Medical Professionalism

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					Medical Professionalism

   Finding Information Using
Alumni Medical Library Resources




                 MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
    Bioethics Subject Guide Page
Subjects A-Z tab on library homepage




The Bioethics Subject Guide contains links to the
library catalog, relevant e-texts, databases, journals,
and recommended websites that are good starting
places for an information search.
                                MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
   Print Materials: Library Catalog
Search the library catalog for books on a topic.




There are three main ways it may be helpful to
search the catalog: by Keyword, by Subject,
and using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings)

                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
 Searching the Catalog: Keywords
A keyword search looks for the terms you enter
in the title or description of the item.




Here, you can simply use “medical professionalism."

                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
  Searching the Catalog: Subject
Choose Advanced Search option




                         MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
   Searching the Catalog: Subject
Select Subject
from menu



Subject terms to try:

• Bioethics
• Medical Ethics
• Physicians – Professional Ethics

                            MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
    Searching the Catalog: MeSH
MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) is the vocabulary
used to index articles in PubMed.
You can also search the library catalog using these
terms.




The next slide shows MeSH terms that may be useful in
locating print information on Medical Professionalism.
                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
     MeSH Terms for the Catalog
Professionalism/ethics      Specific issues

•   Bioethics               •    Confidentiality
•   Ethics, Medical         •    Conflict of Interest
•   Physician's Role        •    Privacy
•   Professional Practice   •    Truth Disclosure




                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
    Searching for Journal Articles
Often you will not find a print book on your topic, and
  will wish to search one or more of the library's
  databases to locate useful journal articles.

The premier database for biomedical journal literature is
  the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE,
  accessible through PubMed.

MEDLINE uses the MeSH vocabulary.



                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
            MEDLINE: Overview
Millions of citations to articles in biomedical journals

Sign in through the Medical Library homepage to get
full-text access to articles in journals to which the library
subscribes.




                                 MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
                  MeSH Notes
Many more MeSH terms are useful for article searches
in PubMed than are likely to be used for print items in
the library catalog.

Medical Professionalism is a broad and varied topic with
many potentially relevant terms, so you may need to try
different combinations of headings depending on
exactly what you're looking for.

It is almost always a good idea to use a controlled
vocabulary (like MeSH) if one is available, since a
human is responsible for assigning these terms.

                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
             MeSH in PubMed
To take advantage of the MeSH terms once you are on
  the PubMed site, click on MeSH Database under
  More Resources.




                            MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
          Locating MeSH Terms
Enter search terms one at a time and click Go. The
  system will suggest MeSH terms related to your
  concept.




The next slide shows MeSH terms that may be helpful
  for locating materials on Medical Professionalism.

Choose those that seem most promising for your topic.
                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
    MeSH Terms for Professionalism
Professionalism/ethics      Specific issues

• Bioethics                 •    Confidentiality
• "Codes of Ethics"         •    "Conflict of Interest"
• Ethics, Medical           •    Disclosure
• Physician's Role          •    Drug industry
• Physicians (with Ethics   •    Gift Giving
  and Standards             •    Industry
  subheadings)              •    Privacy
• Professional Practice     •    Truth Disclosure



                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
     Searching with MeSH Terms
If more than one term is suggested, check the box
   beside the one that looks most useful.




You can also click on a term for more information and to
  select subheadings.

                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
                  Subheadings
Subheadings focus on a specific aspect of a topic. For
  example, the MeSH term Physicians is extremely
  broad.


Using the
ethics
and
standards
subheadings limits the results to those most likely to be
   relevant to the topic of Medical Professionalism.

                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
   Searching PubMed with MeSH
Once you have checked off a search term, you will tell
  PubMed to search for it.

Click Send To and select Search Box with AND.




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
           Searching, Continued
This creates a search box in which you will build your
  PubMed search.




You can either click to Search PubMed immediately, or
  add more terms to your search in the same way you
  added the first one, using AND or OR to combine.




                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
                    Results
When you have the search terms you want, click
 Search PubMed to see results.

Review articles and articles available in free full text
 will be sorted out for you.




