Architectural Template - PDF by aye20533

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									                                                                ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING
                                                                          INFORMATION


                    ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLS
    The drawing of an architectural working drawing requires a knowledge of the sym­
bols and terms commonly used in the design and construction industry. All architectural
working drawings must communicate in a clear and concise manner to the builders.
    In order to simplify the details on a drawing and to speed drawing time it is neces­
sary to use architectural symbols. Many symbols are designed to approximate the ap­
'pearance of an item, or the material from which it is constructed (Fig. 1 ). Some
symbols however, may have no graphic resemblance to the material or item that they
are to represent (fig. 2 ).




                                     riel
                                     ~

   Fig. 1 Some architectural symbols are similar
          to the item they represent

                                             Fig. 2 Some architectural symbols have no
                                                    similarity to the item they represent

SYMBOL CONVENTIONS
   The American Institute of Architect (AlA) and the American National Standard In­
stitute (ANSI) have each set standard conventions for architectural symbols. Since
many new and different types ,of construction materials, appliances and fixtures are con­
tinually being developed and IJsed in construction, many architectural drafters will use
symbols of their own design and show their meaning in a legend or symbol chart on the
drawing. While there are some different symbols being used, there is an overall accep­
tance of the AlA and ANSI symbol conventions.
   As a general rule when a symbol is not clear or a new type of material is to be noted
on a drawing, a notation should be used with the symbol (Rg. 3 ,). This Will clarify the
communication to the builders. It must be remembered that architectural working draw­
ings must be read by many persons in the building trades. Everything must be clear so
no guess work will be involved with the design, ordering of materials or construction
phases.



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                 DOUBLE THERMAL PANES
                                                Rg. 3 For clarity, if it is needed,
                                                      use a notation with the symbol
RULES FOR DRAWING SYMBOLS
   1. Always use drawing instruments. Never draw the symbols freehand on a working
drawing. Use an architectural drawing template to increase the speed and clarity of the
symbols (Fig. 4 ). Be certain that the template figures are the same scale as your
drawing's scale.
   2. The location of the symbol on the working drawing is closely approximated. If an
exact location is required, dimensions must be added to the symbol on the drawing
(Fig. 5 ).
   3, Symbols are not drawn to the exact size of the actual item. The general size of the
architectural symbols will vary with the scale of the drawing. The symbol should be of
convenient reading size, It should 110t be too small or large (Fig. 6).
   4. Material symbols need not cover the full surface as shown in figure 7
Repetitious drawing symbols need not be completely drawn.
   5. Have references for architectural symbols available.




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   Fig. 4 Use an architectural template
          for the drawing of symbols
                                                               Fig. 5 Add dimensions if exact
                                                                      locations are required



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Fig. 6·                                                  Fig.. 7
Good symbol proportions are important                    Symbols for surface cover materials
for architectural working drawings                       need not cover the entire surface
                                                        ARCHITECTURAL DRAWJNG
                                                             INFORMATION SHEET


                    PLUMBING SYMBOLS


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                                        VARIOUS ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLS

                                                           Abbreviation, plan symbol, elevation and pictorial
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           BUILDING MATERIAL SYMBOLS:
                        SECTION                                         SECTION                                                               SECTION                                                                      SECTION
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                                                                                                                                                             NAME          ABBRV	 SECTION ELEVATION PICTORIAL                            NAME      ABBRV SECTION                       ELEVATION PICTORIAL
                                                                                                                                                                                  SYMBOL .                                                               SYMBOL

NAME ABBRV	 SECTION                                    ELEVATION PICTORIAL           NAME      ABBRV . SECTION             ELEVATION PICTORIAL
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                                      SANITATION FACILITY SYMBOLS	                                                                                                      WINDOW SYMBOLS


              NAME                    ABBRV      SECTION      ELEVATION PICTORIAL	            NAME              ABBRV	 SECTION   ELEVATION PICTORIAL          NAME          ABBRV             SECTION              ELEVATION PICTORIAL    NAME           ABBRV      SECTION              ELEVATION PICTORIAL
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                                                                   ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING
                                                                       INFORMATION SHEET

