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									   FP                          Module 6 Family finance

Family finance
Introduction to Module 6
Family life: focus on parenting is grouped into three main themes (The family, The
community and Family finance), with each module broken down into further sub-themes, as
shown in the table below.

FP   Module 6 Family finance

  FP                    Module 6 Family finance

Curriculum coverage in Module 6

      FP                                   Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:1
Maternity benefits
    benefit, statutory, maternity, paternity, employer,
    allowance, parental leave, eligible, earn

    alphabet strip, dictionaries

     On this page, learners are given some specific information about different benefits available for pregnant women.
      As eligibility for different benefits depends on individual circumstances, learners will need to seek more
      information from the sources suggested. The information on the learner page comes from leaflet BC1, available at
      Post Offices.
     Here learners are given the opportunity to scan and read for detail and to use context to help understand
      unfamiliar words, identify capital letters and use a dictionary to look up the meaning of unfamiliar words. They
      are also encouraged to identify other sources of information on the topic.

All      Talk about it – supporting yourself during pregnancy
How will you support yourself during your pregnancy? Are you currently drawing some benefits? Have you discussed
what you might be entitled to with someone else such as the midwife? Where could you go to get advice?

E1–2     Read short pieces of text
Look at the learner page together. Explain to learners that the words in bold give the subject of each piece of text.
Suggest learners identify the phrases in bold, then follow the instructions to read the text and answer the True/False
questions. Learners may find it helpful to underline the relevant piece of text which answers each question before
writing T or F.

Identify and use capital letters
Ask learners to work in pairs and highlight or underline all the capital letters on the learner page. Ask learners to
suggest some rules for the use of capitals and examples – to start a sentence, for the names of benefits, etc. Can they
think of other occasions when capitals are used? They should record these with examples for group discussion – e.g.
for the personal pronoun ‘I’, for the names of places, people, months, days, etc. When learners come together, record
‘rules’ for using capitals and an example to illustrate each. Ask learners to work in pairs to write the following down
the left-hand side of a piece of paper: Girl’s name, Boy’s name, Country, Town, TV programme, Film, Singer or
group, Month, Day, Maternity benefit and any other suggestion from the group. The pairs write down an example
starting with the letter ‘S’ for each, making sure the capital letter is correctly used. The game can be repeated using
the letter ‘M’. Ask learners to work in groups to suggest sources of information they could use to check the spelling of
the words they have identified – a dictionary of names, an atlas, TV listings, etc. Learners then complete the box on
the learner page with this information.

E3–L1 Read and use a dictionary
Look at the learner page. Ask learners to work in pairs to read each piece of the text and discuss the meaning of
unfamiliar words using context. Model the use of a dictionary to check the meaning of ‘statutory’. Use an alphabet
strip to illustrate and support the use of alphabetical order. As ‘s’ appears about three-quarters of the way through the
dictionary, model opening the dictionary at about the right place, looking for ‘st’ words at the top of the page and
scanning down to find the right word. Ask learners to underline some words whose meanings are still unclear and use
a dictionary to check these.

Practise stress patterns, encouraging learners to mark primary and secondary stress, e.g. statutory 0oo. Learners at
E3/L1 can check stress patterns while looking up words in the dictionary. For learners at E1/E2, teachers can use a
simplified version of the learner page using the active instead of the passive voice

Encourage learners to collect further information on a benefit of choice using the Internet (www.dwp.gov.uk -
Department for Work and Pensions) or visiting the Post Office and asking for a leaflet BC1. Learners can identify
three main points and be ready to share these with the rest of the group.

                  M7–8               E1–2                       E3–L1
                                     Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1           Rt/E3.1, 4, Rw/E3.3
                                     Rs/E2.3                    Rt/L1.1, Rw/L1.1
 FP                          Module 6 Family finance

Maternity benefits                                                             6:1

 Read the text first then do the
 True/False quiz.

                                           Don’t forget you can get:
                                            free dental care
 You may be able to claim                   free prescriptions
 Statutory Maternity Pay                   AND there’s two weeks paid
 (SMP). Your employer will pay             Paternity Leave for your partner.
 this for 26 weeks. You must
 have been working for that
 employer for at least 26 weeks
 before the 15th week of your

 If you are not eligible for
 maternity pay then you may be
 able to claim a Maternity

 If you do not work or do not
 earn enough to qualify for a             True or false? (Write T or F)
 maternity allowance, you may
 be able to claim Income
                                      1 You must have worked for the
 Support.                               same employer for a year to get

                                      2 The Maternity Grant has to be

 If you are claiming Income Support   3 SMP is paid for 26 weeks.
 or Working Tax Credit or Child Tax
 Credit, you may qualify for a        4 You can get free dental care if you
 Maternity Grant to pay for clothes     are pregnant.
 and equipment for the baby. This
 does not have to be repaid.          5 There’s no paid time off for your

 Where can you check your spelling?

      FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:2 (Audio 18-19-20)
Benefits for working families
    credit, earnings, income, claim, entitled

    board/flipchart and markers, audio clips and player

     There are tax credits available to those who work. Additional tax credits are available for those who care for
      children and most carers will be entitled to some help with this.
     This page gives learners an opportunity to read short texts about tax credits and use context to work out
      meanings of unfamiliar words. Learners listen to audio clips of an automated helpline to identify gist and
      detail, and role play a similar situation concentrating on appropriate tone and register.

All     Talk about it – benefits available to families
Ask learners to name some benefits which are available to families, e.g. child benefit, housing benefit, help with
Council Tax, free school meals, income support, job seekers’ allowance.

E1–2 Read and identify information
Look at the learner page together. Use audio clip 18 if necessary to follow the text on Child Tax Credit and
Working Tax Credit. Check that learners understand that tax credits are only available to those who are
working. Ask learners to underline and discuss words whose meaning is unclear, e.g. top-up, earnings, incomes,
claim, entitled. Look at the information sources suggested and support learners in categorising these: websites,
leaflets or organisations. Ask learners to suggest other sources of information about benefits, e.g. the council,
Social Security offices, etc. and categorise these as well.

E3–L1 Practise scanning skills
Ask learners to work in pairs. Learners read the learner page individually and then ask each other questions to
practise scanning skills, e.g. How many hours do you have to work each week to get Working Tax Credit?
When’s the Inland Revenue Tax Credit helpline open?

Listen and respond
Listen to audio clip 19. Provide learners with a sheet with the five options as key words for the automated
response – stopping payments, annual review pack, claiming for the first time, query with existing claim, other
inquiries. Explain that learners are to identify and write down the number to press for each enquiry on the sheet
as they hear it. Discuss how easy or difficult this is and why – e.g. don’t know what to expect, spoken too
quickly, may be unsure what you want to know. Discuss a possible strategy to deal with this – e.g. ring and
listen again. Repeat the audio clip and see if the task is easier. Depending on the number of learners and
availability of audio equipment, ask learners to listen in pairs or small groups to audio clip 20 about claiming a
tax credit for the first time. Provide learners with a list of the six pieces of information which will be asked for –
name, NI number, initial, date of birth, first line of address, and post code. As learners listen to the clip they tick
off each piece of information as it is asked for. Listen to the audio clip again for tone and register and how the
advisor introduces himself. Discuss tone and register used by the two speakers. Ask learners to role play a
similar scenario where one learner takes the part of a client and the other the advisor using the six pieces of
information as earlier. Remind them that they are requesting a claim form for tax credits. Encourage the use of a
more formal tone and register.

For learners at E1/E2 use bilingual materials for support, e.g. www.adviceguide.org.uk (CAB) where
appropriate. For all levels, practise polite intonation patterns, e.g. ‘And your name please?’– low rise. Learners
at E1/E2 can use a simplified version of audio clip 19 and a picture of a phone to practise press, key, hash, star.

During the week ask learners to identify some situations where more formal language, tone and register are
needed and report back to the group. Some learners might like to ring the Tax Credit helpline and request a
claim form.
                        M7–8              E1–2                    E3–L1
 Reading                                  Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1, 3     Rt/E3.7
                                          Rs/E2.2                 Rt/L1.5
 Speaking and                                                     SLlr/E3.1, 2 SLc/E3.4,
 listening                                                        SLlr/L1.1
   FP                            Module 6 Family finance

Benefits for working families                                                              6:2

(Audio 18-19-20)

Child Tax Credit
Child Tax Credit (CTC) is paid to carers who look after children. Most parents will get some
CTC (if their income is below about £58,000).
                                                            Make a claim for these anyway
                                                            as you are likely to be entitled
                                                            to some help if you are working
                                                            and have children.
Working Tax Credit
Working Tax Credit is paid to top-up earnings of working people on low incomes – less than
around £14,000 per year. You will receive it from your employer. To qualify, you need to
work at least 16 hours a week.

If you have children, you will also receive help with childcare costs as part of the Working
Tax Credit. This is paid directly to the main carer. It covers up to 70% of your childcare

 Look at the Inland Revenue Tax Credits website:

                                              Where can we            Look at the website:
                                              get more                www.entitledto.co.uk.
 Ring the Inland                              information?            This takes you through
 Revenue Tax Credit                                                   a series of questions
 helpline: 0845 300                                                   and answers to find the
 3900. It is open 7 days                                              benefits you may be
 a week from 8 am to 8                                                entitled to.
 pm. They will send
 you a claim form.
                                                                      Ask for information at
                                                                      your local Job Centre
                                                                      Plus office.
 Look for the BC1
 leaflet at the Post
 Office. It is called
 Babies and Children.                                                 You can download
                                                                      many of the forms you
                                                                      need from:
 Ask for help at your
 local CAB – Citizens
 Advice Bureau.

      FP                                    Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:3
Choosing childcare provision
    local authority, subsidised, flexible working hours, sibling, toddler, homely
    board/flipchart and markers, clock face with moveable hands, Source material page 0:25

     Learners are faced with an array of childcare provision. This page identifies some providers and gives
      information about entitlement to unpaid leave and flexible working hours.
     Learners identify the purpose of the texts on the notice board and use the headings to skim and scan for specific
      information. Word, sentence and text level strategies are used to work out the meanings of unfamiliar words.

All      `Talk about it – childcare provision
Ask learners to identify different types of childcare provision (relatives, nanny, au pair, nursery, playgroup,
childminder) together with the advantages/disadvantages of each. Record the points made on the flipchart.

E1–2      Purpose of texts
Look at the learner page together (some learners may prefer the simplified Source material page 0:25). Ask learners to
work in pairs, looking at one notice each, then to explain to the rest of the group what information it gives. Extend
discussion by asking questions: Which types of childcare would be most useful if you were working full time? Then
suggest some text purposes – to make you laugh, to give you information, etc. – and ask learners to decide what the
purpose of each text might be. Ask learners to identify where such notices might appear – e.g. on a clinic’s notice
board, doctor’s surgery, Surestart, etc. Learners then work in pairs to identify where they might find out about
childcare – e.g. baby clinic, health visitor, phone book. Record ideas on a flipchart as a spidergraph. Ask learners to
identify which information source they might find most helpful. Read and discuss the purposes of the other texts.

