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									Fuel Cells: Buy One Today

             Robert Rose
   Joseph Priestley Society Meeting
    Chemical Heritage Foundation
     Thursday, February 14, 2008
The Fifth Element?
   Phl i      ?

                  substa ces
                  contain phlogiston
                  that is given off, or
                  when burned
Founder of Fizz
     Fifth Element?
Future of Transportation?
F        fT          i ?

                Milla = Leeloo = 5th
         Fifth Element?
Phlogiston theory        we’re
                     Now we re getting
attempted to         somewhere!
explain the link
among combustion,
metabolism and the
formation of rust
f     ti    f    t
               Fuel Cells - Defined
      Fuel (H2) + O2 / Catalyst   (H2)O + Heat

Fuel cells combine
       hydrogen &
        to     d
        t produce
  electricity, water
  and useful heat.
Unmatched combination of benefits
  Low / Zero Emissions
  High Efficiency     Low CO2
  Flexible: Wide Range of Applications /
  Distributed Installation
  High Quality, Reliable Power (DC or AC)
  Fuel Flexible (incl. biogas, waste gases)
  Economy/Stronger industrial base
  Fuel Cells open door to hydrogen energy
  A pathway for renewable transportation
  Technical and Marketplace
Technical progress everywhere we
Industry more broadly based
Search for high value markets is
    i    ff
paying off
Some financing seems to be
available again
      y                    g
Policy drivers remain strong
From Theory to Practice
     Mobility - Milestones
Auto companies are promising again
81 mpg estimated (Daimler)
780 km range (468 miles) (Toyota)
100-vehicle consumer demonstration
200+ mph land speed record (with
zero emissions!) (OSU)
600+ vehicles
       Mobility - Technical
Progress on cold start ((Various) )
5000-hour membrane (Dupont)
Dramatic reduction in cost of plates (SGL)
Dramatic reduction in cost of fuel cell
D        i   d   i   i        f f l ll
engine: $60-$95/kW in quantity (DOE)
Significant range improvement on 350 bar
and on 700 bar systems, up to 450+ miles
System efficiency (A Ha!) (Honda)
Flexible EV platforms (combustion, fuel
cell, off board charging) (Volt, etc.)
    ,               g g) (      ,    )
       Mobility - Hydrogen
Lower cost distributed hydrogeng
(US and EU)
Modest increase in public availability
Robust i d
R b            i l hydrogen market
        industrial h d           k
Fresh interest from utilities (CA, CT, FL)
US DOE Scenario analysis
Activity in Korea, India, China
Possibly revitalized IPHE
• 17 nation exchange
New plans in Europe, India, US
        Mobility – Markets
Battery chargers for caravans (Smart)
Marine generators (Voller)
Goods movement/fork lifts; DOD
deploying 100 units
  (   g, y    g     ,       )
• (Plug, Hydrogenics, Nuvera)
20 buses in Canada, 70 vehicles in London
Rail ?
• Research under way in Korea, Italy (EU),
  India, US
             The Next Generation
GM Hy-wire

  FCX                              Toyota FINE-S
2006 Honda FCX
Honda FCX

   350 mile range
   Home refueling
   Production in 3-4 years
   Mass production by 2018
Daimler Chrysler
             A Class F-Cell:
                    hi l
             100 vehicles, 2M

             B Class:
             production in
•Prius Technology

 450   il
•450+ mile range

•Proprietary stack

•Aggressive road
                            General Motors

HydroGen 3                   Equinox – Sept.              q
                                                        Sequel –
                             2006                         2005/2006
 6 in Washington, DC                                     Skateboard architecture
                               100+ to place with
 Post office using one in                                Wheel motors
                             customers in 2007
CA F d E i MI
CA, Fed Ex in                                            0-60      sec.
                                                         0 60 <10 sec
                               50,000 miles of life
                                                         300 mile range
 Program expanding (NY,        Starts in sub-freezing
                                                         Engines being tested as
CA, DC, MI)                  temperatures                generators
                                                         Mass manufacture ready
                                                         M          f t        d
 Explorer 2006
 Fuel cell/battery
 60 kW Ballard
PEM stack
 350 mile range

