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                                       SECTION A - KEY ELEMENTS OF MANAGING HEALTH & SAFETY
1. Hazard Management
Identifying, assessing and controlling significant hazards is essential to prevent injuries. Good hazard management requires a proactive approach, staff involvement and regularly
reviewing the effectiveness of the controls.
                                  Question                                                                                                   Response
1.1 How do you identify significant haza rds?

A significant hazard is a hazard that could cause:
         Serious harm (can be an illness or injury) including death, amputation, fractures or serious
          burns; or
         Harm that occurs when someone is repeatedly exposed to a hazard, or exposed to high-levels of
          a hazard, such as noise or chemical exposure; or
         Harm that isn't detectable until a long time after exposure, such as asbes tosis.

Proactively identifying significant hazards must include feedback from staff and be done on a regular

Ways of systematically identifying significant hazards includes thinking about hazards in particular work
areas, specific tasks and processes, even before you start work. This process must be ongoing, as a
change of any sort on your site can mean a new hazard is created. Regularly check and investigate staff
reports of injuries, near-hits, and reports of pain and discomfort to identify and manage the hazards

1.2 Desc ribe how you dec ide on the best method to control a significant

       Significant hazards should be eliminated, e.g. by building a roof on the ground and lifting it onto
        a structure with a crane, eliminates the hazard of falling.
       If that is not possible, significant hazards should be isolated, e.g. install guards or covers over
        dangerous machinery parts.
       If you cannot achieve either of these options, then your last option will be to minimise the
        significant hazard, e.g. in noisy workshops, provide ear muffs to protect people's hearing.
       Health monitoring may be required when you minimise significant hazards, e.g. hearing tests to
        ensure that ear muffs provided are effective in a noisy workshop.
       You should always take "all practicable steps" towards managing significant hazards. This
        means doing what is reasonably able to be done to control those hazards, taking into account a
        number of factors including the likelihood and severity of any harm that might occur, and the
        availability and costs of ways to prevent harm.

1.3 What ste ps do you take to e nsure that the controls you have put in
place for significant hazards are effective?

Regularly check the hazard controls you put in place are working:
        Talk to staff
        Do safety audits.

Every employer must provide must provide reasonable opportunities for their employees to participate in
ongoing processes for improvement of health and safety in their workplace. It is a legal requirement for
there to be a system that allows for the participation for employees in health and safety if the employer
        30 or more employees
        Less than 30 employees, but an employee or union representative asks for such a system.

Regardless of the size of your organisation, a staff health and safety representative who has appropriate
experience or training in implementing health and safety procedures relevant to your workplace is very

2. Incident Investigation
When an incident or injury occurs, it can reveal that a hazard has not been successfully controlled. It is vital that the incident or injury is thoroughly investigated and that hazards are
identified, controlled and made part of your regular hazard management process.
2.1 How do you go about the investigation of inc ide nts a nd injuries in your

When investigating incidents and injuries (including illnesses), it is important not to place blame. Focus
on the facts - note down what happened. Then ask yourself:
        Why did it happen?
        What was the hazard involved?
        What control did we have in place to manage that hazard?
        Why did our control not work?

2.2 How do you investigate to ensure that any ide ntified hazards a re
adequately controlled?

When you investigate incidents and injuries you may discover a hazard that has not previously been
identified or perhaps, not successfully controlled. This hazard must now be included in your hazard
management system, and further investigation about why the hazard was not identified is

An incident also includes a near miss event that in different circumstances could have caused injury or

3. Emergency Readiness
When an emergency occurs it is too late to make new plans. Well-practised plans will help keep you, your staff, customers and visitors safe should an emergency occur.
3.1 What are the eme rge ncies you have prepare d for?

The emergencies that you prepare for will very much depend on the nature of your business, but as a
starting point you might like to consider:
        Medical emergency
        Working alone
        Adverse weather conditions
        Fire
        Aggressive behaviour
        Communication or technology failure
        Earthquakes
        Armed robbery
        Chemical spills.

It is very important to involve workers in the development of your emergency procedures.
3.2 What pre parations have you made to ensure you can cope with
emergenc ies?

