Pre-1900 4 events]; VEI1:3 [1977, 1972,




astern coast.




5, 1646, 1712, 1949, and 1971. VEI2:1+5=6 [1971, 1712, 1677,


he century mostly filled the northern crater;

hich have been dated variously at about 580 A




nded from the summit to the west coast. VEI1: [2004, 1




                                                               Page 515
                                                 9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




xplosion through basement rocks.




 nally bimodal lava flows. Pre- 1650 four er


nd hot springs along the coast. VEI2: four events



 reaching as far as Lake Kivu. VEI0 [4 events betwe
alities, as did lava flows that inundated por




 extensive portions of the northern flank.
nknown size.

c, however two more-explosive trachytic eruptions occurr




accompanied by explosive activity. VEI2:4+1=5[1950, 1939,




I3, three VEI4.

old (Williams et al. 1984). Geothermal activity occur




                                                                Page 516
                                                 9ee6b5d7-e3f3-4f20-b301-57e36f817ab6.xls




continuous mild strombolian explosions, some




on the SE flank about 2500 years ago, and a gas-and-a
topher Columbus, and several flank vents

67, and 12 pre-historic eruptions of unknown




on people live within areas potentially affected by erupt


vity from the Fossa cone from 1898 to 1900. Activity pri


                                                                Page 517
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a legend of a pre-historical fire-god, Volta. An h


ost recent pumice eruptions of Yali overlie soi




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Volcano        LOCATION           STATUS       LATITUDE NS VF   LONGITUDE EW   ELEV
Haruna         Honshu-Japan       Anthropology    36.474 N        138.881 E        1449
Oki-Dogo       Honshu-Japan       Anthropology    36.176 N        133.334 E          151
               Field
San Pablo Volc Luzon-Philippines Anthropology      14.12 N *        121.3 E        1090
Paco                              Anthropology
               Mindanao-Philippines                9.593 N         125.52 E          524
Popa           SE Asia            Anthropology     20.92 N          95.25 E        1518
Doyo SeamountIzu Is-Japan         Fumarolic        27.68 N          140.8 E         -860
               Izu
Mokuyo Seamount Is-Japan          Fumarolic        28.32 N         140.57 E         -920
               I
Suiyo Seamountzu Is-Japan         Fumarolic         28.6 N         140.63 E       -1418
               Luzon-Philippines Fumarolic
Ambalatungan Group                                 17.32 N          121.1 E        2329
Amorong        Luzon-Philippines Fumarolic        15.828 N        120.805 E          376
Isarog         Luzon-Philippines Fumarolic        13.658 N         123.38 E        1966
Laguna CalderaLuzon-Philippines Fumarolic          14.42 N         121.27 E          743
Malinao        Luzon-Philippines Fumarolic        13.422 N        123.597 E        1548
Patoc          Luzon-Philippines Fumarolic        17.147 N         120.98 E        1865
Esmeralda Bank                    F
               Mariana Is-C Pacific umarolic           15 N        145.25 E          -43
                                  F
Zealandia Bank Mariana Is-C Pacific umarolic       16.88 N         145.85 E            0
Apo                               Fumarolic
               Mindanao-Philippines                7.008 N         125.27 E        2954
Balatukan                         Fumarolic
               Mindanao-Philippines                 8.77 N         124.98 E        2450
Balut                             Fumarolic
               Mindanao-Philippines                   5.4 N       125.375 E          862
Cabalían       Philippines-C      Fumarolic       10.287 N        125.221 E          945
               Philippines-C
Cuernos de Negros                 Fumarolic        9.258 N        123.175 E        1862
Mahagnoa       Philippines-C      Fumarolic       10.872 N        124.853 E          800
Veteran        SE Asia            Fumarolic         9.83 N         109.05 E
               Volcano Is-Japan Fumarolic
Kaikata Seamount                                   26.67 N            141 E        -162
Baitoushan     China-E            Historical       41.98 N         128.08 E        2744
Wudalianchi    China-E            Historical       48.72 N *       126.12 E         597
Akan           Hokkaido-Japan Historical          43.384 N        144.013 E        1499
E-san          Hokkaido-Japan Historical          41.802 N         141.17 E         618
Komaga-take Hokkaido-Japan Historical             42.061 N        140.681 E        1131
               Hokkaido-Japan Historical
Nipesotsu-Maruyama                                43.453 N        143.036 E        2013
Oshima-Oshima  Hokkaido-Japan Historical          41.507 N        139.371 E         737
Shikotsu       Hokkaido-Japan Historical          42.688 N         141.38 E        1320
               Hokkaido-Japan Historical
Shiretoko-Iwo-zan                                 44.131 N        145.165 E        1563
Tokachi        Hokkaido-Japan Historical          43.416 N         142.69 E        2077
Usu            Hokkaido-Japan Historical          42.541 N        140.843 E         737
Adatara        Honshu-Japan       Historical      37.644 N        140.286 E        1718
               Honshu-Japan
Akita-Komaga-take                 Historical      39.758 N        140.803 E        1637
               H
Akita-Yake-yama onshu-Japan       Historical      39.961 N        140.761 E        1366
Asama          Honshu-Japan       Historical      36.403 N        138.526 E        2568
Azuma          Honshu-Japan       Historical      37.732 N        140.248 E        2035
Bandai         Honshu-Japan       Historical      37.598 N        140.076 E        1819
Chokai         Honshu-Japan       Historical      39.096 N        140.052 E        2233
Fuji           Honshu-Japan       Historical      35.358 N        138.731 E        3776
Haku-san       Honshu-Japan       Historical      36.152 N        136.774 E        2702
Hiuchi         Honshu-Japan       Historical      36.952 N        139.289 E        2356
Iwaki          Honshu-Japan       Historical      40.653 N        140.307 E        1625
Iwate          Honshu-Japan       Historical       39.85 N        141.004 E        2041
Izu-Tobu       Honshu-Japan       Historical        34.9 N        139.098 E        1406
Kurikoma       Honshu-Japan       Historical      38.958 N        140.792 E        1628
Kusatsu-ShiraneHonshu-Japan       Historical       36.62 N        138.535 E        2171
Narugo         Honshu-Japan       Historical      38.733 N        140.732 E         470
Nasu           Honshu-Japan   Historical   37.122   N   139.966   E   1915
               Honshu-Japan
Niigata-Yake-yama             Historical   36.918   N   138.039   E   2400
Nikko-Shirane Honshu-Japan    Historical   36.796   N   139.379   E   2578
On-take        Honshu-Japan   Historical    35.89   N    137.48   E   3063
Osore-yama     Honshu-Japan   Historical   41.276   N   141.124   E    879
Tate-yama      Honshu-Japan   Historical   36.568   N   137.593   E   2621
Towada         Honshu-Japan   Historical    40.47   N    140.92   E   1159
Yake-dake      Honshu-Japan   Historical   36.224   N    137.59   E   2455
Zao            Honshu-Japan   Historical   38.141   N   140.443   E   1841
Aoga-shima     Izu Is-Japan   Historical   32.454   N   139.762   E    423
               Izu
Bayonnaise Rocks Is-Japan     Historical    31.88   N    139.92   E     11
Hachijo-jima   Izu Is-Japan   Historical    33.13   N   139.769   E    854
Kozu-shima     Izu Is-Japan   Historical   34.216   N   139.156   E    572
Miyake-jima    Izu Is-Japan   Historical   34.079   N   139.529   E    815
Nii-jima       Izu Is-Japan   Historical   34.393   N   139.273   E    432
Oshima         Izu Is-Japan   Historical   34.721   N   139.398   E    764
Smith Rock     Izu Is-Japan   Historical   31.436   N   140.054   E    136
Tori-shima     Izu Is-Japan   Historical    30.48   N   140.306   E    394
Akademia NaukKamchatka        Historical    53.98   N    159.45   E   1180
Avachinsky     Kamchatka      Historical   53.255   N    158.83   E   2741
Bezymianny     Kamchatka      Historical   55.978   N   160.587   E   2882
Gorely         Kamchatka      Historical   52.558   N    158.03   E   1829
Ichinsky       Kamchatka      Historical    55.68   N    157.73   E   3621
Ilyinsky       Kamchatka      Historical    51.49   N     157.2   E   1578
Karymsky       Kamchatka      Historical    54.05   N    159.45   E   1536
Kizimen        Kamchatka      Historical    55.13   N    160.32   E   2376
Kliuchevskoi Kamchatka        Historical   56.057   N   160.638   E   4835
Koryaksky      Kamchatka      Historical    53.32   N   158.688   E   3456
Koshelev       Kamchatka      Historical   51.357   N    156.75   E   1812
Kronotsky      Kamchatka      Historical   54.753   N   160.527   E   3528
Ksudach        Kamchatka      Historical     51.8   N    157.53   E   1079
Maly SemiachikKamchatka       Historical    54.13   N    159.67   E   1560
Mutnovsky      Kamchatka      Historical   52.453   N   158.195   E   2322
Shiveluch      Kamchatka      Historical   56.653   N    161.36   E   3283
Tolbachik      Kamchatka      Historical    55.83   N    160.33   E   3682
Ushkovsky      Kamchatka      Historical    56.07   N    160.47   E   3943
Zheltovsky     Kamchatka      Historical    51.57   N   157.323   E   1953
Zhupanovsky Kamchatka         Historical    53.59   N   159.147   E   2958
Halla          Korea          Historical    33.37   N    126.53   E   1950
Xianjindao     Korea          Historical    41.33   N       128   E
Alaid          Kuril Is       Historical   50.858   N    155.55   E   2339
Atsonupuri     Kuril Is       Historical   44.805   N   147.135   E   1206
Baransky       Kuril Is       Historical   45.097   N   148.024   E   1132
Chikurachki    Kuril Is       Historical   50.325   N   155.458   E   1816
Chirinkotan    Kuril Is       Historical    48.98   N    153.48   E    724
Chirip         Kuril Is       Historical   45.338   N   147.925   E   1587
Chirpoi        Kuril Is       Historical   46.525   N   150.875   E    742
Ebeko          Kuril Is       Historical    50.68   N    156.02   E   1156
Ekarma         Kuril Is       Historical   48.958   N    153.93   E   1170
Fuss Peak      Kuril Is       Historical    50.27   N    155.25   E   1772
Golovnin       Kuril Is       Historical   43.841   N   145.509   E    543
               Kuril
Goriaschaia Sopka Is          Historical    46.83   N    151.75   E    891
Grozny Group Kuril Is              Historical    45.026    N       147.922   E   1211
Karpinsky Group Kuril Is           Historical     50.13    N        155.37   E   1345
Ketoi           Kuril Is           Historical     47.35    N       152.475   E   1172
Kharimkotan Kuril Is               Historical     49.12    N       154.508   E   1145
Kolokol Group Kuril Is             Historical    46.042    N        150.05   E   1328
Medvezhia       Kuril Is           Historical    45.387    N       148.843   E   1125
Mendeleev       Kuril Is           Historical    43.976    N       145.736   E    888
Nemo Peak       Kuril Is           Historical     49.57    N       154.808   E   1018
Prevo Peak      Kuril Is           Historical     47.02    N        152.12   E   1360
Raikoke         Kuril Is           Historical    48.292    N        153.25   E    551
Rasshua         Kuril Is           Historical     47.77    N        153.02   E    956
Sarychev Peak Kuril Is             Historical    48.092    N         153.2   E   1496
Sinarka         Kuril Is           Historical    48.875    N       154.175   E    934
                Kuril
Tao-Rusyr Caldera Is               Historical     49.35    N         154.7   E   1325
Tiatia          Kuril Is           Historical    44.351    N       146.256   E   1819
Unnamed         Kuril Is           Historical     48.08    N        153.33   E   -150
Ushishur        Kuril Is           Historical     47.52    N         152.8   E    401
                Kuril
Zavaritzki Caldera Is              Historical    46.925    N        151.95   E    624
Aso             Kyushu-Japan       Historical    32.881    N       131.106   E   1592
                Kyushu-Japan
Ibusuki Volc Field                 Historical     31.22    N   *    130.57   E    922
Kirishima       Kyushu-Japan       Historical    31.931    N       130.864   E   1700
Kuju            Kyushu-Japan       Historical    33.083    N       131.251   E   1791
Sakura-jima     Kyushu-Japan       Historical    31.585    N       130.657   E   1117
Tsurumi         Kyushu-Japan       Historical     33.28    N       131.432   E   1584
Unzen           Kyushu-Japan       Historical    32.757    N       130.294   E   1500
Babuyan Claro Luzon-N of           Historical    19.523    N        121.94   E   1080
                Luzon-N
Camiguin de Babuyanes of           Historical     18.83    N        121.86   E    712
Didicas         Luzon-N of         Historical    19.077    N       122.202   E    244
Iraya           Luzon-N of         Historical    20.469    N        122.01   E   1009
Unnamed         Luzon-N of         Historical     20.33    N        121.75   E    -24
Bulusan         Luzon-Philippines Historical      12.77    N        124.05   E   1565
Cagua           Luzon-Philippines Historical     18.222    N       122.123   E   1133
Iriga           Luzon-Philippines Historical     13.457    N       123.457   E   1196
Mayon           Luzon-Philippines Historical     13.257    N       123.685   E   2462
Pinatubo        Luzon-Philippines Historical      15.13    N        120.35   E   1486
Taal            Luzon-Philippines Historical     14.002    N       120.993   E    400
Agrigan                            H
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical    18.77    N        145.67   E    965
Anatahan                           H
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical    16.35    N        145.67   E    790
Asuncion                           H
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical    19.67    N         145.4   E    857
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical
Farallon de Pajaros                H              20.53    N         144.9   E    360
Guguan                             H
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical    17.32    N        145.85   E    287
NW Rota-1                          H
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical   14.601    N       144.775   E   -517
Pagan                              H
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical    18.13    N         145.8   E    570
Ruby                               H
                Mariana Is-C Pacific istorical    15.62    N        145.57   E   -230
Camiguin                           Historical
                Mindanao-Philippines              9.203    N       124.673   E   1552
Makaturing                         Historical
                Mindanao-Philippines              7.647    N        124.32   E   1940
Musuan                             Historical
                Mindanao-Philippines              7.877    N       125.068   E    646
Parker                             Historical
                Mindanao-Philippines              6.113    N       124.892   E   1824
Ragang                             Historical
                Mindanao-Philippines                 7.7   N         124.5   E   2815
Biliran         Philippines-C      Historical    11.523    N       124.535   E   1301
Canlaon         Philippines-C      Historical    10.412    N       123.132   E   2435
Balagan-Tas Russia-NE              Historical     66.43    N        143.73   E    993
Iriomote-jima Ryukyu Is             Historical   24.558   N           124   E   -200
Iwo-Tori-shima Ryukyu Is            Historical   27.877   N       128.224   E    212
Kikai           Ryukyu Is           Historical   30.789   N       130.308   E    704
                Ryukyu Is
Kuchinoerabu-jima                   Historical    30.44   N       130.219   E    657
Nakano-shima Ryukyu Is              Historical   29.856   N       129.859   E    979
Suwanose-jima Ryukyu Is             Historical   29.635   N       129.716   E    799
Yokoate-jima Ryukyu Is              Historical   28.797   N       128.997   E    495
                SE
Cendres, Ile des Asia               Historical   10.158   N       109.014   E    -20
Jolo            Sulu Is-Philippines Historical    6.013   N       121.057   E    811
Unnamed         Taiwan-E of         Historical       24   N        121.83   E
Fukujin         Volcano Is-Japan Historical       21.93   N        143.47   E   -217
Fukutoku-OkanobaVolcano Is-Japan Historical       24.28   N       141.485   E    -14
Ioto (Iwo-jima) Volcano Is-Japan Historical      24.754   N        141.29   E    161
Kaitoku SeamountVolcano Is-Japan Historical      26.122   N       141.102   E   -103
Kasuga          Volcano Is-Japan Historical      21.765   N        143.71   E   -598
Kita-FukutokutaiVolcano Is-Japan Historical      24.414   N       141.419   E    -73
Kita-Iwo-jima Volcano Is-Japan Historical        25.424   N       141.284   E    792
Minami-Hiyoshi Volcano Is-Japan Historical       23.497   N        141.94   E    -30
Nishino-shima Volcano Is-Japan Historical        27.274   N       140.882   E     38
Keluo Group China-E                 Holocene      49.37   N   *    125.92   E    670
Shiribetsu      Hokkaido-Japan Holocene          42.767   N       140.916   E   1107
Abu             Honshu-Japan        Holocene       34.5   N         131.6   E    641
Omanago Group   Honshu-Japan        Holocene     36.792   N        139.51   E   2367
Takahara        Honshu-Japan        Holocene     36.897   N        139.78   E   1795
Tateshina       Honshu-Japan        Holocene       36.1   N         138.3   E   2530
Asacha          Kamchatka           Holocene     52.355   N       157.827   E   1910
Belenkaya       Kamchatka           Holocene      51.75   N        157.27   E    892
Bolshe-Bannaya  Kamchatka           Holocene       52.9   N        157.78   E   1200
Cherpuk Group Kamchatka             Holocene      55.55   N        157.47   E   1868
Dzenzursky      Kamchatka           Holocene     53.637   N       158.922   E   2285
Golaya          Kamchatka           Holocene     52.263   N       157.787   E    858
Kambalny        Kamchatka           Holocene       51.3   N        156.87   E   2156
Kamen           Kamchatka           Holocene      56.02   N       160.593   E   4585
Kell            Kamchatka           Holocene      51.65   N        157.35   E    900
Kostakan        Kamchatka           Holocene      53.83   N   *    158.05   E   1150
Mashkovtsev Kamchatka               Holocene       51.1   N        156.72   E    503
                Kamchatka
Olkoviy Volc Group                  Holocene      52.02   N   *    157.53   E    681
Ostanets        Kamchatka           Holocene     52.146   N       157.322   E    719
Ostry           Kamchatka           Holocene      58.18   N        160.82   E   2552
Otdelniy        Kamchatka           Holocene      52.22   N   *   157.428   E    791
Ozernoy         Kamchatka           Holocene      51.88   N        157.38   E    562
Piratkovsky     Kamchatka           Holocene     52.113   N       157.849   E   1322
Schmidt         Kamchatka           Holocene      54.92   N        160.63   E   2020
Udina           Kamchatka           Holocene     55.755   N       160.527   E   2923
Unnamed         Kamchatka           Holocene       51.6   N        156.55   E    298
Unnamed         Kamchatka           Holocene      52.92   N        158.52   E    450
Unnamed         Kamchatka           Holocene      52.57   N   *    157.02   E    610
Unnamed         Kamchatka           Holocene      52.88   N         158.3   E    700
Visokiy         Kamchatka           Holocene      52.43   N        157.93   E   1234
Zimina          Kamchatka           Holocene     55.862   N       160.603   E   3081
Berutarube      Kuril Is            Holocene     44.459   N       146.936   E   1221
Bogatyr Ridge Kuril Is              Holocene     44.833   N       147.342   E   1634
Demon          Kuril Is           Holocene      45.5   N        148.85   E   1205
Ivao Group     Kuril Is           Holocene     45.77   N        149.68   E   1426
               Kuril
Lomonosov Group Is                Holocene     50.25   N        155.43   E   1681
Milne          Kuril Is           Holocene     46.82   N        151.78   E   1540
Shirinki       Kuril Is           Holocene      50.2   N        154.98   E    761
Smirnov        Kuril Is           Holocene     44.42   N       146.135   E   1189
Srednii        Kuril Is           Holocene      47.6   N        152.92   E     36
Urataman       Kuril Is           Holocene     47.12   N        152.25   E    678
               K
Vernadskii Ridge uril Is          Holocene     50.55   N        155.97   E   1183
Banáhao        Luzon-Philippines Holocene      14.07   N        121.48   E   2158
Masaraga       Luzon-Philippines Holocene      13.32   N         123.6   E   1328
               Luzon-Philippines Holocene
Pocdol Mountains                               13.05   N       123.958   E   1102
Sarigan                           H
               Mariana Is-C Pacific olocene   16.708   N        145.78   E    538
Malindang                         Holocene
               Mindanao-Philippines             8.22   N        123.63   E   2435
Matutum                           Holocene
               Mindanao-Philippines             6.37   N        125.07   E   2286
               Field
Dariganga Volc Mongolia           Holocene     45.33   N   *       114   E   1778
Khanuy Gol     Mongolia           Holocene     48.67   N   *    102.75   E   1886
Mandalagan     Philippines-C      Holocene     10.65   N        123.25   E   1879
Silay          Philippines-C      Holocene     10.77   N        123.23   E   1535
Azas Plateau Russia-SE            Holocene     52.52   N   *      98.6   E   2765
Oka Plateau    Russia-SE          Holocene      52.7   N   *     98.98   E   2077
Sikhote-Alin   Russia-SE          Holocene        47   N   *     137.5   E
Vitim Plateau Russia-SE           Holocene      53.7   N   *     113.3   E   1250
               SE
Cù-Lao Ré Group Asia              Holocene     15.38   N   *    109.12   E    181
Leizhou BandaoSE Asia             Holocene     20.83   N   *    109.78   E    259
Singu Plateau SE Asia             Holocene      22.7   N   *     95.98   E    507
Tengchong      SE Asia            Holocene     25.23   N   *      98.5   E   2865
Minami Kasuga Volcano Is-Japan Holocene         21.6   N       143.637   E   -170
Honggeertu     China-E            Holocene?    41.47   N   *       113   E   1700
Unnamed        China-W            Holocene?    35.85   N   *      91.7   E   5400
               Hokkaido-Japan Holocene?
Shikaribetsu Group                            43.312   N       143.096   E   1401
Hachimantai Honshu-Japan          Holocene?   39.955   N       140.857   E   1614
Nantai         Honshu-Japan       Holocene?   36.762   N       139.494   E   2486
Shiga          Honshu-Japan       Holocene?   36.688   N       138.519   E   2041
Kurose Hole    Izu Is-Japan       Holocene?     33.4   N        139.68   E   -107
Myojin Knoll   Izu Is-Japan       Holocene?     32.1   N        139.85   E    360
Akhtang        Kamchatka          Holocene?    55.43   N        158.65   E   1956
Alngey         Kamchatka          Holocene?     57.7   N         160.4   E   1853
Anaun          Kamchatka          Holocene?    56.32   N        158.83   E   1828
Bely           Kamchatka          Holocene?    57.88   N        160.53   E   2080
Bliznets       Kamchatka          Holocene?    56.97   N        159.78   E   1244
               K
Bolshoi Payalpan amchatka         Holocene?    55.88   N        157.78   E   1906
Cherny         Kamchatka          Holocene?    56.82   N        159.67   E   1778
Eggella        Kamchatka          Holocene?    56.57   N        158.52   E   1046
Fedotych       Kamchatka          Holocene?    57.13   N         160.4   E    965
Geodesistoy Kamchatka             Holocene?    56.33   N        158.67   E   1170
Iettunup       Kamchatka          Holocene?     58.4   N        161.08   E   1340
Iktunup        Kamchatka          Holocene?    58.08   N        160.77   E   2300
Kaileney       Kamchatka          Holocene?     57.8   N        160.67   E   1582
Kebeney        Kamchatka          Holocene?     57.1   N        159.93   E   1527
Kekurny        Kamchatka          Holocene?     56.4   N        158.85   E   1377
Kozyrevsky     Kamchatka          Holocene?    55.58   N        158.38   E   2016
Krainy         Kamchatka         Holocene?       56.37   N        159.03   E   1554
Kulkev         Kamchatka         Holocene?       56.37   N        158.37   E    915
Leutongey      Kamchatka         Holocene?        57.3   N        159.83   E   1333
Maly Payalpan Kamchatka          Holocene?       55.82   N        157.98   E   1802
Mezhdusopochny Kamchatka         Holocene?       57.47   N        160.25   E   1641
Plosky         Kamchatka         Holocene?        55.2   N        158.47   E   1236
Plosky         Kamchatka         Holocene?       57.83   N        160.25   E   1255
Pogranychny Kamchatka            Holocene?       56.85   N         159.8   E   1427
Romanovka      Kamchatka         Holocene?       55.65   N         158.8   E   1442
Shishel        Kamchatka         Holocene?       57.45   N        160.37   E   2525
Snegovoy       Kamchatka         Holocene?        58.2   N        160.97   E   2169
Snezhniy       Kamchatka         Holocene?       58.02   N         160.8   E   2169
Tuzovsky       Kamchatka         Holocene?       57.32   N        159.97   E   1533
Uka            Kamchatka         Holocene?        57.7   N        160.58   E   1643
Uksichan       Kamchatka         Holocene?       56.08   N        158.38   E   1692
Unnamed        Kamchatka         Holocene?       56.82   N        158.95   E   1185
Unnamed        Kamchatka         Holocene?       55.92   N   *    161.75   E
Verkhovoy      Kamchatka         Holocene?       56.52   N        159.53   E   1400
Voyampolsky Kamchatka            Holocene?       58.37   N        160.62   E   1225
Zaozerny       Kamchatka         Holocene?       56.88   N        159.95   E   1349
Ch'uga-ryong Korea               Holocene?       38.33   N        127.33   E    452
               Kuril
Golets-Tornyi Group Is           Holocene?       45.25   N        148.35   E    442
Rudakov        Kuril Is          Holocene?       45.88   N        149.83   E    542
Tri Sestry     Kuril Is          Holocene?       45.93   N        149.92   E    998
Arayat         Luzon-Philippines Holocene?        15.2   N       120.742   E   1026
Natib          Luzon-Philippines Holocene?      14.705   N         120.4   E   1287
                                 H
Maug Islands Mariana Is-C Pacific olocene?       20.02   N        145.22   E    227
Kalatungan                       Holocene?
               Mindanao-Philippines               7.95   N         124.8   E   2824
Latukan                          Holocene?
               Mindanao-Philippines               7.65   N        124.47   E   2158
Bus-Obo        Mongolia          Holocene?       47.12   N        109.08   E   1162

