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                Completed By:
                Seyed-Pouya Nourshoae Hosseini
                Abraham Mason Soesilo
                Betty Wong
                Nixson Xavier
   Introduction to Beer and Wine
           Beer was first discovered about 6000 years ago in Middle East
and is known as one of the oldest drinks discovered by mankind. It is
believed that discovery of beer was about the same time as discovery of
wine. Production of beer and wine was started after the discovery of acetic
acid forming bacteria. Beer is said to be discovered when malting process
occurred while making bread. This ancient drink has been used for several
applications. People occasionally drank to have a good time and socialize,
doctors used it as a relieving medicine, and it was even used as a religious
symbol by preachers. Beer has carried these and many other of its
purposes over the many years.

              Wine is an alcohol beverage recognized all over the world. You
have to be 19 years or older in Ontario-Canada in order to consume wine or
any other alcohol beverages in that fact. It is also used as a sacred drink in
some religious institutes. Wine is just the fermentation of juices from
mashed up fruits, commonly grapes. And fermentation is a process created
in order to speed up reactions in the juices from the mashed up fruits, so
the sugar in the juice become alcohol by living cells and micro-organisms.
After that you can specialize your own wine by adding sugar or just
distilling it.
   Brief History and Remarks of Beer

• Beer had been brewed by the Summarians since 6000 BC ago
• In 1680, a Dutch microscopist, Anton Van Leewenhoek, was the first to discover brewer’s
• Early 19th century, Cagniard de la Tour of France, Schwann and Kutzing, concluded that
the alcoholic fermentation product were made by a microscopic form of life.
• 1860 - the beginning of brewing industry. Louis Pasteur showed how yeast responsible
for the fermentation in beer production.
• In 1883, Kristian Emil Hansen of the Carlsberg Laboratories, Denmark developed a
technique for isolating pure cultures of yeasts

The main analysis in beer production
  •   Reduce spoilage of micro-organisms.
  •   Improve the yield percentage and efficiency of manufacturing process
  •   Improve the quality of the beer

 Why analyze them?
  •   In brewery industrial, spoilage of micro-organisms, low efficiency, and bad quality
      product can lead to economic losses due to its large excess production.
  •   Satisfies the society’s desire: affordable price and enjoyable flavour.
        Analysis on Micro-organism

The two essential aspects that need to be studied in beer production are the identification
of the micro-organisms and the existence of oxidation reaction. They both affect the quality
of the product and the stability of beer flavour.

•      The 4 factors of which micro-organisms must be monitored are the presence of
       alcohol, sub-physiological pH, anti-microbial hop components, and anaerobic
       environment occurs during the process.
•      In the old days, the analysis of brewery micro-organisms tended to be inefficient
       and slow since it was done by incubating the sample for a lengthy period of time.
       If further characterization required, sample had to be re-taken.
•      Nowadays, new solution is designed in biotechnology and molecular biology by
           1. Detection of problematic organisms
                     »     Impedimetric technique
                     »     ATP bioluminescence
          2. Identification of organisms at the genus, species, or sub-species level
                     »    Protein fingerprinting by PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis)
                     »    Immunoanalysis
                     »    Hybridization using DNA probes
                     »    Karyotyping
                     »    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RAPD-PCR
    Impacts of Oxidation Reaction
•   A long chain unsaturated aldehydes called Trans-2-nonenal are the prime contributor of beer
•   The principal cause of flavour instability is oxidation reaction due to the free radical forms of
    oxygen, which occurs during malting, in the brewhouse, or during packaging in the brewery.
•   A strong correlation is detected between the concentration of volatile aldehydes and the
    sensory score for oxidized flavour. The more carbon atom it possesses, the more unpleasant in
    terms of flavour it becomes.
•   In the old days, the major difficulty in research is to develop a sensitive method to maintain the
    volatile aldehydes production in a stable quantities.
•   By the use of chemical engineering principles, 5 mechanisms are proposed to solve the
             Strecker Degradation of Amino Acids
             Melanoidin Medicated Oxidation of Higher Alcohols
             Oxidative Degradation of Iso-Alpha-Acids
             Aldol Condensation of Short Chain Aldehydes into Longer One
             Enzymatic or Non-enzymatic Degradation of Fatty Acids
                          Quality Controls
The 6 essential quality controls in beer production, which involves engineering aspects:
•    Control of Raw Materials and Brewhouse Operations –barley variety and growth
     location strongly affects the production. The use of wheat flour, barley grits, and
     corn syrup improve the flavour stability.
•    Oxygen control – minimizing the oxygen pickup by using premasher and low
     agitation speeds, manipulating CO2 or N2 counter-pressure on all tanks, and prevent
     air pickup from leaking pipe connection would increase the flavour stability.
•    Control Lipids in the Wort – since lipids are the major source of volatile aldehydes,
     they are very important for flavour stability. They are controlled by the use of
     whirlpools, the use of cold wort filtration prior to fermentation, and longer initial
     recycle in wort separation.
•    Control Cellar Operations – SO2 has a flavour stabilizing effect in packaged product
     through its ability to complex with volatile aldehydes. Methods to produce high final
     SO2: low fermentation temperatures, low yeast pitch rate, and high sulphate level in
     the wort.
•    Control of Packaging Operations and Materials – avoid oxygen pickup during
     transportation of beer to the filler bowl, counter-pressure the filler bowl with inert
     gases to prevent a build-up of oxygen, maintain a vacuum pump, and many others.
•    Control of Beer Storage and Handling Conditions
       –      Temperature affects the oxidation character. Thus, temperature control is essential.
       –      Light increases the rate of oxidation of alcohols by melanoidin, and catalyzes the auto-
              degradation of fatty acids. Thus, protecting beer from long wave UV light is important.
       –      Motion during transportation (shaking) can significantly increase the storage
              temperature and triggers the development of oxidation reaction.
    Advancements in Beer Production

