TEORI PERBANDINGAN POLITIK Oleh Dra Ari Darmastuti M A Tabah Overnight Position

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TEORI PERBANDINGAN POLITIK Oleh Dra Ari Darmastuti M A Tabah  Overnight Position Powered By Docstoc
         Arizka Warganegara

Materialisme dan Post Materialisme
Materialism dan Post Materialism
 In 1970 we hyphothesized that the basic value
  priorities of western publics had been shifting from a
  materialist emphasis toward a post materialist one–
  from giving top priority to physical sustenance and
  safety toward heavier emphasis on belonging, self
  expression and the quality of life.
 The prevalence of materialist/post materialist value
  priorities among the public of andvance societies.
 Contrary to what some observers assumed,
  Postmaterialism did not dwindle away in the face of
  diminished economy and physical security
  Value Change
Eg: Value Change

 Tradition                   Stable
   Value                   Social and
  System                    System

                                  Capitalism                               Slower
              Protestant            Rapid      Prosperity     Post        Economic
                Ethics            Economic                  Materialist    Growth
                                   Growth                    Values
 Today Postmaterialist are older than they
  were when they first emerged as a major
  political factor in the 1960s
 Rexamining the theory of Value Change,
  (Materialism and Post Materialism). It is
  based on two key hypotheses:
1. A Scarcity Hypotesis, An individual Priorities
  replect the socio economic environment: one
  place the greatest subjective value on those
  things that are in relatively short suplly
2. A Socialization hypotesis. The relationship between
   socio economic and value priorities is not one of
   immediate adjusment. A substantial time lag is
   involved because to large extent, one’s basic values
   reflect the condition that prevailed during one’s
   preadult years.

 Taken together these two hypotheses generate a
 coherent set of prediction concerning value change.
 First, while the scarcity hypotesis implies that
 prosperity is conducive to the spread of Post
 Materialist Value.
 The Socialization hypotesis Implies that
 neither an individual’s value nor those of a
 society as a whole are likely to change
 overnight. Instead Fundamental value change
 take place gradually.

 The Socialization hypotesis complements the
 scarcity hypothesis, resolving objections
 derived from an oversimplied view of how
 scarcity affect behavior.
 The initial concept of authoritarianism
  emphasizes the psycodynamics of early child
  rearing practices rather than influences from
  the broader economic and political
 The oroginal authorotarianism hypothesis
  fails to predict either the age groups
  differences or social class differences that are
  srikingly evident in the data. In contrary
  studies the authoritarianism have found that
  the children tend to be more authoritarian
  than adult.
 Our hypotheses imply that the unprecedented
  prosperity prevealing from the late 1940s until
  the early 1970s, has led to substantial growth
  in the proportion of postmaterialist among the
  public of advanced industrial societies.
    Materialist and Post Materialist Values
    from 1970 to 1988
   Maintain order of nation
   Give people more say in decisions of government
   Fight rising prices
   Protect freedom of speech
   Maintain a high rate of economic growth
   Make sure that this country has strong defense forces
   Give people more say in how things are decided at work
    and their community
   Try to make our cities and countryside more beautifull
   Maintain a stable economy
   Fight agains crime
   Move toward a friendlier, Less impersonal society
   Move toward a society where ideas count more money
 The materialist and Post Materialist types have
  strikingly different opinion on the wide variety issues,
  ranging from women’s right to attitudes toward
  poverty, ideas of what is important in job and position
  on foreign policy.
 Hubermas (1979) Argued that the rise of Post
  Materialism is not due to different formative
  experiences of different generation units, but to
  exposure to the specific world view inculcated by
  distinct communications networks.
 It seems clear that in virtually all western nations, the
  student milieu of the late 1960s did constitute a
  distinct communication network, propagating a
  distinctive viewpoint.
Intergeneration Change
  Based on 3 Kinds of effects:
A. Aging Effects
B. Cohort Effects
C. Period Effects
Or sometimes the combination of all three
Conclusion: Two basic hypotheses imply that
   the process of value change will be
   characterized by period effects (reflecting
   short-term fluctuationsin socio economic
 The Materialist/Post Materialist thesis is
  based on two key hypotheses. The scarcity
  hypothesis implies period effects: period of
  prosperity lead to increased post materialism
  and period of scarcity lead to materialism.
  The Socialization hypothesis implies that long
  term cohort effects will also exist.

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