        Evacuation exits, plans and drills
        Emergency equipment such as first aid supplies, fire extinguishers, smoke detectors and civil
         defence supplies
        Trained first-aiders
        Procedures for dealing with aggressive behaviour or an armed robbery
        Involving local emergency services in the development of your plan.

4. Training & Supervision
New staff will not know about the hazards in your business and so they need an induction, supervision, and training to work safely. Existing staff need training when new procedures or
equipment are introduced, as well as ongoing training to keep their skills current. A key factor in all of this is deciding w hen a staff member is safe to work unsupervised.
4.1 What kind of informat ion do you give to your sta ff about workplace

Before they start on a new job, new equipment or a new process, the people doing the job must know
what hazards they are exposed to and the controls that are in place. Controls that might require trai ning
        Safe work procedures
        Personal protective equipment and safety equipment required
        Early warning signs of injuries that occur over time e.g. noise induced hearing loss.

4.2 How do you decide what training your staff need to complete the ir
work safely?

       Give new staff an induction or orientation. Go over things that seem common sense to you. You
        can't assume people know how to do things in your workplace, because your equipment, tools
        and layout may be different.
       Show and tell people how to do tasks.
       Pace training so that people do not get too much information at once.
       Ensure you provide training on all equipment, machinery and vehicles.

4.3 How do you decide whe n staff are skilled enough to work
unsupervise d?

People will be safe to do some tasks unsupervised but not others. Do not assume that people will work
safely, just because they have received training - observe them doing each task before you leave them
to work on that task unsupervised. In deciding whether or not someone is safe to work unsupervised on
a task, consider the following:
         Do they use the required safe work procedures, personal protective equipment and safety
         Think about any mistakes they made when you observed them.

The person is not ready to work unsupervised on that task if:
       They made lots of mistakes
       They made one or two serious mistakes
       The task has changed to include other risk factors (e.g. high volume traffic), and you are not
        sure they can manage the other risk factors safely.

                                                                  SECTION B - SPECIFIC HAZARDS

Slips, Trips & Falls
Falls are commonplace, are a leading cause of injury hospitalisation and are one of the top three causes of injury -related death in New Zealand. The severity of the injury could be
reduced or the fall prevented if the work environment was safer and the worker was aware of the risks and what they could do to reduce them.
           Question                  Eliminate,             Action taken to manage hazard                                             Hints                                Last      Next
                                      Isolate or                                                                                                                          review    review
Walking across a variety of          E, I or M                                                                       Footwear that helps protect you from a fall on
                                                                                                                      one surface may be useless on another
different surfaces that may
be slippery, wet, rough or                                                                                           Try to organise your work so you work on one
smooth while doing work                                                                                               type of surface as much as possible (e.g. do
greatly increases the                                                                                                 not keep crossing from one surface to another
                                                                                                                      to do a task).
chance of a fall. How do
                                                                                                                     Having proper footwear is a good start
you manage this significant                                                                                           towards reducing falls, but the footwear must
hazard?                                                                                                               be in good condition. Footwear will often have
                                                                                                                      lost its slip protection long before it is deemed
                                                                                                                      worn out.

Carrying loads and                   E, I or M                                                                       Handrails can help prevent slips and falls on
climbing stairs or ladders
                                                                                                                     Good lighting reduces the chance of a fall.
all increase the risk of a                                                                                           Ladders should not be used as a work
fall. In your opinion what                                                                                            platform, except for minor repair work of a
are some of the things you                                                                                            short duration.
                                                                                                                     Always ensure you have 3 points of body
can do to reduce these
                                                                                                                      contact when using a ladder.
                                                                                                             For more information refer to the Prevention of Falls

Good housekeeping will               E, I or M                                                                       Good housekeeping is only possible if there is
                                                                                                                      enough storage space where you can put
reduce the number of                                                                                                  things.
significant hazards likely to                                                                                        Keep walkways and corridors clear.
cause a fall. What things                                                                                            If you are to keep tripping hazards (e.g.
do you do to maintain a                                                                                               extension cords) off walkways, there must be
                                                                                                                      somewhere to put them when they are not in
tidy workplace?