Calculate and compare costs
Learners add up the cost for a full day at playgroup: £2 + £4 + £2 + £2 = £10. For learners at E2 – identify the full
cost for other provisions and compare. Work out the cost for two full days at any of the provisions – show doubling,
e.g. playgroup £10 + £10 = £20 and 2 × £10 = £20. Continue for 3/4/5 days at that provision showing repeated
addition and multiplying. Compare weekly rates for all provisions and record for each.

E3–L1 Skimming and scanning
Ask learners to work in pairs to practise skimming skills, first concentrating on the ‘notice board’ headings to each
notice. Ask learners to practise scanning for specific information – looking for key words – by asking each other
questions: Which provision has several separate sessions each day? Which provision is suitable if you work shorter
hours? Which provision is suitable for a baby? Can you suggest another word for ‘provision’? Ask learners to
identify the purpose of the notice board texts. Support learners in identifying and underlining key words and phrases
which try to ‘sell’ the particular childcare provision (Ofsted registered, free childcare places, etc.). Read the
surrounding text and identify its purpose.

Make calculations with time and money
Work out time – use the clock face if necessary, e.g. 8 am to 9 am = 1 hr. Add together the hours covered by the
playgroup. Then work out how many hours are covered by each of the other provisions. Write these on the page and
compare the totals. Extend by comparing hourly rates, e.g. childminder = £16 ÷ 8 = £2; nursery £30 ÷ 10 = £3.
Discuss the hourly rate for the playgroup – there are different rates per hour in early morning and in late afternoon.
Extend by working out the half day rate at the nursery – half means divide by 2 so where does the half day end? (10
hours ÷ 2 = 5 so half day = 5 hours; 8 am + 5 hours = ending at 1 pm) Work out half day cost (£30 ÷ 2) – do this in
stages, e.g. half of £10 three times – £5 × 3, half of £20 + half of £10 = £10 + £5; use a calculator.

Learners practise saying phone numbers, times and prices. Ask which provision would be suitable for their child
and/or give them a matching task – use scenarios graded for their level.

Encourage learners to find out information on one local childcare provider from an advertisement or leaflet, e.g. child
places available/cost/duration.
                               M7–8     E1–2                         E3–L1
    Reading                             Rt/E1.1, 2, Rt/E2.1, 2, 3    Rt/E3.1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, Rt/L1.1, 2, 5
    Measures and shape                                               MSS1/E3.3, MSS1/L1.3
    Number                              N1/E1.6, N1/E2.5             N1/E3.6
   FP                             Module 6 Family finance

Choosing childcare provision                                                              6:3

All three- and four-year-olds are entitled to five half days of nursery education free.

If you are working and have a child under six years old, you can ask your employer to
consider flexible working hours.
If parents are working, they can both have up to 13 weeks unpaid time off work at any time
up to the child’s fifth birthday.

      FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:4
Making a will
    executor, inherit, solicitor, possessions

    scissors, glue, file paper, alphabet strip, copies of
    telephone directories, board/flipchart and markers

     It is important to make a will even if you think that you have few possessions and not much money. A will
      makes sure that, in the event of your death, your money, possessions and any property you own are
      distributed to the people you would wish to have them.
     On this page learners read the text and match text ‘answers’ to the correct text ‘question’. They use
      skimming and scanning skills and telephone directories to look for a solicitor or will writing company.

All      Talk about it – making a will
Write the word ‘will’ in the centre of the board/flipchart. Ask learners to suggest what they think about the idea
of making a will – scary, expensive, not necessary, don’t need one because I’m married/have children, etc.

E1–2 Match questions to text
Look at the learner page together. Ask learners to suggest how they know when a sentence is a question – e.g.
question mark and words typically used for asking questions (what, who, how, etc.). Ask learners to work in
pairs to identify and underline the question marks and the question words on the left-hand side of the learner
page. Explain that the rest of the text is the answers to the questions posed. Ask learners to identify the first text
question – ‘What is a will?’ Cut this out and stick it to the left-hand side of a piece of file paper. Cut up the text
boxes on the right-hand side of the page. Ask learners to choose the appropriate answer to the first text question
and stick this beside that question, on the right-hand side of the paper. Check the sense by reading both the
question and its corresponding answer. Repeat the process with the next question. Continue until all questions
have their matching answers. Support learners in reading the text of the questions and then identifying and using
the key word from the question to identify the appropriate answer, e.g. What is a will? – A will is … .

E3–L1 Match headings and use telephone directories
Ask learners to read the text questions on the left hand side of the page, identify the key word in each question
and underline it. Learners use the key word to scan the text boxes on the right to find the matching answer. They
draw a line to join the question to its matching answer as in the example.
Ask learners to suggest how they would go about finding a solicitor or will making company – e.g. telephone
directories, newspaper ads, personal recommendation. Model using a telephone directory efficiently to find a
‘solicitor’ – ‘s’ is in the second half of the alphabet so start looking for ‘s’ words more than half way through
the directory. Explain that learners will need to look at the second letter of the word as there are several
categories beginning with ‘s’. Model scanning using a key word – the name of your local town – to identify a
suitable solicitor.
Learners can look up will writing companies under ‘wills’ and a solicitor under ‘s’ noting the name and
telephone number of both. Learners might then like to work in pairs and role play phoning and asking for a
quote to write a simple will.

Use learners’ personal knowledge of solicitors (e.g. refugees) where appropriate. Teachers may wish to use
bilingual materials at E1/E2 and simplify the learner page questions. The CAB website
www.adviceguide.org.uk has information in several community languages. Practise stress patterns, e.g. executor
o0oo; learners provide words with similar patterns.

Encourge learners to ring one or both of the phone numbers noted and ask for a quote for the writing of a simple
will. Learners should be ready to compare prices at the next session.
                           M7–8                     E1–2                     E3–L1
    Reading                                         Rt/E1.1                  Rt/E3.1, 7
                                                    Rt/E2.1                  Rw/E3.4
                                                    Rs/E2.4                  Rt/L1.1, 4
     FP                            Module 6 Family finance

Making a will                                                                               6:4

Using arrows, match the answers on the right with the correct question.

                                            A If you die before making a will, the law
 1    What is a will?                           says how your money, possessions and
                                                property will be divided up. This may not
                                                be how you would wish. Unmarried
                                                couples cannot inherit from each other
                                                unless there is a will, even if they have
 2    What will happen if I die                 children.
      without making a will?

                                            B You can make a will by:
                                             writing one yourself
 3    What should be included                using a will writing company
      in a will?                             going to a solicitor.

 4    Who are executors?                    C Executors will carry out your wishes as
                                              written in your will. An executor could be:
                                             a relative or friend
                                             a solicitor
 5    How do I make a will?                  a bank
                                             the Public Trustee, if there is no one else
                                              able or willing to be your executor.

 6    Do I need to keep my
      will up to date?                      D A will is a statement of how you wish your
                                                assets to be dealt with after your death.

                                            E You need to include everything you own.
     My partner and I made a                    You need to decide who you want to
     will and it cost less than                 benefit from your will and who you want as
     we thought it would. I feel                your executors. You should decide who
     a lot happier now.                         you would like to care for your children if
                                                both parents die.

                                            F You need to keep your will up to date
                                                because your circumstances could
                                                change. You might get married, get
                                                divorced, or have children.

      FP                                   Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:5
Saving for a rainy day
    Credit Union, Premium Bonds, interest
    board/flipchart and markers, copies of Source material page 0:26 and some spares, alphabet strip
    with letters in upper and lower case, copies of formatted sheet with headings – see E1–2, leaflets
    about savings accounts – see E3/L1

     This page illustrates different ways of saving. The advantages and disadvantages of different ways of saving are
      discussed and some reasons for saving recorded. Any discussion of money is sensitive so should be handled with
     Learners use the images to help understand some key words and complete a typical application form to open a
      savings account.

All       Talk about it – saving
Ask learners to work in small groups to discus some reasons for saving, e.g. holidays, unexpected events, Christmas,
possible future unemployment, household items; i.e. learners are identifying items which may not be bought from
regular income. Pool ideas on the board/flipchart.

M7–8 Understand images and text
Look at the learner page together. Encourage learners to use the images to help understand some of the key words in
the accompanying text, e.g. bed, bank, Post Office. Understand and read the word ‘savings’ by underlining where the
word appears in the text. Support learners as they record some words and phrases in the section on the learner page
headed ‘Reasons for saving’ – these could be copied from the initial board/flipchart discussion.

E1–2       Write short sentences
As a group encourage learners to talk about the images on the learner page and use these for support as they read each
section of text. Check that learners understand that saving with interest means they get back more money than they
originally saved. Ask learners to work in pairs and provide them with a pre-formatted sheet with lines for writing and
with three columns – one narrow and two wider which are headed ‘Advantages’ and ‘Disadvantages’ respectively.
Ask learners to discuss together and record at least one advantage and one disadvantage of each method of saving
illustrated: record ‘A’ in the first column and write a short sentence in the appropriate advantage/disadvantage
columns, e.g. (A) Your money might get stolen./You know how much is there. Before starting model an example for
image (B): I don’t like going into banks./I can’t spend the money if it’s in the bank. Explain how these are sentences –
subject/verb/capital letter/full stop. Encourage learners to write neatly and legibly and in sentences.

Discuss and complete form
Check learners’ understanding of words on the application form on Source material page 0:26 by asking questions.
Discuss how the form should be completed – in block capitals. Show an alphabet strip with letters in both upper and
lower case and encourage learners to refer to this as they complete the form. Provide the correct spelling where
learners are unclear of key words in their address. Use spelling strategies to support learners in remembering how to
spell these key words, e.g. look, say, cover, write, check.

E3–L1 Read for detail and write a summary
Ask learners to work in pairs to complete the box ‘What do I need to know …’ as a focus for later reading. Provide a
variety of leaflets about Premium Bonds, cash ISAs, savings accounts, etc. Ask learners to choose and skim read one
of the leaflets to get the general gist. Use headings to identify main points and answers to their ‘questions’. Support
summary writing with a writing frame of paragraph headings – name of product and supplier, main features,
advantages, disadvantages.

Give pairs ‘biographies’ – they fill in the information on the form, for practice. Include someone who’s changed their
name, whose marital status is not clear, etc. Work on possible problem areas, e.g. order of writing d.o.b, use of block
letters, capitals for months, etc. Practise use of could for suggestions.

Encourage learners to pick up some leaflets from banks/building societies/supermarket and the Post Office for savings
accounts and Premium Bonds, and practise completing application forms.

                M7–8                      E1–2                                       E3–L1
    Reading     Rtc/M7.1, 2 Rt/M8.3       Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1, Rw/E1.1, 3 Rw/E2.1       Rt/E3.1, Rt/L1.1
    Writing     Wt/M7.2, Wt/8.4           Ww/E1.1, 2 Ww/E2.1                         Wt/E3.2, Wt/L1.2
 FP                           Module 6 Family finance

Saving for a rainy day                                                           6:5

                                             B You could open a savings
 A You could put your money                    account or buy a mini cash ISA
   under the bed.                              at a bank or building society.

                                                                   I’ve won
                                                                   this month!

 C You could put some money                  D You could buy some Premium
   into a National Savings                     Bonds at the Post Office.
   account at the Post Office.

                                                  F You could buy
                                                    savings stamps.

         E You could join a
           credit union.

  What do I need to know about a
  savings product?

                                                  G You could put £1 or
                                                    50p coins in a jar.