Middle Gobi   Mongolia           Holocene?       45.28   N   *     106.7   E   1120
              Russia-SE
Tunkin Depression                Holocene?        51.5   N   *     102.5   E   1200
Akuseki-jima Ryukyu Is           Holocene?      29.461   N       129.597   E    584
Gaja-jima     Ryukyu Is          Holocene?        29.9   N       129.544   E    497
Kogaja-jima   Ryukyu Is          Holocene?      29.879   N       129.625   E    301
Bas Dong Nai SE Asia             Holocene?        10.8   N   *     107.2   E    392
Haut Dong Nai SE Asia            Holocene?        11.6   N   *     108.2   E   1000
Lower ChindwinSE Asia            Holocene?       22.28   N   *      95.1   E    385
Toroeng Prong SE Asia            Holocene?       14.93   N           108   E    800
Malindig      Luzon-Philippines Hot Springs      13.24   N       122.018   E   1157
Unnamed       Kuril Is           Hydrophonic     46.47   N        151.28   E   -502
Supply Reef                      H
              Mariana Is-C Pacific ydrophonic    20.13   N         145.1   E     -8
Jingbo        China-E            Radiocarbon     44.08   N   *    128.83   E    500
Longgang GroupChina-E            Radiocarbon     42.33   N   *     126.5   E   1000
Mashu         Hokkaido-Japan Radiocarbon         43.57   N       144.565   E    855
Rishiri       Hokkaido-Japan Radiocarbon         45.18   N        141.25   E   1721
Hakkoda GroupHonshu-Japan        Radiocarbon    40.656   N       140.881   E   1585
Hakone        Honshu-Japan       Radiocarbon     35.23   N       139.024   E   1438
Hijiori       Honshu-Japan       Radiocarbon    38.606   N       140.178   E    516
Kanpu         Honshu-Japan       Radiocarbon    39.931   N       139.879   E    355
Myoko         Honshu-Japan       Radiocarbon    36.888   N        138.12   E   2446
Norikura        Honshu-Japan       Radiocarbon    36.103    N       137.557   E   3026
Numazawa        Honshu-Japan       Radiocarbon      37.45   N       139.579   E   1100
Sanbe           Honshu-Japan       Radiocarbon      35.13   N        132.62   E   1126
                Kamchatka
Alney-Chashakondzha                Radiocarbon       56.7   N        159.65   E   2598
Bliznetsy       Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      57.35   N        161.37   E    265
                Kamchatka
Bolshoi Semiachik                  Radiocarbon      54.32   N        160.02   E   1720
                Kamchatka
Bolshoi-Kekuknaysky                Radiocarbon      56.47   N         157.8   E   1401
Diky Greben     Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      51.45   N        156.97   E   1070
Gorny Institute Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      57.33   N         160.2   E   2125
Khangar         Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      54.75   N        157.38   E   2000
Khodutka        Kamchatka          Radiocarbon    52.063    N       157.703   E   2090
Kikhpinych      Kamchatka          Radiocarbon    54.487    N       160.253   E   1552
Kinenin         Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      57.35   N        160.97   E    583
Komarov         Kamchatka          Radiocarbon    55.032    N        160.72   E   2070
Krasheninnikov Kamchatka           Radiocarbon    54.593    N       160.273   E   1856
Kurile Lake     Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      51.45   N        157.12   E     81
Nylgimelkin     Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      57.97   N        160.65   E   1764
Opala           Kamchatka          Radiocarbon    52.543    N       157.335   E   2475
Sedankinsky Kamchatka              Radiocarbon      57.27   N        160.08   E   1241
Severny         Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      58.28   N        160.87   E   1936
Shisheika       Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      57.15   N        161.08   E    379
Spokoiny        Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      58.13   N        160.82   E   2171
Taunshits       Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      54.53   N         159.8   E   2353
Terpuk          Kamchatka          Radiocarbon       57.2   N        159.83   E    765
Titila          Kamchatka          Radiocarbon       57.4   N         160.1   E   1559
Tolmachev Dol Kamchatka            Radiocarbon      52.63   N   *    157.58   E   1021
Uzon            Kamchatka          Radiocarbon       54.5   N        159.97   E   1617
Vysoky          Kamchatka          Radiocarbon      55.07   N        160.77   E   2161
Zavaritsky      Kamchatka          Radiocarbon    53.905    N       158.385   E   1567
Ulreung         Korea              Radiocarbon       37.5   N        130.87   E    984
Lvinaya Past Kuril Is              Radiocarbon    44.608    N       146.994   E    528
Sumiyoshi-ike Kyushu-Japan         Radiocarbon    31.768    N       130.594   E    100
Mariveles       Luzon-Philippines Radiocarbon       14.52   N        120.47   E   1420
Alamagan                           R
                Mariana Is-C Pacific adiocarbon      17.6   N        145.83   E    744
Leonard Range Mindanao-Philippines Radiocarbon      7.382   N       126.047   E   1190
Taryatu-ChulutuMongolia            Radiocarbon      48.17   N   *      99.7   E   2400
Udokan PlateauRussia-SE            Radiocarbon      56.28   N   *    117.77   E   2180
Ahyi                               S
                Mariana Is-C Pacific eismicity      20.42   N        145.03   E   -137
Daisetsu        Hokkaido-Japan Tephrochronology   43.661    N       142.858   E   2290
Kutcharo        Hokkaido-Japan Tephrochronology   43.608    N       144.443   E    999
Kuttara         Hokkaido-Japan Tephrochronology   42.489    N       141.163   E    581
Niseko          Hokkaido-Japan Tephrochronology 42.88       N        140.63   E   1154
Rausu           Hokkaido-Japan Tephrochronology   44.073    N       145.126   E   1660
Yotei           Hokkaido-Japan Tephrochronology 42.83       N       140.815   E   1898
Megata          Honshu-Japan       Tephrochronology 39.95   N        139.73   E    291
                Honshu-Japan
Washiba-Kumonotaira                               36.408
                                   Tephrochronology         N       137.594   E   2924
Mikura-jima     Izu Is-Japan                      33.871
                                   Tephrochronology         N       139.605   E    851
To-shima        Izu Is-Japan                      34.517
                                   Tephrochronology         N       139.283   E    508
Bakening        Kamchatka                         53.905
                                   Tephrochronology         N        158.07   E   2278
                Kamchatka
Barkhatnaya Sopka                                 52.823
                                   Tephrochronology         N        158.27   E    870
Elovsky         Kamchatka          Tephrochronology 57.55   N        160.53   E   1381
Gamchen         Kamchatka                         54.973
                                   Tephrochronology         N       160.702   E   2576
Veer            Kamchatka          Tephrochronology 53.75   N    158.45   E    520
Vilyuchik       Kamchatka          Tephrochronology 52.7    N    158.28   E   2173
Piip            Kamchatka-E of Tephrochronology 55.42       N    167.33   E   -300
Fukue-jima      Kyushu-Japan                      32.653
                                   Tephrochronology         N   128.851   E    317
Kuchino-shima   Ryukyu Is                         29.964
                                   Tephrochronology         N   129.927   E    628
Akagi           Honshu-Japan       Uncertain      36.557    N   139.196   E   1828
Sofugan         Izu Is-Japan       Uncertain      29.789    N   140.345   E     99
Unnamed         Kuril Is           Uncertain        45.03   N   147.208   E   -930
Unnamed         Kuril Is           Uncertain         46.1   N     150.5   E   -100
Santo Tomas     Luzon-Philippines Uncertain         16.33   N    120.55   E   2260
Unnamed                            U
                Mariana Is-C Pacific ncertain          21   N     142.9   E
Unnamed                            U
                Mariana Is-C Pacific ncertain        20.3   N     143.2   E
Unnamed         Taiwan-E of        Uncertain        20.93   N    134.75   E   -6000
Unnamed         Taiwan-E of        Uncertain        21.83   N    121.18   E    -115
Unnamed         Taiwan-E of        Uncertain        19.17   N    132.25   E     -10
Unnamed         Taiwan-N of        Uncertain         25.4   N     122.2   E    -100
Zengyu          Taiwan-N of        Uncertain        26.18   N   122.458   E    -418
Nikko           Volcano Is-Japan Uncertain        23.075    N   142.308   E    -391
Unnamed         Volcano Is-Japan Uncertain          26.13   N    144.48   E   -3200
TYPE                    ESP
                  TIMEFRAME   comments
Stratovolcano     D6    E0
Shield volcano    U     B0
Stratovolcano     D6    E0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Stratovolcano     D7    E0
Submarine volcano U     S0
Submarine volcano U     S0    Mokuyo Seamount is one of the Shichiyo Seamounts, named for the 7 days of the week. M
Submarine volcano U     S0
Compound volcano U      E0
Unknown           U     E0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Caldera           ?     E0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Submarine volcano U     B0
Stratovolcano     U     E0    Zealandia Bank consists of two pinnacles about 1 km apart rising from a submerged bank t
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Compound volcano U      B0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Stratovolcano     U     E0
Submarine volcano U     E0
Submarine volcano U     S0
Stratovolcano     D2    E0    Massive Baitoushan stratovolcano, also known as Changbaishan and by the Korean names
Volcanic field    D4    B0    The Wudalianchi volcanic field, named for a string of five scenic lava-dammed lakes, consi
Caldera           D1    E1    Akan is a 13 x 24 km, elongated caldera that formed more than 31,500 years ago immediat
Stratovolcano     D3    E0    E-san, a small andesitic stratovolcano capped by a 618-m-high lava dome, is Hokkaido's so
Stratovolcano     D1    E0    The truncated Komaga-take volcano on the Oshima Peninsula of southern Hokkaido is one
Stratovolcanoes   D3    E0    The Nipesotsu-Maruyama volcano group, located west of Nukabira lake about 20 km east o
Stratovolcano     D4    B0    Oshima-Oshima, a small, 4-km-wide Japan Sea island 55 km west of the SW tip of Hokkaid
Caldera           D2    E0    The 13 x 15 km Shikotsu caldera, largely filled by the waters of Lake Shikotsu, was formed
Stratovolcano     D2    E0    Shiretoko-Iwo-zan, one of many Japanese "sulfur mountains," is noted for the extrusion of m
Stratovolcanoes   D2    E0    Tokachi volcano consists of a group of dominantly andesitic stratovolcanoes and lava dome
Stratovolcano     D1    B0    Usu, one of Hokkaido's most well-known volcanoes, is a small stratovolcano located astride
Stratovolcanoes   D2    E1    Historical eruptions have been restricted to the summit crater and have been mostly phreat
Stratovolcanoes   D2    E1    Historical eruptions have all been small and occurred from cones and fissure vents inside th
Complex volcano D2      E0    The only known historical activity has consisted of somewhat uncertain 19th-century eruptio
Complex volcano D1      E1    Site of numerous small vulcanian type events. VEI 3 eruption in 1953. VEI 2 eruptions in 2
Stratovolcanoes   D2    E1    Historical eruptions have been mostly small and phreatic. VEI 1 eruptions occurred in 1977
Stratovolcano     D3    E2    Last magmatic eruption was 25,000 yrs ago, but a major sector collapse and phreatic erupt
Stratovolcanoes   D2    E1    VEI 2 eruptions occurred in 1834, 1821, 1800, 1764, and 1740. A VEI 1 eruption occurred i
Stratovolcano     D4    E0    Last eruption was in 1707 (VEI 5), along with VEI 2 eruptions in 1700, 1511, and 1435 AD
Stratovolcano     D5    E2    Historical eruptions recorded over almost 1,000 years until the 17th century. Those eruptio
Stratovolcano     D5    E0    The only historical eruption was in 1544 (VEI 2), which deposited a proximal tephra layer.
Stratovolcano     D3    E1    Historical eruptions have been reported since 1597 and have consisted primarily of small-to
Complex volcano D2      E0    Last significant eruption was a lava flow in 1686 (VEI 3) with VEI 2 eruptions in 1687 and 16
Pyroclastic cones D2    B0    The Izu-Tobu volcano group (Higashi-Izu volcano group) is scattered over a broad, plateau
Stratovolcano     D2    E1    Historical eruptions in recent centuries have been primarily small phreatic events.
Stratovolcanoes   D2    E1    All historical eruptions have consisted of phreatic explosions from the crater lakes or their m
Caldera           D6    E0    Only known historical eruption was in 837 AD.
Stratovolcanoes   D2   E1   Most recent magmatic eruption formed the summit lava dome, Chausu-dake, in 1408-1410
Lava dome         D2   E1   Large eruptions in 887, 1361, and 1773, with minor phreatic explosions after that. All erupt
Shield volcano    D2   E1   All historical eruptions have been phreatic explosions from Shirane-san, the youngest lava
Complex volcano D2     E0   First historical eruption in 1979, a VEI 1
Stratovolcano     D4   E0   The only reported historical activity was written in a travel document published in 1787, alth
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   The only historical eruption was a ~VEI 2 in 1839.
Caldera           D6   E0   The latest eruption of Towada took place in 915 AD, when eruptions from Ogura-yama prod
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   No clear historical activity noted in the Smithsonian catalog, despite the label of "historical".
Complex volcano D2     E1   Eruptions in the last century have been mostly small and phreatic. VEI 1 eruptions occurre
Stratovolcano     D4   E0   VEI 3 eruptions in 1780, 1670, and 1652, but nothing since then.
Submarine volcano D2   E1   Most 20th century eruptions have taken place from Myojin-sho, a arge post-caldera lava do
Stratovolcanoes   D5   B0   This island consists of two dominantly basaltic stratovolcanoes. Eruptions since the 15th ce
Lava domes        D6   E0   The most recent eruption at Kozu-shima was a major one in 838 AD that produced pyroclas
Stratovolcano     D1   B2   Large basaltic eruption in 2000 with column height of ~15 km and at least one aircraft enco
Lava domes        D6   E0   The only historical eruption of Nii-jima was in the 9th century A.D.
Stratovolcano     D2   E1   Historical activity includes VEI 3 eruptions in 1987 and 1986; VEI 2 eruptions in 1990, 1974
Submarine volcano D2   E0   Smith Rock is a steep-sided basaltic pinnacle that forms part of the outer southern flank of
Stratovolcano     D1   B0   The circular, 2.7-km-wide island of Tori-shima in the southern Izu Islands is capped by an u
Stratovolcanoes   D2   E0   The scenic lake-filled Akademia Nauk caldera is one of three volcanoes constructed within
Stratovolcano     D1   E0   Avachinsky, one of Kamchatka's most active volcanoes, rises above Petropavlovsk, Kamch
Stratovolcano     D1   E1   Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The
Caldera           D2   B0   Gorely volcano, one of the most active in southern Kamchatka, consists of five small overla
Stratovolcano     D4   B0   Ichinsky, by far the highest peak in the Sredinny Range, is a massive, 450 cu km stratovolc
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The conical Ilyinsky volcano, rising dramatically to 1578 m above the NE shore of Kurile Lak
Stratovolcano     D1   E0   Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   Kizimen is an isolated, conical stratovolcano that is morphologically similar to Mount St. He
Stratovolcano     D1   B1   Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 y
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-
Stratovolcano     D5   B0   Koshelev is the southernmost historically active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Loca
Stratovolcano     D2   B0   This symmetrical stratovolcano, one of the most scenic in Kamchatka, lies between the Pac
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   Ksudach is unique among Kamchatka volcanoes in its morphology and geologic history. It i
Caldera           D2   B0   Maly Semiachik is a compound stratovolcano located in a 10-km-wide caldera within the 15
Complex volcano D1     B1   Massive Mutnovsky, one of the most active volcanoes of southern Kamchatka, is formed of
Stratovolcano     D1   E1   The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled Sheveluch) rises above the low
Shield volcano    D2   B1   The massive Tolbachik basaltic volcano is located at the southern end of the dominantly an
Compound volcano D3    B0   Ushkovsky volcano (formerly known as Plosky) is a large compound volcanic massif locate
Stratovolcano     D2   B0   Zheltovsky volcano was constructed during the last 8000 years within a 4 x 5 km caldera tru
Compound volcano D2    E0   The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WN
Shield volcano    D6   B0   The massive Halla shield volcano forms much of the 40 x 80 km Cheju (Jeju) Island, which
Unknown           D5   E0   A second volcano in Shanshu Province of North Korea, known as Xianjindao, was reported
Stratovolcano     D2   B1   The highest and northernmost volcano of the Kuril Islands, 2339-m-high Alaid is a symmetr
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   Conical Atsonupuri stratovolcano forms a prominent peninsula joined to the SW side of Itur
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The Baransky volcanic complex along the Pacific coast in the central part of Iturup Island co
Stratovolcanoes   D1   B1   Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The small, mostly unvegetated 3-km-wide island of Chirinkotan occupies the far end of an E
Stratovolcanoes   D3   B0   The Chirip Peninsula, jutting NW-ward into the Sea of Okhotsk from central Iturup Island, is
Caldera           D2   E0   Chirpoi, a small island lying between the larger islands of Simushir and Urup, contains a ha
Somma volcano     D1   E1   The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The small 5 x 7.5 km island of Ekarma lies 8.5 km north of Shiashkotan Island along an E-W
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   Fuss Peak in the northern Kuriles forms a peninsula that lies across a low isthmus on the S
Caldera           D3   E0   Golovnin volcano, the southernmost in the Kuril Islands, forms the southern end of Kunashi
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   Goriaschaia Sopka is a young, historically active lava dome at the SW end of Simushir Islan
Complex volcanoesD2    E1   The Grozny volcano group in central Iturup Island contains the complex volcanoes of Ivan G
Cones             D2   E0   The Karpinsky group on southern Paramushir Island consists of three Holocene andesitic v
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The circular, 10-km-wide Ketoi island, which rises across the 19-km-wide Diana Strait from
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The 8 x 12 km island of Kharimkotan (also spelled Harimkotan) in the northern Kuriles cons
Somma volcanoes D2     E0   A group of Holocene volcanoes in central Urup Island is named after its most prominent vol
Somma volcano     D2   E0   The Medvezhia volcanic complex occupies the NE end of Iturup Island. Two overlapping ca
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   Mendeleev, also known as Rausu-dake, is a low compound stratovolcano located in the so
Caldera           D2   E0   Nemo Peak volcano at the northern end of Onekotan Island in the northern Kuriles is trunca
Stratovolcano     D3   B0   Symmetrical Prevo Peak, also known as Simushiru-Fuji for its resemblance to Japan's note
Stratovolcano     D2   B0   A low, 551-m-high truncated volcano forms the small barren Raikoke Island, which lies 16 k
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The elongated 6 x 13 km island of Rasshua in the central Kuriles contains three overlapping
Stratovolcano     D2   E1   Sarychev Peak, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kuril Islands, occupies the NW end
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   Sinarka volcano, occupying the northern end of Shiashkotan Island in the central Kuriles, ha
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   The 7.5-km-wide Tao-Rusyr caldera on southern Onekotan Island is one of the most impre
Stratovolcano     D2   B0   Tiatia volcano, one of the most impressive of the Kuril Islands, consists of a beautifully sym
Submarine volcano D2   S0
Caldera           D3   E0   The subaerial portion of Ushishur volcano in the central Kuriles is exposed in two small isla
Caldera           D2   E0   Zavaritzki volcano in central Simushir Island contains three nested calderas of 10-, 8-, and
Caldera           D1   B1   Historical eruptions from Naka-dake, the most active cone, have been mostly basaltic to ba
Calderas          D6   E0   Lava field of domes, cinder cones & maars. Last historical eruption was in the 9th century.
Shield volcano    D2   E1   Site of frequent, small eruptions. VEI 2 eruptions in 1959, 1923, 1913, and 1903. VEI 1 eru
Stratovolcanoes   D2   B1   VEI 1 eruption in 1995, VEI 2 eruptions in 1738, 1675, 1662.
Stratovolcano     D1   E9   Site of very frequent small vulcanian blasts. VEI 3 eruption also recorded in 1955, and a VE
Lava domes        D6   E0   Only eruption in historical time was in 867 AD
Complex volcano D2     E9   Recent eruptive activity formed a lava dome and pyroclastic flows in 1995, but no significan
Stratovolcanoes   D2   E1   VEI 2 eruptions in 1924, 1919, 1918, 1917, 1913, 1907, and 1860. Possible VEI 4 in 1831.
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   Phreatic eruption in 1857, possibly in part submarine, is the only reported historical activity.
Compound volcano D2    E0   Eruption in 1860 created a new island that eroded away but another eruption in 1952 create
Stratovolcano     D6   E0   Phivolcs listed an unspecified eruption from this volcano in 1454. No other historical eruptio
Submarine volcano D3   E0   Submarine eruptions reported in 1773, 1850, and 1854.
Stratovolcanoes   D1   E1   VEI 2 eruptions in 2005, 1994, 1988, 1983, 1978, 1933, 1928, 1918, 1916. VEI 3 eruptions
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   Mount Cagua, a 1133-m-high stratovolcano, lies at the NE tip of Luzon. The circular summi
Stratovolcano     D5   E0   Only known historical eruption was a debris avalanche in ~1628, followed by phreatic explo
Stratovolcano     D1   E1   Philippines' most active volcano. Capable of a wide range of activity, and of magma types r
Stratovolcano     D2   E2   Characterized by major explosive eruptions, but the "next" one may be a smaller precursor
Stratovolcano     D2   E2   Site of deadly explosive eruptions in 1965 & 1911 (VEI 4). VEI 3 eruption in 1968. VEI 2 e
Stratovolcano     D2   B0   The highest of the Marianas arc volcanoes, Agrigan contains a 500-m-deep, flat-floored cal
Stratovolcano     D1   E2   The elongate, 9-km-long island of Anatahan in the central Mariana Islands consists of a larg
Stratovolcano     D2   E0   A single large asymmetrical stratovolcano, steeper on the NE side, forms 3-km-wide Asunc
Stratovolcano     D2   E1   The small 2-km-wide island of Farallon de Pajaros (also known as Uracas) is the northernm
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   The small island of Guguan, only 2.8 km wide, is composed of an eroded volcano on the so
Submarine volcano D1   S0   A submarine volcano detected during a 2003 NOAA bathymetric survey of the Mariana Isla
Stratovolcanoes   D1   B2   Pagan Island, the largest and one of the most active of the Mariana Islands volcanoes, con
Submarine volcano D2   S0   Ruby, a basaltic submarine volcano that rises to within 230 m of the sea surface near the s
Stratovolcanoes   D2   E0   VEI 2 eruption at Hibok-Hibok volcano in 1871-75 and VEI 3 in 1948-53. No other historica
Stratovolcano     D3   E0   Poorly-described eruptions in 1882 and 1865 (VEI 2).
Lava dome         D3   E0   Only historical activity was a possible phreatic explosion in ~1887, reported by a Jesuit prie
Stratovolcano     D5   E0                                                      of the Marianas and then
                            Major explosive eruption in 1641 (VEI 5) but no reported activity since the Philippines. For s
Stratovolcano     D3   E1   VEI 2 eruptions in 1915, 1873, 1871, 1858, 1856, 1840, 1834, 1765
Compound volcano D2    E0   Only known historical activity was a phreatic eruption and possible debris avalanche in 1939
Stratovolcano     D1   E1   VEI 1 eruptions in 2003, 2002, 1992, 1988, 1987, 1985. VEI 2 eruptions in 2006, 2005, 199
Cinder cone       D4        Not in smithsonian database any longer?
Submarine volcano D2   S0
Complex volcano D2     E1   VEI 1 eruptions in 1968, 1967, 1868, 1829. VEI 2 eruptions in 1959, 1903, 1855.
Caldera           D1   E1   Site of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6300 yrs ago. Mild to moderate
Stratovolcanoes   D2   E2   Frequent eruptions from Shin-Take have damaged several villages. Largest was a VEI 4 in
Stratovolcanoes   D2   E0   Only very minor activity has been reported during historical time.
Stratovolcanoes   D1   E1   Intermittent strombolian activity (VEI <=2) at On-take crater from 1949 until 1996 has been
Stratovolcanoes   D3   E    Yokoate-jima is a small, 3.5-km-long, dumbbell-shaped island NW of Amami Oshima Island
                  D2
Submarine volcanoes    B0   Submarine cinder cones formed ephemeral islands in 1923. No other historical activity rep
Pyroclastic cones D3   B0                                                      Note: The Tokyo VAAC region in 1897
                            This is a collection of pyroclastic cones and craters. One VEI 0 eruption reportedincludes o
Submarine volcano D3   E0   A submarine eruption observed by the U.S. Navy boat "Southampton" took place on Octobe
Submarine volcano D2   S0   One of the larger of the submarine volcanoes of the Marianas arc, Fukujin seamount has ri
Submarine volcano D1   E1   Fukutoku-Okanoba is a submarine volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Mina
Caldera           D1   E1   Ioto (also known as Iwo-jima) in the central Volcano Islands portion of the Izu-Marianas arc
Submarine volcano D2   S0
Submarine volcano D2   S0
Submarine volcano D2   S0
Stratovolcano     D2   B0   No historical eruptions have occurred from the deeply eroded Kita-Iwo-jima stratovolcano, w
Submarine volcano D2   B0   Periodic water discoloration and water-spouting have been reported over this submarine vo
Caldera           D2   E0   The small island of Nishino-shima was recently enlarged when it was joined to several new
Pyroclastic cones U    B0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Shield volcanoes U     B0
Lava domes        U    E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Stratovolcanoes   U    E0
Complex volcano U      B0
Stratovolcano     U    B0
Lava domes        U    B0
Pyroclastic cones U    E0
Compound volcano U     E0
Stratovolcano     U    B0
Stratovolcano     U    B0
Stratovolcano     U    B0
Stratovolcanoes   U    B0
Cinder cones      D6   B0
Stratovolcano     U    B0
Volcanic field    U    B0
Shield volcanoes U     B0
Stratovolcano     D7   B0
Shield volcanoes U     B0
Shield volcano    U    B0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Shield volcano    U    B0
Stratovolcanoes   U    E0
Cinder cone       U    B0
Shield volcanoes U     B0
Cinder cone       U    B0
Shield volcanoes U     B0
Stratovolcano     U    B0
Stratovolcanoes   U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Cinder cones      U    E0
Cinder cones      U    E0
Somma volcano     U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Submarine volcano U    E0
Somma volcano     U    E0
Cinder cones      U    E0
Complex volcano U      E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Compound volcano U     E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0   included in this list.
Cinder cones      U    B0
Volcanic field    U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Stratovolcano     U    E0
Volcanic field    U    B0
Cinder cones      U    B0
Volcanic field    U    B0
Cinder cones      U    B0
Volcanic field    U    E0
Volcanic field    U    E0
Fissure vents     U    E0
Pyroclastic cones U7   E0
Submarine volcano U    S0
Cinder cones      ?    B0
Volcanic field    ?    E0
Lava domes        ?    E0
Stratovolcano     ?    E0
Stratovolcano     ?    E0
Shield volcanoes ?     B0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    E0
Shield volcano    ?    B0
Stratovolcano     ?    B0
Stratovolcano     ?    B0
Shield volcanoes ?     B0
Stratovolcano     ?    B0
Shield volcanoes ?     B0
Stratovolcano     ?    B0
Shield volcano    ?    B0
Shield volcano    ?    B0
Shield volcano    ?    B0
Shield volcanoes ?     B0
Shield volcanoes ?     B0
Shield volcano    ?    B0
Shield volcano    ?    B0
Shield volcanoes ?     B0
Shield volcano    ?    B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcanoes    ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcanoes    ?   B0
Stratovolcano       ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcanoes    ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Cinder cones        ?   E0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Shield volcanoes    ?   B0
Shield volcanoes    ?   B0
Shield volcano      ?   B0
Pyroclastic cones   ?   E0
Stratovolcano       ?   E0
Stratovolcano       ?   E0
Stratovolcano       ?   E0
Stratovolcano       ?   E0
Stratovolcano       ?   B0
Stratovolcano       ?   E0
Stratovolcano       ?   E0
Cinder cone         ?   B0