                           FLOOR-PLAN DIMENSIONING

Dimensions show the builder the width and length of the building. Dimensioning
architectural drawings differ from dimensioning mechanical drawings in many ways.
The DIMENSIONING system most commonly used in architectural drafting is known
as aligned dimensioning. With this system, dimensions are placed in line with the
dimension lines and are read from the bottom or right side of the sheet. Dimension
numerals are centered on and placed above the solid dimension lines:




                                                 41'_0"

                                                                                            15'-0. "

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                                      BASEMENT             F-LOOQ. PLAN




                  ALIGNED DIMENSIONING ON A FLOOR PLAN
                 RULES FOR DIMENSIONING

1. Architectural dimension lines are unbroken lines with dimensions placed above the line.
2. In drawing plans, feet and inch marks may be omitted as a general rule, (Do not omit dash).
        a. Dimensions over l' are expressed in feet and inches.
        b. Dimensions less than l' are shown in inches.
3. A slash is often used with fractional dimensions to conserve vertical space.
4. Dimensions should be placed to read from the right or from the bottom of the drawing.
5. You should place dimensions so that the drawing does not appear crowded.
        a. Space dimension fines a minimum of 3/8" from the object and from each other.
        b. If there is room, it is preferred to start the first dimension line 1/2" from the plan.
6. Be consistent so that dimension lines are evenly spaced (regardless of distance chosen).
7. Dimension lines terminate at the extension lines with dots, arrowheads, or slash marks.
8. Dimension numerals are drawn 1/8" high with the aid of guidelines.
9. Line and arrowhead weights are the same as those used in dimensioning mechanical drawings.
10. Overall building dimension are placed outside the other dimension Jines.
       a. The first line of dimensions on the plan is the smallest distance from the exterior wall the
          the center of windows, doors and partition (interior) wails.
       b. The second lines of dimensions generally gives the distance from the outside walls to the
          partition (interior) walls.
       c. The third fine of dimensions is usually the overall distance between the two exterior walls.


                                                                                         ,-- .,\PPRO)(IIV1ATELY 1/8"

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                                         DIMENSION LINE SPACING

 11. Room sizes may be shown by stating width and length.
 12. When an area to be dimensioned is too small for the numerals, they are placed outside the

      extension lines.

13. Window and door sizes may be shown directly on the door or window symbol or may be indexed
     to a door or wirldow schedu Ie.
14. Curved leaders are sometimes used to eliminate confusion with other dimension lines.
15. When an area is too small for an arrowhead, dots may be used to indicate the dimension limits.
16. When the space is small, arrowheads may be placed outside the extension lines.
17. A dot with a leader refers to the large area noted.
18. Dimensions that cannot be seen on the floor plan or those too small to place on the object are
    placed on leaders for easier reading.
19.	 In dimensioning stairs, the number of risers is placed on a line with an arrow indicating the
    direction (up or down).
20. Windows, doors, pilasters, beams and areaways are dimensioned to their centerlines.
21. Use abbreviations when symbols do not show clearly what is intended.
22. Sub-dimensions must add up to overall dimensions (14'-0" + 12'-0" = 26'-0").
23. Architectural dimensions always refer to the actual size of the building regardless of the scale of
   the drawing.
24. Aligned dimensions are placed in alignment with an angled wall or feature.




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                                  OPEN ARROWHEADS

                             CLOSED ARROWHEADS


                             PERPENDICULAR LINES

                                    SLASH LINES
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                    i\illNIMUM DISTANCE
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               DOOR TO WALL ASSUMED
                                                      I
            DIFFERENT STYLES OF
            ARROWHEADS


                                                                             36"*   S~OWER

                                                                     ~EADER
                                                                      WITH
                                                                               LINE CURVED FREEHAND OR
                                                                             IRREGULAR CURVE,   OR   STRAIGHT.
                                                                      CENTER AT BEGINNING OR END OF NOTE.
                                                                      TERMINATE WITH ARROWHEAD.
                  COMMON SIZES OF ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES



