INTRODUCTION TO HOTEL INDUSTRY One of the fastest growing sectors of the economy of our time is the hotel industry. The hotel industry alone is a multi-billion dollar and growing enterprise. It is exciting, never boring and offer unlimited opportunities. The hotel industry is diverse enough for people to work in different areas of interest and still be employed within the hotel industry. This trend is not just in India, but also globally. Modern hotels provide refined services to their guests. The custome rs or guests are always right. This principle necessitated application of management principles in the hotel industry and the hotel professionals realized the instrumentality of marketing principles in managing the hotel industry. The concept of total quality management is found getting an important place in the marketing management of hotels. The emerging positive trend in the tourism industry indicates that hotel industry is like a reservoir from where the foreign exchange flows. This naturally draws our attention on HOTEL MANAGEMENT. Like other industries, the hotel industry also needs to explore avenues for innovation, so that a fair blending of core and peripheral services is made possible. It is not to be forgotten that the leading hotel companies of the world have been intensifying research to enrich their peripheral services with the motto of adding additional attractions to their service mix. It is against this background that we find the service mix more flexible in nature. The recruitment and training programmes are required to be developed in the face of technological sophistication. The leading hotel companies have been found promoting an ongoing training programme so that the personnel come to know about the use of sophisticated communication technologies. Hotel – The Concept At the outset, we go through the concept of hotel. The common law says that hotel is a place where all who conduct, themselves properly and who being able and ready to pay for their entertainment, accommodation and other services including the boarding like a temporary home. It is home away from home where all the modern amenities and facilities are available on a payment basis. It is also considered to be a place where tourist stops, cease to be travellers and become customers. The definition presented by hotel operators to authorities of the National Recovery Administration in Washington is found to be a more comprehensive definition, presented by Stuart Mc Namara. The definition states that, “ Primarily and fundamentally, a hotel is an establishment which supplies boarding and lodging not engaged in inter – state commerce or in any intra – state commerce, competitive with or affecting inter – state commerce (or so related that the regulation of one involves the control of other).” The hotel may furnish quarters and facilities for assemblage of people for social business or entertainment purposes and may engage in retaining portion of its premises for shops and businesses whose continuity (i.e., proximity) is deemed appropria te to a hotel. The assemblage of people for social business and entertainment purposes makes it essential that hotels are also furnished with a big conference hall where the maximum possible accommodation is available. We also call it the function room. Origin of the word “Hotel” To world “hostel” was used then it was called “hostelier” which means head of unit or the place. The Norman people invented the word “hotel”. The word “hotel” was originally in England, officially from 1760. The real growth of modern hotel was originated in “U.S.A” with opening of “City Hotel” in New York in the year 1974. This was the first building erected for the hotel purpose. This period also saw the beginning of chain operation under the guidance of E.M.STATLER. It involves b ig investment, big profits and trained professional to manage business. Origin of Hotel Industry The repreciation in 1930 had a disaster effect in a hotel industry after the World War II and brought a tremendous up surge to hotel industry with continuous prosperity of hotel industry. Mass travel is a modern phenomenon that emerged after World War II. Mass tourism continues to grow as political freedom, economic wherewithal and social equality spread across the globe. With the economic engine of development running at full steam, there was a growth in international travel and thereby growth in hotel industry. Estimates abound as to the importance and size of house keeping. Certainly, its economic contribution is critical to the global economy whether as a service to the business community. Background of Hotel Industry Prior to the 1980’s, the Indian hotel industry was a nascent and slow growing industry primarily consisting of relatively static, single hotel companies. However, Asian games in 1982 and the subsequent partial liberalization of the Indian economy generated tourism interest in India with significant benefits accruing to the hotel and tourism