Cinder cones      ?     B0
Volcanic field    ?     B0
Stratovolcanoes   ?     E0
Stratovolcano     ?     E0
Lava domes        ?     E0
Volcanic field    ?     E0
Volcanic field    ?     E0
Volcanic field    ?     E0
Cinder cone       ?     B0
Stratovolcano ?   U     E0
Submarine volcano D2    S0
Submarine volcano D2    E0
Volcanic field    D7    B0
Cinder cones      D6    B0
Caldera           D6    E0
Stratovolcano     D7    E0
Stratovolcanoes   D5    E0
Complex volcano D7      E0
Caldera           U     E0
Stratovolcano     D7    E0
Stratovolcano     D7    E0
Stratovolcanoes   D7   E0
Shield volcano    D7   B0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D5   B0
Lava cone         D7   E0
Stratovolcanoes   D7   B0
Shield volcanoes D7    B0
Lava domes        D6   E0
Stratovolcano     D6   E0
Stratovolcano     D5   E0
Stratovolcanoes   D7   E0
Stratovolcanoes   D5   B0
Maar              D6   B0
Stratovolcano     D6   B0
Caldera           D5   B0
Caldera           D7   E0
Shield volcanoes D7    B0
Caldera           D6   B0
Shield volcano    D7   B0
Shield volcano    D7   B0
Lava dome         D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Shield volcano    D7   B0
Shield volcanoes D7    B0
Cinder cones      D6   B0
Calderas          D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Cinder cones      D7   B0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Maars             D7   B0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D6   E0
Stratovolcano     D6   E0
Volcanic field    D7   B0
Pyroclastic cones D7   B0
Submarine volcano D1   S0
Stratovolcanoes   D6   E0
Caldera           D6   E0
Stratovolcanoes   D3   E0
Stratovolcanoes   D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D3   E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Maars             D7   B0
Shield volcanoes D7    B0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Lava domes        D7   B0
Shield volcanoes D7    B0
Complex volcano D7     B0
Cinder cones      D6   B0
Stratovolcano     D7   E0
Submarine volcano D7   S0
Shield volcanoes D7    B0
Stratovolcanoes   D6   E0
Stratovolcano     ?    E0
Stratovolcano     ?    B0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Stratovolcano     ?    E0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    E0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
Submarine volcano ?    S0
ed for the 7 days of the week. Mokuyo ("Thursday") is a basaltic-andesite submarine caldera that rises 1780 m from the sea floor to within 92