                                       Reasons for saving

     FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:6
Saving for children: Child Trust Funds
    Child Trust Fund, interest, tax free, tax credits, benefits, predict, worth
    key words on cards (see M7–8), copies of Source material pages 0:27 and 0:28

     Every child born after 31 August 2002 will receive at least £250 and children from poorer families at least
      double that amount. This is given in the form of a voucher by the government. A further government
      payment of a similar amount will be paid on the child’s seventh birthday. In addition parents, grandparents
      and others can boost the account with up to £1200 per year. Children cannot access the money until they are
      18 years old. Be sensitive about Sharia Law which forbids earning of interest: there is no Child Trust Fund
      which conforms with this at present (May 2005).
     This page gives learners an opportunity to obtain meaning from images and read and identify the purpose of
      the text. Learners annotate the learner page or write a short explanation.

All     Talk about it – children’s savings
Do you encourage your children to save? How do they save? Have you thought about saving money for your
child? What sorts of things will your child need money for when they are 18 years old?

M7–8 Obtain meaning from words, images and symbols and write
Look at the learner page together. Support reading of the heading. Ask learners to identify the words ‘Child
Trust Fund’ elsewhere on the page. Look at each image in turn and support learners in understanding the
meaning of each image. Ask learners to follow the text at the bottom of the learner page. Support learners in re-
reading this text. Check understanding of words such as ‘interest’ (extra money added each year). Learners
annotate the images with words such as baby, car, van, college, selecting the correct word card for support.
Learners can also write simple sentences as appropriate, e.g. ‘This baby has £250’, ‘This boy wants a car’, etc.,
using word cards for support.

E1–2 Read and write
Ask learners to work in pairs to look at and discuss the images on the learner page. Learners read the text at the
foot of the learner page. Check understanding by asking questions, e.g. How much can other people put into the
trust fund each year? Ask learners to write a short paragraph on Child Trust Funds. Support learners by writing
the first sentence – ‘The government is giving at least £250 to all babies.’ Encourage learners to use the points
on the learner page to structure their writing. Remind them to write in sentences so that each point made is a
single sentence – use the opening above as an example. Add a suitable heading.

E3–L1 Read for detail
Ask learners to work in pairs to read the article on Child Trust Funds on Source material pages 0:27 and 0:28.
Suggest that they read one section at a time, discussing it and adding answers to the table at the end of the article
before moving on to the next section. Bring the group together to discuss their answers. If access to the Internet
is available, ask learners to work in pairs to find out about Child Trust Funds offered by a high street bank, a
building society and a supermarket – discuss search terms, e.g. name of bank + Child Trust Funds. Alternatively
have leaflets available from a variety of ‘known’ providers. Learners can complete a similar table to the one in
Source material page 0:28 but with specific information from the leaflet or Internet search. Discuss limitations
of these information sources, e.g. they may not give exact interest rate or fees charged.

Focus on future simple tense, e.g. ‘will earn’, ‘will not affect’. Teachers should teach/revise the use of
can/cannot to express permission and practise weak forms, e.g. /kn/.

Encourage learners to visit one of the high street banks or building societies and ask for a leaflet on Child Trust
Funds. Learners can identify some main points, e.g. type of Child Trust Fund, and share information with the
group at the next session. Be ready to discuss how easy the leaflet was to understand.

                           M7–8                    E1–2                     E3–L1
    Reading                Rtc/M7.1, 2             Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1         Rt/E3.8
    Writing                Wt/M7.2, Wt/8.4         Wt/E1.1, Wt/E2.1         Wt/L1.3
 FP                           Module 6 Family finance

Saving for children:                                                                     6:6

Child Trust Funds

     The money saved will earn interest.
     There is no tax to pay on the interest or the capital growth.
     You can put up to £1200 into the fund each year. This is on top of the money
      from the government that is paid when the child is born and on its seventh
     The money cannot be paid out until the child is 18 years old.
     The money in a Child Trust Fund will not affect the benefits or tax credits that
      the family receives.
     If the maximum amount of £1200 is put into the fund each year, some experts
      predict it could be worth over £40,000 by the child’s 18th birthday.

      FP                                    Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:7 (Audio 21)
Budgets: money going out
    budget, loan, spread, ticked, takeaways, mortgage, landline rental, satellite packages
    board/flipchart and markers, audio clip and player, dictionary

     This page focuses on financial outgoings, with items of expenditure grouped under appropriate headings. As with
      all topics involving money, treat this with sensitivity.
     Learners read and understand the words and phrases in the text boxes. They distinguish between essential bills
      and non-essential items, and rank items of expenditure according to necessity.

All       Talk about it – what is a budget?
Ask learners to suggest what a budget might be. Use a dictionary to check meaning and record on the flipchart. Check
learners’ understanding of balancing a budget. If you spend more than you earn, either cut down on what you spend or
get more income – otherwise you’ll be in debt. (If more income than expenditure, then saving is possible.) Record
some places where learners may get more financial help and advice – Social Security/Council/Job Centre/CAB as
appropriate. Explain > and < with examples e.g. 6 > 2, 5 < 10.

M7–8 Read and record words and phrases
Support learners in reading the text on the learner page. With weaker learners, restrict reading to the main headings in
each text box and ask them to suggest items for each category. If they choose words that appear in the box, encourage
them to identify that word in the box. It may be helpful to cover up the parts of the text not being immediately read.
Pause after each section to allow learners to repeat the words and phrases and underline any of the items they
currently spend money on. Ask learners to add a ‘star’ if they think that item is essential, e.g. rent, electricity. Support
learners as they record other items which they spend money on. Either write the words in an appropriate box or in the
‘other’ text box at the foot of the page.

E1–2      Read and record words and phrases
Support learners in decoding words and phrases in each text box. Ask learners to tick the items of expenditure they
incur on a regular basis and put a question mark against any they are unsure about. Ask learners to add a ‘star’ beside
expenditure which is essential, e.g. electricity, rent, mortgage. Ask learners to record other items which they spend
money on, either in an appropriate box or in the ‘other’ text box at the foot of the page. In pairs, learners discuss and
record items of expenditure in order of necessity, e.g. rent first and entertainment last. The pairs then choose one or
more of the categories and record (on a flipchart sheet) how to make savings in that category, e.g. cheaper to have one
phone not two, find cheaper electricity supplier, rent DVDs from the library rather than buy them, etc. Share ideas
with the rest of the group.

E3–L1 Listen to a case study
Draw three columns on a flipchart with the headings ‘short term’, ‘medium term’ and ‘long term’. Listen to audio clip
21 and ask learners to identify some of the different expenditures Tia will make; decide with discussion whether these
are short/medium/long-term expenditures.

Write a letter
Ask learners to write Tia a letter giving her some advice for when the baby arrives and she and her partner have less
income. Discuss some paragraph subjects to support their writing, e.g. make sure she’s getting all the benefits she’s
entitled to, tips on saving money, not to be influenced by advertising and magazines, enjoy your baby, etc. Give
learners a choice of opening sentences and remind them that a paragraph is generally one point/sentence with added
information about that point.

Give learners a version of the learner page with headings only and cards with the bullet-point items on. Ask them to
put items under the appropriate heading. Pre-teach vocabulary and/or elicit meaning with the help of visual aids/realia,
e.g. mobile, TV licence, takeaway menus. Practise mortgage, package and elicit more lexical items with the same

Encourage learners to record items of expenditure for a day or week and decide if they are essential.
                             M7–8                         E1–2                         E3–L1
Reading                      Rtc/M7.2, Rt/M8.2            Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1             Rt/E3.1, Rt/L1.1
Writing                      Wt/M7.2, Wt/M8.4             Wt/E1.1, Wt/E2.1             Wt/E3.2, Wt/L1.3
Handling data                HD1/M8.2                     HD1/E1.2
  FP                        Module 6 Family finance

Budgets: money going out                                                       6:7

(Audio 21)

 Money in = money out             Repayments:              Telephone:
                                                            Landline rental
 Money in < money out                                       phone calls
 Money in > money out                loans                 pay as you go
                                     credit/store cards    contract
                                     HP agreements
                                     Catalogue

 Clothing/footwear                Housing:
                                   rent
                                   mortgage
                                                            TV licence
                                   council tax
                                                            satellite

  hairdressing
  makeup
  soap/shampoo                                            Insurance:
  newspapers/magazines                                     house
  cigarettes                     Fuel/Utilities:           contents
  alcohol                         water                   personal
  medicines                       gas
                                   electricity
                                   coal

  Supermarket shopping
  takeaways
                                                            fares
  eating out
                                                            car – insurance
  school dinners/ packed
                                                              Road Tax petrol
    lunches                                                   maintenance


      FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:8
Budgets: money coming in
    deductions, tax, National Insurance, gross
    pay, net pay, forklift truck, overtime, wages

    board/flipchart and markers

     This page is one of three budgeting pages which use the same family to illustrate sources of income,
      expenditure and how to put together a budget. The figures quoted for earnings of a forklift truck operator
      and a care assistant are typical and the tax and NI deductions accurate according to tax tables for the year to
      5 April 2005. As with all topics involving money, treat this with sensitivity.
     Learners understand some key vocabulary connected with earnings and deductions. Following the example
      they are encouraged to tick their own sources of income. More able learners will be able to calculate net and
      yearly pay.

All      Talk about it – sources of income
Ask learners to suggest some sources of income – benefits as well as earnings – and record these clearly on the
board/flipchart. As each is written ask learners to read each specialist word aloud.

E1–2 Read and understand some specialist words
If necessary, support learners in reading the scenario on the learner page. What does Deepa do? How many
hours a week does Deepa work? Look more carefully at the sources of income and support reading of specialist
key words which should be easier as many will have been identified earlier. Ask learners to add their own ticks
for sources of income they currently receive and question marks against any they are unsure of. Ask learners to
look at the wages slip and suggest what it is. Make the learning point that format as well as content helps
learners to recognise purposes of texts. Look at the key words and explanations. Ask learners to draw arrows
from the text boxes to the appropriate parts of the wages slip.

E3–L1 Specialist words, scanning skills and calculations
Complete the learner page activities as above. Practise scanning skills on the wages slip. What is the name of
Gopal’s employer? What is his pay roll number? Ask learners to draw arrows from the text boxes to the
appropriate parts of the wages slip. Talk through the terms and figures on the wages slip. Check that learners
understand that net pay is the amount you will receive in your pay packet. Normally this is worked out by the
employer but especially with overtime, it is useful to know how to check this. Ask questions: Will Gopal’s net
pay be more than or less than his gross pay? What has been taken from his gross pay? How will you work out
how much Gopal will actually get to spend? Ask learners to work out his net pay accurately, making sure the
decimal points are aligned. Check with a calculator. (Gross pay £304 minus tax £42.11 minus NI £23.48 =
£238.41 net pay) Add this amount to the wages slip on the learner page. Ensure learners understand how to
input money amounts into a calculator. Ask learners to work out and check with a calculator Gopal’s earnings
for four weeks (4 × £238.41). Check understanding of weeks in the year – 52; if working out yearly amounts
learners need to multiply by 52. Use a calculator to work this out accurately (52 × £238.41 = £12,397.32).

