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Wrench Safety

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					Their is a Safer Way!

I Said W R E N C H Safety

• Used to install and remove nuts and bolts • Available in both conventional (inch) and metric (millimeter) sizes – size is stamped on the side of the wrench • Wrench size is determined by measuring across the wrench jaws

Types to Name a Small Few
• Adjustable Wrench • Chain Wrench • Pop-up Plug Wrench (Dumbell) • Basin Wrench • Pedestal Sink Wrench • Internal Pipe Wrench

• Pipe Wrench • Allen Wrench (Hex Key) • Combination Wrench • Double Box Wrench • Double Open Wrench • Stubby Wrench • Speedster Wrench • Flare Nut Wrench (Line Wrench) • Torque Wrench

First Things First
• Use the right SIZE and TYPE of tool for the job • Follow the correct procedure for using every tool • Keep cutting tools sharp and in good condition • Don’t work with oily or greasy hand

•Handle sharp or pointed tools with care
•Always carry sharp or pointed tools with the point down •Never carry tools in your pocket

•Don’t use tools that are loose or cracked
•Chisels or punches with mushroomed heads should be ground smooth •Don’t use a file without a handle

•Don’t use a “cheater” with a wrench
•After using a tool, clean it and return it to its proper place •If anything breaks or malfunctions, report it to your supervisor at once •Never place tools & materials where they hang on the edge of the table

Purchase Quality Tools
• With tools, you usually get what you pay for • Quality tools are lighter, stronger, easier to use, and are usually covered by a warranty

Keep Tools Organized
• For each tool to be used quickly, the tools should be neatly arranged • There should be a place for every tool, and every tool should be in its place

Keep Tools Clean
• Wipe tools clean and dry after each use • Greasy or oily tools can be dangerous! • Cleaning also prevents corrosion from forming on the tools

What the Regulations Say About Hand Tools
• Each employer shall be responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees, including tools and equipment which may be furnished by employees.

General Safety Guidelines for Tools
• Tools should be maintained with care. They should be kept sharp and clean for the best performance. Follow instructions in the user's manual for lubricating and changing accessories. • Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance. • The proper apparel should be worn. Loose clothing, ties, or jewelry can become caught in moving parts.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Hand Tools AND Power Tools
 Hand tools
Have no power source, other than the physical force applied by the user. Handtools include anything from axes to hammers, and screwdrivers to wrenches.



Power Tools Require a non-human power source to function properly--e.g. External (electricity, compressed air, etc.) or Internal (battery pack, internal combustion engine, etc.). But both application apply to wrenches Always wear the appropriate PPE when operating any tool

• Wrenches are designed for holding and turning nuts, bolts, cap screws, plugs and various threaded parts. Quality wrenches, regardless of their type, are designed to keep leverage and intended load in safe balance. Standard wrench types are available with both American Standard inch and metric openings. Special wrenches are also available for servicing and overhaul of certain widely used equipment.

• Different types of wrenches are of different strengths and are designed for different purposes, such as for wrenching high-strength fasteners. Box end and socket type wrenches, because they surround the fastener head, are the strongest types of wrenches and have less chance of slipping off the fastener. Open end, flare nut and adjustable wrenches are not as strong as the corresponding sizes of box or socket wrenches because they do not surround the fastener head, and are not intended for heavy loads, such as breaking loose frozen fasteners.

