TEORI PERBANDINGAN POLITIK Oleh: Arizka Warganegara Bahasan: Materialisme dan Post Materialisme Materialism dan Post Materialism In 1970 we hyphothesized that the basic value priorities of western publics had been shifting from a materialist emphasis toward a post materialist one– from giving top priority to physical sustenance and safety toward heavier emphasis on belonging, self expression and the quality of life. The prevalence of materialist/post materialist value priorities among the public of andvance societies. Contrary to what some observers assumed, Postmaterialism did not dwindle away in the face of diminished economy and physical security Value Change Eg: Value Change PROTESTAN REFORMATION Tradition Stable Value Social and Economic System System Capitalism Slower Protestant Rapid Prosperity Post Economic Ethics Economic Materialist Growth Growth Values Lanjutan... Today Postmaterialist are older than they were when they first emerged as a major political factor in the 1960s Rexamining the theory of Value Change, (Materialism and Post Materialism). It is based on two key hypotheses: 1. A Scarcity Hypotesis, An individual Priorities replect the socio economic environment: one place the greatest subjective value on those things that are in relatively short suplly Lanjutan... 2. A Socialization hypotesis. The relationship between socio economic and value priorities is not one of immediate adjusment. A substantial time lag is involved because to large extent, one’s basic values reflect the condition that prevailed during one’s preadult years. Taken together these two hypotheses generate a coherent set of prediction concerning value change. First, while the scarcity hypotesis implies that prosperity is conducive to the spread of Post Materialist Value. Lanjutan The Socialization hypotesis Implies that neither an individual’s value nor those of a society as a whole are likely to change overnight. Instead Fundamental value change take place gradually. The Socialization hypotesis complements the scarcity hypothesis, resolving objections derived from an oversimplied view of how scarcity affect behavior. Lanjutan... The initial concept of authoritarianism emphasizes the psycodynamics of early child rearing practices rather than influences from the broader economic and political environment. The oroginal authorotarianism hypothesis fails to predict either the age groups differences or social class differences that are srikingly evident in the data. In contrary studies the authoritarianism have found that the children tend to be more authoritarian than adult. Lanjutan... Our hypotheses imply that the unprecedented prosperity prevealing from the late 1940s until the early 1970s, has led to substantial growth in the proportion of postmaterialist among the public of advanced industrial societies. Materialist and Post Materialist Values from 1970 to 1988 Maintain order of nation Give people more say in decisions of government Fight rising prices Protect freedom of speech Maintain a high rate of economic growth Make sure that this country has strong defense forces Give people more say in how things are decided at work and their community Try to make our cities and countryside more beautifull Maintain a stable economy Fight agains crime Move toward a friendlier, Less impersonal society Move toward a society where ideas count more money Lanjutan... The materialist and Post Materialist types have strikingly different opinion on the wide variety issues, ranging from women’s right to attitudes toward poverty, ideas of what is important in job and position on foreign policy. Hubermas (1979) Argued that the rise of Post Materialism is not due to different formative experiences of different generation units, but to exposure to the specific world view inculcated by distinct communications networks. It seems clear that in virtually all western nations, the student milieu of the late 1960s did constitute a distinct communication network, propagating a distinctive viewpoint. Intergeneration Change Based on 3 Kinds of effects: A. Aging Effects B. Cohort Effects C. Period Effects Or sometimes the combination of all three Conclusion: Two basic hypotheses imply that the process of value change will be characterized by period effects (reflecting short-term fluctuationsin socio economic environment Lanjutan... The Materialist/Post Materialist thesis is based on two key hypotheses. The scarcity hypothesis implies period effects: period of prosperity lead to increased post materialism and period of scarcity lead to materialism. The Socialization hypothesis implies that long term cohort effects will also exist.