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Forestry GIS


									                                                       Forestry GIS

ESRI • Fall 20052009
                                       Journal                                                                                                     Management
                                                                                                                    GIS for Forestry and TimberlandGIS for xxxxxx

                                                                                                                             In This Issue
Forestry Carbon Trading                                                                                                      ESRI on the Road                                   p2

Opportunities Explored with GIS                                                                                              ESRI News                                          p3
By Barbara Shields, GIS Journalist
                                                                                                                             Bayerische Staatsforsten Improves Forest           p4
Forests in the United States sequester about                  forecasts of inventory growth, and delivers it to              Management Using the ArcGIS Server Image
200 million metric tons of carbon each year. In               the company’s clientele, who can view the data
                                                                                                                             Planning Forest Operations: A Rule-Based           p5
its most recent U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory                 geographically. A geographic approach to forest
                                                                                                                             Spatial DSS Built with ModelBuilder
Report, the U.S. Environmental Protection                     analysis provides foresters with a site-specific
                                                                                                                             Managing the Urban Forest                          p6
Agency (EPA) notes that the country’s forests                 understanding about how carbon stocks asso-
                                                                                                                             Singapore Uses GIS to Manage Large Urban           p7
sequester 10.5 percent of the carbon dioxide re-              ciated with certain forests are changing. This                 Forest
leased in the United States by the combustion                 approach supplies the information needed to
of fossil fuels. Geographic information systems               develop sound and sustainable forest manage-                 tain percentage within a specified time period.
(GIS) can reliably measure, monitor, and verify               ment plans.                                                  One means of doing this is through carbon off-
carbon storage occurring within forests.                         The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) is a                   set credit trading. To meet emission reduction
   FORECON, Inc., a multidisciplinary for-                    prominent organization that has developed a                  goals, CCX member businesses purchase forest
estry and natural resources management con-                   successful market mechanism to allow the re-                 carbon sequestration credits to help offset their
sulting firm, is using ESRI’s ArcGIS software                 duction of greenhouse gases through several                  emission production levels. The revenue paid to
for developing forest management applications.                options. As an example, manufacturing compa-                 the carbon offset credit provider goes toward
GIS accesses data and processes forestry infor-               nies can join CCX, wherein they agree to re-                 compensating for the costs of sustainable forest
mation, such as current forest inventories and                duce their carbon emissions footprint by a cer-              management. Exchange allowances are issued
                                                                                                                           to members in accordance with their emission
                                                                                                                           baseline and other regulations.
                                                                                                                             GIS supports a scientific method of calculating
                                                                                                                           carbon sequestration and the basis for credible
                                                                                                                           forest credit certification. Impartial validation is
                                                                                                                                                               continued on page 2

                                                                                                                               Welcome to Forestry GIS Journal
                                                                                                                               This is the first edition of ESRI’s semiannual
                                                                                                                             newsletter Forestry GIS Journal. We hope that
                                                                                                                             you enjoy these articles about how geographic
                                                                                                                             information system (GIS) technology is helping
                                                                                                                              people working in the forestry and timber in-
                                                                                                                             dustries gain advantages from geospatial tech-
                                                                                                                             nologies. Learn more at ESRI’s GIS for Forestry
                                                                                                                                   Web site at

FORECON’s TIGER GIS system generates a variety of reports, such as volume, basal area, and stem reports, that are                        -Barbara Shields, Editor
accessible via the Web. The site visitor selects options for growth, type of report, projection year, and export format.
Then, the user clicks the Run Growth button, and GIS delivers the site-specific growth report requested.
continued from page 1
Forestry Carbon Trading Opportunities Explored with GIS