Wrench Sizes
Customary

Metric

Rules for Wrench Use
• Always select the right size wrench – wrench must fit the bolt head snugly • Never hammer on a standard wrench – use a longer wrench with more leverage or a special slug wrench, designed to be used with a hammer

Rules for Wrench Use
• When possible, pull on the wrench – if the wrench slips, you are less likely to hurt your hand • Never use a steel bar or pipe to increase the length of a wrench – excess force can bend or break the wrench

• Has an open jaw on both ends • Each end is a different size and set at an angle • Angle allows the open-end wrench to turn bolts and nuts with little wrench swing space • Wrench can be turned over between each swing to get a new “bite” on the bolt head

Open-End Wrench

Box-End Wrench
• Completely closed on both ends • Will not round off bolt heads as easily as an open-end wrench • Available with either 6- or 12-point openings

Combination Wrench
• Has a box-end jaw on one end and an open end on the other • Both ends are usually the same size • Provides the advantage of two types of wrenches for the price of one

•

Line Wrench flare nut Also called a tubing wrench or

wrench • Box-end wrench with a small opening or split in the jaw • Opening allows the wrench to be slipped over fuel lines, brake lines, or power steering lines • Prevents damage to soft fittings

Types

Types of Wrenches
Open End Box End

Combination

Pipe Wrench

Adjustable Open End Wrench

Sockets, handles and attachments
• There are two common types of sockets – hand and impact. Each is different in design and hardness. Hand sockets usually have a bright finish but may have a black finish. Impact sockets have a black finish and usually have thicker walls. • Sockets are made in regular length and deep length. Openings may be 12-, 8- or 6-point or square. Spark plug sockets have rubber inserts or other devices to hold the plug. Universal joint sockets are also available.

Every design and make

Socket Wrench (Socket)
• Cylinder-shaped, box-end tool • One end fits over the fastener, while the other end has a square hole that fits on a handle used for turning

• Drive size – size of the square opening for the handle – common drive sizes are 1/4”, 3/8”, 1/2”, and 3/4” • Points – configuration of the box for the bolt head – 4-point, 6-point, 8-point, and 12-point are available

Socket Terms

Socket Terms

Ratchet

Socket Handles

Breaker bar or flex handle

Speed handle

Socket Handles

T-handle

Torque wrench

Socket Handles

Flexible driver

Proper use and care
• • • • • • • • 1) S elect size and type of socket to fit nut (inch/metric). 2) Select the largest possible drive size – many sockets are available with smaller drive sizes than should be used at high load. They may be used for run-up (pre-tightening) or other lowload applications. 3) Select appropriate handle. 4) Select extension and joint. 5) Caution: The possibility exists for a lower torque-rated accessory or socket or a combination of accessories and socket to be used in conjunction with a higher-rated ratchet or drive tool. 6) Care should be exercised so as not to overload the lowest-rated component. 7) Caution: Adapters and attachments reduce the load capacity of the tool, and should not be used under heavy load. 8) Periodic cleaning and inspection of handles, sockets and attachments is very important. Many manufacturers supply parts, repair kits and instructions for servicing their ratchet wrenches and handles. Repairs to the handles or ratcheting mechanism should be made with the manufacturer's own parts.

• "Non-sparking", "spark-resistant" or "spark-proof" tools are names given to tools made of metals such as brass, bronze, Monel metal (copper-nickel alloy), copper-aluminum alloys (aluminum bronze), copper-beryllium alloys (beryllium bronze), and titanium. • Preferred "non-sparking" metals have less tensile strength than steels usually used to make tools. A lower tensile strength means the metal has less strength or resistance to tearing apart when stretched under test conditions. • It also means that these tools are softer, wear down more quickly than ordinary steel tools, and have to be dressed more frequently.

What Are Spark Resistant Tools

Some Non-Sparking Tools

Adjustable (Crescent) Wrench
• Has jaws that can be adjusted to fit different size bolt and nut heads • Used only when other type wrenches will not fit

• Adjustable wrench used to grasp cylindrical objects • Toothed jaws actually dig into the object

Pipe Wrench

• • Used to turn set screws on pulleys, gears, and knobs

Allen Wrench Hexagonal shaft-type wrench

Specialty Wrenches
• Ratchet wrench

• Flex-Combination

• Half-moon

Avoiding Abuse/Misuse
• 1) Never increase the leverage of a wrench handle by use of a pipe or other form of cheater on the wrench handle. • 2) Never use hand sockets on power drive or impact wrenches. • 3) When using adapters, remember that when adapting "down" (big handle, small socket), you build up tremendous torque potential and risk breaking the socket. • 4) When adapting "up" (small handle, big socket), there is a risk of applying too much force to the handle and it may break.