 rising from a submerged bank to near the sea surface between Guguan and Sarigan Islands. One pinnacle reaches >1 m above water at lo




aishan and by the Korean names of Baegdu or P'aektu-san, is a relatively unknown, but volcanologically significant volcano straddling the Ch
cenic lava-dammed lakes, consists of 14 cinder cones capping a 500 sq km shield-like lava plateau in NE China. The volcanic field, whose n
 than 31,500 years ago immediately SW of Kutcharo caldera. Growth of four post-caldera stratovolcanoes, three at the SW end of the calder
 high lava dome, is Hokkaido's southernmost active volcano. E-san occupies the eastern tip of the double-pronged Oshima Peninsula across
sula of southern Hokkaido is one of the most active volcanoes of Japan's northernmost island. Komaga-take's sharp-topped 1131-m-high su
Nukabira lake about 20 km east of Tokachi-dake volcano, is composed of a number of overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes and la
km west of the SW tip of Hokkaido, is the emergent summit of two coalescing basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes. Higashi-yama, at the eas
 s of Lake Shikotsu, was formed during one of Hokkaido's largest Quaternary eruptions about 31-34,000 years ago. The small andesitic Taru
ns," is noted for the extrusion of molten sulfur during eruptions in 1889 and 1936. Located at the NE tip of Hokkaido on the Shiretoko Peninsu
c stratovolcanoes and lava domes arranged on a NE-SW line above a plateau of welded Pleistocene tuffs in central Hokkaido. Numerous ex
mall stratovolcano located astride the southern topographic rim of the 110,000-year-old Toya caldera. The center of the 10-km-wide, lake-fille
 er and have been mostly phreatic. VEI 2 eruptions in 1900 and 1899. VEI 1 eruptions in 1996 and 1813.
 cones and fissure vents inside the southern caldera.
 at uncertain 19th-century eruptions and mild phreatic eruptions in the 20th century.
 on in 1953. VEI 2 eruptions in 2004, 1990, 1983, 1982, 1973, 1965, 1961, 1958, 1952, 1950, 1949, and 1947. VEI 1 eruptions in 2003 and
VEI 1 eruptions occurred in 1977, 1966, 1952, 1950, and 1914. VEI 2 eruptions occurred in 1896, 1895, 1894, and 1893.
ector collapse and phreatic eruption (VEI 4!) took place in 1888.
 740. A VEI 1 eruption occurred in 1974.
ns in 1700, 1511, and 1435 AD
 the 17th century. Those eruptions estimated at VEI 2-3.
 osited a proximal tephra layer.
ve consisted primarily of small-to moderate phreatic explosions. These include a VEI 1 eruptions in 1863 and VEI 2 eruptions in 1856, , 184
 h VEI 2 eruptions in 1687 and 1689.
  scattered over a broad, plateau-like area of more than 400 sq km on the east side of the Izu Peninsula. Construction of several stratovolcan
  small phreatic events.
 s from the crater lakes or their margins.
me, Chausu-dake, in 1408-1410. More recent activity has involved phreatic explosions (VEI 1 and 2).
c explosions after that. All eruptions in the past 200 years have been VEI 1 and 2.
Shirane-san, the youngest lava dome.

