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During 2007-2008, there was a soaring increase in food (particularly cereal grain) prices all over the world. This was especially severe in world’s poorest countries and was predicted to contribute to about a 56 percent rise in cereal import bills of those countries in 2007-2008.
January | February 2010 Feature title: Impact of rising feed ingredient prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture production - part 1 International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry Feed Management Impact of rising feed ingredient prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture production by Krishen J Rana, Sunil Siriwardena and Mohammad R Hasan The first article in a series, taken from a new aquaculture book D uring 2007-2008, there not be economically supplemented with may further contribute to their poverty and was a soaring increase in other sources. Fishmeal is the single most vulnerability. This global phenomenon could food (particularly cereal important source of protein in fish feed.The eventually induce small-scale producer to grain) prices all over the increased cost of energy (due primarily to change businesses and/or may result in loss world. This was especially severe in soaring petroleum prices), El Ni–o effects, of livelihood. world’s poorest countries and was and increasing demand have resulted in The impact of an increase feed prices is predicted to contribute to about a 56 a global increase in fishmeal price. The bound to vary not only between countries percent rise in cereal import bills of world price for fishmeal ranged between and regions but also within different farm- those countries in 2007-2008. US$500 and US$700 per tonne during the ing systems and for different fish species. period 2000–2005. In May 2008, the price of For example, while an increase in fishmeal This sharp increase in food prices was fishmeal was US$1 210/tonne. and fish oil may have a profound impact due to a number of factors, including The average price of other feed ingre- on the farming of salmonids in Europe, a the reduced production of cereal crops dients commonly used in aquafeed rose by price increase will not have a profound worldwide and continued increases in oil 20–92 percent during the period between effect on tilapia, catfish and carp farming prices resulting in higher freight cost. There June 2007 and June 2008. The increas- in most of the Asian and sub-Saharan ing price of feed ingredients African countries as the proportion of Amino Acids (fishmeal, fish oil and cereal) fishmeal and fish oil in diets is relatively and increasing manufacturing low, typically, three to seven percent for "In aquaculture, feed accounts and transportation costs were, fishmeal and one percent for fish oil, while therefore likely to have had soaring prices of other ingredients (e.g. Choosing the right nutrients for your Aquafeed for over 50 percent of the a compound effect on global cereal and cereal by-products) may likely Headquarters production and the price of have a major impact. A study (Rola and production cost. aquafeeds. It was reported Hasan, 2007) carried out in Viet Nam and Evonik Degussa GmbH Health & Nutrition Our amino acids help to • replace costly and scarce raw materials Fishmeal is the single most that during late 2008, feed prices had increased by over Thailand in 2006 showed that proportion of the break-even price with the actual feed additives Rodenbacher Chaussee 4 • improve protein balance and production efficiency 63457 Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany important source of protein in 30 percent on average in many price on catfish farms are 85 percent phone +49 6181 59-2256 • reduce environmental pollution of the countries in Asia, while and 69 percent, respectively, while the fax +49 6181 59-6734 fish feed" farmgate prices of aquacul- respective feed costs are about 86 and Europe & Middle East Africa +49 6181 59-6766 email@example.com | www.aminoacidsandmore.com ture products had remained 81 percent of total production costs. The Latin America +49 6181 59-6761 static, literally impinging on higher the break-even price, in comparison North America +1 678 797-4300 the economic viability of sev- to the market price, the more vulnerable is Asia North +86 10 85 27-6400 Asia South +65 6890-6861 was also the added concern that the use of eral thousands of small-scale producers the producer implying that farmers in Viet certain grains in biofuel production would that form the backbone of the aquaculture Nam and Thailand cannot afford to absorb further aggravate this problem. sector, particularly in Asia, the epicentre