 1. Base cabinets generally are not dimensioned as they are typically 24" deep.
 2. Closet poles are generally 15" from the back wall and are dashed lines.
 3. Closet shelves are solid lines 12" from the back wall.
 4. Room components:

         -exterior walls: 6"

         -exterior unheated walls (garage, shop): 4"

         -Interior: 4"

         -Interior plumbing wall (ie..toilet): 6"

         -Hallway: 36" minimum wide

         -entry hallways: 42 - 60"

         -bedroom closets: 24" minimum depth; 48" length

         -linen closets: 14-24" deep (not over 3D")

         -Washer/dryer space: 36" deep; 5'-6" long minimum

         -Stairways: 36" minimum wide; 10.5" tread(typical); 11 '-4" total run


5. Plumbing:
        -Bathroom sink: 19" x 16" (oval); provide 9" from edge to wall and about 12" between two sinks; 36"
          minimum length
        -Kitchen sink: 32" x 21" for a double, 42" x 21" for a triple
        -Laundry sink: 21" x 21"
        -Shower: 36" square; 42" square; or a combination of 36", 42", 48" and 60" for fiberglass; any size for
          ceramic tile
        -Toilet space: 30" wide (minimum), 24" clearance in front

        - Washer/Dryer: 2'-4" square (approXimately)



6. Appliances:
        -Forced air unit: gas- 18" square (minimum) with 6" space all around (can NOT go under the stairs) ;
          electric- 24" x 30" (same space reqUirements as gas)
        - Water heater: gas- 18-24" diameter (can NOT go under the stairs)
        -Refrigerator: 36" wide space; approximately 27-30" deep; 4" from wall, 4" from the base cabinet.
        -Stove/cooktop: 30" x 21" deep
        -Built-in oven: 27" x 24" deep
        -Dishwasher: 24" x 24"
        -Trash compactor: 15" x 24" deep; near sink, away from stove
        -Broom/pantry: 12" minimum x 24" deep, increasing by 3" increments
        -Desk: 30" x 24" deep (minimum); not within the work triangle

        -Built-in vacuum: 24" x 30" diameter



7. Doors:
        -Entry: 36" x 6'_8"; 42" x 8'-0"
        -Slider or French: 5', 6', 8' (double); 9', 10' (triple); 12' (four panel)
        -Garage, utility, kitchen and bedrooms on custom houses: 2'-8"
        -Bedrooms and bathrooms of nice homes: 2'-6"
        -Bathroom closets: 2'-4"

        -Garage: 8' x 1', 9' x 8', 16' x l' and 18' x l'

       8. Windows:

                - Living, family: 8' - 10'

                -Dining: 6' - 8'

                -Bedrooms: 4' - 6'

                -Kitchens: 3' - 5'

                -Bathrooms: 2' - 3'

                -Sliding: 4', 5' 6' 8' 10' 12'

                -Single hung: 24", 30", 36" 42"

                -Casement: same as sliding

                -Fixed awning: 24", 30", 36" 42", 48"

                -Fixed sliding: 24", 30", 36" 42", 48"

                -Picture: 4', 5', 6', 8'

                -Bay: 8' - 10' total; sides- 18-24" wide



                             SOME METHODS OF DIMENSIONING FLOOR PLANS
       ,. Method B is preferred for this class (deviation will require teacher approval)



A




B·





      */n summary, a floor plan must be completely dimensioned to ensure that
      the house will be constructed precisely as designed. Many construction
      mistakes result from errors in architectural drawing, and most of those
      errors are in dimensioning! One of the best ways to learn how
      experienced drafters layout dimensions is to study and evaluate existing
      plans.
 NAME                                _                        ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING
                                                        WORKSHEET: MEASUREMENT

                         MEASURING A FLOOR PLAN

MAKE ALL MEASUREMENTS WITH SCALE: 1/4"= 1'-0".
SUB DIMENSIONS MUST TOTAL CORRECTLY.




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