Driving in the Rain

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					Operational Risk Management
• 1) Identify hazards • 2) Assess hazards - determine degree of risk for all hazards • 3)Make risk decisions • 4) Implement Controls • 5) Supervise

Have you Done your Pre-trip before the storm

Car Maintenance
• Windshield Wipers - change if hard, cracked or brittle; check wiper fluid • Check fluids - oil, transmission, radiator and brakes • Fluid leaks are a sign you are overdue for maintenance

Unsafe conditions
• Poor visibility • Poor road conditions • Improper vehicle maintenance

Size Up The Whole Scene
• Know what’s going on all around you • Avoid sudden stops • Check mirrors constantly

Reduce your Speed by 10 kph

Driving in the Rain
• Turn your lights on - see and be seen • In heavy rains, pull over and wait it out • Avoid skids by driving slowly and brake before entering curves • Steer and brake with a light touch • In a skid - remain calm, ease foot off gas, steer car in direction you want front of car to go

Driving in the Rain
• On the expressway - leave plenty of room between you and other cars • Slow down and drive in the fast lane - fewer cars, less oil deposits, less water due to slope in road • Avoid lane changes

Hydroplaning
• Contributing factors: vehicle speed, tire-tread depth, water depth

Hydroplaning
A condition in which the tires of a moving vehicle ride on the surface of water causing loss of steering and braking control.

Causes of Hydroplaning
1. 2. 3. 4. Under/Over-inflated tires Speed Water depth on the road Lack of tread depth on your tires
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It easy to drive until Mother Nature adds a film of water

Effects on Traction
Hydroplaning
This is when your vehicle starts to slide on an mixture of water and oil on a concrete surface or asphalt roadway. The tires, in effect, lose contact with the pavement and therefore you lose the benefits of friction.

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Effects on Traction
Traction or Friction
Friction is the gripping power between a tire and the roadway on which it moves.

Traction is affected in one way or another friction, stopping distance, centrifugal force, and/or hydroplaning.
By decreasing car traction, you are thereby decreasing the amount of control you have on your car!
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Ten Traffic Safety Rules
• • • • • Allow extra time Maintain a safe distance Signal your intentions Come to a full stop Let other drivers merge

Ten Traffic Safety Rules
• • • • • Obey posted speed limit Concentrate on driving Use horn sparingly Remain civil Extend common courtesy

Prevention Summary Driving in the Rain
• Slow down • Avoid puddles of water • Avoid hydroplaning • Turn on lights • Use windshield wipers and defroster • When its Raining always use the 4 Second Rule

Funny it looks like it stopped Raining, I wonder what happen there

How About Some Prevention Hugs
• When the road is wet, the film of the water on the asphalt causes tires to lose traction. Less obvious is the fact that rain reduces driver perception — it's harder to see through the rain — and also decreases visibility through its action on headlights, windshields and the road itself. While most people know to slow down in the rain, there are definitely other tips that will help keep you, and those who share the road with you, from becoming a statistic. • Exercise extreme caution after a long dry spell. During a dry period, engine oil and grease build up on the road over time. When mixed with water from a new rainfall, the road becomes extremely slick. Continued rainfall will eventually wash away the oil, but the first few hours can be the most dangerous. • Allow for more travel time. You should plan to drive at a slower pace than normal when the roads are wet. Keep in mind that traffic is likely to be moving slower as well. There's also the possibility that your pre-planned route may be flooded or jammed. Whatever the case, rushing equals higher risk.

Rain K.R.A.A.P.----Knowledge, Risk Assessment, Attitude & Practice
• Brake earlier and with less force than you would normally. Not only does this increase the stopping distance between you and the car in front of you, it also lets the driver behind you know that you're slowing down. Also, be more meticulous about using turn signals, so that other drivers know your intentions, and take turns and curves with less speed than you would in dry conditions. Most of America's roads are crowned in the middle, which means that the water will run off to the sides. If possible, stay toward the middle of the road to avoid deep standing puddles. Don't use cruise control. If you hydroplane, there's the chance your car could actually accelerate. Cruise control also allows drivers to be less vigilant and to take their foot away from the pedals — not a great idea when reaction time is so important. If you see a large puddle up ahead, drive around it or choose a different route. It could be that it's covering a huge gaping maw into the front door of hell. Well, maybe not, but water splashing up into your car's engine compartment could damage its internal electrical systems. Also, a pothole may be hiding under the water, just waiting in ambush to damage a wheel or knock your suspension out of alignment. If you can't gauge the depth, or if it's covering up the side curb, try to avoid it.