Use visual aids to illustrate the scenario, e.g. pictures of a care assistant and a forklift truck operator.
Introduce/elicit modes of payment: yearly, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly. Learners at E3/L1 can expand the
discussion to include the average earnings for different jobs and make comparisons with other countries.

Encourage learners to find out and record all their sources of income, making clear if these are weekly or
monthly amounts. Be sensitive as to whether learners wish to share this information.

                        M7–8              E1–2                 E3–L1
Reading                                   Rt/E1.1              Rt/E3.1, 7, 8
                                          Rt/E2.1,2            Rw/E3.1
                                          Rw/E2.1              Rt/L1.5
Measures and                                                   MSS1/E3.1, 2
shape                                                          MSS1/L1.1
 FP                        Module 6 Family finance

Budgets: money coming in                                                           6:8

                                                   My partner Deepa and I have a
                                                   little boy called Sanjay. Deepa
Money coming in:             We’ve ticked          works about 20 hours a week as
 wages                    the list to show      a care assistant. She earns £95
 interest on savings        where our             a week after deductions. I work
 Housing Benefit            money comes           shifts driving a forklift truck. I
 Council Tax Benefit        from each             sometimes get overtime but not
 Child Benefit            week.                 this week. Between us we
 Child Tax Benefit                              manage to look after Sanjay so
 Working Tax Benefit                              we don’t have any childcare
 Job Seeker’s Allowance                           costs.
 Income Support
 Incapacity Benefit
 maternity benefits
 other

                                                       This is Gopal’s National
 This is the                                           Insurance Number
 first week
                Fenside Produce Ltd
 of the tax
 year which
 starts on                                  Gopal Singh          NI ML 987 0887C
 April 6th.                                 Pay Roll             0167

                Week 1
 This is the
                Gross pay 40 hrs @ £7.60                         £304.00
                Tax deducted                                     £ 42.11
 Gopal gets
                NI                                               £ 23.48
 in his pay
 packet.        Net pay                                          £

                                                   This is the             This is
                                                   amount taken off        the tax
                                                   for National            paid this
                                                   Insurance.              week.

      FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:9
A weekly budget
    budget, debt, savings
    board/flipchart and markers, additional copies of learner pages 6:7 and 6:8, calculators

     This focus page looks at a typical budget for Gopal and Deepa. Amounts shown for council house rent,
      water, electricity and Council Tax are typical amounts for an area outside London. Inevitably these will
      differ from learners’ own experiences, particularly if they rent privately, pay a mortgage, etc. As with all
      topics involving money, treat this with sensitivity.
     Learners read and understand tabular information. Budget items are recorded in a table. More able learners
      make calculations and understand that all amounts in a budget must be based on the same time frame.

All      Talk about it – budgeting
Ask learners if they have some idea of the amounts they spend on different items each week, e.g. weekly shop,
petrol, mobile phone and similar. Discuss the concepts of debt (spending more than you have coming in) and
savings (money left over after spending each week). Ask learners to identify the ‘sad’ face for debt and the
‘smiley’ face for savings on the learner page. Explain the mathematical signs for greater than (>), less than (<)
and equal to. Record some examples on a flipchart, e.g. 9 > 4, 3 < 6 and ask learners to suggest some of their

E1–2 Read and present tabular information
Using the learner page ask learners to identify the column for ‘money in’ and that for ‘money out’. How much
rent do they pay? What does the car cost to run each week? What is Deepa’s take home pay? Learners may find
it helpful to cover the print below the line they are reading, making reading across the columns easier. Ask
learners to identify and tick regular outgoings, e.g. rent, electricity. Using the headings from learner page 6:8
‘Budgets – money coming in’, ask learners to identify their own sources of income and record these on the
learner page in the correct column. Using the learner page 6:7 ‘Budgets – money going out’ ask learners to
identify and record their own items of expenditure, e.g. rent, TV licence, etc. in the correct column.

E3–L1 Read tabular information and make calculations
Look at the learner page together. How much do Gopal and Deepa spend on repayments? How much per week
for their water bill? Explain how to estimate by rounding amounts to the nearest £. Give learners practice in
rounding amounts below 50p, e.g. £1.24/£2.48p, to the £ below. Practise examples of rounding up, e.g.
£1.78/£5.65. Explain that amounts involving exactly 50p are generally rounded up to the next £. Use these
rounded amounts to give an estimate of each amount in the money out column – outgoings. Write each
estimated amount beside the actual amount on the learner page. Then calculate total outgoings using the
estimated amounts. Total the actual amounts and compare with the estimated total. Check calculations with a
calculator, making sure amounts are entered correctly. Learners may like to complete and record a manual
calculation of income – money coming in. Stress the need to keep digits and decimal points correctly aligned.
Check learners understand that all amounts in a budget are based on the same period of time, e.g. the yearly
Council Tax bill has been divided by 52 to get the weekly amount because there are 5 weeks in the year.
Discuss how you would calculate yearly amount for rent. Ask questions: Would the rent for a year be greater
than the weekly rent? Should we multiply or divide the weekly rent to get the yearly rent? Practise working out
the rent, car insurance, TV licence, etc. for a year using a calculator.

Learners at E1/E2 can revise use of the present simple tense for regular habits, e.g. ‘They pay £× rent a month.’
All levels can compare the cost of living in the UK with other countries using comparatives and superlatives.

Encourage learners to complete the budget with their own expenditure and income figures, dividing the yearly
and monthly bills to get weekly totals or working out a weekly budget. Be sensitive as to whether learners wish
to share this information.

                           M7–8              E1–2                   E3–L1
    Handling data                            HD1/E1.1               HD1/E3.1, 4, HD1/L1.1
    Measures and                                                    MSS1/E3.1, MSS1/L1.1
 FP                          Module 6 Family finance

A weekly budget                                                           6:9

                                                   Money in = money out
         This is our weekly budget.
         We know what money we                     Money in < money out
         have to spend each week
         and what we are                           Money in > money out
         spending it on.

 Money in                      £       Money out                      £

 Total                                 Total

      FP                                   Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:10 (Audio 22-23-24-25-26-27-28)
Different ways to pay
    advantage, disadvantage
    board/flipchart and markers, Source material pages 0:29 and 0:30, audio clips and player

     Goods can be paid for in a number of ways.
     On this page learners read and recognise the different forms of payment. They listen to audio explanations and
      identify and record items which could be purchased using each payment method.

All       Talk about it – methods of payment
Divide the flipchart page into three columns and ask learners to suggest different ways of paying for goods. These are
recorded in the first column. In the second and third columns ask learners to suggest an advantage and a disadvantage
for each payment method, e.g. cash is handy (advantage) but you could be tempted to spend more if you carry cash
(disadvantage). Learners may not be able to suggest advantages/disadvantages for all the payment methods suggested
but this exercise can be returned to following the main activity.

E1–2       Listen for detail
Listen to the audio clips, one by one. Ask learners to match the description with the name and image on the learner
page, and listen out for the type of items purchased using that method. Pause the audio player after each clip and ask
learners to record two items purchased in the box beside the payment method. Learners then suggest and record one
further item which could be purchased using this method of payment – encourage them to choose appropriate items
for each payment method (e.g. it is unlikely that a £100 item will be purchased with cash). When the learner page is
complete ask learners to share their suggested items.

E3–L1 Read definitions and use images
Read the information on Source material page 0:29 and identify which type of payment method is being described.
Record this beside each explanation on the Source material page. Complete the learner page with appropriate
examples of items/services which can be purchased using each payment method. Ask learners to use the Source
material page to re-visit the discussion activity and complete the payment methods/advantages/disadvantages list for
each payment method listed.

Read tabular information
Look at Source material page 0:30. Explain that this is part of a bank statement for the Singh family, whose budgets
were looked at on other pages. Explain how the statement is arranged – headings for columns, what the headings
mean, e.g. ‘Money in’ generally means money from wages and benefits. Explain how the figures are calculated by
talking through the first few entries: They had £27.35 in their account left over from the previous month. Gopal’s
wages were paid in (£238.41) and that meant they had £265.76 in their account (£238.41 + 27.35). Deepa went
shopping at the supermarket and spent £41.97 (using a debit card as the money went out from the account
immediately). This left … Learners may find it helpful to use a blank page to cover lower parts of the statement as
each entry is looked at.

Scan for detail
Ask learners to work in pairs and complete the questions at the bottom of the page, scanning the statement for key
words and reading the detail. Learners could revisit the definitions on Source material page 0:29 for additional

E1/E2 learners may need an alternative text which doesn’t use the passive voice. E3/L1 learners can identify where
the passive voice is used and what the tenses are (e.g. ‘has been given’, ‘can be used’) and discuss why passives are
often used in more formal, written texts.

Encourage learners to note down the different payment methods they use during a week. Would another method be
more efficient or safer?
                            M7–8                E1–2                     E3–L1
    Reading                                                              Rt/E3.1, 9, Rw/E3.4, Rt/L1.1
    Speaking and                                SLlr/E1.1, 2,
    listening                                   SLlr/E2.1, 2
    Writing                                     Wt/E1.1, Wt/E2.1
   FP                    Module 6 Family finance

Different ways to pay                              6:10

(Audio 24-25-26-27-28)

    Coins and notes                    1.


 Direct debit

 Debit card


 Store card

 Credit card                           3.

     FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:11 (Audio 29-30)
Choosing the right bank account
    see glossary on Source material page 0:31

    audio clip and player, board/flipchart and markers, Source material page 0:31

     This page sets out features of a no-frills basic bank account and a current account.
     Learners read the information and discuss the services they would need from a bank account. Specialist key
      vocabulary is understood using a glossary. The purpose of the texts is identified and more able learners can
      complete the diagrammatical representation of each account to identify the key differences.

All      Talk about it – having a bank account
Ask if learners have a bank account. On the board/flipchart record reasons for having a bank account, e.g. keeps
money safe, somewhere to pay wages/benefits into, earns interest. Ask learners to suggest why they chose a
particular bank/building society – e.g. handy, good reputation, already used for another account.

E1–2 Understand explanatory texts
Look at the learner page together. Use audio clips 29–30 to support learners in reading the texts. As they follow
the text ask learners to underline specialist vocabulary where they are unsure of the meaning, e.g. debit card,
cash back, cheque book, overdraft. Use alphabetical order to access the short glossary on Source material page
0:31 and check the meanings of the specialist words used. Finally, learners choose and tick the purpose of the
texts on the learner page.

E3–L1 Practise different reading skills
Ask learners to skim read the title and headings on the learner page and suggest what the texts will be about.
Then ask them to read the text more carefully and underline any unfamiliar specialist words. Learners use the
glossary on Source material page 0:31 to find out the meaning of the specialist words used. When each
explanation has been read and understood ask questions: Does this basic account have a cheque book? Can you
use a cash machine to get your money out if you have a basic account? When both explanations have been read,
discuss with learners their own experiences if they have a bank account and the facilities they use with their
account. Then ask learners to complete the diagrammatic representation of each account on the same Source
material page: learners identify the main differences between the accounts, following the example on Source
material page 0:31. Use questions to help learners identify the main differences. Which account gives you a
cheque book? Which account is suitable for someone who doesn’t want to get overdrawn? Finally, learners
choose and tick the purpose of the texts on the learner page.