Manual Handling
Manual handling is defined as: "any activity requiring a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry, throw, move, restrain, hol d or otherwise handle any animate, or inanimate, object". This
includes many activities - for example, packing in an apple shed or supermarket, lifting boxes from a conveyor to a pallet, cleaning or operating machinery. Injuries associated with these
types of activities are common at work.
           Question                  Eliminate,             Action taken to manage hazard                                            Hints                              Last        Next
                                      Isolate or                                                                                                                       review      review
You can reduce the                   E, I or M                                                               Moving material by hand is labour intensive and time
                                                                                                             consuming. Always consider mechanical solutions first.
chances of an injury
through lifting and                                                                                          If your load handling involves any of these factors,
straining by assessing the                                                                                   there is a much greater risk that you will be injured:
significant lifting hazards                                                                                           Twisted, stooped, awkward or asymmetrical
on the site and deciding
                                                                                                                      Fixed, sustained, rigid, prolonged postures.
how they are to be                                                                                                    Unvaried, repetitive movements.
managed. What steps do                                                                                                Sudden, uncontrolled or jerky movements.
you take to identify high-                                                                                            Handling or reaching away from the body.
                                                                                                                      Using high or sustained force.
risk manual handling                                                                                                  Handling heavy or awkward loads.
tasks?                                                                                                                Handling that goes on for too long without a

Loads that are heavy,                E, I or M                                                                       Breaking heavy loads down into lighter loads
                                                                                                                     Putting handles on containers to improve grip
bulky, unpredictable, that
                                                                                                                     Ensuring that there are always enough people
block your view, or are                                                                                               on hand to lift a load safely.
difficult to hold, increase
the chance of an injury.
What sorts of things could
you do to loads to make
them safer to handle?

Confined areas, aw kward             E, I or M                                                                       The best height to store heavy items that
                                                                                                                      have to be carried is between shoulder and
postures and stretching                                                                                               knee height at the front of shelving. In this
high or w ide put you more                                                                                            position they are easiest for someone to pick
at risk of an injury when                                                                                             up.
handling loads. Outline the                                                                                          Heavier objects should be stored on lower
things you think are
important to reduce the                                                                                      For more information refer to the Code of Practice for
risk when storing goods.                                                                                     Manual Handling.

Injury Using Chainsaws
There are many injuries every year relating to chainsaw use. ACC receives about 200 claims fo r serious chainsaw injuries every year and many of these are to workers in silviculture.
           Question                 Eliminate,              Action taken to manage hazard                                            Hints                               Last      Next
                                     Isolate or                                                                                                                         review    review
Wearing the correct                 E, I or M                                                               Protective equipment should include the following:
                                                                                                                    Good-quality chainsaw operator's safety
protective clothing,
                                                                                                                     trousers or chaps
including cut resistant                                                                                             Steel toe capped boots that provide firm
chaps, mitts and visors can                                                                                          ankle support, lace-up types must be securely
greatly reduce the risk of                                                                                           fastened so that you don't trip on the laces
                                                                                                                    Safety helmet
chainsaw cuts. What
                                                                                                                    Gloves
protective clothing and                                                                                             Earmuffs - rated suitable for noise generated
equipment do you wear,                                                                                               by the saw, e.g. Class4 or 5
and when is it replaced?                                                                                            High visibility vest/clothing
                                                                                                                    Eye protection - If you are working in very
                                                                                                                     dusty conditions wear goggles, if there's a
                                                                                                                     danger of flying debris use a helmet visor
                                                                                                                    A small personal first aid kit with at least two
                                                                                                                     large sterile wound dressings

