Aviation Physiology by veeru5656

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									       Aviation Physiology




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
            Roadmap
Vision
Night Flight
Visual Illusions
Landing Illusions
Spatial Disorientation
Hypoxia
ADM (Aeronautical Decision Making)
     Quote of the Day:



“IM SAFE”
                     Vision
Vision
  result of light passing through the cornea
   and striking a lens.
Retina
  Cones
  Rods
                     Vision
Cones
   perceive color and depth
   concentrated in the fovea
Rods
   concentrated outside the fovea
   dim light and night receivers.
   10,000 time more sensitive to light than cones
   Primary receptors to night vision and peripheral
    vision
Night Blind spot
Anatomical Blind spot
            Dark Adaptation
Visual Purple (Rhodopsin)
   Light absorbing protein in membrane of rods
   Allows rods to detect images in the dark
Night flight
   30 minutes required for full adaptation to dark
Red lights
   Rods least affected by red light’s wavelength
   Minimal contraction of iris
      Night Flight Checklist
Get dark adapted prior to flight
Keep glasses and windscreen clean
Look off to side 15o while scanning
Close one eye if using bright light
Properly use oxygen
Quit Smoking
Vitamin A
Get adequate rest
         Visual Illusions

False Horizons
Black Hole
 Approach
Landing Illusions
                Visual Illusions
 False Horizons
    Natural horizon is
     obscured or not apparent
    Attempting to realign
     yourself to false horizon
     can lead to a dangerous
     flight attitude
 Black Hole Approach
    Long, straight-in
     approach at night to a
     brightly lit runway
     over featureless and
     unlit terrain
    Pilot attempts to maintain
     visual angle
      Landing Illusions

Sloping runways
Runway width
Terrain
Weather conditions
Visibility
Illusions
              Approach Illusions
   Situation           Illusion       Result
 Up-sloping Runway      Higher    Lower Approaches
  Narrow Runway         Higher    Lower Approaches
 Featureless Terrain    Higher    Lower Approaches
 Rain on Windshield     Higher    Lower Approaches
       Haze             Higher    Lower Approaches
Down-sloping Runway     Lower     Higher Approaches
   Wider Runway         Lower     Higher Approaches
   Bright Runway        Closer    Higher Approaches
Example – Runway Width
Sloping Runway
             Disorientation
The incorrect mental
 image of your
 position, attitude, or
 movement
Three sources of
 input:
   Kinesthetic Sense
   Vision
   Vestibular System
   Kinesthetic and Vestibular
Awareness of position obtained from
 the nerves in your skin, joints, and
 muscles.
“Fly by the seat of your pants”
Rely upon kinesthetic and vestibular
 senses in low visibility
  Problem: UNRELIABLE
Factors such as fatigue, high workload,
 alcohol, and anxiety add to susceptibility
 to disorientation and visual illusions.
            What Can I do?
Rely on the instruments
Regardless of how your
 body feels, maintaining
 orientation during flight at
 night or in marginal
 weather conditions is key.
    Illusions Leading to
        Disorientation
Graveyard Spiral
  Turn Tightens as Pilot tries to
   raise nose
Leans
  Desire to turn opposite
   direction after rolling out of a
   turn
Inversion Illusion
  Abrupt change from climb to
   straight and level
                         Hypoxia
Oxygen deficiency in the bloodstream
Symptoms:
   Headache, fatigue
   Light headed or dizzy sensation, lethargic
   Tingling or warming sensations, sweating
   Sleepiness
   Cyanosis (discoloration of fingernails and lips)
   Euphoria
Effects
   Lack of clear thinking
   After time, unconsciousness
                Hyperventilation
Too much Oxygen
Not enough Carbon Dioxide
Symptoms
   Dizziness
   Hot and cold sensations
   Sleepiness
   Tingling of hands, legs, and
    feet
Remedy
   Breathe into brown paper bag
   Talk Aloud
                  ADM
Systematic approach to the mental
 process used to determine best course
 of action
Dangerous Tendencies
  Scud Running
  Continuing Visual Flight into IMC
  Neglect of Checklists
        Hazardous Attitudes
Attitudes          Antidotes
   Antiauthority      Follow the Rules

   Impulsivity        Think first

   Macho              It could happen to
                        me
   Resignation        I’m not helpless
        Any Questions?
“Aviation in itself is not inherently
dangerous. But to an even greater
degree than the sea, it is Unforgiving of
any carelessness, incapacity, or neglect”
        -Anonymous

								
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