Learners review the use of modal verbs (can, cannot, may) so that they understand the difference between ‘may’
for permission and ‘may’ for possibility in ‘you may have an overdraft’, ‘you may receive interest’. Use realia
such as credit cards, cheque books, etc. to help E1/E2 learners understand vocabulary.

Encourage learners to collect one or more leaflets from local high street banks, building societies and the Post
Office specifying whether for a basic or ordinary current account. Identify the services offered by each account
by scanning for and underlining the specialist key words from the glossary.

                           M7–8                    E1–2                    E3–L1
    Reading                                        Rt/E1.1, 2              Rt/E3.1, 2, 6, 8
                                                   Rt/E2.1, 2              Rw/E3.4
                                                   Rw/E2.5                 Rt/L1.1, 5

  FP                            Module 6 Family finance

Choosing the right bank account                                                        6:11

(Audio 29-30)

 With a basic bank account:                   With an ordinary current account:
  you can pay money in                        you can pay money in
  wages and benefits can be paid              wages and benefits can be paid
    directly into your account                   directly into your account
  you can get cash out with a card at         you can get cash out with a card at
    a cash machine and most accounts             cash machine and from the branch of
    allow you to get cash from your              your bank or building society – some
    local Post Office                            accounts allow you to get cash from
  some basic accounts give you a                the Post Office
    debit card to pay for shopping – this      you can get ‘cash back’ at the
    can also be used to get ‘cash back’          supermarket with a debit card
    at the supermarket                         you can pay bills directly using direct
  you can pay bills directly using              debits and standing orders
    direct debits                              you get a cheque book
  you do not get a cheque book                you may have an overdraft, but it will
  you cannot have an overdraft                  cost you money
  there are no charges if you keep            you will receive a small amount of
    enough money in your account to              interest on the money in your
    pay any direct debits.                       account.

 If you have a basic bank account or a current account you can save money
  some firms like gas and electricity companies give you a discount if you set up a
     direct debit
  some firms like insurance companies will not sell to you if you cannot pay from a
     bank account
  some companies add a charge for paying bills by cash at the Post Office
  you ‘lose’ some of your money if you use a cheque cashing service.

 The purpose of these texts is to:
  persuade you to open a bank account
  tell you how to open a bank account
  give you some information on different
    bank accounts.

                                                                 Which type of
                                                                 account is best
                                                                 for us?

      FP                                    Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:12
Take care with credit
    terms are explained on Source material page 0:32 and on the learner page

    board/flipchart and markers, Source material pages 0:32 and 0:33, file paper, paper glue

     The interest rates on the learner page were genuine at the time of writing (February 2005). Rates charged by
      different categories of lender will vary but the underlying differences between types of borrowing will remain the
      same, e.g. store cards are expensive and doorstep lenders extortionate.
     Learners read a glossary of specialist words and rank credit providers in order of the interest rates charged. They
      look at a ‘leaflet’ showing typical rates and monthly repayments for personal loans and calculate the amounts
      paid in interest for loans of different amounts and for different periods of time.

All      Talk about it – when to use credit
Use sensitivity when discussing credit, e.g. Sharia Law does not approve of the paying or receiving of interest; some
learners may have issues with debt. Record when learners may choose to borrow or pay with credit cards (e.g. large
household items, Christmas) and why (e.g. spreads the cost, insufficient savings, unexpected expenditure).

E1–2      Listen to explanations
Look at the learner page and support learners in reading the speech bubbles. Encourage them to listen as you read the
definitions of each type of borrowing and to follow them on Source material page 0:32. After each definition, check
their understanding with questions. Read the definitions again with less support. Look at the tabular information on
the learner page.

Extract and compare numerical information
Ask learners to identify the rate of interest for each of the key terms explained and record the rate(s) of interest in the
box beside the relevant explanation on Source material page 0:32. Ask learners to cut the Source material page into
pieces so that they can rearrange the types of borrowing, starting with the cheapest (shopping catalogues/some shops)
leading to the most expensive (doorstep lender). Ask learners to stick these onto a page in this order (cheapest to most
expensive). Discuss the implications if they wanted to borrow money. Relate explanations to personal experience if
this is relevant and acceptable.

E3–L1 Understand tabular information and make calculations
Ask learners to skim read the title and headings of Source material page 0:33 and decide what the leaflet might be
about. Ask learners to work in pairs, asking each other questions based on the information in the table, e.g. What’s the
interest rate if you borrow £5,000? What’s the monthly repayment amount if you borrow £2,000 over 36 months? For
learners at L1 – discuss how to turn the months into yearly equivalents (multiply by 12 or repeated addition of ‘12’
because there are 12 months in year). Write the equivalents in years in the grid at the foot of the page. Discuss how
you would work out how much interest would be due over and above the loan amount if you borrowed £2000 for 12
months (find the total amount paid for 12 months – 12 × £181.28 – and subtract the original loan amount, £2000, to
get the interest paid over the year, £175.36). Repeat the process for each loan amount and time period and record
answers in the box on Source material page 0:33. Discuss the pattern of answers. Learners may wish to do the
calculations with a pen and paper before checking them with a calculator. Ensure learners key amounts with decimal
points accurately into a calculator and understand the correct function keys to use (×) by giving practice first, e.g. 9 ×

Use bilingual materials where appropriate (for learners at E1/E2). Other resources which have simple, clear
explanations can be accessed from organisations such as: Creditaction (www.creditaction.org.uk) CAB
(www.adviceguide.org.uk) BBC (www.bbc.co.uk/yourmoney) ClearStart (www.clearstart.org.uk)

Encourge learners to collect some leaflets for credit cards and loans, then order and compare the rates on offer.
Learners can look at interest rates in shopping catalogues and compare.
                                 M7–8                 E1–2                      E3–L1
    Reading                                           Rw/E1.1, Rw/E2.1          Rt/E3.7, Rt/L1.5
    Number                                            N1/E1.3, N1/E2.2          N2/L1.11
    Measures and shape                                                          HD1/E3.1
    Handling data                                                               HD1/E3.1
 FP                         Module 6 Family finance

Take care with credit                                                               6:12

       What’s credit?
                                                                  That’s right. The
                                                                  interest rate you pay
                                                                  will depend on things
                                                                  like your credit
                                                                  score, the type of
                                                                  borrowing and if you
                                            But there are
                                                                  have ‘security’ like a
                                            lots of different
                                                                  house for the money
                                            interest rates
                                                                  you borrow.
                                            aren’t there?

       That’s when you
       borrow money. You
       have to ‘pay’ to borrow
       money and that’s
       called ‘interest’.

                                 Type of borrowing                 Typical interest
                                                                   rate per year
                                 Bank borrowing (arranged)         10% or more

                                 Bank borrowing (not arranged)     25% or more

                                 Credit card                       10% or more

                                 Doorstep lender                   40% or more

                                 Hire purchase                     30% or more

                                 Loan from a credit union          11% or more

                                 Mortgage                          6% or more
 Credit can be useful            Shopping catalogue e.g. for 20    0%
  but it can be very
                                 Shopping catalogue e.g. for 50    25% or more
  dangerous if you               weeks)
  cannot pay back                Shops (some shops and for a       0%
   what you have                 limited period of time)
      borrowed                   Store card                        20% or more

     FP                                    Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:13
Budgeting for a baby
    second hand, borrow, buggy, bouncing rocker

    board/flipchart and markers, Source material page 0:34, shopping catalogues which include
    baby equipment
     Buying equipment for a baby can be expensive. On this page various items are illustrated, some more necessary
      than others.
     Learners are given an opportunity to name and record items of baby equipment and discuss whether they might
      buy new, buy second hand, borrow the item or receive it as a present. Learners at Entry Level look at sources of
      information about where the items could be bought new and second hand.

All       Talk about it – the expense of a new baby
Have you saved some money for baby items? Will you be claiming the maternity grant? Have you thought about what
you will need? Draw two columns on the board/ flipchart. Head the first column ‘Essential’ and the second ‘Not
essential’. Ask learners to name items of baby equipment and give reasons why the item should be recorded under one
or other heading.

 M7–8 Understand images and write words and phrases
Ask learners to look at the various drawings on the learner page in turn and name the baby items illustrated. Support
the sounding-out and writing of names against the item illustrated. (Some items may already have been identified at
the start of the session and learners can read and copy the correct word from the flipchart.) Support learners in reading
the headings on the table at the foot of the focus page. Ask learners to write items of baby equipment they feel they
will need and to tick the box indicating how they might get these items.

E1–2      Write words and phrases and identify sources of information
Encourage learners to discuss with reasons different ways of acquiring baby equipment, e.g. a baby bath can be
borrowed as it will be used for a short period of time. Complete the table at the foot of the learner page. Look at the
text and drawings on Source material page 0:34 which illustrate some sources of new and used baby equipment.
Discuss these and ask learners to work in pairs to match the images to the information source and say whether for new
or second-hand baby goods. Learners may be able to add additional information sources, e.g. TV shopping channel.

E3–L1 Use contents and index pages
Discuss the terms ‘contents’, ‘index’, ‘section’, and where these would be found. Ask learners to work in pairs to
draw up a list of baby items and write these in the ‘Baby item’ column on the learner page. Use the organisational
features of one the catalogues and find the items selected. Use the images on the page to choose a particular item. Use
the image number/letter to find and read the description and price. Record the price in the ‘Buy new’ column. Repeat
for all the items selected. (Before learners record prices stress that the digits must be correctly aligned.)

Estimate and make calculations
As a group discuss the idea of ‘rounding’ and its purpose. Discuss rounding to the nearest 10p/50p/£1 and decide
which would be most appropriate in this instance. Ask learners to round each item price and record it in the next
column, making sure the digits are correctly aligned. Add the rounded prices (with a calculator, mentally or on paper)
to get an estimate of the total cost of the items chosen. Add the catalogue prices of the items and compare the actual
total with the estimate. (Check learners know how to input prices into the calculator.)

Teachers can use authentic materials, such as illustrated catalogues, either actual catalogues or accessed via the
Internet, to stimulate discussion and for matching exercises, e.g. match word to object, object to price, object to
blurb/description and so on.

Ask learners to look at one or more of the information sources identified which they have not used before and report
back on its usefulness.
                            M7–8                     E1–2                      E3–L1
    Reading                 Rtc/M7.1, Rt/M8.3        Rt/E1.2, Rt/E2.3, 4       Rt/E3.5, 9, Rt/L1.4
    Writing                 Wt/M7.2, Wt/8.4
    Handling data                                    HD1/E1.2
    Measures and                                                               MSS1/E3.1, 2
    shape                                                                      MSS1/L1.1                              170
 FP                           Module 6 Family finance

Budgeting for a baby                                                         6:13

             A Moses basket                        This baby’s going to
             would be nice.                        cost a fortune.

 Baby item             Present    Borrow   Buy second    Buy       Rounded
                                           hand          new       price

      FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:14 (Audio 31)
Making food for your baby
    consistency, mash, simmer, steam, preserve, microwave, vitamins, minerals, convenient,
    equipment, frozen, tinned, packaged, ingredients, boil, sieve, portion

    audio clips and player, board/flipchart and markers, glue, scissors, file paper, graph or squared
    paper, rulers, pencils, rubbers, Source material page 0:35
    For advice on weaning and baby foods see http://www.dh.gov.uk/
     Homemade food for babies and toddlers is healthy, nutritious and cheap. It is easy to mash or blend small
      quantities of food which the rest of the family is eating or make small quantities especially for baby.
     With audio support, learners use text and images to sequence instructions for preparing homemade food.
      Some fruits and vegetables suitable for babies are identified and arranged in alphabetical order. Learners
      look at and discuss different ways of writing instructions and rewrite instructions using a different format.