essential for accreditation of forest carbon seques-
tration, and the calculation of these credits must
be held to scientific standards. GIS houses and
manages immense forestry databases, and it runs
forestry models and displays stand volume and
carbon sequestration data via tables and maps.
This information can also be delivered over the
Internet along with tools that help clients easily
interact with spatial and tabular data. Subscribers
can get the exact information they need to prove
their carbon sequestration projects are credible
and transparent in the way they are being devel-
oped and reported.
  The project begins with foresters gather-
ing timber inventory data in the file, using
GPS technology to reference stand attribute
data with geographic location coordinates.
Inventory data includes tree species, diameter,
and ecological information. The georeferenced
field data is downloaded into a geodatabase,
                                                       Growth measurements taken in the field and entered into the stand inventory database can be processed with
and tree data is joined to other timber stand          ESRI’s GIS software to create predictive models and produce a growth map.
data tables located in a SQL Server geodata-
base. A geoprocessing model program that has           timber volumes and stem counts by species and             dardized growth models on stands, tracts, and
been designed for timber inventory produces            diameter class for a particular area, then shows          management units as well as generate reports in
                                                       these on a map.                                           various file formats.
                                                         One customized GIS, known as the Timber,                  The Web site gives the contractor’s clientele
         ESRI on the Road                              Inventory, Growth, Evaluation, and Reporting              and certain CCX verifiers easy access to data
                                                       (TIGER©) system is integrated with the U.S.               and interactive tools. Site visitors can quickly
                                                       Forest Service’s growth and yield model vari-             and easily view growth rates and carbon se-
  2009 ESRI International User Conference
               July 13–17, 2009                        ants. The GIS processes the collected timber              questration conversion data needed to make
         San Diego, California, USA                    data and makes growth estimates for a variety             sound investment decisions for both business
                                                       of time intervals. It also provides a direct trans-       and the environment. A mapping function
     XIIIth World Forestry Congress 2009               lation of the timber data into carbon units, es-          graphically displays the specific forest’s own-
              October 18–23, 2009
             Buenos Aires, Argentina                   sential in producing the information required             ership, and users can drill down to the tract and
                              for forest carbon market participation. This              forest stand level. GIS allows users to link to
    Fourth International Fire Ecology and              data is then made available to whomever the               various reports, including stand and stock ta-
           Management Congress                         forest owner chooses including the forest man-            bles by species and diameter class as well as
       November 30–December 4, 2009
            Savannah, Georgia, USA
                                                       ager and the CCX verifier, who must audit the             the associated carbon stock equivalents for that               process by which project owners are reporting             particular part of the forest’s ownership.
                                                       their carbon credits.                                       Read more about FORECON’s services at
  Southern Forestry and Natural Resource
       Management GIS Conference                         Using a GIS-enabled Web site, foresters and    Specific questions can
            December 7–9, 2009
                                                       investors can geographically view the report.             be sent to Mike Darr, director of FORECON’s
           Athens, Georgia, USA
                        The site provides clients with a forestcentric            GIS and Technical Support Group, at mdarr@
                                                       map interaction experience. The Web site in-    
                                                       cludes applications for a wide range of forestry
                                                       work processes and data management tasks.
                                                       Built on ArcGIS Server technology, the Web
                                                       site allows users to run customized and stan-

2 Forestry GIS Journal                                                                                                             
     ESRI News

ESRI Opens Membership to New                                                                           ESRI International
Forestry GIS User Group                                                                                User Conference Offers
ESRI invites customers who use GIS in for-          sitions, validating legal descriptions, ordering
                                                                                                       Forestry Track
estry and timberland management to join the         aerial photography, assessing imagery options      Discover what’s new in GIS technologies at
newly formed ESRI Forestry Group (EFG).             for change detection, integrating GIS updates      the 2009 ESRI International User Conference
This group provides opportunities for forest-       with a third-party timber audit database, solv-    (ESRI UC), July 13–17, 2009, at the San Diego
ers to learn about business solutions, network      ing problems for field operations and property     Convention Center in the beach city of San
with like-minded professionals, and develop         consultants, and developing new methods for        Diego, California. Join the world’s largest gath-
professional growth. EFG founding officers are      data collection and analysis.                      ering of GIS professionals and meet with the
putting together a 2009 outreach plan for the         “GIS has been liberation,” notes Martinez.       ESRI Forestry Group. During the ESRI UC
forestry GIS user community.                        “The explosion of data availability, interoper-    forestry track, real-world GIS users will pres-
     Mark Books, EFG president, is a remote                       ability, analysis options, and GIS   ent papers about their forestry and timberland
sensing/GIS forester for Colorado State                                 products in recent years has   applications and methodologies, giving you op-
University’s Center for Environmental                                     made GIS for forestry        tions to consider and ideas you can take home
Management of Military Lands and is                                         much more interest-        and use. Read more about the ESRI UC and
contracted to the U.S. Department of                                         ing and challenging.”     register online at
the Army at Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia.                                        She looks forward to
For more than 15 years, Books has                                            working with EFG to
used ESRI’s GIS software. He has de-                                        help meet the specific
veloped a decision support system incor-                                 requirements of the forest
porating growth and yield models, wildfire                           industry.
behavior, and 3D visualization.                                     The EFG 2009 startup plan in-