                                                                                                            Also ensure that:
                                                                                                                   Clothing should fit fairly closely but be
                                                                                                                    comfortable and allow full and free movement
                                                                                                                   Equipment is always replaced when it
                                                                                                                    becomes damaged.
You can reduce the risk of          E, I or M                                                                      Get professional advice if there is any doubt
                                                                                                                    at all about the job being attempted.
injury by using a chainsaw
                                                                                                                   Use the lightest saw and shortest bar length
correctly. What are some                                                                                            for the job.
of the things you do to                                                                                            Do not overreach - move your feet to get
make chainsaw use safer?                                                                                            close to the cutting position.
                                                                                                                   Holding the saw close to your body with the
                                                                                                                    saw body close to the cut provides for better
                                                                                                                   Slightly bent arms improves control over the
                                                                                                                   Avoid cutting with the upper tip of the saw to
                                                                                                                    reduce the chance of kickback.
                                                                                                                   Position yourself to the side of the intended
                                                                                                                    cut to lessen the chance of injury from
                                                                                                                   Never drop-start the saw.
                                                                                                                   Never use the saw with one hand as you can
                                                                                                                    easily lose control over it.
                                                                                                                   Start the cut at high speed and maintain

                                                                                                                   engine speed as you cut.
                                                                                                                  When the cut is almost finished, reduce the
                                                                                                                   chainsaw's speed to avoid a sudden finish,
                                                                                                                   which may result in a loss of balance, or the
                                                                                                                   guide bar and chain colliding with other
Good maintenance also               E, I or M                                                             A regular maintenance schedule includes:
                                                                                                                  Checking chain tension and ensuring the
reduces the risk of injury,                                                                                        chain is correctly sharpened
such as checking vibration                                                                                        Cleaning your saw, particularly the air filter
mounts and the chain                                                                                               cooling inlets, sprocket cover and chain brake
brake every day. What sort                                                                                         mechanism
                                                                                                                  Cleaning the guide bar groove and oil holes
of routine chainsaw checks
                                                                                                                  Checking the guide bar for straightness,
do you carry out?                                                                                                  burring and wear of the rails
                                                                                                                  Turning the guide bar regularly to ensure
                                                                                                                   even wear
                                                                                                                  Checking the sprocket and chain for wear
                                                                                                                  Checking the chain for cracked rivets or side
                                                                                                                  Checking all nuts, bolts and screws for correct
                                                                                                                  Ensuring that all components are in place.

                                                                                                          For more information refer to the Approved Code of
                                                                                                          Practice for Safety and Health in Forest Operations and
                                                                                                          A Guide to Safety with Chainsaws.
Injury when Thinning Waste
There are many hazards involved with thinning to waste operations. Many of these injuries involve workers being struck by branches, chainsaws or trees.
           Question                 Eliminate,             Action taken to manage hazard                                          Hints                               Last     Next
                                     Isolate or                                                                                                                      review   review
Most serious thinning               E, I or M                                                             Avoiding common injuries by:
                                                                                                                 Identifying overhead hazards before starting,
waste injuries are caused
                                                                                                                  especially hung up trees and branches
by being struck by objects                                                                                       Taking care when moving between trees and
like spars, branches and                                                                                          over rough terrain
chainsaws. What kinds of                                                                                         Turning the chainsaw off or activating the
                                                                                                                  chain brake when moving between trees
things can you do to avoid
                                                                                                                 Ensuring good footing before operating the
these types of injuries?                                                                                          chainsaw
                                                                                                                 Keeping bare skin away from saw's muffler &
                                                                                                                 -C arrying the saw so that it can be thrown
                                                                                                                  aside if you fall
                                                                                                                 Carefully assessing the tree lean, crown
                                                                                                                  weight and distribution and the felling