Note that ‘Free Full Text’ in this context means free
 to anyone: you may have full text access to more
 than these articles through BU’s subscriptions.
                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
               Refining Results
If you get too many results to easily review, you can
    click on the Advanced Search link to apply limits.



Scroll down to Limits.



Limits let you narrow search results by article type,
  publication year, subject criteria, language and more.
  It is advisable to apply limits one at a time, to see
  how each affects the search results.
                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
             Keyword Searches
If there is no MeSH term for a concept, you always have
    the option to search for the original term as a
    keyword: simply type it in the search box on the front
    page of PubMed, rather than using the MeSH
    Database.




Since the word "professionalism" may be used by
  authors even though it is not a MeSH term, it is a
  good idea to run this keyword search.

                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
      Combining Search Results
You can run searches for several different terms
  separately and then combine your results.

Click on Advanced Search to see a list of searches
   you have completed.




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
  Combining Searches, Continued
Right-click the number next to a search and select:

 - AND (if you want results to contain both of the terms
from the initial searches)

- OR (if you want results to contain either of the terms
from the initial searches)




                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
           Example: Use of ‘OR’
If there is no MeSH term for a concept, as with Medical
Professionalism, it may be helpful to combine several
related terms using OR to create one search in the
MeSH Database covering that broader concept.




Your search of PubMed will now be much more
comprehensive.

                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
          Example: Use of ‘AND’
If you are interested in medical professionalism as it
    relates to a specific issue, for example "conflict of
    interest," you can search for this term as well and
    then combine it on the Advanced Search page with
    your broader concept, using AND.




                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
   Viewing and Accessing Results
Results of the most recent search will normally be
  displayed.

To see results for an earlier search, click Advanced
  Search and click on the number listed to the right of
  any search.




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
              Article Information
Click the title of an article to see the abstract (if
   available) and other citation information.
Look for a full-text link at the upper right if BU has an
   online subscription to the journal.




The Find@BU link will search the catalog to see if the
  journal is available in print.

                                 MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
    Article Information, Continued
Scroll down and click on Publication Types,
MeSH Terms to see terms used to index an
article.

If any of these look useful,
you can click to add them
to your search. This can be a
good way to find relevant
terms for a search.


                                MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
                 PubMed Help
• Alumni Medical Library tutorials:
  http://medlib.bu.edu/tutorials/medline/

• Reference Desk, staffed 8:30am-5:00pm weekdays

• Meet with a librarian: call or email to make an
  appointment




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
        Other Useful Databases
MEDLINE is the primary resource for biomedical journal
articles, but other databases may also be helpful:

• Academic OneFile

• CINAHL (Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied
  Health Literature)

• PsycINFO

• Web of Knowledge


                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
          Accessing Databases
Access databases on the Alumni Medical Library
homepage under E-Resources




                            MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
             Academic OneFile
Academic OneFile lists articles from journals covering a
broad range of subjects.

While it does not primarily focus on medical topics,
useful articles can still be found here.




                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
      Academic OneFile: Subject
Subject Guide Search:
 • Medical Ethics
 • Professional Ethics




Also, click 'related subjects' to see subject headings
for specific ethical issues


                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
     Academic OneFile: Keyword
Advanced Search:
 • Keyword: medical
And
 • Keyword: professionalism




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
      Academic OneFile: Results
You can refine results by adding more search terms, or
by limiting to publication type, document type, date, etc.




                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
                      CINAHL
CINAHL (Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health
Literature) covers major nursing and allied health
journals.

It will not always be relevant for biomedical searches,
but it can be a good source of information on some
topics.




                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
             CINAHL: Subject
CINAHL Headings (subject search):
 • Professionalism
 • Ethics, Professional
 • Ethics, Medical




                            MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
             CINAHL: Keyword
Advanced Search:




Select TX All Text and enter keywords:

 • medical
and
 • professionalism


                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
               CINAHL: Results
You can narrow and limit results, add extra search
terms, or search the library catalog for the journal.




                                MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
               CINAHL: Results
Click an article title to see the full reference and the
subject terms used to index it.




If one of them seems relevant, you can click to run a
search for that term.