     “The ESRI GIS community                                    cludes launching a user group Web
has a long history of openness                                page hosted on; support-
and willingness to help each                                  ing the 2009 ESRI International User
other,” says Books. “I’m                                       Conference forestry track; offering
looking forward to work-                                        a quarterly forestry solutions we-
ing with EFG. The user                                            binar; and creating an accessible
group will deepen the                                              information center for current
strong sense of ESRI                                               GIS information, white papers,
community support and                                              case studies, and more.
                                                                                                       GIS for Forestry
strengthen commitment                                                “EFG will provide a valuable
                                                                                                       Is on the Web
to     meeting    forestry
related GIS challenges.”
                                ESRI Forestry community tothe forestrydialoguser
                                                 venue for
                                                            engage in
     Elizabeth   Martinez    is    Group     advancement,” says ESRI’s forestry
                                                                                                       Keep up-to-date on the latest GIS forestry news.
                                                                                                       Visit the Web site at
serving as EFG vice president. She                     solutions manager Peter Eredics. “Forestry
is the director of GIS and IT for the Forestland    professionals have unique concerns and experi-
Group (TFG), a timber investment management         ences. The initiation of EFG will add a depth to
organization (TIMO) specializing in naturally       GIS applications that will open up greater busi-
regenerating hardwood timberland. Following         ness opportunities for these users.”
her work as a regional planner at the Ministry of     Membership in the ESRI Forestry Group is
Works in Wellington, New Zealand, Martinez          complimentary to ESRI customers. Learn more
joined a contract research group in North           and join today at
Carolina and has worked for TFG for 13 years.
She uses GIS daily for a wide variety of pur-
poses including pulling data together for acqui-                                                                                                           Forestry GIS Journal 3
Bayerische Staatsforsten Improves Forest
Management Using the ArcGIS Server Image Extension
By Matthew DeMeritt, ESRI

Bayerische Staatsforsten (BaySF), the largest tim-
ber supplier in Germany, with a staff of more than
3,000, vastly improved its image management
practices using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server Image
extension. The company recently completed
16 months of ArcGIS Server operational use with
zero downtime. Even while BaySF created, edited,
and published new services, its 1,400 Web users
and 20 concurrent local area network clients ex-
perienced no service interruptions. To this system,
the company added the ArcGIS Server Image ex-
tension. This made it possible to deliver raw and
preprocessed imagery to clients via a Web service
available on BaySF’s intranet.

                                                                                                             Above: The BaySF Web Site uses the ArcGIS Server Image
                                                                                                             extension to quickly deliver map images to staff. Left:
                                                                                                             Imagery integrated into GIS enables users to include data
                                                                                                             rasters in ArcMap to display tree canopy details.