of a decrease of the proportion exceeding 15 In aquaculture, feed accounts for over aquaculture production. The aquaculture and 31 percents respectively. This indicates 50 percent of the production cost. Although industry will not be immune to this global that that most of the catfish and tilapia considerable variation exists, cereal grains phenomenon, and specifically smallholders farmers in these countries will not be able are the usual sources of carbohydrates and rural farmers may be particularly sus- to absorb any further feed price increase. in most of the aquafeeds and these can- ceptible to this global change and the fallout Under these circumstances, the immediate 30 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2011 F: Mycotoxins Feed Management R.B., Mair, G.C., Fitzsimmons, K. (Eds.), Proceedings El-Sayed, Y.S., Khalil, R.H., Saad T.T., 2009. Acute Rodrigues, I., 2008. Biomin Mycotoxin Survey of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in toxicity of ochratoxin-A in marine water-reared Program 2008. In: Biomin Newsletter. Biomin Aquaculture, pp. 172–178. sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Chemosphere. Holding GmbH, Vol. 7. 75:878–882. ., Centoducati, G., Santacroce, M.P Lestingi, A., Casalino, Sepahdari, A., Mosavi, H. A. E., Sharifpour, I., Khosravi, E., Crescenzo, G., 2009. Characterization of the ., Fegan, D., Spring, P 2008. Recognizing the reality A., Motallebi, A. A., Mohseni, M., Kakoolaki, S., Pourali, cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea of the aquaculture mycotoxin problem: searching H. R., Hallajian, A., 2010. Effects of different dietary bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758) hepatocytes. for a common and effective solution. Proceedings levels of AFB1 on survival rate and growth factors Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 8 (Suppl. 2), 848-850. of Alltech’s 23st Annual Symposium, Lexington, of Beluga (Huso huso). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Kentucky,USA. 343-354 pp. Sciences. Vol. 9 No. 1 pp. 141-150 Deng S.H, Tian, L.X., Liu, F.G., Jin, S.G., Liang, G.Y.,Yang, H.G., Du, Z.Y., Liu, Y., 2010. Toxic effects and residue Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2004) Tu, D. C., 2010. Aflatoxin B1 reduces growth of aflatoxin B1 in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus×O. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and performance, physiological response, histological aureus) during long-term dietary exposure. feed in 2003. Food and Nutrition Paper No. 81. changes and disease resistance in Tra catfish Aquaculture 307: 233–240. FAO, Rome, Italy. (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). In Submition of MSc Thesis. Nong Lam University. Ho Chi Min City.Vietnam. Doll, S., Baardsen, G., Muller, P Koppe, W., Stubhaug, I., ., Han, D., Xie, S., Zhu, X., Yang, Y., Guo, Z., 2009. Danicke, S., 2010. Effects of increasing concentration Growth and hepatopancreas performances of gibel Tuan, N.A., Grizzle, J.M., Lovell, R.T., Manning, B.B., of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone or carp fed diets containing low levels of aflatoxin B1. Rottinghaus, G.E., 2002. Growth and ochratoxin A in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo Aquaculture Nutrition. hepatic lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed salar) on growth performance and health. Abstract, Hooft, J., 2010. The effects of feed-borne Fusarium diets containing aflatoxin B1. Aquaculture 212, 311–319. 14th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and mycotoxins on the performance and health of Feeding. May 31-June 4, Qingdao, China. p. 120. ., ., Udomkusonsri, P Tangmunkhong, P Chantakru, S., rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In submition Arthitvong, S., Boonyawiwat,V., Kusucharit, N., 2008. El-Banna, R., Teleb, H.M., Hadi, M.M., Fakhry, F.M., 1992. of MSc Thesis. University of Guelph. Guelph, Canada. Study of aflatoxin B-1 levels in muscle and liver and its A study carried out in Viet Nam and Thailand in 2006 showed Performance and tissue residue of tilapia fed dietary 108 p. effects on immune system of Walking catfish (Clarias that proportion of the break-even price with the actual price aflatoxin. Vet. Med. J. Giza 40, 17–23. Ngethe, S., Horsberg, T.E., Mitema, E., Ingebrigtsen, batrachus) after chronic exposure. Proceedings of on catfish farms are 85 percent and 69 percent, respectively, while the respective feed costs are about 86 and 81 percent of El-Sayed Y. S., Khalil, R.H., 2009. Toxicity, K., 1993. Species differences in hepatic the 46th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, total production costs biochemical effects and residue of aflatoxin B1 concentration of orally administered 3H AFB1 Kasetsart, 29 January - 1 February, 2008. pp. 588-597. in marine water-reared sea bass (Dicentrarchus between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) labrax L.). Food and Chemical Toxicology. and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture Whitlow, L.W., Hagler Jr.,W.M., 2002. Mycotoxins in feeds. In: need is to assess the extent and magnitude literature and information, as well as data • comparison of the impacts in Asia and 47:1606–1609. 