 ocument published in 1787, although older residents reported that fires and clouds were sometimes seen from the summit.

eruptions from Ogura-yama produced widespread ashfalls and pyroclastic flows.
, despite the label of "historical".
hreatic. VEI 1 eruptions occurred in 1940, 1939, 1927, 1905, 1897, 1896. VEI 2 eruptions occurred in 1895 and 1894.

sho, a arge post-caldera lava dome. Major explosive eruption in 1952 destroyed a Japanese research vessel. Many VEI 0 eruptoins since 1
oes. Eruptions since the 15th century have been restricted to the summit of Nishi-yama and a submarine vent. VEI 2 eruptions occurred in
n 838 AD that produced pyroclastic flows and surges, and a lava dome. Earthquakes have been recorded during the 20th century.
m and at least one aircraft encounter. Other important eruptions include a VEI 4 in 1763, VEI 3 eruptions in 1983 and 1874; VEI 2 eruptions

 6; VEI 2 eruptions in 1990, 1974, 1958, 1957, and 1950; and VEI 1 eruptions in 1970, 1969, 1968, 1967, 1965, 1962, 1959, 1956, 1953, 194
art of the outer southern flank of a 8-9 km wide submarine caldera that truncates a 20-km-wide seamount. A dacitic central cone 2 km wide a
ern Izu Islands is capped by an unvegetated summit cone formed during an eruption in 1939. Fresh lava flows from this eruption form part of
ee volcanoes constructed within the mid-Pleistocene, 15-km-wide Polovinka caldera. Beliankin stratovolcano, in the SW part of Polovinka ca
 es above Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka's largest city. Avachinsky began to form during the middle or late Pleistocene and is flanked to the SE
ad been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, wa
atka, consists of five small overlapping stratovolcanoes constructed along a WNW-ESE line within a large 9 x 13.5 km caldera. The caldera f
 a massive, 450 cu km stratovolcano that is one of Kamchatka's largest. The andesitic Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano, also known as
 above the NE shore of Kurile Lake, was constructed beginning about 7600 radiocarbon years ago at the NE margin of Kurile Lake caldera. T
n volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cu
ologically similar to Mount St. Helens prior to its 1980 eruption. The summit of Kizimen consists of overlapping lava domes, and blocky lava fl
 no. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-v
  prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka's largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion
  the Kamchatka Peninsula. Located SW of the Pauzhetka volcano-tectonic depression and NW of Kambalny volcano, Koshelev is a complex
Kamchatka, lies between the Pacific Ocean and Lake Kronotsky, Kamchatka's largest lake. The lake formed at the end of the Pleistocene an
 phology and geologic history. It is a large, low-angle stratovolcano, constructed of alternating basaltic-andesitic lavas and dacitic pyroclastics
10-km-wide caldera within the 15 x 20 km mid-Pleistocene Stena-Soboliny caldera. Following construction during the late Pleistocene of the P
outhern Kamchatka, is formed of four coalescing stratovolcanoes of predominately basaltic composition. Multiple summit craters cap the volc
d Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest a
outhern end of the dominantly andesitic Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The Tolbachik massif is composed of two overlapping, but morpholog
 ompound volcanic massif located at the NW end of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. It consists of the flat-topped 3943-m-high Ushkovsky v
ears within a 4 x 5 km caldera truncating an earlier Pleistocene edifice. A late-Holocene explosive eruption formed a 1.6-km-wide summit cra
ping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene cald
80 km Cheju (Jeju) Island, which lies 90 km south of the Korean Peninsula. Eruptions during the Pliocene and Pleistocene built a lava plateau
own as Xianjindao, was reported to erupt two days after an eruption at Baitoushan (Changbaishan) volcano on the China/Korea border in 159
 2339-m-high Alaid is a symmetrical stratovolcano when viewed from the north, but has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater that is breached widely
sula joined to the SW side of Iturup Island by a low isthmus only 30 m high. A somma volcano whose caldera rim is exposed only at about 90
 he central part of Iturup Island consists of an eroded Pleistocene volcano that is capped by a Holocene stratovolcano. A young summit lava
he northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria
 otan occupies the far end of an E-W-trending volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km west of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc.
otsk from central Iturup Island, is constructed of twin overlapping Holocene stratovolcanoes. Chirip volcano on the north and Bogdan Khmeln
 imushir and Urup, contains a half dozen volcanic edifices constructed within an 8-9 km wide, partially submerged caldera. The southern rim
no, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-N
 Shiashkotan Island along an E-W-trending volcanic chain extending westward from the central part of the main Kuril Island arc. Ekarma is c
es across a low isthmus on the SW coast of Paramushir Island. The volcano rises 2800 m from the floor of the Sea of Okhotsk to a height of
 ms the southern end of Kunashir Island, across the Nemuro Strait from Hokkaido. Explosive activity has dominated in the formation of ande
e at the SW end of Simushir Island in the central Kuriles. The dome is located within a large horseshoe-shaped crater cutting the NW flank o
  the complex volcanoes of Ivan Grozny and Tebenkov. The former has a 3-3.5 km diameter caldera that is open to the south, where the larg
sts of three Holocene andesitic volcanic centers at the southern end of the Karpinsky Ridge. A postulated caldera is thought to have been pri
he 19-km-wide Diana Strait from Simushir Island, hosts of one of the most complex volcanic structures of the Kuril Islands. The rim of a 5-km
otan) in the northern Kuriles consists of a stratovolcano cut by two breached depressions on the east and NW sides. These horseshoe-shape
 med after its most prominent volcano, Kolokol. Berg and Trezubetz volcanoes, flanking Kolokol on the NW, have breached summit calderas
 turup Island. Two overlapping calderas, 14 x 18 and 10 x 12 km in diameter, were formed during the Pleistocene. The caldera floor contains
d stratovolcano located in the southern part of Kunashir island. The dominantly andesitic-dacitic volcano is cut by two nested calderas, the la
d in the northern Kuriles is truncated by two nested calderas of preglacial age, the largest of which is 10 km in diameter. A third 5-km-wide ca
   its resemblance to Japan's noted volcano, is capped by a 450 x 600 m wide summit crater. A nested inner cone whose rim approaches the
 n Raikoke Island, which lies 16 km across the Golovnin Strait from Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The oval-shaped basaltic island is onl
Kuriles contains three overlapping central cones within a 6 km caldera whose eastern margin is beyond the shoreline. An eroded central cone
  ril Islands, occupies the NW end of Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The andesitic central cone was constructed within a 3-3.5 km wide ca
  n Island in the central Kuriles, has a complex structure. A small, 2-km-wide depression open to the NW has been largely filled and overtoppe
n Island is one of the most impressive volcanoes of the Kuril Islands. The basaltic-to-andesitic caldera is filled by the deep-blue 7-km-wide Ka
nds, consists of a beautifully symmetrical cone that rises above the broad rim of an erosionally furrowed, 2.1 x 2.4 km wide caldera. The 1819

riles is exposed in two small islands, the southern containing the summit caldera and the northern a portion of the volcano's flanks. A small 1
 nested calderas of 10-, 8-, and 3-km diameter. The steep-walled youngest caldera was formed during the Holocene and contains a lake wh
 have been mostly basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. VEI 1 eruptions in 200
 eruption was in the 9th century.
1923, 1913, and 1903. VEI 1 eruptions in 1999, 1979, and 1971.

 also recorded in 1955, and a VEI 4 in 1914.

c flows in 1995, but no significant tephra eruptions.
d 1860. Possible VEI 4 in 1831.
e only reported historical activity.
 t another eruption in 1952 created a permanent island.
  1454. No other historical eruptions reported.

28, 1918, 1916. VEI 3 eruptions in 1981, 1979.
tip of Luzon. The circular summit crater is 1.5 km in diameter, with steep, 60-m-high walls. Basaltic-andesite and basaltic lava effusion chara
1628, followed by phreatic explosions.
of activity, and of magma types ranging from basalt to andesite. VEI 1 eruptions in 2006, 2004, 2002, 1943, 1941, 1939, 1902. VEI 2 erupt
one may be a smaller precursor to a large one. An example would be the June 12, 1991 eruption (VEI 3)
 VEI 3 eruption in 1968. VEI 2 eruptions in 1977, 1976, 1969, 1968, 1903. VEI 1 eruptions in 1970, 1967, 1904.
ns a 500-m-deep, flat-floored caldera. The elliptical island is 8 km long; its 965-m-high summit is the top of a massive 4000-m-high submarin
Mariana Islands consists of a large stratovolcano with a 2.3 x 5 km, E-W-trending compound summit caldera. The larger western portion of th
NE side, forms 3-km-wide Asuncion Island. The steep NE flank of the 857-m-high volcano terminates in high sea cliffs. The gentler SW flank
own as Uracas) is the northernmost and most active volcano of the Mariana Islands. Its relatively frequent historical eruptions dating back to
d of an eroded volcano on the south, a caldera with a post-caldera cone, and a northern volcano. The latter has three coalescing cones and
metric survey of the Mariana Island arc was found to be hydrothermally active and named NW Rota-1. The basaltic to basaltic-andesite seam
 Mariana Islands volcanoes, consists of two stratovolcanoes connected by a narrow isthmus. Both North and South Pagan stratovolcanoes w
 m of the sea surface near the southern end of the Mariana arc NW of Saipan, was detected in eruption in 1966 by sonar signals. In 1995 su
3 in 1948-53. No other historical activity.

 ~1887, reported by a Jesuit priest who visited in 1891
rianas and the Philippines. For simplicity,

 ossible debris avalanche in 1939.
EI 2 eruptions in 2006, 2005, 1996, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1989, 1986, 1978.
s in 1959, 1903, 1855.
 6300 yrs ago. Mild to moderate eruptions during the past decades have issued from Iwo-dake. VEI 2 eruptions in 2004, 2003, 2002, 1998,
 villages. Largest was a VEI 4 in 1933. VEI 3 eruption in 1968; VEI 2 eruptions in 1980, 1976, 1973, 1972, 1966, 1945, 1914. VEI 1 eruptio

  from 1949 until 1996 has been followed by longer periods of inactivity. VEI 4 eruptions in 1877 and 1813.
and NW of Amami Oshima Island at the SW end of the Tokara island chain. Two peaks, Higashimine on the east and Nishimine on the west,
3. No other historical activity reported.
e Tokyo VAAC region includes only parts
uthampton" took place on October 29, 1853 in the Philippine Sea offshore from the city of Hualien about 18 km from the eastern coast of Taiw
nas arc, Fukujin seamount has risen on occasion to just beneath the sea surface. Intermittent periods of water discoloration have been obser
 E of the pyramidal island of Minami-Iwo-jima. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano, and several ephemeral islands ha
s portion of the Izu-Marianas arc lies within a 9-km-wide submarine caldera. Ioto, Iwo-jima, and Io-jima are among many transliterations of th



ed Kita-Iwo-jima stratovolcano, which forms a steep-sided basaltic cone rising 792 m above the sea. However, eruptions have been recorde
reported over this submarine volcano since 1975 (VEI0), when detonations and an explosion were also reported. Minami-Hiyoshi lies near th
hen it was joined to several new islands that formed during an eruption in 1973-74 (VEI2). Water discoloration has been observed on severa
1780 m from the sea floor to within 920 m of the sea surface. The summit caldera is 3 x 2.3 km wide and about 450 m deep and contains a 1




 acle reaches >1 m above water at low tide. Andesitic rocks were dredged at the southern peak, which showed some evidence of coral grow




  significant volcano straddling the China/Korea border. A 5-km-wide, 850-m-deep summit caldera is filled by scenic Lake Tianchi (Sky Lake)
 E China. The volcanic field, whose name means "Five Connected Pools" was formed during five eruptive cycles from the early Pleistocene t
es, three at the SW end of the caldera and the other at the NE side, has restricted the size of the caldera lake. The 1-km-wide Nakamachines
 e-pronged Oshima Peninsula across the Tsugaru Strait from Honshu. Another lava dome is located to the NW. Both the E-san lava dome, w
 take's sharp-topped 1131-m-high summit lies at the western side of a large breached crater that formed as a result of edifice collapse in 164
 sitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes and lava domes constructed along a NW-SE trend. The highest peak in the complex is 2013-m-high Nipesots
ovolcanoes. Higashi-yama, at the east end of the island, is cut by a 2-km-wide caldera covered on its west side by Nishi-yama volcano. The w
  years ago. The small andesitic Tarumai stratovolcano was then constructed on its SE rim and has been Hokkaido's most active volcano in
of Hokkaido on the Shiretoko Peninsula, the andesitic volcano contains two large craters at the summit that are breached to the NW. The sou
 fs in central Hokkaido. Numerous explosion craters and cinder cones are located on the upper flanks of the small stratovolcanoes, with the y
he center of the 10-km-wide, lake-filled caldera contains Naka-jima, a group of forested andesitic lava domes. The summit of the basaltic-to-a



d 1947. VEI 1 eruptions in 2003 and 1982.
, 1894, and 1893.




3 and VEI 2 eruptions in 1856, , 1848, 1845, 1844, 1833, and 1807.

 Construction of several stratovolcanoes continued throughout much of the Pleistocene and overlapped with growth of smaller monogenetic
en from the summit.



 895 and 1894.

vessel. Many VEI 0 eruptoins since 1971. Also, VEI 2 eruptions in 1970, 1960, 1952, and 1946. According to Morimoto (1960), the 1952 eru
ne vent. VEI 2 eruptions occurred in 1707, 1606, 1605, 1518, and 1487.
 ed during the 20th century.
ns in 1983 and 1874; VEI 2 eruptions in 2001, 1962, 1940, 1835, and 1811; and VEI 1 eruptions in 2006, 2005, and 2001.