                                                                                                               vices, enabling direct access to customized imag-
                                                                                                               ery products.
                                                                                                                 “The Image extension to ArcGIS Server saves
                                                                                                               BaySF money because it is a powerful and reli-
  Over the years, BaySF has collected terabytes          The ArcGIS Server Image extension also eas-           able system for managing imagery data,” says
of aerial imagery, satellite imagery, topographic      ily handles multitemporal data. This significantly      Bernhard Müller, GIS manager of BaySF. “It plays
maps, scanned maps, elevation models, and lidar        widens BaySF’s perspective and greatly improves         a pivotal role in giving us rapid access to terabytes
data to document its landholdings and forest in-       the company’s ability to make timely decisions          of orthophotos, digital terrain models, topograph-
ventory. From these datasets, a number of image        based on more accurate and up-to-date informa-          ic maps, and lidar data without the expense of in-
services were created and optimized for different      tion. Over the corporate intranet, foresters and        creasing our database management resources.”
forest and land management applications. The           field technicians access imagery and raster data          “ESRI has a long history of creating image man-
ArcGIS Server Image extension directly reads a         relevant to surveying and planning. This archived       agement solutions,” says Peter Eredics, ESRI’s for-
wide range of formats and serves mosaicked im-         data gives land managers a topographic perspec-         estry manager. “This technology enables dynamic
agery on the fly. This eliminates the need for du-     tive of historic forests and stand structures for       server-side processing, on-the-fly mosaicking,
plicate data and saves BaySF the expense of costly     managing entire ecosystems. The integrated fea-         and flexible dissemination of raster datasets, solv-
storage upgrades.                                      tures of ArcGIS Server also allow the fast creation     ing the traditional image management challenges
  For its mobile staff, BaySF created a custom-        of customized access and resource maps by non-          that organizations face. Its speed, reliability, and
ized application that facilitates disconnected view-   technical personnel.                                    storage efficiency deliver measurable benefits for
ing. This allows foresters and technicians to take       This software leverages the power of today’s          ESRI’s forestry customers around the world.”
compressed extracts of the imagery and store it on     multicore CPUs, allowing multiple images to be            For more information about the ArcGIS Server
mobile devices for use in the field without having     derived on the fly from a single set of raw images.     Image extension, visit For
to connect to a network.                               This has considerably streamlined workflows at          more information about Bayerische Staatsforsten,
                                                       BaySF by virtualizing the imagery into a few ser-       visit

4 Forestry GIS Journal                                                                                                            
Planning Forest Operations:
A Rule-Based Spatial DSS Built with ModelBuilder
By Daniele Lubello, University of Padova, Italy

Forestry management in Italy faces many chal-
lenges. Most forestland is privately held. Steep
terrain and lack of infrastructure make access to
forestland difficult. Also, highly regulated pro-
tected areas limit the volume of timber that can
be harvested per surface unit. These factors drive
harvest costs up and make Italy’s timber less com-
petitive in the market. Improving operational effi-
ciency through better management is one way that
the Italian forest industry can enhance its competi-
tive position.
  Now, a GIS-based model design provides a de-
cision support system (DSS) for forest managers.
It models wood production and hydraulic and soil
protection in steep Alpine areas. It also includes
biodiversity, conservation, and tourism factors.
For example, managers can analyze ways that the
density and size of standing trees influence skid-
ding operations. They can create forest plans that     Data used to define
                                                       the skidding system
include environmental and stand factors and deter-
                                                       includes soil and
mine the best methods that cause the least amount      rain data, shown
                                                       here, as well as forest
of soil compaction damage for a given terrain.         road networks and
  This is called the Forest Operation Planning         elevation data layers.

(FOpP) model. It defines the type of skidding
process that should be used based on forest area          Other       outputs
criteria. It then calculates where that system would   are grid maps and
best work to reduce operational costs and increase     database tables that
the value of wood.                                     contain       statistics
  The application designer chose ArcGIS                for the forest stand.
                                                                                  The map of the wood supply basin between Italy and Slovenia shows supply cost differences.
ModelBuilder to build the FOpP model because           The model calcu-
it is a powerful GIS design tool and does not re-      lates minimum, maximum, average, and total                  or evaluate the effect of silvicultural management
quire knowledge of any programming language.           costs based on the yield distribution and the type          on timber yield and total harvesting costs. The
The software allows the user to create a model in      of skidding system used. It can also estimate how           GIS model is also valuable for estimating trans-
a step-by-step fashion. It checks for errors and en-   much wood will be skidded to each forest road sec-          portation costs and providing useful logistical
sures that all data is in the same projection. For     tion and calculate the average cost of this process.        information.
complicated models, outputs can be stored in a         Forest planners can use these results to determine            For more information, contact Daniele Lubello
geodatabase.                                           the cost and effect of building and maintaining a           at the University of Padova, Italy (contact informa-
  The designer built the model to consider techni-     new road for transporting wood.                             tion to come).
cal limits of a skidding process, determine feasible      The results of the FOpP model provide a good
areas for each selected skidding system, and gen-      starting point for the analysis of the forestry-wood
erate feasibility maps. Output maps distinguish        chain. For instance, by adding felling and other
the skidding direction. For example, the model as-     administrative costs, it is possible to estimate total
sesses the cable system method by verifying that       operational costs and compare them with wood
the average inclination from each cell to the near-    market prices. In addition, a forest manager can
est road is sufficient for the system to operate.      determine whether operations will be profitable                                                                                                                          Forestry GIS Journal 5
Managing the Urban Forest
By Peter Godfrey, ESRI

