Medication Safety Over the Counter by MikeJenny

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									Medication Safety
 for Older Adults
          Learning Objectives
 Why is medication safety important?
 What is a medication-related problem?
 Are you at risk for a medication-related problem?
 How can you avoid medication-related problems?
 How to read prescription and nonprescription
  labels
 What you need to know about nonprescription
  medications and dietary supplements
 Tips for medication safety
       Why is Medication Safety
              Important?
 Older adults use more medications than the
  general population
    About one third of people over age 75 take five or more
     different prescription medications daily1
 Older adults are at an increased risk
    One in 25 older adults who regularly use prescription
     medication are at risk of having a serious drug-drug
     interaction2
    Older adults are seven times more likely to be
     hospitalized due to an adverse drug reaction compared
     to younger people2
 What is a Medication-Related
       Problem (MRP)?


A medication-related problem is an event
 or situation involving drug therapy that
  negatively interferes with a patient’s
                 health.3
             Are You At Risk?        4




 Do you take five or more medications?
 Do you take medication that requires frequent
  blood tests or monitoring?
 Do you see more than one physician who
  prescribes medication for you?
 Do you get prescriptions at more than
  one pharmacy?
   These questions show some of the conditions
      that may put people over 65 at risk for a
            medication-related problem.
                                                       5,6
 Avoiding Medication-Related Problems

     If you experience one or more of the following:
                           Confusion
                              Falls
                          Drowsiness
                           Dizziness
                        Hallucinations
                        Slurred Speech
               Incontinence/Difficulty Urinating
                    Diarrhea/Constipation
                      Bruising/Bleeding

Have your doctor evaluate symptoms to determine if they
          are related to any of your medications
           Avoiding Medication-Related
                Problems (cont’d)

               Create a Personal Medication Record
               (PMR)


   A PMR is an up-to-date list of ALL your prescription and
    nonprescription medications, including the dosing schedule
   Keep your PMR with you at all times
   Bring PMR whenever you visit the doctor, hospital, or
    pharmacy
        Avoiding Medication-Related
             Problems (cont’d)

 Visit http://www.hqsi.org and look under
  Medicare Consumers, Resources for links to PMRs
  or call 1-732-238-5570, ext. 2019, for a free copy
         Avoiding Medication-Related
              Problems (cont’d)

           Make sure you can read and understand
           all information on the medication bottle

 There are different kinds of medication labels
   Prescription medication labels
   Nonprescription (over the counter – OTC) medication labels
   Dietary/herbal supplement labels

 They contain different kinds of information
               Avoiding Medication-Related
                    Problems (cont’d)

  ■ Prescription Drug Label
                          Local Pharmacy
                          123 MAIN STREET
                          ANYTOWN, USA 11111             (800)-555-5555
Directions                                    Dr. John Smith
               NO 0060023-08291                          Date: 01/01/10
about how      Jane Smith
and when       456 Main Street, Anytown, USA 11111
to take
               TAKE ONE CAPSULE BY MOUTH THREE TIMES
drug           DAILY FOR 10 DAYS UNTIL COMPLETED

               AMOXICILLIN 500MG CAPSULES
               QTY #30                 MRG
Drug name      NO REFILLS
and strength                           USE BEFORE 10/10/10
                                               SLF/SLF
        Avoiding Medication-Related
             Problems (cont’d)
 Reading prescription label directions
                Directions on label       What it means

                Two tablets twice a day   Take two tablets in the
                                          morning and two in the
                                          evening
                                          (Four tablets a day
                                          total)

                Take 5 mL three times a Take one teaspoonful
                day for seven days      three times a day for a
                                        total of seven days –
                                        use a medication
                                        spoon or cup
        Avoiding Medication-Related
             Problems (cont’d)

 Teaspoon and Tablespoon are NOT the same!
   Always use medication measuring spoon




          Teaspoonful
                                Tablespoonful
        Avoiding Medication-Related
             Problems (cont’d)
                                    5
                Additional Labels




 Additional labels provide important information
  about your medication
 Reading and understanding these labels
  can help prevent medication errors
              Avoiding Medication-Related
                   Problems (cont’d)
 OTC Medication Label     6