•   Today, there are many bioengineering tools have been applied to improve the beer
    production. Using Plant Breeding, Micropropagation, Virus Testing, and Varietal Purity
    DNA Fingerprinting to produce raw materials that are free of viruses, have improved
    agronomic yields, and are resistant to disease.
•   Since yeasts are significantly contributed in beer production, an improvement in yeast
    performance can essentially advanced the brewery process. This improvement is
    divided into 2 broad categories:
        Roll back production expenses
        –   Ability to utilized normally non-fermentable carbohydrates – reduce expense of buying
            fungal enzymes since the yeast itself is capable of producing amylase during fermentation.
        –   Ability to chill-proof beer – yeast could be engineered to produce a chill-proofing protease
            to eliminate the cost and labour of this treatment.
        –   Ability to degrade beta-glucans – high content of Beta Glucan cause the beer to be viscous
            and produce insoluble gum and hazes. Brewer’s yeasts that have been engineered to
            produce beta-glucanase have the capability to reduce Beta-Glucan level in beer.
        Raises production effectiveness
        –   Lower diacetyl production – reducing the amount of diacetyl production will result in faster
            throughput and less capital investment in tankage. This can be achieve by engineering a
            yeast to produce α-acetolactate decarboxylase.
        –   Altered flocculation properties – allows lager yeast to be harvested from the bottom of the
            fermentor and means only small quantities of yeast must be filtered from the matured beer.
        –   Contamination resistance – In every brewery operation, contamination from wild yeasts that
            produce toxic compound cannot be avoided. The development of antimicrobial yeast that
            possesses antibacterial properties can help eliminating these wild yeasts.
              Brief History of Wine

          Wine has been used since the beginning of time. From the
time of Jesus, and even before that till now, for many different

         From the Holy Bible, in the New Testament, Jesus attended a
wedding in Canaan, where there was a shortage of wine. He
performed his first miracle. He changed jugs of water into jugs of
wine and whoever drank from that wine was blessed. Then at the last
supper, Jesus took bread and blessed it. And that became His Body.
Then He took the wine and blessed it. That became His Blood.