All      Talk about it – ways to feed babies and toddlers
Use a flipchart to record the different ways parents choose to feed their children – tins, jars, packaged foods like
baby rice, types of homemade food, especially for baby or as part of an adult meal, with examples. Share ideas
about meal– favourites and quickly prepared foods which small children enjoy, e.g. mashed banana, boiled egg
and soldiers.

E1–2 Read instructional texts with support and sort data
Listen to audio clip 31. Cut the learner page into sections so that the ‘lettered’ text pieces can be placed in an
appropriate sequence. Ask learners to work in pairs to check and discuss each other’s text sequencing. Listen to
the audio sequence again to check the order. Glue the text onto file paper in the correct order. Support learners
as they read the recipes at the bottom of the learner page. Discuss which text is easier to follow. Using the pro
forma on Source material page 0:35, sort and classify foods into fruits and vegetables, following the example
shown. Encourage learners to add their own examples. Use a dictionary to check spellings.

E3–L1 Read and rewrite instructional texts
Cut the learner page into sections so that the ‘lettered’ text pieces can be placed in an appropriate sequence. Ask
learners to sequence the text in an appropriate order and compare their order with that of their partner. Glue the
text onto file paper in the correct order. Read the recipes and discuss which text is easier to follow. Identify
imperatives in the numbered text, underline these and discuss their use. Look at the continuous text recipe and
identify and underline the imperatives. Compare both recipes and note that imperatives start each separate
instruction. Use this knowledge to rewrite the recipe for chicken, lentil and vegetables as numbered points using
the pro forma on Source material page 0:35.

Organise data and construct a bar chart
Use the pro forma in Source material page 0:35 and complete it by adding other types of fruit and vegetables to
those listed. Use ticks to sort foods into their appropriate categories. Add the ticks for fruit and for vegetables.
Represent the data as a simple bar chart: y axis labelled with divisions 1–20 and two bars to represent the totals
for fruit and vegetables resting on the x axis. Label the elements of the bar chart.

For learners at E1/E2, teachers can pre-teach vocabulary, using flash and recipe cards, recipe books and
video/TV, for demonstrating cooking processes. Learners at E3/L1 can extend the discussion to the wider issues
of nutrition and healthy eating, as preparation for the next topic. Learners could do a project to produce a group
recipe booklet.

Encourage learners to write out and share recipes their children enjoy. Choose and use a suitable format as
discussed. If word processing facilities are available, this could be an opportunity to produce a group recipe
book – writing recipes in a suitable format and checking for accuracy using spell and grammar checks.

                          M7–8                     E1–2                     E3–L1
Reading                                            Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1         Rt/E3.1, Rt/L1.1
Writing                                            Ww/E1.1                  Ww/E3.3, Wt/L1.5
Handling data                                      HD1/E1.2                 HD1/E3.4, HD1/L1.2
  FP                              Module 6 Family finance

Making food for your baby                                                            6:14

(Audio 31)

                                                   B The Department of Health
                                                     advises not to add sugar or salt
                                                     to your baby’s food.

   A Now decide how you are going to cook
     your ingredients. Steaming is one of
     the best cooking methods to preserve
     vitamins and minerals in food. You can
     also microwave food quickly or use a
     little water to boil and simmer chicken,
     vegetables and fruit.
                                                   C Before you start, make sure
                                                     your hands and your
                                                     equipment are clean.

                                                   D Then decide what you are going
   C Making your own baby food is simple             to prepare. You can use fresh,
     and convenient, and it can save you             frozen, tinned and packaged
     money.                                          foods.

   Chicken, lentil and vegetables                  Apple and sweet potato
   Put 1 tablespoon of red or green lentils        1. Peel an apple and half a sweet
   and 1 tablespoon of rice into a saucepan           potato.
   containing 2 mugs of water. Add 2               2. Cut into small pieces and steam
   tablespoons of finely chopped vegetables           in a sieve over boiling water.
   such as a tinned tomato, carrots and            3. Mash with a fork and a little boiled
   frozen green beans. Simmer for 20                  water or baby milk to get the right
   minutes. Add some finely diced cooked              consistency.
   chicken and simmer for a further five           4. Leave to cool a little before giving
   minutes. Mash or blend to the consistency          to your baby.
   required. Cool a little before giving to your   5. Freeze a portion for another
   baby. Freeze a portion for another                 occasion.

      FP                                    Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:15
Healthy food for less
    wholemeal, saturated fats, fibre, portion, pulses, lentils, sugary, salty, desserts

    board/flipchart and markers, dictionaries, larger sticky notes in different colours, Source material
    page 0:36, magazines with food pictures, food items to weigh (e.g. crisps), electronic scales,
    packaged food items

     This page gives some simple guidelines about healthy foods and healthy eating. The nutritional information on
      Source material page 0:36 is genuine.
     Learners read some information about healthy eating. They write and share ideas for eating cheaply and healthily.
      Nutritional information on food packaging is compared.

All       Talk about it – healthy and less healthy foods
Write the names of various obviously healthy foods – e.g. chicken, dahl, oranges, broccoli – along with foods which
are less healthy – e.g. crisps, frozen cheesecake, chips – on a flipchart. Try to choose foods which will be culturally
relevant to the members of the group. Look at each item in turn and discuss why learners feel an item is healthy or
less healthy and put a tick, cross or question mark (if you are unsure) against each as appropriate. Healthy foods are
those which are low in saturated fat, sugar and salt, and high in fibre.

E1–2      Read short texts and write words and phrases
Support learners in reading about healthy foods on the learner page. Explain terms whose meaning is unclear – high
fibre (good as it helps prevent bowel disorders and heart disease) and saturated fat (bad as it clogs arteries leading to
heart disease and strokes). Read the ideas about providing healthy and cheap meals. Discuss the format – bullet points
and use of imperatives. Ask learners to work in pairs and write down on sticky notes their own tips for feeding a
family healthily and cheaply – learners may wish to draft their points first before making a fair copy on the sticky
notes. Support learners in using imperatives as on the learner page. Display the sticky notes on a sheet of flipchart
paper for comment. Alternatively learners could work in pairs to produce a poster with images cut out from magazines
or downloaded from the Internet together with tips and comments written by the learners as ‘speech bubbles’.

E3–L1 Scan for detail
Use the learner page as practice for scanning. Ask learners to work in pairs and ask each other questions, e.g. Name
one high fibre food. How many portions of fruit and veg should you eat a day? What could you eat instead of biscuits
as a snack?

Read and understand decimals
Weigh a couple of food items such as a packet of crisps and an apple using electronic scales for accuracy to get a feel
for weights in grams. Give learners practice in weighing selected items. Look at various packaged food items for the
weights shown. Look at Source material page 0:36. Remind learners that the 100 g serving is a way of comparing one
food serving with another. Check understanding of decimals: the digits after the decimal point represent less than a
gram (very, very light). Use the first table on the Source material page to model reading tabular information. Using
the information in the to right-hand box on the learner page ask learners to work in pairs to underline the food with the
lowest saturated fat/sugar/salt and highest fibre. Discuss findings. Choose a packaged item and read and record the
nutritional information in the space provided. Compare these values with the three items shown, e.g. These lentils
have more fibre than the digestive biscuits.

For learners at E1/E2, use visual aids to help with the vocabulary. Practise adjective building, e.g. sugary, salty, fatty.
All levels can look at realia, e.g. labels from cereal packets and tins, and learners at E3/L1 can discuss current health
initiatives, using newspaper cuttings and/or websites, e.g. BBC quizzes on food and health.

Encourage learners to look at other packaged foods and identify from the packaging one item which is low in salt, one
low in sugar, one low in saturated fats and one high in fibre. Learners can record their findings to share with the
                            M7–8                      E1–2                       E3–L1
    Reading                                           Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1           Rt/E3.7, Rt/L1.5
    Writing                                           Wt/E1.1, Wt/E2.1
    Number                                                                       N2/E3.3, N2/L1.4
 FP                            Module 6 Family finance

Healthy food for less                                                            6:15

 What is healthier food?                          Healthier food is:
                                                   low in saturated fats
                                                   low in salt 
                                                   low in sugar 
                                                   high in fibre. 

You should eat at least 5 portions of    Some foods which are healthy:
different fruit and vegetables a day.     vegetables – try to eat different types 
                                          fruit – try to eat different types 
                                          high-fibre foods such as wholemeal
                                           bread and pasta, some breakfast
Which foods are healthy?                   cereals, brown rice, pulses and lentils 
                                          lean meat, chicken and fish 

                                         Here are some ideas:
                                          use plenty of fresh/frozen or canned
                                            vegetables which have been rinsed to
How can I feed my family                    remove added sugar or salt, with smaller
healthily and cheaply?                      amounts of meat
                                          use fresh fruit instead of sugary desserts
                                          use dried fruit as a snack instead of
                                            sugary biscuits and salty crisps
                                          make your own sauces for meat and
                                            pasta – they are cheaper and lower in
                                            salt, sugar and fat
                                          use fresh or frozen meat, chicken and
                                            fish instead of ready made meals – they
                                            are cheaper and lower in fat and salt.

     FP                                   Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:16
Comparing prices

    board/flipchart and markers, loose change, pretend paper money, shopping leaflets, 100 square grid

     This page concentrates on prices and examples of price comparisons.
      Learners are encouraged to check that they are comparing like with like – same size tin, same number of
      sheets on the toilet rolls, same type of petrol, same train journey. Learners understand how to key in money
      into a calculator. They circle the cheaper price and practise making calculations.

All      Talk about it – buying the cheapest
Discuss when learners buy the cheapest items and why (no obvious difference in quality, no difference in taste,
no point buying more expensive item). Note reasons for not buying the cheapest (need a bus journey to get to
cheapest shop, taste not as good, etc.). Ask learners to suggest difficulties in comparing prices, e.g. too many
items the same to compare, not enough time to look, always buy the same brands/items each week.

E1–2 Compare prices and choose suitable coins and notes for payment
Look at the learner page together. Check understanding of price comparison – comparing like with like for size
and type. As a group work through the first four examples checking that size and quantity are the same. Ask
learners to decide and circle the cheaper item of the two. Ask questions: What can I buy for £3? What can I buy
for £7? What’s the cost of two of the cheapest pizzas? What’s the change from £10 if I buy the cheaper DVD? It
may help to have coins and pretend bank notes for each item on view.
Give more practice using the prices/items in a shopping leaflet.