                                                                                                                    Never working within two tree lengths of
                                                                                                                     other workers, machines, ropes or another
                                                                                                                     operation when tree felling
                                                                                                                    Always preparing an escape route, which
                                                                                                                     should lead the worker away from tree
                                                                                                                     movement or falling debris.
Factors such as terrain,            E, I or M                                                                       Planning and preparation should include
                                                                                                                     conducting hazard checks of the block the
tree lean, weather and                                                                                               crew is working in, providing clear hazard
proximity of other                                                                                                   identification information and talking the crew
people/operations can                                                                                                through the work plan.
significantly inc rease the                                                                                         Ensure a method of communication or
                                                                                                                     transport is available at the worksite in the
risk of injury to thin to
                                                                                                                     case of injury or illness that requires medical
waste crews. What kind of                                                                                            attention.
planning and preparation                                                                                            Review procedures for dealing with
do you do to reduce                                                                                                  emergencies and ensure that the persons on
                                                                                                                     site fully understand them.
common thinning to waste
                                                                                                                    Organise regular breaks and access to
hazards?                                                                                                             refreshments to counter the effects of
                                                                                                                     dehydration and fatigue.
                                                                                                                    Plan for sun protection, e.g. sun screen.
                                                                                                                    Review with the crew the activities at the end
                                                                                                                     of the day or the start of the next day, to
                                                                                                                     ensure that everything is going to plan.
Dealing w ith these specific        E, I or M                                                                       Ensure equipment is serviced regularly by a
                                                                                                                     competent person or service provider.
hazards is much easier
                                                                                                                    Use a checklist to ensure equipment is
when equipment is well                                                                                               checked on a regular schedule, e.g. weekly or
maintained and used                                                                                                  before each day's use.
appropriately. How do you                                                                                           Use the maintenance schedule for equipment
                                                                                                                     as per the manufacturer's recommendation.
ensure that this happens?
                                                                                                                    Report damaged equipment and remove it
                                                                                                                     from circulation until it can be replaced or

                                                                                                            For more information refer to the Approved Code of
                                                                                                            Practice for Safety and Health in Forest Operations.
Injury when Planting and Releasing
Planting and release operations are physically demanding jobs and historically have large numbers of reported injuries.
           Question                 Eliminate,              Action taken to manage hazard                                           Hints                               Last     Next
                                     Isolate or                                                                                                                        review   review
Silvicultural tasks include         E, I or M                                                                       Ensure workers are trained and competent.
                                                                                                                    Closely supervise workers in training.
hazards such as using                                                                                               Ensure workers wear appropriate personal

chemicals, carrying and                            protection equipment for the task.
                                                  Use information in Material Safety Data
using loppers, slashers and
                                                   Sheets to manage hazards associated with
brush-cutters and planting                         chemicals.
boxes. How do you control
the signif icant hazards                  For more information on the hazards associated with
                                          tree planting, register on the FITEC website to access
associated with planting?
                                          the resource Best Practice Guidelines for Tree Planting.
Wearing protective            E, I or M   When spraying or mixing chemicals, Personal
                                          Protection Equipment should include:
equipment can reduce the
                                                  Disposable, hooded spray overalls
risk or extent of injury.                         Waterproof overalls
What protective equipment                         Waterproof safety boots
do you use when carrying                          Spray shields/goggles
                                                  Chemical resistant rubber gloves
out these tasks?
                                                  Respirator mask with appropriate disposable
                                                   filter canisters.

                                          When using a slasher, brush-cutters and loppers,
                                          Personal Protection Equipment should include:
                                                  Safety glasses
                                                  High-visibility helmet and vest
                                                  Safety boots with good ankle support
                                                  Protective leg wear
                                                  Gloves
                                                  Sun screen.

                                          For more information refer to the Approved Code of
                                          Practice for Safety and Health in Forest Operations.
Constantly repeating the      E, I or M   Manage gradual onset conditions such as discomfort or
                                          persistent pain in muscles, tendons and other soft
same actions and working
                                          tissues by:
in aw kward positions,                            Providing information on the hazards
especially in exposed                             Training workers in correct techniques, e.g.
weather conditions, can                            avoid jarring hands, wrists, and elbows by
                                                   selecting the planting spot carefully and
result in gradual onset
                                                   pressing the spade into the soil with your
conditions. What steps do                          boot
you take to manage                                Using pre-work warm-up and stretching
gradual onset conditions?                          techniques throughout the day
                                                  Ensuring planting tools are well maintained
                                                   before use
                                                  Undertaking risk assessments of tasks
                                                  Varying tasks considered to pose a risk, so
                                                   that no worker has to complete them for a
                                                   prolonged period
                                                  Involving staff in the planning and setting of
                                                   work schedules

                                                                                            Encouraging the early reporting of pain and

                                                                                     For more information refer to ‘Forest Safety Guidance
                                                                                     Leaflet 4 - Avoiding Injuries when Planting and
                                                                                     Releasing’ resource available from the ACC website.
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