                      2007 Ford Edge
     Cold start capable
     Fuel cell/battery
      yb d
     80 kW UTC PEM
     300 km range
     93 MPH top speed
     Cold start capable
Many Other Vehicles
Bus Demonstrations Worldwide
CUTE: Europe
I l d
           AC Transit reports 2x mileage
           excellent performance
Goods Movement
       Power Generation
Forward pricing of next generation
         it (h lf th   i   t i th
PAFC unit (half the price, twice the
durability, twice the output) (UTC)
Expansion of manufacturing
capability in response to marketplace
interest (FCE)
                         p g
Achievement of SECA program g    goals
(Siemens, Delphi, FCE)
Work on biofuels, military fuels
      Power Generation
Excellent performance in backup and
off-grid                    (Plug,
off grid power applications (Plug
Ballard, ReliOn, IdaTech
Hundreds of units sold
Systems for on-site trailers (Voller)
Small scale SOFC for residential CHP
S    ll   l         f     id ti l
in Europe (Ceres, CFCT)
2100 residential units in Japan
2100+       id ti l   it i J
(PEM and some SOFC) (Various
        Why Fuel Cells?
Environmental performance, including
Distributed installation
More reliable operation than entrenched
technology (starts every time)
Modularity = nearly 100% reliability
Longer run time
Power uality
       f      l
Ease of use / less maintenance
Scalability means less capital intensive
Power Generation Systems
Improvements in efficiency, design, size
and weight (Various)
Expanding list of candidate fuels (Five
approved for air carriage)
Products beyond battery chargers
Safety emerging as a sales point
Major company interest/activity (Toshiba,
Samsung Motorola)
Market pull: military, device
manufacturers need the capability
Micro/Portable Fuel Cell Applications
Co su e e ect o cs
Consumer electronics:
• Cell phones, PDAs, laptops, music players
First Responder:
 2-way radios, communications centers
•2       di          i ti        t
Defense (solder power):
• Communications, computing, sensors
Industrial & Specialty applications:
•   Battery charging stations
•   H dh ld d t t       i l
    Handheld data terminals
•   Inventory/warehouse management
•   Satellite Phones, surveillance
           Why Fuel Cells?
      Portable Electronics
      Yearly Energy Usage
                                10,500+ W-hr
Always On - Always Connected
          3G – 4G
    Large Color Displays
     MP Camera & Flash
                         W hr
      Hi h speed d 3,500 W-hr
      High          t
                d data
            500 W-hr
   10 W-hr
    In “High Power” mode
       more of the time
    1980      1990       2000     2010
Micro Fuel Cells
Policy – Favorable Landscape
Global energy policy dialogue
• Energy supply in a competitive marketplace
• Concerns about cartels, corruption, terrorism
• Environmental impact of mining, transporting,
  refining and burning fossil fuel
Global Warming serious concern in the US
      ti       dh l t      hi    K t
All nations need help to achieve Kyoto
Nations must negotiate a post-Kyoto
Smog kills hundreds of thousands annually
• Hong Kong worried smog will stifle economic
   Policy – USFCC Activity
10 year ext. of installation tax credit
Early sales to government
Carriage of fuel cells and their fuels
C i        f f l ll      d th i f l
aboard passenger aircraft
USFCC Product list (40+ products by
• Definition of Commercial
     A Mainstream Option
YOU can buy a fuel cell today
There’s no longer an excuse
       The Great Race
   Locomotive v. H
   L      i      Horse, 1830
Risk taker: John Carroll
Entrenched technology: 1 HP
W ll connected competition:
Well        t d      titi
Stockton & Stokes
Emerging technology: “Tom Thumb”
• Boiler smaller than residential units
Market opportunity based on value
Carriage riders issued the challenge
                The Horse Won
B-O-P Failure
(drive b lt)
(d i   belt)

M   l The      dt
Moral: Th road to success
        has plenty of curves

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