E3–L1 Practise making calculations
Ask learners to work in pairs and look at the learner page. Ask learners to check size and type are the same and
circle the cheaper price in each drawing. Check learners know how to input prices into a calculator by practising
keying in different amounts of money, starting with whole £s, e.g. £5, then moving to £s and pence, e.g. £5.35,
before moving to prices in pence only, where the decimal point must be keyed in first, e.g. 65p is keyed in as
‘point’ 65. Explain how the three function keys (+, –, ×) are used. Give plenty of practice before asking learners
to work in pairs to ‘make up’ a shopping list for their partner based on prices on the learner page or from a
shopping leaflet. Both learners then work out the cost of the shopping list of items and compare totals. Discuss
how the list must be written with digits and decimal points correctly aligned and why it is important that pence
are correctly aligned in the right column (if not they will be added as £s). Extend calculations by working out
the price of multiples of the same item, e.g. 10 litres of petrol, 4 packs of toilet rolls, 2 return tickets. Discuss
how to work this out – by repeated addition, e.g. 69p + 69p, or by multiplying by 2. Give more practice using
the prices/items in a shopping leaflet.

Learners practise numbers, focusing on correct stress, e.g. 14 o0, 40 0o, and elision. Pairs practise listening and
spelling skills with one dictating a shopping list and one writing it down. Learners have a budget and select the
cheapest products from a range (food/price pictures laminated on cards).

Choose two or three items and record different prices when shopping, e.g. for sliced white bread – supermarket
own brand compared to other brands. Learners must check that they are comparing like with like, i.e. the same
number of toilet rolls in the pack and the same type of bread. Learners then record their findings and share them
with the group.

                           M7–8                    E1–2                     E3–L1
    Measures and                                   MSS1/E1.1                MSS1/E3.1, 2
    shape                                          MSS1/E2.1 2              MSS1/L1.1

 FP                  Module 6 Family finance

Comparing prices                               6:16

       You have to
       compare like with
       like. Is it the same
       size? Is it the same
       type? Which is the

      FP                                    Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:17 (Audio 32-33)
Babysitting circles
    babysit, token

    board/flipchart and markers, audio clip and player, scissors, glue, card discs about 5–6 cm in
    diameter, clock face with moving hands
     Paying for babysitting can be very expensive if you don’t have relatives close by who can help. A
      babysitting circle is one way of ‘paying’ for a babysitter. Such circles are generally based on friends and
      neighbours who know each other and their children.
     Questions and text are matched and sequenced. Learners work on time and match the examples to the
      correct number of tokens using both hour and half hour tokens.

All       Talk about it – having time away from the children
Ask learners what they would do if they had time away without their child. Record answers on a flipchart, e.g.
bingo, parents’ evening at the school, drink with friends at a pub, hospital appointment. Discuss options for
getting a babysitter, e.g. relative, friend, pay a teenager, babysitting circle. Note the advantages and
disadvantages of each.

M7–8 Read simple texts
Help learners to follow the four questions on the learner page. Cut the questions apart and mix them up. Stick
the questions in the correct order down the left-hand side of a piece of file paper and re-read the questions. Then
cut the answers apart. Match the text answer to the right question and stick the answer beside the question on the
file paper. Finally, ask learners to re-read the questions and answers.

E1–2 Sequence text and use time
Ask learners to sequence the text in an appropriate order and match the correct question to each piece of text
(see above). Use a clock face with moving hands to model each hourly rotation from 8 pm to 11 pm. Explain
that each hour equals 1 token and 3 hours equals 3 tokens. Give learners some tokens and examples to practise,
e.g. 7 pm to 10 pm, 6 pm to 9 pm, 7 pm to 12 midnight. Introduce the half hour and model each hour from 7:30
to 8:30, 8:30 to 9:30, 9:30 to 10:30, which gives 3 hours and 3 tokens. Discuss with learners how they would
calculate babysitting time, e.g. 31–2 hours, in tokens. Cut some of the tokens in half to correspond to half-hour
tokens and give examples to practise, e.g. 8:30 to 11 pm, 6 to 10:30 pm. Most babysitting circles use double
tokens after midnight. Explain the concept of ‘double tokens’ and model double tokens for each hour after
midnight. Ensure learners understand that after midnight the times are repeated and become am rather than pm.
Give examples to practise.

E3–L1 Practise making requests
Before the activity listen to the audio clips (32–33) of members of a babysitting circle making arrangements.
Ask learners to note down the information given – name of caller, when they want a babysitter and for how
long. Discuss tone and register – friendly and informal. Give each learner a grid with Monday to Sunday
marked as for a diary. Explain that the group is a ‘babysitting circle’. Give each learner a float of say 10 tokens
and make scissors available. Explain that they are to ask each other to babysit on a chosen day/time. They are to
note down on the ‘diary’ page who they are babysitting for and for how long, and receive the correct number of
tokens. As this progresses the group will realise that they have to both babysit and request a babysitter to keep a
float of tokens.

Revise telling the time. Practise elision and linking, e.g. half an hour. Practise vocabulary for leisure activities
using gerunds and a range of prepositions, e.g. going for a drink, to bingo, to the cinema.

Ask learners to note when they use the concept of a ‘half’ and report back examples to the group, e.g. portions
of pizza, half a jugful, half time.
                                M7–8                E1–2                         E3–L1
    Speaking and listening                                                       SLc/E3.4
    Reading                     Rtc/M7.2,           Rt/E1.1, 2                   Rt/E1.1, 2
                                Rt/M8.2             Rt/E2.1, 2                   Rt/E2.1, 2
    Measures and shape                              MSS1/E1.2, MSS1/E2.4                                          178
    Number                                          N2/E2.1
  FP                             Module 6 Family finance

Babysitting circles                                                                    6:17

(Audio 32-33)

 What is a babysitting circle?

 How much does it cost?

                                    It is free. You pay using tokens.
 How do I get some tokens?

 What if I want a babysitter?

                                    It is a group of parents who babysit for each other.

                                               Each time you babysit you are ‘paid’
                                               tokens – one token for every hour, and two
                                               tokens for every hour after midnight

                                                                            Saturday at 8
                                                                            for four hours
                                                                            – is that OK?

                                               You contact someone in the group to see if
                                               they can babysit for you. Then you pay them
                                               with tokens.

      FP                                   Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:18
Ways to make some extra money
    garage sale, car-boot sale, Internet auction site, catalogue

    board/flipchart and markers, white sticky labels, examples of
    newspaper classified advertisements, blank postcards, enough
    copies of local newspaper for each pair of learners, highlighters

     This page looks at some ways to make money.
     Learners look at and decide which money-making idea is illustrated. Drawings are annotated with suitable
      captions. Learners write an advertisement suitable for a newspaper or a small postcard ad.

All       Talk about it – making some extra money
Ask learners if they can think of any moneymaking ideas, e.g. garage sale, car-boot sale Internet auction site, buying
items at auction and reselling, enrolling their baby/toddler as a model for a clothing catalogue. If any learner suggests
the advertisements in some newspapers offering a directory of home jobs, advise extreme caution as this is likely to be
a scam. (Note childminders need to be registered with Ofsted.)

M7–8 Understand images and write captions
Support learners in identifying the money-making ideas from the illustrations on the learner page. Encourage
discussion about the feasibility of each idea. (A – sell unwanted items, B – get a job in the evenings, C – deliver goods
for a shopping catalogue, D – be a film extra, E – rent out a spare room, F – make greetings cards at home, G – deliver
leaflets, H – be a babysitter.) Support learners in writing suitable captions for each illustration – by writing words for
the learner to copy or overwrite. Phrases can be drafted in rough before being transferred to the learner page, or
written on sticky labels. Encourage correct formation of letters both upper and lower case.

E1–2       Understand images and write captions and advertisements
Ask learners to identify the money-making ideas illustrated on the learner page and write suitable captions for each
illustration (see above). Look at examples of classified advertisements. Analyse what information has to be included
and note this on a flipchart, e.g. name of item, description of item, price, contact details. Look at style of writing –
short, snappy, generally not in sentences – and discuss why adverts are written like that. Using the example
discussed, draft and write an advertisement, checking for use of capitals, spelling and sense. Look at advertisements
offering services, e.g. ironing, child-minding, babysitting, dog walking, and analyse the information needed. Record
points on a flipchart. Discuss style of writing and why the information is written in short snappy phrases. Write a post
card offering to clean/babysit/iron. Jot down the information needed first before drafting and checking for capital
letters, spelling and sense.

E3–L1 Skim and scan a local newspaper
Discuss how learners might read a local paper – skim each page for articles of interest; skim pages to find particular
sections. Model the skimming process using one of the pages and ‘talk’ through what you are doing, e.g. top headline
about cuts in staff serving dinners at local school – would you read/not read? Photo of dogs at dog show – read/not
read? New food store opening – read/not read? The task is for learners to skim and scan to find as many different
ways to make extra money. Learners highlight each possible source of extra income. Explain that articles are also
relevant as a new shop opening is likely to generate part-time jobs. Share ideas and be prepared to justify what has
been highlighted.

Ensure learners understand ‘extra’ (e.g. extra money, film extra) and possible contrast with ‘spare’. Extend discussion
to types of working, e.g. casual, part-time, working from home, and introduce ‘minimum wage’. Vocabulary should
be restricted and controlled. Both www.multikulti.org.uk (in 12 community languages) and
www.webwell.sandwell.gov.uk have useful links and information on debt and financial issues.

Encourage learners to look at some advertisements on noticeboards or in their local shop/ supermarket and report the
types of goods/ services/jobs available.
                            M7–8                     E1–2                      E3–L1
    Reading                 Rtc/M7.3, Rt/M8.3                                  Rt/E3.6, Rt/L1.5
    Writing                 Wt/M7.2, Wt/M8.4         Wt/E1.1, Wt/E2.1

 FP         Module 6 Family finance

Ways to make some extra money         6:18

      FP                                   Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:19
Making savings on everyday items
    receipt, satellite TV

    board/flipchart and markers, calculators, loose change, glue, file paper, computers/printer (optional)

     Making savings on everyday purchases is possible. Whilst learners will have personal preferences as to how they
      allocate their money, this page provides material for sharing money-saving ideas.
     Calculations and comparisons involving money are made.

All      Talk about it – money-saving tips
Read each receipt on the learner page in turn and discuss where the savings might be made, e.g. senior stylist is more
expensive than a junior – could be cheaper to use a trainee on ‘model’ night; ready meals are expensive with low
amounts of meat, etc. Ask learners to add further tips to those illustrated, e.g. take a packed lunch to work, walk rather
than use bus/car, borrow books from the library.

E1–2      Write money-saving tips
Cut out each of the ‘receipts’ on the learner page and stick them onto file paper. Ask learners to draw ‘speech
bubbles’ beside each receipt, large enough to write a simple sentence about their moneysaving tip, e.g. ‘Buy cheaper
cuts of meat’, ‘Give up smoking and put the money saved in a jar’. Check learners are using capital letters
appropriately. Alternatively use a word processor to record the money-saving tips. Show learners how to insert a
border, then print off and display each learner’s saving tips.

Work with money
Ask learners to underline items which cost less than £1. Support learners in selecting coins to the value of some of the
items below £1. Practise giving change from £1 for items which are less than £1 by counting on.