114, 355–358. Feedstuffs:The Weekly Newspaper for Agribusiness.Vol. 74. of the impact of this global phenomenon on collected in selected market studies. The Europe, and development of man- aquaculture to understand the situation, toreview had two major focuses: a) a col- agement measures for adaptation to study the medium- and long-term impact lection of data on the status in the strengthen national capacity for emer- on aquaculture production, including food costs and trends of and availability of gency preparedness and recovery. security and the overall biosecurity of thefeed ingredients and aquafeed and b) an Naturally ahead system, and to develop coping strategies toanalysis to examine how this change was Coming in the next issue of The address the changing situation. reflected in aquaculture production, the International Aquafeed magazine prices of final aquaculture products and (March/April Activities their consumption pattern in relation to issue) will be Biomin® P.E.P. The study was carried out with special the biosecurity and safety of aquaculture an excerpt of reference to the continents of Asia and products for human consumption. The chapter one Europe, considering that Asia contributes study includes the following specific topics from Impact over 90 percent of global aquaculture to measure the overall impact of increased of rising feed production, while the aquafeed industry price of feed ingredients: • assessment of status and ingredient Naturally ahead in phytogenics! prices on trends of aquaculture feed: "while an increase in fishmeal and volume of production, prices aquafeeds and aquaculture Biomin® P.E.P. is made with a unique fish oil may have a profound impact of ingredients, andreference quality with special product production. blend of essential oils and prebiotics to provide The full publication can be found at: on the farming of salmonids in to countries of south and http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1143e/ a synergistic formula. southeast Asia and western Europe, a price increase will not Europe; i1143e00.htm It is designed specifically to support digestion and improve feed conversion. have a profound effect on tilapia, • assessment of aquacul- ture products/production: More information: catfish and carp farming in most of volume, quality, price, shift/ Krishen J. Rana & Sunil Siriwardena change in production pat- the Asian" terns (species diversifica- Institute of Aquaculture University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom tion); and consumption in is most well-developed in Europe. The two regions, Asia and Europe; Mohammad R. Hasan2 activities under the study included both • impact on biosecurity of aquaculture Aquaculture Management and Conservation specific and overall impact analyses which products resulting from a change in Service, Fisheries and Aquaculture For enquiry, please e-mail were carried out through the collection, feeding patterns and unavailability of Management Division, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Rome, Italy firstname.lastname@example.org www.aqua.biomin.net review and analysis of available published standard nutritional options; and Ad_PEP_IntAquafeed_CIL_2_10.indd 1 19.02.2010 11:31:09 Uhr 12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2011 January-February 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13 32 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2011 January-February 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 33 LINKS This digital re-print is part of the January | February 2010 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. Vo l u m e 1 4 I s s u e 1 2 0 1 1 • See the full issue Mycotoxins in aquafeeds • Visit the International Aquafeed website Least cost formulation in aquafeed • Contact the International Aquafeed Team The multi-formulation: - a key tool for the raw materials purchasing Bangladesh Formulation, status and sustainability of aquaculture feed industries • Subscribe to International Aquafeed the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk
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