 , 1965, 1962, 1959, 1956, 1953, 1940, 1939, and 1938.
nt. A dacitic central cone 2 km wide and 250 m high lies within the caldera, whose 600-700 m high walls and outer flanks expose basaltic, an
   flows from this eruption form part of the northern coastline of the basaltic-to-dacitic edifice. The volcano is also referred to as Izu-Tori-shima
 cano, in the SW part of Polovinka caldera, is eroded, but has been active in postglacial time (Sviatlovsky, 1959). Two nested calderas, 5 x 4
Pleistocene and is flanked to the SE by the parasitic volcano Kozelsky, which has a large crater breached to the NE. Avachinsky has a large
ghbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano th
  e 9 x 13.5 km caldera. The caldera formed about 38,000-40,000 years ago accompanied by the eruption of about 100 cu km of tephra. The
olocene stratovolcano, also known as Icha volcano, contains a 3 x 5 km-wide glacier-covered summit caldera filled by a large post-caldera ed
   NE margin of Kurile Lake caldera. The modern edifice grew within a 4-km-wide caldera produced by collapse of an earlier volcano creating
  g the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large m
  pping lava domes, and blocky lava flows descend the flanks of the volcano, which is the westernmost of a volcanic chain north of Kronotsky
no has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a s
  s largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flo
balny volcano, Koshelev is a complex group of four stratovolcanoes constructed along an E-W line over a Pleistocene shield volcano. Centra
 med at the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene when extensive lava flows on the south side of Kronotsky volcano dam
ndesitic lavas and dacitic pyroclastics, and is truncated by an intricate complex of five calderas. An array of post-caldera structures at Ksudac
on during the late Pleistocene of the Paleo-Semiachik volcano beginning about 20,000 years before present (BP), activity migrated to the SW
   Multiple summit craters cap the volcanic complex. Growth of Mutnovsky IV, the youngest cone, began during the early Holocene. An intracr
  luch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated
  d of two overlapping, but morphologically dissimilar volcanoes. The flat-topped Plosky Tolbachik shield volcano with its nested Holocene Ha
  lat-topped 3943-m-high Ushkovsky volcano (Daljny Plosky), which is capped by an ice-filled 4.5 x 5.5 km caldera, and the adjacent slightly h
 on formed a 1.6-km-wide summit crater that was subsequently largely filled by four lava domes, the latest of which forms the present 1953-m
 hin a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the P
 e and Pleistocene built a lava plateau above the roughly 100-m-deep continental shelf on which the basaltic-to-trachytic Halla shield volcano
ano on the China/Korea border in 1597 (Shi et al., 1986). Other eruptions were reported in 1724 and 1898 (the latter at Sanjiangdao), but little
 ummit crater that is breached widely to the south. Alaid is the northernmost of a chain of volcanoes constructed west of the main Kuril archip
 ldera rim is exposed only at about 900 m elevation on the SE side was constructed during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, forming an
 stratovolcano. A young summit lava dome is cut by a NW-trending chain of small explosion craters. A group of flank cones farther to the NW
   Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red color. Frequent basaltic plini
  al part of the main Kuril Islands arc. Chirinkotan is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises 3000 m from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A sm
ano on the north and Bogdan Khmelnitskii on the south overlie a preglacial volcano, rising above a 1100-m-high saddle to 1561 and 1587 m,
ubmerged caldera. The southern rim of the caldera is exposed on nearby Brat Chirpoev Island. Two volcanoes on Chirpoi Island have been h
 mmit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava
he main Kuril Island arc. Ekarma is composed of two overlapping basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcanoes, the western of which has been his
   of the Sea of Okhotsk to a height of 1772 m. This isolated symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano has a 700-m-wide, steep-walled crater that is
s dominated in the formation of andesitic-dacitic Golovnin volcano; no lava flows are exposed. The gently sloping stratovolcano, also known a
shaped crater cutting the NW flank of the older Igla Mountain somma volcano. A low saddle separates Igla Mountain from Milne, a large stra
  is open to the south, where the large, 1158-m-high andesitic Grozny extrusion dome (also known as Etorofu-Yake-yama) was emplaced. Se
 d caldera is thought to have been primarily excavated by glaciers (Gorshkov, 1970). The NE cone has a crater breached to the NW that cont
of the Kuril Islands. The rim of a 5-km-wide Pleistocene caldera is exposed only on the NE side. A younger 1172-m-high stratovolcano formin
d NW sides. These horseshoe-shaped craters were formed by slope failure, which produced debris-avalanche deposits that form large broad
NW, have breached summit calderas partially filled by lava domes. Trezubetz, whose name means "trident," has an eroded crater rim with thr
 istocene. The caldera floor contains several lava domes, cinder cones and associated lava fields, and a small lake. Four small closely space
 is cut by two nested calderas, the larger 6-7 km in diameter and the smaller 3-3.5 km. A central cone that formed inside the younger caldera
 km in diameter. A third 5-km-wide caldera formed about 25,000 years ago by collapse of an interglacial cone that was constructed over the g
ner cone whose rim approaches the height of portions of the outer cone is itself cut by a deep, 350-m-wide crater with a small lake on its floo
 he oval-shaped basaltic island is only 2 x 2.5 km wide and rises above a submarine terrace with a depth of 130 m. The steep-walled crater,
 he shoreline. An eroded central cone was constructed during the late Pleistocene, along with an isolated cone near the NW coast. Two Holo
constructed within a 3-3.5 km wide caldera, whose rim is exposed only on the SW side. A dramatic 250-m-wide, very steep-walled crater with
 has been largely filled and overtopped by an andesitic postglacial central cone that itself contains a lava dome that forms the 934 m high po
 filled by the deep-blue 7-km-wide Kal'tsevoe lake, whose surface is 400 m above sea level. The caldera was formed about 7500 years ago d
  2.1 x 2.4 km wide caldera. The 1819-m-high Tiatia (also known as Chacha-dake) occupies the NE tip of Kunashir Island and morphologicall

tion of the volcano's flanks. A small 1.6-km-wide caldera that formed about 9400 years ago is narrowly breached on the south, allowing sea w
he Holocene and contains a lake whose surface is about 40 m elevation and whose bottom lies about 30 m below sea level. Several young c
matic activity. VEI 1 eruptions in 2005, 2004, 1988, 1984, 1983, 1981, 1980. VEI 2 eruptions in 2003, 1994, 1992, 1989, 1979, 1977, 1975,




esite and basaltic lava effusion characterized the initial stage of volcanism during the early Pleistocene. From about 600,000 to 300,000 year

943, 1941, 1939, 1902. VEI 2 eruptions in 2003, 2000, 1993, 1978, 1947, 1938, 1900. VEI 3 eruptions in 2001, 1999, 1984, 1968, 1928.


  of a massive 4000-m-high submarine volcano, the second largest in the Marianas Islands. Deep radial valley dissect the flanks of the thickly
 dera. The larger western portion of the caldera is 2.3 x 3 km wide, and its western rim forms the island's 790-m high point. Ponded lava flow
 high sea cliffs. The gentler SW flanks have low-angle slopes bounded by sea cliffs only a few meters high. The southern flank of the volcano
ent historical eruptions dating back to the mid-19th century have caused the andesitic volcano to be referred to as the "Lighthouse of the wes
 tter has three coalescing cones and a breached summit crater that fed lava flows to the west and NW. The 287-m high point of the island is
 he basaltic to basaltic-andesite seamount rises to within 517 m of the sea surface SW of Esmeralda Bank and lies 64 km NW of Rota Island
   and South Pagan stratovolcanoes were constructed within calderas, 7 and 4 km in diameter, respectively. The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at
  in 1966 by sonar signals. In 1995 submarine explosions were heard, accompanied by a fish kill, sulfurous odors, bubbling water, and the de
eruptions in 2004, 2003, 2002, 1998, and 1934. VEI 1 eruptions in 2000, 1997, and 1988.
 72, 1966, 1945, 1914. VEI 1 eruptions in 1974, 1932, and 1931.


 the east and Nishimine on the west, form the andesitic island. The 495-m-high Higashimine, the high point of the island, has a steep-walled


 18 km from the eastern coast of Taiwan. Several days later another ship, the "Macedonian," passed the same location and reported white a
 water discoloration have been observed since the mid-20th century, and eruptions producing floating pumice were noted on several occasio
no, and several ephemeral islands have formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Iwo-jima ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, an
are among many transliterations of the name, which means "Sulfur Island;" the volcano is also known as Ogasawara Io-jima to distinguish it f



 wever, eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century from Funka-Asane, a submarine vent about 2 km NW of the island. Kita-Iwo-jim
 reported. Minami-Hiyoshi lies near the SE end of a coalescing chain of youthful seamounts and is the only historically active vent. The repor
oration has been observed on several occasions since. The 700-m-wide island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has promi
d about 450 m deep and contains a 180-m-high lava dome in its center. Major hydrothermal activity was observed in July 1990, and the volca




howed some evidence of coral growth. Freshly broken pahoehoe basaltic rocks were recovered on the western flank of Zealandia Bank. The




 d by scenic Lake Tianchi (Sky Lake). A large Korean-speaking population resides near the volcano on both sides of the border. The 60-km-d
 e cycles from the early Pleistocene to historical time. Its ancient name was "Nine Hills," which after the historical eruptions now number 14 h
a lake. The 1-km-wide Nakamachineshiri crater was formed during a major pumice-and-scoria eruption about 13,500 years ago. Of the Holoc
he NW. Both the E-san lava dome, which formed about 9000 years ago, and the NW dome have been active during the Holocene. A minor p
  as a result of edifice collapse in 1640 AD. Hummocky debris avalanche material occurs at the base of the volcano on three sides. Much of t
 he complex is 2013-m-high Nipesotsu-yama stratovolcano, which was active during the mid-Pleistocene, about 0.4-0.2 million years ago. Th
 st side by Nishi-yama volcano. The western cone failed during an eruption in 1741, creating a large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to
n Hokkaido's most active volcano in historical time. Pyroclastic-flow deposits from Tarumai extend nearly to the Pacific coast. Two other Holo
hat are breached to the NW. The southern crater contains a small flat-topped lava dome. The main cone, Naka-dake, was constructed NW o
 the small stratovolcanoes, with the youngest Holocene centers located at the NW end of the chain. Frequent historical eruptions, consisting
omes. The summit of the basaltic-to-andesitic edifice of Usu is cut by a somma formed about 7-8,000 years ago when collapse of the volcano




 with growth of smaller monogenetic volcanoes beginning about 300,000 years ago. About 70 subaerial monogenetic volcanoes formed durin
 ng to Morimoto (1960), the 1952 eruption send ash clouds to about 500 m elevation.


, 2005, and 2001.


 and outer flanks expose basaltic, andesitic, and rhyolitic rocks. Two large submarine cones, Sumisu Knolls No. 1 and 2, lie west of the calde
o is also referred to as Izu-Tori-shima to distinguish it from the several other Japanese island volcanoes called Tori-shima ("Bird Island"). The
y, 1959). Two nested calderas, 5 x 4 km Odnoboky and 3 x 5 km Akademia Nauk (also known as Karymsky Lake or Academii Nauk), were fo
 d to the NE. Avachinsky has a large horseshoe-shaped caldera, breached to the SW, that was formed when a major debris avalanche abou
complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred d
n of about 100 cu km of tephra. The massive Gorely complex contains 11 summit and 30 flank craters, some of which contain acid or freshw
 ldera filled by a large post-caldera edifice. Two glacier-capped lava domes form the highest peaks of 3621-m-high Ichinsky. A dozen late-Ple
 llapse of an earlier volcano creating large debris avalanches at about the time of formation of the adjacent Kurile Lake caldera. A period of s
utside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas.
  a volcanic chain north of Kronotsky volcano. The 2376-m-high Kizimen was formed during four eruptive cycles beginning about 12,000 year
activity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 fl
m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruption
  a Pleistocene shield volcano. Central Koshelev stratovolcano, the highest peak of the volcanic massif, is Holocene in age; north- and SE-fla
south side of Kronotsky volcano dammed the Listvenichnaya River. The flanks of the massive 3528-m-high volcano, one of the largest in Kam
  of post-caldera structures at Ksudach is truncated by later calderas, the last three of which formed during the Holocene, about 7900 and 500
sent (BP), activity migrated to the SW, forming Meso-Semiachik (about 11,000-9000 BP) and Ceno-Semiachik (about 8000 BP to the presen
 during the early Holocene. An intracrater cone was constructed along the northern wall of the 1.3-km-wide summit crater. Abundant flank cin
 ear-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer fla
 volcano with its nested Holocene Hawaiian-type calderas up to 3 km in diameter is located east of the older and higher sharp-topped Ostry T
m caldera, and the adjacent slightly higher peak of 4108 m Krestovsky (Blizhny Plosky) volcano. Two glacier-clad cinder cones with large sum
st of which forms the present 1953-m-high summit. Several of the lava domes were emplaced along the buried SE rim of the summit crater.
 atovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions
altic-to-trachytic Halla shield volcano was constructed. A 400-m-wide crater truncates the 1950-m-high summit. About 360 late-Pleistocene a
98 (the latter at Sanjiangdao), but little is known about the specific location and characteristics of this reported volcano and its unconfirmed er
structed west of the main Kuril archipelago and rises 3000 m from the floor of the Sea of Okhotsk. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the lower
 ocene or early Holocene, forming an island up to about 1.5 km high that was later connected to Iturup Island by erosional material. A fault wi
 oup of flank cones farther to the NW with a similar NW-SE orientation is partially surrounded by lava flows from the central crater of the ande
ctive red color. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikur
 from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A small 1-km-wide caldera about 300-400 m deep is open to the SE. Lava flows from a cone within the brea
-m-high saddle to 1561 and 1587 m, respectively. Lava flows from both volcanoes are truncated by a large, 4-km-wide depression on the we
 anoes on Chirpoi Island have been historically active. The symmetrical Cherny volcano, which forms the 691 m high point of the island, erup
 ex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the
es, the western of which has been historically active. Lava flows radiate 3 km in all directions from the summit of the younger cone to the sea
00-m-wide, steep-walled crater that is 300 m deep. A deep notch cuts the NW rim of the crater to the level of the crater floor, at the head of a
 y sloping stratovolcano, also known as Tomari-yama, is truncated by a 4-5 km wide caldera that formed during a series of late-Pleistocene e
gla Mountain from Milne, a large stratovolcano immediately to the SE. Numerous fresh lava flows with prominent marginal levees extend from
 orofu-Yake-yama) was emplaced. Several other lava domes of Holocene age were constructed to the NE; extrusion of these domes has con
  crater breached to the NW that contains a small horseshoe-shaped cone and a vigorous fumarole along the NE crater wall. A lava flow orig
ger 1172-m-high stratovolcano forming the NW part of the island is cut by a horst-and-graben structure containing two solfatara fields. A 1.5-k
 anche deposits that form large broad peninsulas on the east and NW coasts. Evidence of additional slope failures followed by plinian eruptio
 nt," has an eroded crater rim with three large peaks when seen at sea from the north. Kolokol volcano rises to 1328 m and is sometimes kno
  small lake. Four small closely spaced stratovolcanoes were constructed along an E-W line on the eastern side of the complex. The eastern
 at formed inside the younger caldera was breached to the west by a large debris avalanche about 4200 years ago. A lava dome that grew in
 cone that was constructed over the glaciated surfaces of the earlier calderas. The 1018-m-high central cone of Nemo Peak is composed of
 de crater with a small lake on its floor. Young-looking lava flows reach both coasts of central Simushir Island, and those on the south flank (P
h of 130 m. The steep-walled crater, highest on the SE side, is 700 m wide and 200 m deep. Lava flows mantle the eastern side of the island
d cone near the NW coast. Two Holocene cones were built within the crater of the central cone. The westernmost forms the 956 m high poin
 m-wide, very steep-walled crater with a jagged rim caps the volcano. The substantially higher SE rim forms the 1496 m high point of the islan
a dome that forms the 934 m high point of the island. Another lava dome, Zheltokamennaya Mountain, lies 1.5 km to the SW along the buried
a was formed about 7500 years ago during one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the Kuril Islands. A large symmetrical post-caldera cone,
 f Kunashir Island and morphologically resembles Mount Vesuvius. The pristine-looking conical central cone, mostly formed by basaltic to bas

breached on the south, allowing sea water to fill the caldera. Two andesitic lava domes occupy part of the caldera bay; two other older domes
0 m below sea level. Several young cones and lava domes are located near the margins of Biryuzovoe caldera lake. Lacustrine sediments o
 994, 1992, 1989, 1979, 1977, 1975, 1973, 1970.