When to repair or replace
• Do not attempt to repair sockets. • Discard sockets or attachments with any sign of cracking. • Discard any socket with rounded or damaged wrench openings, or with worn or deformed drive ends.

•

Impact Wrench

• A pneumatic device used to tighten nuts or bolts. It is designed to deliver high torque output by storing energy then delivering it suddenly as a rotating motion.

Types & Sizes

• Compressed
Air • Electric • Hydraulic • Portable

A variety of impact wrenches, in all common sizes from 1/4" to 1", of different styles, including inline, butterfly, and pistol grip.

Compressed-Air System

Air Compressor
• Source of compressed air for an automotive service facility • Turns on and off automatically to maintain a preset pressure in the system • Metal air lines feed several locations in the shop

• • Connected to the metal lines from the air compressor • Allow the technician to take a source of air pressure to the vehicle being repaired • Quick-disconnect connectors allow a technician to connect or disconnect hoses or tools without using a wrench

Air Hoses hose Made of flexible, high-pressure

• Pressure regulator – used to set a specific pressure in the system (100-150 psi, or 689-1034 kPa) • Filter – traps water so that it can be drained daily • Lubricator – introduces oil into the airstream – increases the life of air tools

Other Components

• Use air pressure for operation • Labor-saving devices that are well worth their cost • Always lubricate an air tool before use – a few drops of oil protects the internal parts of the tool

Air (Impact) Wrench

Provides a very fast means of installing or removing threaded fasteners–3/8”, 1/2”, and 3/4” drive sizes are used

Air Ratchet

Impact wrench designed to work in a limited space–usually found in 1/4” and 3/8” drive

Impact Sockets and Extensions
• Must be used with air wrenches • Case hardened, thicker, and much stronger than conventional sockets and extensions • Impact tools are flat black, instead of chrome • Using a chrome tool on an impact wrench can be unsafe

Operation
• Note: Do not over tighten the nut or bolt. If it will not tighten enough at the maximum setting, do not continue. Use a manual torque wrench to tighten. If available, check the specific torque settings for the nut or bolt. • Caution: Never increase pressure at the air compressor regulator to achieve more torque.

Proper use and care of wrenches
• 1) Select a wrench whose opening exactly fits the nut. If the wrench is not exactly the correct size for the fastener, it may damage the corners of the fastener, slip or break. Care should be exercised in selecting only inch wrenches for inch fasteners and only metric sizes for metric fasteners • 2) Always pull on a wrench handle and adjust your stance to prevent a fall if sudden release occurs.

Righty Tighty Lefty Loose!
• To free a "frozen" nut or bolt, use a strikingface box wrench or a heavy-duty box or socket wrench. Application of penetrating oil to the fastener threads beforehand is recommended.

Avoiding abuse/misuse
• 1) Never use a pipe extension or other form of "cheater" to increase the leverage of any wrench. • 2)Never cock an open-end wrench. Be sure the nut or bolt head is fully engaged.

• 3) Avoid over- or under-torquing. A torque wrench will permit tightening to the exact torque required.

• 4) Never expose any wrench to excessive heat that may change the hardness and metal structure and ruin the tool. • 5) Never grind a wrench, even as a means of identification. • 6) Never use a wrench that has been damaged by being bent, cracked, or severely worn. • 7) Electrical warning: Always disconnect the power before working on electrical equipment or devices. Never depend on an insulated tool to protect you from electricity. Ordinary plasticcoated handles are designed for comfort and provide no electrical insulation. Other tools, such as insulated and insulating, that have high-dielectric insulation are so identified. The high-dielectric insulation is intended only as secondary protection and for use by trained personnel.

Tool Box Safety

Never open more than two drawers at a time


				
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