           As you can see wine has very powerful and religious
significances. Even in the times of the Roman Empire, the Kings and
Queens drank wine to celebrate different occasions such as holidays
or victories. Today, after this many years past wine’s production, it is
still used more or less for the same purposes as it was used for 2000
years ago.
           The Pioneer of Wine Production

          Louis Pasteur
          Mr. Louis Pasteur looked at why alcohol became infected with unwanted
substances during the process of Fermentation. He then discovered that there
existed micro-organism that caused these changes to the form of alcohol. This led
to the root of microbiology.
          During time of Napoleon III, Pasteur got asked to examine the bacteria
infecting the wine, which was destroying the economy of wine production. He got rid
of this problem by heating the wine under a certain temperature (55 °C) for a couple
of minutes. This process was called pasteurization. His actions helped the wine
economy boost, and he is the man who saved wine today’s generation!
                            Process of Wine Making
•Harvest time can be predicted using scientific          • Wine sometime ages with yeast lees that
analyze of acidity, colour, plumpness and ripening       die at the end of fermentation.
of the berry.                                            • Today they keep wine in stainless steel
• Crushing grapes by basket press and stomping           inert tanks so it can be stored for a long time
grapes are done traditionally; nowadays airbag           without losing its freshness
press is used mostly because it gives gentle
presses which let berry juice run out naturally
without mixing bitter phenolics from pips and skins. • process of removing juice, must,
                                                     and wine from one container.
                                                     • Wines are blended from number of
• Yeast and enzyme catalysts are crucial during      wines from different vineyards. The
fermentation of winemaking. These catalysts speed mix of best of every wine will balance
up the process of natural fermenting which converts and enhance the colour and mouth
sugar from juices, into ethyl alcohol and carbon     feel of the wine.
dioxide.                                             • electrical charges and filtrations,
• Temperature caused by heat released and its        extract solids and other unnecessary
alcohol level must be controlled when it is left for substances which exist in wine
fermenting. Or else yeast dies at 35oC or at the     before bottling.
alcohol level of 15%abv.

•This consists of evaporation of a small proportion of    •Wine is left in a barrel usually      Chemical addition to
the wine alcohol, later condensing it.                    made in wood) for maturation.          keep freshness and
 First impurities are seperated. Then distillation        •Wine is bottled when ordered by       prevent spoilage
controls the alcohol level to a certain extent.           restaurants or customers and
Engineers design a system where distillation is           cannot be left in the bottle for too
stable and eliminates any reaction during distillation    long.
which may decrease the recovery of pure alcohol.
                 Metabolizing Sugar to Alcohol

• It is biological decomposition of glucose and
fructose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, with some        •Lactobacillus genus is a common bacteria
byproduct.                                               used for metabolizing sugar or tartaric acid
            C6H12O6  2C2H5OH + 2CO2 .                   into excessive acid, which supplies acidic
• Yield of alcohol is of great practical importance to   contents in wine.
wine maker and engineers because an efficient            It causes a creamier and buttery texture that
design would achieve maximum yield of alcohol in         adds complexity to the wine.
the process, with less byproduct and lower expense       •Malic Lactic Fermentation is conducted by
for production.                                          lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is an
•For wine, the goal for product yield is closest to 1    important wine making process used for
% alcohol from 15.65gram of sugar.                       both red and white wines. This additional
                                                         process changes characteristics of wine by
                                                         adding bitterness to wine and altering the
• Used sugar pills to determine sugar                    original pigment or aroma. It also increases
contents, completeness of fermentation,                  the amount of lactic acid, microbial stability
residual in distillation material.                       of a wine and wine’s fruitiness quality.
•Enzymatic Method determines a                           However, it decreases the pH and prevents
product produced by glucose and                          spoilage of wine.
fructose with enzyme. The detector                       Malic acid ---> Lactic acid + Carbon dioxide
compound represents the sugar                            COOH-H2OC-H2C-COOH ---> CH3-CHOH-
originally presented.                                    COOH + CO2
                       Wine Revolution
• Advancements in technology and developments made in wine
production field, has impacted the wine we drink today.

• Discoveries on the basis of malolactic fermentation and preventing
oxygen in wine, have provided better winemaking and safer preservation.

• While wine biotechnology focuses on improving the quality of the
product, and making healthier vines and wines; chemical engineering
methods provide accuracy, improvements, and stability maintenance in the

• Recent advancement in yeast engineering has uncovered the potential
benefits of GM yeast. Biogenetic modification yeasts are developed to
enhance the quality of wine fermentation such as improving its colour,
aroma and flavour as well as eliminating undesirable compounds and off-
flavours. Using genetic modified yeast provides a faster and predictable
fermentation process,which gives wineries control over fermentation and
micro-organism stability.However some wineries argue that wine resulted
tastes flat, is less mouth-feel, and has lost its characters.

• In America, genetically modified wine yeast has received FDA approval
and is sold in market already.
Process Diagrams

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