From about 600,000 to 300,000 years ago thick pyroclastic flows covered the entire volcano. Recent periods of phreatomagmatic activity hav

 in 2001, 1999, 1984, 1968, 1928.


 valley dissect the flanks of the thickly vegetated stratovolcano. The elongated caldera is 1 x 2 km wide and is breached to the NW, from whe
  790-m high point. Ponded lava flows overlain by pyroclastic deposits fill the floor of the western caldera, whose SW side is cut by a fresh-loo
gh. The southern flank of the volcano is cut by a large landslide scar. The southern flanks and western flanks of the volcano are mantled by a
rred to as the "Lighthouse of the western Pacific." The symmetrical, sparsely vegetated summit is the central cone within a small caldera cutt
The 287-m high point of the island is the south rim of the caldera. Freycinet misidentifed Guguan with Alamagan; reported eruptions in 1819 a
nk and lies 64 km NW of Rota Island and about 100 km north of Guam. When Northwest Rota-1 was revisited in 2004, a minor submarine e
ely. The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during
 us odors, bubbling water, and the detection of volcanic tremor.
oint of the island, has a steep-walled, well-preserved summit crater. An arcuate ridge east of Yokoate-jima appears to be part of 7 x 10 km w


e same location and reported white ash covering its curtains.
umice were noted on several occasions.
 ma ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. Fukutoku-Okanoba is part of an elongated edifice with two
 Ogasawara Io-jima to distinguish it from several other "Sulfur Island" volcanoes in Japan. The triangular, low-elevation, 8-km-long island nar



ut 2 km NW of the island. Kita-Iwo-jima ("North Sulfur Island") is the northernmost of the Kazan Retto (Volcano Islands), located in the middle
 nly historically active vent. The reported depth of the summit of the trachyandesitic volcano has varied between 274 and 30 m. The morpholo
ve submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the south, west, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m
 observed in July 1990, and the volcano was reclassified as active by the Japan Meteorological Agency.




western flank of Zealandia Bank. The age of the most recent eruptive activity at Zealandia Bank is not known, but a NOAA bathymetric surve




 oth sides of the border. The 60-km-diameter dominantly trachytic and rhyolitic volcano was constructed over the Changbaishan (Laoheiding
historical eruptions now number 14 hills. The cinder cones were erupted through basement sedimentary and granitic rocks and show a prefe
about 13,500 years ago. Of the Holocene volcanoes of the Akan volcanic complex, only the Me-Akan group, east of Lake Akan, has been his
active during the Holocene. A minor phreatic eruption in 1846 produced a mudflow that caused many fatalities. The latest activity at E-san wa
 he volcano on three sides. Much of the andesitic Komaga-take volcano is Pleistocene in age. Two late-Pleistocene and two Holocene plinian
e, about 0.4-0.2 million years ago. The Maruyama stratovolcano and lava dome at the southern end of the complex was discovered to be a Q
seshoe-shaped caldera breached to the north that extends from the summit down to the sea floor at the base of the volcano and producing a
 y to the Pacific coast. Two other Holocene post-caldera volcanoes, Fuppushi (adjacent to Tarumai) and Eniwa (on the opposite side of the ca
e, Naka-dake, was constructed NW of the headwalls of the two breached craters. Historical eruptions have originated from the southernmost
 quent historical eruptions, consisting mostly of mild-to-moderate phreatic explosions, have been recorded since the mid-19th century. Two la
 ars ago when collapse of the volcano produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. Dacitic domes erupted along two NW-SE-trending




monogenetic volcanoes formed during the last 140,000 years, and chemically similar submarine cones are located offshore. These volcanoe
 olls No. 1 and 2, lie west of the caldera. Submarine eruptions have been reported from a number of locations near 136-m-high Smith Rock (
 called Tori-shima ("Bird Island"). The main cone is truncated by a 1.5-km-wide caldera that contains two central cones, of which 394-m-high
msky Lake or Academii Nauk), were formed during the late Pleistocene, the latter about 30,000 years ago. Eruptive products varied from initia
when a major debris avalanche about 30,000-40,000 years ago buried an area of about 500 sq km to the south underlying the city of Petropa
of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began wit
 some of which contain acid or freshwater crater lakes; three major rift zones cut the complex. Another Holocene stratovolcano (peak 1082) is
  21-m-high Ichinsky. A dozen late-Pleistocene to Holocene dacitic and rhyodacitic lava domes circle the peak below the caldera rim, at eleva
ent Kurile Lake caldera. A period of strong silicic explosive volcanism during the mid-Holocene lasted about 800 years. A series of youthful la
 emia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is loca
e cycles beginning about 12,000 years ago and lasting 2000-3500 years. The largest eruptions took place about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years
   Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral crater
   cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocene lava fields on the western flank wer
 s Holocene in age; north- and SE-flank craters have also been active during the Holocene. The only historical activity of Koshelev was an ex
 igh volcano, one of the largest in Kamchatka, are dissected by radial valleys up to 200 m deep. A volcanic neck plugs the summit crater. Cin
 ng the Holocene, about 7900 and 5000 BC and about 240 AD. The latter eruption was the second largest in Kamchatka during the Holocene
  iachik (about 8000 BP to the present). An initial stage lasting about 3500 years was dominantly explosive, constructing the present cone. A s
 de summit crater. Abundant flank cinder cones were concentrated on the SW side. Holocene activity was characterized by mild-to-moderate
 th. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large h
 der and higher sharp-topped Ostry Tolbachik stratovolcano. The summit caldera at Plosky Tolbachik was formed in association with major la
  cier-clad cinder cones with large summit craters form a high point within the Ushkovsky caldera. Linear zones of cinder cones are found on t
  buried SE rim of the summit crater. More than ten cinder cones and lava domes were constructed on the flanks, particularly on the NW side
 of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before pre
  ummit. About 360 late-Pleistocene and Holocene basaltic parasitic cones dotting the flanks of the low-angle volcano were erupted primarily
 orted volcano and its unconfirmed eruptions.
erous pyroclastic cones dot the lower flanks of basaltic to basaltic-andesite Alaid volcano, particularly on the NW and SE sides, including an o
sland by erosional material. A fault with large displacement offsets the NW side of the somma of Atsonupuri (also known as Etorofu-Atosanu
 ws from the central crater of the andesitic-dacitic volcano. Lava flows from Baransky (also known as Sashiusu-dake) descended 4-5 km SE
  Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from be
ava flows from a cone within the breached crater reached the north shore of the island. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Chirinkota
 ge, 4-km-wide depression on the west side of the peninsula. Basaltic rocks dominate at both volcanoes over basaltic-andesite and andesitic
e 691 m high point of the island, erupted twice during the 18th and 19th centuries. The youngest volcano, Snow, originated between 1770 an
 metnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebe
  mmit of the younger cone to the sea, forming a lobate shoreline. A lava dome that was emplaced during the first historical eruption, in 1776-
 el of the crater floor, at the head of a canyon that reaches the coast. Well-preserved lava flows occupy the middle and lower flanks, particula
  during a series of late-Pleistocene eruptions beginning about 43,00 years ago. Several lava domes were subsequently emplaced on the cald
  ominent marginal levees extend from the Goriaschaia Sopka dome; some reached the sea, where they created an irregular shoreline. The a
 E; extrusion of these domes has constricted a former lake in the northern side of the caldera to an extremely sinuous shoreline. The forested
 g the NE crater wall. A lava flow originating from the cone traveled 7 km to the SE. The 1345-m southern cone forms the high point of the Ka
 ontaining two solfatara fields. A 1.5-km-wide freshwater lake fills an explosion crater in the center of the island. Pallas Peak, a large andesiti
 pe failures followed by plinian eruptions are found in sea cliffs of the island. Historical explosive eruptions have occurred since the early 18th
ises to 1328 m and is sometimes known as Urup-Fuji because of its symmetrical profile. The crater of Kolokol is not well preserved, but the v
ern side of the complex. The easternmost and highest, Medvezhii, lies outside the western caldera, along the Pacific coast. Srednii, Tukap, a
 years ago. A lava dome that grew inside the avalanche scarp forms the 888 m high point of the volcano. Additional lava domes in the northe
cone of Nemo Peak is composed of two coalescing andesitic cones that were constructed at the SW side of the youngest caldera and forme
sland, and those on the south flank (Pacific Ocean side) have a particularly youthful appearance. Two small pyroclastic cones on the western
 mantle the eastern side of the island. A catastrophic eruption of Raikoke in 1778 during which the upper third of the island was said to have
sternmost forms the 956 m high point of the island and is the source of lava flows that flooded the crater floor and descended to the coast. Th
 ms the 1496 m high point of the island. Fresh-looking lava flows descend all sides of Sarychev Peak and often form capes along the coast. M
es 1.5 km to the SW along the buried SW rim of the caldera, and a smaller dome lies along the northern caldera rim. Historical eruptions hav
 arge symmetrical post-caldera cone, 1325-m-high andesitic Krenitzyn Peak, forms a 4-km wide island that towers high above the caldera rim
one, mostly formed by basaltic to basaltic-andesite strombolian eruptions, rises 400 m above the floor of the caldera and contains a 400 x 25

e caldera bay; two other older domes are joined by a sand bar to the SE caldera wall. The two younger domes, erupted sometime after the 1
caldera lake. Lacustrine sediments overlying pumice deposits indicate that an earlier caldera lake lay at 200 m above sea level, well above th




riods of phreatomagmatic activity have produced ash flows. The forested volcano is locally known as the "Mountain of Fire." A phreatic explo




and is breached to the NW, from where a prominent lava flow extends to the coast and forms a lava delta. The caldera floor is surfaced by fre
 , whose SW side is cut by a fresh-looking smaller crater. The 2-km-wide eastern portion of the caldera contained a steep-walled inner crater
 anks of the volcano are mantled by ash deposits that may have originated during eruptions in historical time. An explosive eruption in 1906 (
 ntral cone within a small caldera cutting an older edifice, remnants of which are seen on the SE and southern sides near the coast. Flank fis
amagan; reported eruptions in 1819 and 1901 (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World) actually refer to solfataric activity on Alamagan . Th
 visited in 2004, a minor submarine eruption from a vent named Brimstone Pit on the upper south flank about 40 m below the summit intermit
aldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing fo
ma appears to be part of 7 x 10 km wide submarine caldera, with Yokoate-jima and Kannone-jima (NNE of Yokoate-jima) being post-caldera




  part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs trending NNW-SSE and is a trachyandesitic volcano geochemically similar to
r, low-elevation, 8-km-long island narrows toward its SW tip and has produced trachyandesitic and trachytic rocks that are more alkalic than



olcano Islands), located in the middle of the Izu-Marianas arc. VEI2?:1930; Two pre-1900 events identifed, and multiple uncertain events ide
etween 274 and 30 m. The morphologically youthful seamounts Kita-Hiyoshi and Naka-Hiyoshi lie to the NW, and Ko-Hiyoshi to the SE.
southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE of Nishino-shima.
nown, but a NOAA bathymetric survey in 2004 detected fumarolic activity.




 over the Changbaishan (Laoheidingzi) shield volcano. Satellitic cinder cones are aligned along a NNE trend. One of the world's largest know
 and granitic rocks and show a preferred alignment along three chains at the intersection of NE- and NW-trending lineaments. In addition to
oup, east of Lake Akan, has been historically active, producing mild phreatic eruptions since the beginning of the 19th century. Me-Akan is co
alities. The latest activity at E-san was a small eruption in 1874. Active fumaroles occur at a thermal area on the upper NW flank. Pre-1900 2
Pleistocene and two Holocene plinian eruptions occurred prior to the first historical eruption in 1640, which began a period of more frequent e
he complex was discovered to be a Quaternary volcano only in 1989. It is also referred to as Higashi-Tokachi-Maruyama to distinguish it from
 base of the volcano and producing a mostly submarine debris avalanche that traveled 16 km. A tsunami associated with the collapse swept
 Eniwa (on the opposite side of the caldera), occur on a line trending NW from Tarumai, and were constructed just inside the caldera rim. Min
ave originated from the southernmost of three explosion craters along a NNE-SSW line on the NW flank of the main cone of Shiretoko-Iwo-sa
ed since the mid-19th century. Two larger eruptions occurred in 1926 and 1962. Partial cone collapse of the western flank of Tokachi-dake du
 erupted along two NW-SE-trending lines fill and flank the summit caldera. Three of these domes, O-Usu, Ko-Usu and Showa-Shinzan, alon




are located offshore. These volcanoes are located on a basement of late-Tertiary volcanic rocks and related sediments and on the flanks of t
ations near 136-m-high Smith Rock (also known as Sumisu-jima, or Smith Island), the last of which occurred in 1916. Water discoloration ha
  central cones, of which 394-m-high Iwo-yama is the highest. Historical eruptions have also occurred from flank vents near the north coast a
o. Eruptive products varied from initial basaltic-andesite lava flows to late-stage rhyodacitic lava domes. Two maars, Akademia Nauk and Ka
e south underlying the city of Petropavlovsk. Reconstruction of the volcano took place in two stages, the first of which began about 18,000 ye
 y a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a l
 olocene stratovolcano (peak 1082) is located on the SW flank of Gorely. Activity during the Holocene was characterized by frequent mild-to-
 peak below the caldera rim, at elevations of 1800-3000 m. Fresh-looking basaltic-to-dacitic lava flows, some with prominent flow ridges, wer
 out 800 years. A series of youthful lava flows cover much of the northern flanks of Ilyinsky. Growth of the modern cone was completed abou
Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 76
 e about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years ago, and three periods of long-term lava dome growth have occurred. The latest eruptive cycle began
 y 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volc
e lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated w
 orical activity of Koshelev was an explosive eruption at the end of the 17th century (VEI3+). Major thermal fields are located in the summit cr
nic neck plugs the summit crater. Cinder cones are found on the north and primarily on the SE and SW flanks. Kronotsky lavas have been do
st in Kamchatka during the Holocene, and produced 15 cu km of rhyodacitic airfall tephra and 3-4 cu km of pyroclastic flows. The eastern par
 e, constructing the present cone. A second stage beginning about 4400 years ago was marked by alternating constructive and destructive p
 s characterized by mild-to-moderate phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions from the summit crater. Historical eruptions have been explos
 uring the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shivelu
as formed in association with major lava effusion about 6500 years ago and simultaneously with a major southward-directed sector collapse o
 zones of cinder cones are found on the SW and NE flanks and on lowlands to the west. The younger caldera at the summit of Plosky Daljny
he flanks, particularly on the NW side. Only a few eruptions are known in historical time. The largest, in 1923, produced explosive activity and
s from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The
 ngle volcano were erupted primarily along the long axis of the ENE-WSW-trending island. Most of these are scoria cones, but about 20 alon