                                 MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
                    PsycINFO
PsycINFO (and PsycARTICLES, a subset that includes
only full-text articles) searches the psychological
literature.

PsycINFO is larger (including all information from the
PsycARTICLES subset), so for a broad search, you will
want to use it even though many results are not full-text.

If you want only full-text results, you may wish to use
PsycARTICLES.

Both may be searched in the same way.

                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
            PsycINFO: Subject
Thesaurus (Subject) Search:




 • Bioethics
 • Professionalism
 • Professional Ethics
 • Professional Standards
And
 • Physicians

                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
   PsycINFO: Combining Subjects
Try combining subject headings:
((DE "Professionalism" or DE "Professional Standards"
or DE "Professional Ethics" or DE "Bioethics")) and (DE
"Physicians")




You can also apply various limits to narrow the search.
                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
           PsycINFO: Keyword
Advanced Search:

Select TX All Text and enter "medical professionalism."




Depending on the specific topic of your search, you may
also wish to try other keywords.

                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
            PsycINFO: Results
You can narrow and limit results, add extra search
terms, or access full text (if available).




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
              PsycINFO: Results
Click the article title to see the full reference and subject
terms used to index it.




If one of the other indexing terms seems relevant, you
can click to run a search for that term.



                                 MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
              Web of Knowledge
Web of Knowledge is a major source for articles in a
wide range of fields, including the sciences,
social sciences, and humanities.

The subset database Web of Science is an excellent
place to find articles from scientific journals that may not
be included in MEDLINE.




                                MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
      Web of Knowledge: Search
Web of Knowledge (and its subset database, Web of
Science) does not use a controlled vocabulary to index
items, so effective use of keywords is necessary.

Try "medical professionalism" as a topic phrase.




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
      Web of Knowledge: Results
Refine the search by adding
additional terms related to the
specific issue (i.e. "confidentiality")
or by checking off specific categories
or subject areas.

You can also try additional topic
keywords.

Since there is no standardized list
of subject terms, you may need to
try the search with several different
terms and combinations.
                                MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
               Web of Science
This science-focused subset of Web of Knowledge also
lacks a standardized subject vocabulary, but does offer
an Advanced Search option (it can also be searched in
the same way as Web of Knowledge using the default
Search mode).




Access Web of Science from its tab on the main Web of
Knowledge page.
                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
        Web of Science: Search
In the Advanced Search mode, you must use the listed
"field tags," i.e. TS= for a Topic (or subject).




Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) may also be used.
                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
        Web of Science: Search
Try for example:
(ts=medical OR ts=physician) AND (ts=professionalism
OR ts=professional ethics)

Scroll to Search History at the bottom of the page and
click on the number of results to display.




                              MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
        Web of Science: Results
You can then narrow the results
by adding more terms or checking
a desired Subject Area,
Document Type, etc.

Again, you may need to try several
combinations of keywords since
there is no standardized list
of subject terms.




                             MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
  Web Searching: Google Scholar
Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com) can be a
way to locate relevant materials that are not published
in journals; position papers, association guidelines,
policy statements, etc.

Try combining various synonyms of your keywords with
Boolean operators (AND, OR) to focus your query.

For example:
(medical OR physician) (professionalism OR
professional ethics OR professional standards)


                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
        For Additional Assistance
If you have questions about any of the library's
resources, or would like advice on a search:

• Call or visit the Reference Desk 8:30am-5:00pm,
  Monday through Friday: (617) 638-4228

• Email your question to refquest@bu.edu

• Call or email to make an appointment to meet with a
  librarian

             Your library is here for you!
                           
                               MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information
            Additional Resources
• Fundamentals of Medical Ethics, World Medical
  Association: Course offering 8 CME hours.
• Gender in Medical Education: Professionalism, Gender and
  Health Collaborative Curriculum: Module examining
  professionalism and gender.
• Professionalism & Social Responsibility in Medicine [PDF],
  National Health Care for the Homeless Council: Practice
  cases on ethical issues of providing care to homeless persons
  and undocumented immigrants.
• What You Should Know About Gifts to Physicians From
  Industry, American Medical Association: Series of self-study
  CME modules on professional relations with industry.


                                  MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information