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Copia de 102 National Unification

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					The New Nationalism
Power, politics and the Prelude to War

Realpolitik
Otto von Bismarck
1815-1898

The Great Decision of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions…but by blood and iron.

End of “Universalism” Limits of Revolutionary Idealism

I. The “Forgotten” Revolutions
1830 & 1848

A. France reprise
1. Bourbon Restoration
- Charles X and the “Ultras”

2. Election of 1830
- Four Ordinances

3. To the Barricades!

- Rèpublicanisme

4. July Monarchy
- Louise-Philippe

1830 – 1848

Victor Hugo – Les Miserables
Justice (grace) v. Law

5. Limits and Liberalism
- Ideology and famine

6. (Banquet) Revolutions of 1848
- Second Republic

- moderates (constitutional reforms) - radicals (universal suffrage; social programs)

7. The Alliance folds
- Louis Blanc & the Luxembourg Commission

- The June Days

Louis-Napoleon
(Napoleon III)

8. The Second Empire
- urban renewal - Imperial expansion

1852-1870

B. Germany
1. Land and Life
- Johann von Herder Volkstum - geography, environment shape national character

2. Zollverein

3. Prussian National Assembly - March 1848

Frederick Wilhelm IV

4. The Frankfurt Assembly
- Crown from the Gutter

1848-49

“48ers”

5. Habsburg Reaction
- Hungary, Italy, and Prague - 1850, “Humiliation of Olmutz”

C. Crisis in America
1. Manifest Destiny
- Romanticism and geopolitics

2. Mexican-American War
- Wilmot Proviso 1846

1846-48

James K. Polk

3. Election of 1848
- 1848, Free Soil Party

4. Compromise of 1850
- Popular Sovereignty in other territories - Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

Slave Power Conspiracy
breakdown of national party system

D. Geopolitics
Balance of Power Shifts

1. The Crimean War

1854-55

2. Britain, France fear Russian expansion
- Suez Canal

3. Opportunity for Italy
- Sardinia

4. “power vacuum” - Siberia
- Sepoy Mutiny “British Raj”

5. Fear of Liberalism

II. The Unification of Germany

A. Realpolitik
1. Otto von Bismarck
- Junker, reluctant nationalist

B. Dominant German State
1. Competed with Austria
- Zollverein

2. Wars of Unification: 1864, 1866

Schleswig-Holstein

C. Franco-Prussian War
1870-71

1. Napoleon III
- Second Empire

2. Natural enemies
3. “Ems Dispatch”
- Hohenzollerns

4. “modern” & “romantic” warfare
- Railroads, timetables, industrialization

D. The Second Reich
1. Kaiser Wilhelm I

1871-1914

2. Strong central government 3. Universal male suffrage and Reichstag 4. Reform, repression

E. Kulturkampf

1870s

1. Weaken Catholic/Austrian influence 2. Growing suspicion of anyone not “racially” German 3. Ultra-nationalism, imperialism

F. Fractured Republic
1. Third Republic
1870-1940

2. Boulanger Affair

1889

3. Dreyfus Affair

1894-1906

Franco-Prussian War allowed Germany to unite under authoritarian, Prussian rule… …while leaving France politically divided and providing a weak liberal balance to German power

III. The Re-Unification of the United States
Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877

A. Romantic v. Contract Nationalism
1. Contract
- Articles, Jeffersonian, Southern

2. Romantic
- trans-sectional

B. Liberalism & Conservatism
1. Economic liberalism
- Free Soil / Free Labor

2. Political liberalism
- “Slave Power Conspiracy”

3. Election (Revolution) of 1860
- coalition of bourgeoisie, entrepreneurial class, social progressives

C. Liberal Nationalism
1. “Union” as a shield for liberty
- vs. Confederate “junta”

“Power flows from the barrel of a gun”

2. Emancipation Proclamation
3. The Gettysburg Address
- “nation” mentioned 5 times - “all men are created equal” - refers to Declaration, not to Articles

Sept. 1862

Nov. 1863

D. Reconstruction
America’s 2nd Revolution?

1. Presidential 1863-66
- 13th Amendment - “Black Codes”

2. Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction
- Civil Rights Act of 1866 - Freedmen’s bureau *Strengthen federal govt. as agent of reform

3. 14th / 15th Amendment
- dual citizenship - male suffrage

4. Needs of nationalism limit reform
- Redemption [Kulturkampf] - Racial Radicalism

KKK

So….
Both Germany and US develop strong central governments…
…liberal institutions in conflict with conservative cultural trends… …would follow divergent social & political “paths”

IV. A Third Model
Italian Unification

A. The two Giuseppes
1. 1830/48 – Risorgimento

Mazzini – republic Shirts

Garibaldi – the Red

2. Organized grassroots resistance to intervention

B. Kingdom of Sardinia
1. Count Cavour
- strengthened monarchy - initiated liberal reforms - role in Crimean War

2. Feared influence of “Young Italy”, Red Shirts
- Garibaldi overruns central, southern Italy - conflict with the Pope

C. Unification comes
1. 1860, Cavour undercuts Garibaldi
- radicals agree to Italian monarchy

2. Character of unification
- greater local autonomy - Italy far less industrialized - weak bourgeoisie - weak liberal tradition – Church, aristocrats

3. Weakness leaves door open for extremism
fascism, bolshevism, anarchism


				
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