Drug name
and strength


 Warnings
 and side
 effects



 Directions
 about how
 often to
 take/maxi-
 mum dose
             Avoiding Medication-Related
                  Problems (cont’d)
                  Ask questions and share information
                  about your medications with your doctor
                  and pharmacist
 Examples of questions to ask
     What is the brand and generic name?
     What is it for?
     How will I know if the medication is working?
     What are possible side effects and drug interactions I should
      know about?
■ Examples of information to share with doctor/pharmacist
   Any changes in the drugs you take (new drugs you have started or
    others that have changed or stopped)
   Any symptoms you are experiencing
   Any nonprescription medications, vitamins, or supplements you take
          Avoiding Medication-Related
               Problems (cont’d)

 Medication Tips - Simple Steps for Medication Safety
   Visit http://www.hqsi.org and look under Medicare
    Consumers, Resources or call 1-732-238-5570, ext. 2019,
    for a free copy
   Nonprescription Medications and
        Dietary Supplements
Common Nonprescription       Common Supplements
    Medications                   Ginkgo Biloba
  Cold/Cough Remedies                 Garlic
                                  Glucosamine
     Allergy Medicines
                                     Co-Q-10
Heartburn/Ulcer Treatments            Niacin
     Pain Medications           Omega-3 (Fish Oils)
       – Tylenol®                 Saw Palmetto
       – Advil®                     Vitamins
       – Aleve®                       Herbs
                                  Digestive Aids
 Nonprescription Medications and Dietary
         Supplements (cont’d)
 Read warnings and directions carefully
 Ask pharmacist/doctor for assistance
 Know the potential side effects and drug interactions
  of supplements you take
 Visit http://medlineplus.gov and click on “drugs and
  supplements” for information on specific products
 Visit http://www.hqsi.org or call 1-732-238-5570,
  ext. 2019, for a copy of the newsletter, Medication
  Safety  You: Understanding Dietary Supplements
       Tips for Medication Safety

 Tell your doctor about any possible medication-
  related problems
 Keep an updated PMR at all times and bring it with
  you to the doctor, hospital, or pharmacy
 Use a calendar or medication organizer
  to help you remember what you need
  to take and when
 Know how to read prescription and
  OTC labels
        Tips for Medication Safety (cont’d)

 Make sure you can read and understand the directions
  on prescription and OTC labels and bottles
 Read additional labels and other drug information
  provided
 Know the possible side effects of your prescription
  medications and supplements
 Ask your doctor and pharmacist about how
  you can safely take OTC drugs and dietary
  supplements
                   Conclusion
 It is important to know your risks and share
  information about possible medication-related
  problems with your doctor
 A PMR can help you manage your medications better
 Understanding how to read labels can help prevent
  medication errors and problems
 It is important to understand your prescription
  and nonprescription medications and dietary
  supplements
Questions?
                                  References
1. Qato DM, Alexander GC, Conti RM, Johnson M, Schumm P, Lindau ST. Use of prescription and over-
   the-counter medications and dietary supplements among older adults in the United States. The
   Journal of the American Medical Association [Internet]. 2008 Dec 24 [cited 2010 Jan 7];
   300(24):2867-2878. Available from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/300/24/2867.

2. Budnitz DS, Pollock DA, Weidenbach KN, Mendelsohn AB, Schroeder TJ, Annest JL. National
   surveillance of emergency department visits for outpatient adverse drug events. The Journal of the
   American Medical Association [Internet]. 2006 Oct 18 [cited 2010 Jan 7];296(15):1858-1866.
   Available from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/296/15/1858.

3. SeniorCarePharmacist.com. What is a Medication Related Problem? [Internet]. Alexandria, VA:
   American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. [date unknown] [cited 2009 Jun 1]. Available from:
   http://www.seniorcarepharmacist.com/mrp/.

4. SeniorCarePharmacist.com. Do You Need a Senior Care Pharmacist? [Internet]. Alexandria, VA:
   American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. [date unknown] [cited 2009 Aug 31]. Available:
   http://www.seniorcarepharmacist.com/1.html.
                    References (cont’d)
5. SeniorCarePharmacist.com. How are Seniors Affected by Medication Related Problems?
   [Internet]. Alexandria, VA: American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. [date unknown]
   [cited 2009 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.seniorcarepharmacist.com/toll/.

6. Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Harrold LR, Rothschild J, DeBellis K, Seger AC, et al. Incidence and
   preventability of adverse drug events among older persons in the ambulatory setting. Journal
   of the American Medical Association. 2003 Mar 5;289(9):1107-1116. Available from:
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289/9/1107.

								
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