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• Don't attempt to cross running water. This ain't an SUV commercial, and you'll probably get into a heckuva lot of trouble if the force of the water is greater than the weight of your vehicle. Allwheel drive isn't going to be much help if your vehicle is being pushed sideways. Don't end up like those folks on the nightly news who had to abandon their cars to Mother Nature. • After you cross a puddle, tap on your brake pedal lightly to dry off some of the water on your rotors. • Turn on your headlights, even when there's a light sprinkle. It helps you see the road, and more importantly, it helps other motorists see you. However, don't blast your high beams in the rain or fog — it'll obscure your view further, as the light will reflect back at you off the water droplets in the air. If your car is equipped with foglights, you may find it helpful to turn these on, as they throw a little extra light on the road while making your car easier to see.

It not just me out here
• Watch out for pedestrians. An ordinarily observant pedestrian may become distracted by fiddling with an umbrella or a rain slicker. Plus, raindrops deaden sound, so the usual audio clues for measuring car distances become obscured. Keep a sharp lookout for people in the road. • If it's raining so hard that you can't see the road or the car in front of you, pull over and wait it out. • Track the car ahead of you. Let the car ahead pave a clear path, so to speak, through the water. • Give a truck or bus extra distance. Their extra-large tires can create enough spray to block your vision completely. Avoid passing one, but if you must pass, do it as quickly as safety allows. • Defog your windows. Rain will quickly cause your windshield to fog up. Switch on both front and rear defrosters and make sure the air conditioning is turned on. Most cars' climate control systems will automatically engage the A/C when the windshield defrost function is selected.

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If you start to hydroplane, don't brake suddenly or turn the wheel, or you might spin into a skid. Release the gas pedal slowly and steer straight until the car regains traction. If you must brake, tap the brake pedal (unless you have antilock brakes, in which case you can put your foot down). Now that you know how to drive in the rain, take some precautionary measures to ensure that your vehicle is prepared to get you through a downpour. Stay on top of your car's condition. Its brakes, tire pressures, tire tread depth and defroster operation should be checked regularly so that you'll be ready to deal with a deluge when the time comes. Most vehicles are available with antilock brakes these days, and safety features like traction control, stability control and all-wheel drive are becoming increasingly popular as well. Although all-wheel drive is really only necessary if you frequently drive in snow and ice, traction and stability control can be very handy on rainsoaked roads. Traction control helps you maintain grip by putting the brakes on the tire(s) that don't have traction, while a stability control system monitors your steering input, intervening with the brakes and/or reducing engine power as needed to keep you on your intended path.

2-32 of Tread on the Tires or MORE
• Make sure that your wipers are in good condition and functioning properly. If the blades are brittle or damaged, replace them before you're caught in a downpour. Some wipers are definitely better than others, so ask your retailer for recommendations. • If there's a chance of freezing rain, double your precautions. Carry snow chains, as well as a supply of salt, sand or kitty litter (the nonclumping kind). If you're stuck and uselessly spinning your tires on a patch of ice, stop what you're doing and place some of said material around the drive wheels to gain traction. Then give it another go, giving the car as little gas as possible. If your car has a manual transmission, it also helps to start out in second gear rather than first. If you live in a particularly harsh climate, consider keeping a small shovel in the trunk to remove excess ice and snow from around the tires in the event that you get stuck.

Slow you Know
• Again the most important thing to remember � no mater how good your tires are, no matter if you have antilock brakes, four-wheel drive or traction control � is to slow down!

Off to the Insurance Adjustors Office

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