Accurate and current data is an essential compo-
nent of urban tree management. GIS helps cities
manage forestry projects efficiently and reduce
management costs. City staff members use GIS
to inspect and update tree data, depict these
changes on a map, then schedule maintenance
activities. They can also create maps and reports,
support day-to-day operations, and provide tools
to measure and meet species diversity and canopy
cover goals.
  GIS brings together different types of data for
intelligent planning. A city’s tree database may
include tree location, species, diameter breast
height (DBH), condition, and growth recordings.
In addition to tree attribute data, the urban for-
est planner can include other relevant features
from the city’s database such as streets, curb lines,
building footprints, overhead and underground
utilities, workforce areas, pest/disease quaran-
                                                        A data update tool makes it easy to edit the tree inventory database with such attributes as species and overall
tine zones, parks, and pending construction areas.      condition.
Each city can design a tree database to support its
specific goals, management practices, and opera-        They can also show which parks and other open-               analysis. ArcGIS integrates with standard for-
tional needs.                                           space areas contain trees that must be managed.              estry modeling packages, such as those provided
  Integrating different map layers into an urban          Attention also needs to be paid to the planting            by the United States Department of Agriculture
tree management project improves insight for            spaces that urban trees populate. For instance, a            (USDA), or prepackaged solutions, such as
decision making. By showing data relationships,         cutout in a sidewalk is a permanent location where           American Forests CITYgreen. GIS databases can
GIS users can conceptualize the best options for        a tree can be planted, grow, die, and be replaced            also be integrated with ESRI business partner
placing trees in the right locations. For example,      all in the same space. Planting space data may               computerized maintenance management systems
they can easily see that playground areas are not       include information about size in square feet and            (CMMS) for an efficient asset approach to urban
good places to plant weak-wooded species, or            association of appurtenances such as tree guards             resources management.
that areas with obstructions, such as walls, may        or grates, which can impact tree maintenance ef-                ESRI supports projects with urban forest data
be good locations to place low spreading plants.        forts such as removal. GIS creates visualization             models and applications based on cities’ spe-
                                                        and analysis of this data to help manage plant-              cific management practices. The data model is a
                                                        ing and maintenance work and support decision                means to quickly start a GIS urban forestry proj-
                                                        making.                                                      ect. ESRI has worked closely with all levels of ur-
                                                          Based on management goals and practices of                 ban forestry staff and fully understands the chal-
                                                        the individual municipality, staff can track vari-           lenges as well as the benefits of embarking on the
                                                        ous types of information by using GIS to query               design and implementation of a GIS-based urban
                                                        the database and display the answers on a map.               forestry management system. The best manage-
                                                        Depending on the unique needs of the city, dif-              ment system is initiated through a solid and well-
                                                        ferent attributes associated with a tree, such as its        developed GIS database design and mapcentric
                                                        structure, species, height, crown width, historic            approach. This system can be leveraged for inte-
                                                        designation, and donor name, are stored in the               gration with third-party products (including asset
                                                        GIS database to create an inventory of all the               management packages), data extraction for mod-
                                                        city’s trees.                                                eling, field data collection tools, management
                                                          Bringing other types of resources and applica-             reports and dashboards, and efficient resource
                                                        tions to the project improves urban environment              allocation.