E3–L1 Practise rounding and estimating and calculate savings
Teach rounding to the nearest 10p by writing a number of prices on the flipchart, e.g. 22p/38p. The purpose of
rounding is to make it easier to add subtotals and get a rough idea of a total – it is easier to add in 10s, hence rounding
to 10p. Show that some amounts will be rounded down, e.g. 21p, 22p, 23p, 24p, as the nearest 10p is 20p.
Demonstrate amounts to be rounded up – 26p, 27p, 28p, 29p; show these are nearer to 30p than 20p using a number
line. Explain that 25p, 35p, 45p, etc. are usually rounded up. Then use the receipts for practice in rounding to the
nearest 10p (Asco, branded and unbranded items) and write the rounded figure beside each item. Estimate the total for
each receipt. Add these till receipts manually and check with a calculator – ensure learners know how to enter prices
on a calculator. Compare calculations with the original estimates. Compare branded and unbranded items by cutting
the focus page so that the two boxes can be overlapped, with the prices side by side. Items below the ones being
compared can be covered up with a blank sheet of paper. Discuss how to calculate the amount saved for each item –
take the smaller amount from the bigger. Ask learners to record the savings for each item. Calculate the total saving
either manually or with a calculator by adding up each amount saved. Discuss how to work out the yearly cost of the
first satellite package if this is the monthly charge. Ask questions: Will the amount for a year be more or less than the
monthly amount? How could we work out the amount for 2 months/3 months/4 months, etc.? (Check learners know
that 12 months = a year.) Learners calculate the remaining satellite packages for a year either manually or with a
calculator. Discuss how to work out a daily cost (check days in a year = 365). Ask questions: Will the amount for a
day be smaller or bigger? Do you multiply or divide if you expect a smaller answer? Learners calculate the daily cost
for the remaining packages by dividing the yearly totals by 365 using a calculator.

Teach/revise short and long comparative adjectives, e.g. cheaper, softer, more absorbent, more economical. Use
realia, e.g. branded and own brand kitchen towels. Discuss pros and cons using comparatives. Try to use items that
learners can handle to reinforce meaning, e.g. softer.

Suggest learners record all expenditure for a week and identify where they might wish to make savings.

                            M7–8          E1–2                                  E3–L1
    Reading                               Rt/E1.1, Rt/E2.1
    Writing                               Wt/E1.1, Wt/E2.1
    Measures and                          MSS1/E1.1 MSS1/E2.1, 2                MSS1/E3.1, 2
    shape                                                                       MSS1/L1.1
  FP                               Module 6 Family finance

Making savings on everyday items                                                     6:19

           Curl up and Dye
Cut and blow dry                 £27.25
                                                     Washed salad                  0.99
Amount payable                   £27.25              Pre-packed potatoes           0.75
(includes VAT)                                       Frozen chicken curry          £1.59
                                                     Frozen chicken curry          £1.59
                   Senior stylist – Craig            Crisps 2 for 1                £1.79
                                                     Cola 2 litre                  £1.32
                                                     Rump steak 500 g              £7.64
                                                     Magazine                      £1.80
Peking Dragon Take Away                              Newspaper                     0.45
                                                     Cigarettes (20)               £4.90
Special Fried Rice                          £4.20    Beer (12)                     £9.99
Vegetable Curry                             £3.40
Sweet & Sour Chicken                        £3.75    Total:
Egg Fried Rice                              £1.90
Boiled Rice                                 £1.70    25.10.05               Operator: Saba


                                                                 Where’s the

            » Branded products «                          Own brand products
  Deodorant                                  1.29
  Washing up liquid                          0.65    Deodorant                     0.65
  Shower gel                                 0.99    Washing up liquid             0.49
  Kitchen towel (2)                          1.39    Shower crème                  0.65
  Toilet rolls (4)                           1.29    Kitchen towel (2)             0.65
  Box of tissues                             0.99    Toilet rolls (4)              0.95
  Bleach                                     0.99    Box of tissues                0.34
                                                     Bleach                        0.49

  World and family pack                                                            £41.00
  Movie and family pack                                                            £35.00
  Sports world and value pack                                                      £31.00
  Family pack                                                                      £19.50
  Value pack                                                                       £13.50

     FP                                  Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:20
Save money when you shop
    gadgets, impulse, compare, extended warranty, cupboard, gathering dust, tempted,
    waste, swop, catalogues, stock up

    board/flipchart and markers, access to word processor and printer (not essential)

     Having a family costs money but there are some easy ways to save money.
     Learners use context, sentence structure and image to complete sentences with a suitable adjective. Learners
      use adjectives in descriptive writing and plan, draft, and proof read copy for errors before writing final

All       Talk about it – suggest ideas to save money
Encourage learners to suggest some money-saving ideas when they shop, e.g. make a list, buy things in bulk
when they are cheap, compare prices in different shops and catalogues, ask for a discount. Record the ideas on
the flipchart for later use.

E1–2 Use context and image when reading and use adjectives in writing
Look at the learner page together. Read one of the pieces of text and model the process of using context,
sentence structure and image to help identify a suitable word for the gap. There are no ‘right’ answers; the
correct answer is a word which makes sense (and there may be more than one word which makes sense).
Support learners to work in pairs and complete the gaps. Learners should re-read the text to check for sense.
Compare the words chosen. The gaps are likely to have been completed with adjectives. Explain the purpose of
adjectives – to extend the information in a sentence by giving more detail about a noun. Ask learners to work in
pairs and write their own money-saving tips. Learners write a fair copy of their idea, making sure spelling and
punctuation have been checked but omitting the adjective; they then ask another pair of learners to complete the
gap left with a suitable adjective.

E3–L1 Predict meaning and organise writing in a short paragraph
Ask learners to work in pairs to choose an appropriate word to complete the gaps. There are no ‘right’ answers;
the correct answer is a word which makes sense in the sentence. Make sure learners re-read the text for sense.
Support learners in writing about their shopping habits. Use a spidergraph or similar to record some ideas on the
flipchart – where they shop, reason for choice of shopping venue, when they shop, who they shop with, choice
of items bought and why, shopping likes and dislikes, money-saving tips, etc. Write the words ‘planning’,
‘drafting’, ‘proofreading’, ‘correcting’ and ‘final copy’. It will help learners if a writing frame is given with
connecting sentences/ideas from the spidergraph. This process of drafting/checking/proofreading is easier if a
word processor is used.

www.bbc.co.uk/southyorkshire/community/cashwise has a quiz and tips for saving money when you shop
which could be amended for learners at E1/E2.www.adviceguide.org.uk (CAB) has information in several
community languages if lower levels need extra support. Learners at E1/E2 may need to revise the use of
imperatives, both positive and negative.

Learners can find a short article in a magazine or newspaper and underline the adjectives used.

                           M7–8                    E1–2                    E3–L1
    Reading                                        Rt/E1.1                 Rs/E3.2
                                                   Rs/E2.2                 Rs/L1.5
    Writing                                        Wt/E1.                  Wt/E3.1
                                                   Wt/E2.                  Wt/E3.4
                                                   Ws/E2.                  Wt/L1.1, 3, 6

 FP                             Module 6 Family finance

Save money when you shop                                                           6:20

1. Before you buy anything, ask
   yourself whether you really need             2. Only carry a ____________ amount of
   it. Most households have                        cash with you so that you are not
   _____________ gadgets which                     tempted to make impulse buys when
   sit in a cupboard gathering dust.               you are out shopping.

                3. Save money on toys. You can borrow a toy for about
                     25p for a fortnight from a toy library. You could swop
                     toys with friends. Join a mother and toddler group so
                     your child can play with _______________ toys there.
                     Do not forget that you can borrow children’s books
                     free from the library.

                4. Stock up when there
                are special offers but
                only if it is something
                you regularly use.
                Stocking up on
                biscuits when they
                are on offer is unlikely
                to save you money!

                                       6. Think before you buy an
5. Always compare                         extended warranty for a
   prices at the                          new cooker or
   supermarket                            _____________
   and look for                           machine. All electrical
   own brand                              goods have a parts and
   products on the                        labour guarantee for at
   ___________                            least a year.
   shelf.                                 You will probably pay more
                                          for the warranty than any
                                          possible future repair costs.

      FP                                    Module 6 Family finance

PAGE 6:21
Ways to save money at home
    explanation, caption

    board/flipchart and markers, lined paper

     This page explores some situations where it is possible to save money by changing what you do around the home.
     Learners use the drawings to identify the moneysaving tips being illustrated. Simple captions are written to match
      the drawings. More able students write explanations for each moneysaving tip and write some reasons for not
      spending money.

All      Talk about it – saving money
Ask learners for their suggestions to save money and record these on a flipchart. Suggestions might include only
carrying enough cash for the week so you are not tempted to spend on impulse buys, getting your hair done on
‘model’ night, cutting out draughts, laying more insulation in the roof space, putting a plug in the basin to save water.

M7–8 Use images for meaning and write captions
Look at and discuss the drawings on the learner page. Talk about the money-saving tips illustrated. Support learners in
recording a sample phrase beside each drawing, e.g. ‘Have a shower instead of a bath’. Learners can copy or
overwrite if necessary or tutors can provide some key words correctly spelt. Concentrate on the correct formation of
letters and spacing of words. Learners may wish to draft phrases in rough before adding them to the learner page.

E1–2     Understand images and write explanations
Look at and discuss the drawings on the learner page. Talk about the money-saving tips illustrated. Support learners in
writing explanations for each money-saving tip illustrated, e.g. ‘Have a shower rather than a bath to save hot water’,
‘Save electricity by switching off the TV at night’. Clarify that an explanation ‘explains’ how/why the money-saving
tip works. When the explanations are complete encourage learners to underline the part of the sentence which
provides the explanation and check that capital letters and full stops have been used correctly.

E3–L1 Write a list of reasons for not spending money
This is a game called ‘Look at it this way’ or ‘Reasons for not spending money’. Provide the following headings or
similar headings of choice (but not the text in italics):
 I’d really love a bar of chocolate. A chocolate bar is fattening. I could buy 2 apples instead.
 That’s a fantastic designer T-shirt and it only costs £75. You can’t wear the T-shirt with the label outside for
     everyone to see. You could buy a dozen T-shirts from your local supermarket instead.
 I fancy a holiday abroad this year. Who wants to spend hours hanging around at the airport? You could have lots
     of trips out from home for the same money.
 Those nail extensions look fabulous.
 I want one of those mobile phones which take photos.
 Let’s have a takeaway this evening.
 I’d like some exotic fish in a tank.
Ask learners to work in pairs and complete a reason for not spending money on the item in question and give a better
use for the money instead. Provide one of the examples in italics for learners to see what is required. Learners may
wish to plan their answers before writing them on the headed paper. Once the sheets have been completed, learners
read out their ideas to the rest of the group. If their idea is the same as someone else’s they score a point, but if their
idea is different they score two points.

Revise/practise imperatives (including negatives), e.g. have, buy, don’t buy, save. Introduce the idea of recycling,
using Council literature (with pictures) to widen the discussion to the community/environment. Show realia with
‘recyclable’ symbols. A strong E2 group might be able to use the first conditional, e.g. ‘If you switch it off, you’ll
save money.’

Ask learners to write down at least one moneysaving idea to share at the next meeting.

                   M7–8                      E1–2                          E3–L1
    Reading        Rtc/M7.3, Rt/M8.3         Rt/E1.1, 2, Rt/E2.1, 2
    Writing        Wt/M7.2, Wt/M8.4          Wt/E1.1, Wt/E2.1              Ws/E3.1, Ws/L1.1
 FP          Module 6 Family finance

Ways to save money at home             6:21


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