sector in terms of improved demand patterns. Fortunes of the hotel industry are tied to the fortunes of tourism and the general business climate in the country, which is why the economic liberalization initiatives implemented since 1991, led to a soaring demand and supply gap in the hotel industry. Classification of Hotels On the basis of standards: Like most of the countries in world, India also has hotels divided in different categories depending on their location, facilities, infrastructure and amenities provided. All the star hotels in India are government approved with continuous control on the quality of services offered. Five Star Hotels: - The most luxurious and conveniently located hotels in India are grouped under Five Star Deluxe Hotel categories. Five Star Deluxe in India are globally competitive in the quality of service provided, facilities offered and accommodation option. These are top of the line hotels located mostly in big cities. These hotels provide all the modern facilities for accommodation and recreation matching international standards in hospitality. In such type of hotel HR department are established separately and to execute and to follow the concept of HR strictly, HR professional are hired. Four Star Hotels: - A rung below five star hotels are Four Star Hotels, these hotels provide all the modern amenities to the travelers with a limited budget. Quality of services is almost as high as the five stars and above categories. These kinds of hotels are there for the travelers with limited budget or for the places which might not get the tourist traffic associated with larger cities. In such type of hotel concept of HR is more or less followed. Three Star Hotels: - These are mainly economy class hotels located in the bigger and smaller cities and catering to the needs of budget travelers. Lesser in amenities and facilities, these hotels are value for money and gives good accommodation and related services on the reduced price. Services would be stripped down version of higher categories of hotels but sufficient to fulfill customer basic needs. In such type of hotel concept of HR may or may not be present. If present all functions of HRD is curtailed. Two Star Hotels: - These hotels are most available in the small cities and in particular areas of larger cities. Catering to the backpacker tourist traffic, these hotels provide all the basic facilities needed for general accommodation and offers lowest prices. In this type of hotel concept of HR is absent. One Star Hotels:- The hotels with most basic facilities, small number of room’s locations in the far-flung areas are grouped under One Star Hotel category. These hotels are best when customer is looking for cheapest available accommodation option. In this type of hotel concept of HR is alien words. On the basis of Nature: Heritage Hotels Heritage hotels in India are best if one is looking for sheer elegance, luxury and loyal treatment. They are not just another accommodation options but tourist attract ions in themselves. Exquisitely designed and decorated, meticulously preserved, high standards of service and ethnic cultural motifs helps the tourists get the complete experience of an India. Beach Resorts Hotels Peninsular India bounded by Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean and the two emerald archipelagos of Lakshwadeep and Andaman and Nicobar have a long coast line of around 7500 km, offering an amazing array of beaches, some popular, some not so well known. Thus location of resort is the basic po int of attraction for tourists. Government Approved Hotels These are the hotels, which might not have applied for star categorization or small enough to find them in the list. Many of the wildlife resorts, lodges and hostels are government approved providing a minimum level of accommodation facilities at far off places. Residential Hotels The residential hotels work as apartment house. Often we call them apartment hotels. The hotels charge rent on monthly, half – yearly, or yearly basis. They are generally located in big cities and towns where no meals are served to the customers. Initially, the residential hotels were developed in the USA. The services offered here are comparable to an average well managed home. Commercial Hotels The commercial hotels are meant for the people who visit a place of trade and commerce or business purposes and therefore these hotels are found located at the commercial or industrial centers. They focus their attention on individual travelers and are generally run by owners. Floating Hotels The floating hotels are located on the water surface. The places are sea, river, and lake. These hotels provide with all the facilities and services made available in a good hotel. In the leading tourist generating countries of the world we find the practice of using old luxury ships as floating hotels. Users of Hotel Industry DOMESTIC: FOREIGN: Pilgrims Political representatives Students Trade representatives Officials Educationists Film stars etc. Tourists, Sportsmen etc. RANCHI Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Jharkhand accounts for 40% of the mineral resources of India. Ranchi accounts for 50% mineral production of the state, nearing about 18% of nation's mineral production. For this reason Ranchi is also called the Manchester of the East. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, Western West Bengal and the present eastern Chhattisgarh. Jharkhand State was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas The name Ranchi comes from the name of a local bird [. Up to 1927, the place was known as Rachi. Ranchi is the headquarters of Ranchi district. Earlier the name of the district was Lohardaga. The old district had come into existence after the creation of the non- regulation South – West frontier as a result of the Kol rising in 1831-32. The name of the district was changed in 1899 from Lohardaga to Ranchi after the name of a small village now comprised within the headquarters station. The name comes from a local bird named "RINCHI" which was mostly found in the "pahadi mandir premise" the bird was considered as to be a sacred bird. Geography Ranchi is located at 23.35°N 85.33°E. The total area covered by the Ranchi municipal area is about 141 square kilometres and the average elevation of the city is 629 m above sea level. Ranchi is located on the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi is referred to as the “City of Waterfalls”, the most popular waterfalls are Dasham, Hundru, Jonha Falls, Hirni and Panchghat. The Subarnarekha river and its tributaries constitute the local river system. Dams in Kanke, Rukka and Hatia have been built over these channels to cater to the water requirements of the population. Ranchi has a hilly topography and its combination with dense tropical forests ensures that it enjoys a comparatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. Climate Ranchi Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D 23 30 27 32 55 199 346 329 282 89 8.7 6.1 23 26 31 36 37 34 29 29 29 28 26 23 10 13 17 22 24 24 23 22 22 19 14 10 average max. and min. temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate. However, due to its position and the forests around the city, it is known for its pleasant climate. Its climate is the primary reason why Ranchi was once the summer capital of the undivided State of Bihar. Temperature ranges from maximum 42 to 20°C during summer, and from 25 to 4°C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm. Demographics In the 2001 India census, Ranchi had a population of 846,454. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 68%. In Ranchi, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and marketing companies, the city wi tnessed the influx of migrants. Festivals Ranchi is home to people of many castes, creeds and sects. All festivals are celebrated with pomp, glory and in harmony. Tourist spots Temples. Rajrappa Mandir About 65 km from Ranchi for the worship of Goddess Kali, known as Chhinnamastika. Also a tourist place; has good picnic spots. Pahari Temple - heart of the city Durga Badi - near Firayalal Chowk at the heart of the city. Kali Bari - Church Road. Jagannathpur Temple - built in the architectural style of Puri temples about 300 years old, known for the Chariot Festival ( Rath Yatra) attended by a large number of devotees every year Surya Temple - 38 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Tata NH Road Parasnath or Shikharjee - a major pilgrimage of the Jain's about 200 km from Ranchi in Girdih District. Ramakrishna Mission and Ashram, Morabadi Dewri Temple - 58 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Tata NH 33 road. Doranda Jain Mandir - 4 km from Ranchi Headquarters of Yogoda Satsanga Society of India, founded by Paramahansa Yogananda, situated about 200 metres from Ranchi railway station. Buddha Vihar- Chhotanagpur Buddha Society, Nepal House, Doranda Ranchi. Hirini Falls are one Of the famous falls of Ranchi (Jharkhand) Tapoban Mandir - About 1 km from Ranchi Jn near Over Bridge at Nibaranpur, Ranchi. Swarnarekha - About 15 km from Ranchi in Piska Nagri. There are also falls like Hundru, Hirni, Dasam, Panchghagh, Jonha. Parks and resorts Nakshatra Van - near Raj Bhawan (Governor's House) Aqua World (Machhli Ghar)- just beside Nakshtra Van, near Raj Bhawan. Birsa Zoological Park - 14 km from Ranchi Night Safari - 14 km from Ranchi Deer Park - 16 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Khunti Road Sidhu Kaanhu Park Dr. Zakhir Hussain Park Ranchi Hill/ Rici Buru - Pahari Baba Temple Tagore hill - Morabadi, 5 km from the center of the city Rock Garden - Kanke Road, 4 km from the center of the city Fun Castle - Ratu, 7 km from Ranchi Crocodile Farm - Ormanjhi, 19 km from Ranchi Ranchi Lake - Man made lake digged by the British in the heart of the city Dhurwa Dam Falls Hundru Falls - One of the Highest waterfalls of Eastern India. Jonha Falls - About 35 km from Ranchi Hirni and Panchghagh Falls about 40–45 km away from the city, very popular with picnickers. Industrial and commercial development in Ranchi As an important administrative and military base of the eastern India during the British Era, Ranchi developed as an important centre of trade and commerce, including a traditional base for sericultureand manufacture of shellac. Villages around Ranchi have been described as the 'vegetable bowl' of Jharkhand and truckloads of green vegetables are transported from the city to different parts of Jharkhand, Bihar, and to Kolkata. After India gained independence, Ranchi continued to grow, and a number of industrial facilities were located in and around the city. Along with other two industrial townships of Jamshedpur and Bokaro, it completes the industrial structure of Jharkhand. Industrial facilities of Ranchi include the Heavy Engineering Corporation (now associated with ISRO also), MECON which is associated with expansion and modernisation of most of the steel plants, CCL, CMPDI and Shipping Corporation of India, Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd , (Marine Diesel Engine Plant) for overhauling & manufacturing of mtu 183, 396 & 4000 series Marine Diesel engine in collaboration with Motoren-und Turbinen Union (MTU) Ludwigsfelde GMBH of Deutscheland (Germany). The Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) founded its research and development center in Ranchi in 1974, and today it is the largest steel research centre of the country, employing over 350 scientists and addressing the R&D needs of SAIL while also providing scientific services to other organizations. Ranchi also houses Usha Martin Limited, a pioneer in the manufacturing of steel wires and wire ropes, located in Tatisilwai, approx 15 km from the main city. Institutions Primary and Secondary Schools Ranchi is a hub for Pre-school, primary and secondary schools. Major schools include st. johns high school; Bishop Westcott, Jawahar Vidya Mandir Shyamali, DPS, Sacred Heart Convent, Loreto Convent, LEBB High School, SS Doranda Girls' High School, Chotanagpur Girls' School, Balika Siksha Bhawan, St Xaviers, 4 Kendriya Vidyalayas, Zila School, St Paul's School, Yogoda Satsanga Vidyalaya. Other educational organisations are: CIP Central Institute of Psychiatry, BIT Birla Institute of Technology,Xavier Institute of Social Services(XISS), RIMS Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences and NIFFT National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology. Most of the government-run schools in Ranchi are affiliated to Jharkhand Academic Council, while most of the private schools are affiliated to ICSE, CBSE boards. The colleges in & around Ranchi are Birla Institute of Technology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Central Institute of Psychiatry, National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology. Most of the colleges and institutions of higher education are under the jurisdiction of Ranchi University. There are also agicultural and veterinary colleges, which are part of the Birsa Agricultural Universitylocated at Kanke and ICFAI University. XISS, Ranchi is one of the oldest B schools. Other institutions are: Ranchi College, Women's College, St. Xavier's College, Yogoda Satsang College, Nirmala College, Marwari Boys' College, Gossner College and Doranda College.In 2009 the Central University of Jharkhand was established by the government of India. Ranchi is also marking its presence felt globally by inception of country's famous and trustworthy management brand IIM. Health care facilities and hospitals The city is the medical centre for the region of about 400 km in radius. Many hospitals, both private and public, dot the city. The Rajendra Medical College now known as Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, RIMS is the largest of three medical colleges in the state. Neurodiagnostic facilities exist in the Advanced Diagnostic Centre. The Indian corporate hospital chain (Apollo Hospitals Group) runs a private hospital named Abdur Razzaque Ansari Memorial Hospital (ARAM) which is the only super speciality hospital in this area of the country. It was founded in 1996 by the Chotanagpur Regional handloom weavers Co-operative Union Ltd and the members of the family of the late Abdur Razzaque Ansari which is on the outskirts of the city. Other private run hospitals include Seva Sadan, Raj Hospital, Guru Nanak Hospital and Seventh Day Adventist Hospital. In addition, Ranchi has secondary care hospitals belonging to central government undertakings such as MECON Ispat Hospital, Gandhinagar CCL Hospital, HEC Plant Hospital. Ranchi is famous across India for its psychiatric care centers. Ranchi has some of the largest facilities for mentally-challenged patients at Kanke. There are three major hospitals taking care of patients with psychiatric illnesses. Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke RINPAS, Kanke.