6 Forestry GIS Journal                                                                                                                   
Singapore Uses GIS to Manage Large Urban Forest
By Matthew Freeman, ESRI

The Singapore National Parks Board (NParks)                  Urban Redevelopment Authority accesses the                 and standardized. GIS gives us different views
takes care of 1.3 million trees located in                   tree database to aid in planning new housing or            of data layers such as roadways, lampposts,
300 parks and on more than 2,400 hectares of                 business developments. This information can                trees, and basemaps. This provides an accurate
Garden City roadsides using GIS. NParks’ GIS,                be accessed and viewed from desktop comput-                perspective.”
known as the Park Integrated Management                      ers, or it can be used to produce paper maps.                 In addition to importing data on location,
System (PRIME), is a custom software appli-                     ArcGIS Server technology also supports mo-              size, and species, for legal purposes, a health
cation built and hosted on an ArcGIS Server                  bile computers, which NParks uses in the field             inspection is conducted regularly and recorded
platform. The city selected ArcGIS Server                    to record its tree data. NParks’ field crews use           each time a tree is trimmed. This documenta-
because, for more than a decade, NParks and                  handheld computers equipped with ArcPad to                 tion serves as a history and provides proof that
other government agencies in Singapore have                  log data related to the position, size, health, and        NParks is giving due care to its trees.
shared information through a common GIS, the                 species of each tree. Once data is entered, the               Singapore is a fast-growing city. Developers
Land Information Network (LandNet), which is                 GIS integrates with the database to generate               are required to replace or replant every tree
also supported by ArcGIS.                                    and assign a unique ID to each tree and stores it          uprooted during construction, and the codes
  LandNet hosts an island basemap contain-                   in the PRIME geodatabase. NParks began us-                 for planting along new roadsides are enforced.
ing layers such as roads; buildings; waterlines;             ing GIS to capture tree locations in early 2000,           New parks continue to be developed and popu-
parks; and, of course, trees. Updates in the tree            and currently, most of the roadway trees and               lated with tree shade, and government and pub-
layer of PRIME go directly to LandNet; thus,                 trees in the abutting open spaces have been                lic programs—such as Heritage Tree Scheme,
any tree data imported into PRIME becomes                    recorded.                                                  Heritage Roads, Community in Bloom, and
visible in the LandNet environment.                             “The previous method for cataloging trees               Plant-A-Tree—promote a good balance of in-
  Singapore’s Land Transport Authority staff                 was a manual process,” explains Tee Swee                   dustry and nature. Putting Singapore’s tree data
members regularly use LandNet to access                      Ping, assistant director of NPark’s Streetscape            into a GIS database helps NParks and other
NParks’ tree database to gain insight about                  program. “It involved a tedious manual ID sys-             government agencies ensure that these poli-
safety concerns. They can then include tree                  tem and a lot of paperwork. GIS is much faster             cies, guidelines, programs, and stipulations are
preservation components when planning new                    and more efficient and provides better docu-               followed.
road construction and widening projects. The                 mentation. It is very neat, clean, streamlined,               For more information about this project,
                                                                                                                        contact Tee Swee Ping, assistant director of
                                                                                                                        Streetscape, Singapore National Parks Board

                                                                                                                      Singapore’s urban forest includes tree canopy that shelters
                                                                                                                      the road to the airport.

The Singapore National Parks Board stores tree attribute data such as location, size, species, health, and trimming
history in its GIS database.                                                                                                                                 Forestry GIS Journal 7
Forestry GIS Journal is a publication of    To submit articles for publication in Forestry GIS Journal, contact the editor,
                                            Barbara Shields, at
the Forestry Group of ESRI.
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View Forestry GIS Journal online at         ESRI Forest Solutions Group            Peter Eredics, Forestry Manager                           Scot McQueen
                                            E-mail:                                 E-mail:
                                            Phone: 909-793-2853, ext. 1-2707                          Phone: 360-754-4727, ext. 1-8947

                                            Mike DaLuz,                                               Tim Clark, Forestry Software Engineer
                                            U.S. Forest Service Account Manager                       E-mail:
                                            E-mail:                                   Phone: 303-449-7779, ext. 1-8240
                                            Phone: 303-449-7779, ext. 1-8283

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