  the NW and SE sides, including an offshore cone formed during the 1933-34 eruption. Strong explosive eruptions have occurred from the s
puri (also known as Etorofu-Atosanupuri). The 2-km-wide caldera was subsequently largely overtopped by a central cone that forms the pres
shiusu-dake) descended 4-5 km SE to reach the Pacific Ocean along a broad front. The only historical eruption occurred in 1951, when loca
oung lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centers is located imm
 ns have been recorded at Chirinkotan since the 18th century. Fresh lava flows also descended the SE flank of Chirinkotan during an eruptio
 over basaltic-andesite and andesitic products. Chirip volcano has a shallow summit crater, partially filled by a small lake, that has fed lava flo
 , Snow, originated between 1770 and 1810. It is composed almost entirely of lava flows, many of which have reached the sea on the southe
 ling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern cra
g the first historical eruption, in 1776-79, forms the peaked, 1170-m-high summit of the island. The only other historical eruption produced mi
 he middle and lower flanks, particularly on the east and SE sides. Only one unambiguous historical eruption, in 1854, is known from Fuss Pe
 e subsequently emplaced on the caldera floor. Topographic highs outside the caldera rim define a series of lava domes extruded along a rin
  created an irregular shoreline. The andesitic dome may have formed as recently as the late-19th century. Historical activity, consisting domi
  mely sinuous shoreline. The forested andesitic Tebenkov volcano, also known as Odamoi-san, lies immediately to the NE of the Grozny dom
 n cone forms the high point of the Karpinsky massif and fed lava flows to the SE and west. The NW cone displays hot springs and sulfur con
  island. Pallas Peak, a large andesitic cone in the NE part of the caldera, is truncated by a 550-m-wide crater containing a brilliantly colored t
 s have occurred since the early 18th century. A central cone, Severgin, was largely destroyed during the 1933 eruption, one of the largest in
 olokol is not well preserved, but the volcano displays no evidence of glacial erosion. Several lava flows originate from Kolokol; one of these e
 g the Pacific coast. Srednii, Tukap, and Kudriavy volcanoes lie immediately to the west. Historically active Kudriavy (also known as Moyoro-d
 . Additional lava domes in the northern part of the older caldera are considered to represent flank activity of the younger caldera. The only un
de of the youngest caldera and formed in four stages beginning in the early Holocene about 9500 years ago. Construction of the central cone
mall pyroclastic cones on the western flank have produced lava flows that reach to or near the Sea of Okhotsk. Only two eruptions are known
   third of the island was said to have been destroyed prompted the first volcanological investigation in the Kuril Islands two years later. Repor
  floor and descended to the coast. The easternmost cone, active during historical time, is truncated by a 500-m-wide crater that is breached
 d often form capes along the coast. Much of the lower-angle outer flanks of the volcano are overlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions h
   caldera rim. Historical eruptions have occurred at Sinarka during the 17th and 18th centuries. The last and largest of these, during 1872-78
hat towers high above the caldera rim and fills the NW portion of the caldera lake. A 350-m-wide, 100-m-deep crater truncates the peak and
 f the caldera and contains a 400 x 250 m wide crater with two explosion vents separated by a linear septum. Fresh lava flows cover much of

domes, erupted sometime after the 1769 visit of Captain Snow, form islands in the bay. A cluster of strong fumaroles and hot springs along th
200 m above sea level, well above the present lake surface. Two eruptions have occurred at Zavaritzki during the 20th century. A lava dome




e "Mountain of Fire." A phreatic explosion in 1860 may have been accompanied by a pyroclastic flow. Strong solfataric activity occurred in 190




a. The caldera floor is surfaced by fresh-looking lava flows and also contains two cones that may have formed during the volcano's only histo
contained a steep-walled inner crater whose floor prior to the 2003 eruption was only 68 m above sea level. A submarine volcano, NE Anatah
 time. An explosive eruption in 1906 (VEI2) also produced lava flows that descended about half way down the western and SE flanks, but sev
uthern sides near the coast. Flank fissures have fed lava flows during historical time that form platforms along the coast. Both summit and fla
 o solfataric activity on Alamagan . The only known historical eruption of Guguan took place between 1882 and 1884 and produced the northe
 bout 40 m below the summit intermittently ejected a plume several hundred meters high containing ash, rock particles, and molten sulfur dro
  h an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, h
 of Yokoate-jima) being post-caldera cones (Nakano et al., 2001-). Yokoate-sho (Yokoate Reef) and Kannone Kaikyu (Kannone Knoll) lie to




itic volcano geochemically similar to Iwo-jima. VEI0: 1987; VEI1: [2005, 1992], VEI2: [1986, 1984, 1973]; VEI3: [1914, 1904].
 ytic rocks that are more alkalic than those of other Izu-Marianas arc volcanoes. The island has undergone dramatic uplift for at least the pas



ed, and multiple uncertain events identified.
 NW, and Ko-Hiyoshi to the SE.
 end. One of the world's largest known Holocene explosive eruptions took place from Baitoushan about 1000 AD, depositing rhyolitic and trac
W-trending lineaments. In addition to the historical cinder cones of Laoheishan and Huoshaoshan, Xilongmenshan and Donglongmenshan ar
ng of the 19th century. Me-Akan is composed of 9 overlapping cones. The main cone of Me-Akan proper has a triple crater at its summit. His
a on the upper NW flank. Pre-1900 2 (VEI1) events identified, and an additional 5 pre-historic events.
ch began a period of more frequent explosive activity. The 1640 eruption, one of the largest in Japan during historical time, deposited ash as
kachi-Maruyama to distinguish it from several other volcanoes named Maru-yama, which means "Round Mountain." A minor phreatic eruptio
 i associated with the collapse swept the coasts of Hokkaido, western Honshu, and Korea, and caused nearly 1500 fatalities. The 1741 erupt
ructed just inside the caldera rim. Minor eruptions took place from the summit of Eniwa volcano as late as the 17th century. The summit of T
  of the main cone of Shiretoko-Iwo-san. VEI1: 1935; 4 pre-1900 events; one pre-historic event.
 the western flank of Tokachi-dake during the 1926 eruption produced a disastrous debris avalanche and mudflow. VEI1: [1985, 1970-1900 8
 u, Ko-Usu and Showa-Shinzan, along with seven crypto-domes, were erupted during historical time. The 1663 eruption of Usu was one of th




ated sediments and on the flanks of three Quaternary stratovolcanoes: Amagi, Tenshi, and Usami. Some eruptive vents are controlled by NW
urred in 1916. Water discoloration has been frequently observed since the 1970s near Smith Rock. In October 1992, a 6-km-long zone of dis
om flank vents near the north coast and offshore submarine vents. A 6-8 km wide submarine caldera lies immediately to the north of Tori-shi
 Two maars, Akademia Nauk and Karymsky, subsequently formed at the southern and northern margins of the caldera lake, respectively. Th
 first of which began about 18,000 years before present (BP), and the second 7000 years BP. Most eruptive products have been explosive, w
ount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blas
as characterized by frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions along with a half dozen episodes of major lava extrusion. Early Holocene
 ome with prominent flow ridges, were erupted from flank vents and traveled up to 10-15 km. The largest Holocene eruption of Ichinsky volca
e modern cone was completed about 1900 years ago, after which a long quiescent period began. The only recorded historical eruption, in 19
g Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years la
 red. The latest eruptive cycle began about 3000 years ago with a large explosion and was followed by lava dome growth lasting intermittently
d NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been fr
 rom flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank fissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reache
  al fields are located in the summit crater of Valentin volcano and on the western flanks of west Koshelev volcano.
 lanks. Kronotsky lavas have been dominantly basaltic, with the exception of the small basaltic-andesite summit lava extrusion and a flank lav
  of pyroclastic flows. The eastern part of the caldera complex contains two lakes, the northern of which forms an embayment in Stubel Crate
nating constructive and destructive processes during which the volcano was destroyed by major explosions and then reconstructed. A crater
 istorical eruptions have been explosive, with lava flows produced only during the 1904 eruption. Geothermal development is planned at Mutn
  place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigor
  southward-directed sector collapse of Ostry Tolbachik volcano. Lengthy rift zones extending NE and SSW of the volcano have erupted volum
aldera at the summit of Plosky Daljny (Ushkovsky) was formed in association with the eruption of large lava flows and pyroclastic material fro
1923, produced explosive activity and a lava flow down the SE flank that also partly flowed into the summit crater. VEI3: 1923, VEI?:1972; Pre
s that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption of Zhupanovsky took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have cons
  are scoria cones, but about 20 along the coast of the island or offshore are Pleistocene-to-Holocene tuff rings and tuff cones, and lava dom

e eruptions have occurred from the summit crater beginning in the 18th century. Reports of eruptions in 1770, 1789, 1821, 1829, 1843, 1848,
 by a central cone that forms the present 1206-m-high summit. Strombolian eruptions have dominated the history of this basaltic volcano; few
eruption occurred in 1951, when local inhabitants reported weak explosive activity at the summit. Strong solfataric activity continues from the
 of six volcanic centers is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volca
 lank of Chirinkotan during an eruption in the 1880s that was observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow. VEI1:[1986]; VEI2: [2004, 197
d by a small lake, that has fed lava flows down all sides. Satellitic cones are located on the northern flank of Chirip. Lava flows from Bogdan K
 have reached the sea on the southern coast. No historical eruptions are known from 742-m-high Brat Chirpoev, but its youthful morphology s
steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. H
other historical eruption produced minor explosions in 1980. VEI1: 1980; One Pre-1800 event identifed.
ption, in 1854, is known from Fuss Peak. Reports of eruptions in 1737, 1793, 1857, and 1859 are false (Gorshkov, 1970). Murayama (1987) a
s of lava domes extruded along a ring structure or an outer caldera. A 1 x 2.5 km caldera lake on the northern side of the inner caldera drain
  y. Historical activity, consisting dominantly of mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, has occurred since 1842. VEI2: 1914; Pre-1900 4 events
mediately to the NE of the Grozny dome complex. The large Machekh crater, which displays strong fumarolic activity, lies immediately south o
 e displays hot springs and sulfur cones containing liquid sulfur that is occasionally ejected outward. A minor ash ejection following an earthqu
crater containing a brilliantly colored turquoise crater lake. Lava flows from Pallas Peak overtop the caldera rim and descend nearly 5 km to t
e 1933 eruption, one of the largest in the Kuril Islands during historical time. Impact of a debris avalanche into the sea from the collapse of Se
originate from Kolokol; one of these extends almost to the Sea of Okhotsk coast. A viscous lava flow armoring the SE flank is probably the m
ve Kudriavy (also known as Moyoro-dake) is younger than 2000 years; it and Tukap remain fumarolically active. The westernmost of the post
 y of the younger caldera. The only unambiguous historical eruption was a small phreatic explosion in 1880. Four solfatara fields lie at the eas
ago. Construction of the central cone has left the crescent-shaped Chernoe Lake at the NE end of the youngest caldera; lava flows from Nem
khotsk. Only two eruptions are known from Prevo Peak in historical time. The largest of these, during the 1760s, produced pyroclastic flows t
e Kuril Islands two years later. Reports of eruptions in 1777 and 1780 are erroneous (Gorshkov, 1970). Another powerful eruption in 1924 (V
  500-m-wide crater that is breached to the SE. This crater may have formed during a violent eruption in 1846 (VEI3). The only other known h
 pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760's and include both quiet lava effusion and violent explosions. The lar
 and largest of these, during 1872-78, was once thought to originate from Kuntomintar volcano at the southern end of the island, but is now a
 -deep crater truncates the peak and a large lateral crater is located on the upper NE side. The only historical eruption of Krenitzyn Peak, in 1
 tum. Fresh lava flows cover much of the SW caldera floor and have overflowed the rim, extending to the foot of the older somma, which form

ng fumaroles and hot springs along the SE caldera shoreline was a sacred place to 18th- and 19th-century Kurile Ainu peoples, and vigorous
during the 20th century. A lava dome that was emplaced sometime between 1916 and 1931 forms a small island in the northern part of the c




 ong solfataric activity occurred in 1907, and thermal areas are located near the summit crater and on the NW to NNE flanks.




ormed during the volcano's only historical eruption in 1917 (VEI4). This eruption deposited large blocks and 3 m of ash and lapilli on a village
vel. A submarine volcano, NE Anatahan, rises to within 460 m of the sea surface on the NE flank of the volcano, and numerous other subma
 n the western and SE flanks, but several other historical eruption reports are of uncertain validity.
along the coast. Both summit and flank vents have been active at Farallon de Pajaros during historical time. Eruptions have also been obser
82 and 1884 and produced the northern volcano and lava flows that reached the coast.
  rock particles, and molten sulfur droplets that adhered to the surface of the remotely operated submersible vehicle. The active vent was fun
hich date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took plac
nnone Kaikyu (Kannone Knoll) lie to NNW and NE of Yokoate-jima, respectively. Historical documents at the end of the Edo Period mention




; VEI3: [1914, 1904].
ne dramatic uplift for at least the past 700 years accompanying resurgent doming of the caldera. A shoreline landed upon by Captain Cook's
 1000 AD, depositing rhyolitic and trachytic tephra as far away as northern Japan and forming in part the present caldera. Four historical erup
gmenshan and Donglongmenshan are Holocene in age. The freshly preserved cones of Laoheishan and Huoshaoshan were formed during e
 r has a triple crater at its summit. Historical eruptions at Me-Akan have consisted of minor phreatic explosions, but four major magmatic erup

 ring historical time, deposited ash as far away as central Honshu and produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. The resulting tsuna
  Mountain." A minor phreatic eruption took place at Maru-yama lava dome in 1898, and fumaroles are present on one of its summit craters.
 early 1500 fatalities. The 1741 eruption, the largest in historical time at Oshima-Oshima, concluded with the construction of a basaltic pyrocl
as the 17th century. The summit of Tarumai contains a small 1.5-km-wide caldera formed during two of Hokkaido's largest historical eruption

d mudflow. VEI1: [1985, 1970-1900 8 events]; VEI2:4 [1988, 3 events 1970-1900]; VEI?: [2004; 1970-1900 one event]; VEI3: 2 events 1920-1
e 1663 eruption of Usu was one of the largest in Hokkaido during historical time. The war-time growth of Showa-Shinzan from 1943-45 was p




e eruptive vents are controlled by NW-SE- or NE-SW-trending fissure systems. Thirteen eruptive episodes have been documented during th
ctober 1992, a 6-km-long zone of discolored water was seen extending from the shallow Shirane rock mass near the eastern rim of the calde
s immediately to the n