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					2009

IS 6314 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF INTERDISEPLINARY STUDIES
DISCUSSION ABOUT THE HOW MALE AND FEMALE LEAD THE ORGANIZATION AND ARE THEIR ANY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEM?

CHATHURANGA B.H.K RU/E/2006/030 5/6/2009

IS 6314 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF INTERDISEPLINARY STUDIES CHATHURANGA B.H.K

ABSTRACT
In nowadays, there are many recent studies focusing on gender and leadership style. The way women and men act doesn’t give the whole picture, we have to allow that individual’s leadership style is heavily influenced by the situational context and how others perceive it .I affected not only the differences in male and female leadership style, but the reasons of gender segregation. The familiar data about women and men in economy, education, the media, law, medicine, and politics are the concrete manifestation of an underlying structure – the social institution of gender. The concepts of gender as an institution explains work patterns family patterns and symbolic cultural representation Despite the evidence that women and men are more similar than different, the institution of gender continues to create and maintain socially significant differences between women and men. What seems too relevant - gender differences - is a means, not an end. Gender is a constitutive element of social relationships based on perceived differences between the sexes, and gender is a primary way of signifying relationships of power. To find out the differences in women and men leadership style, investigate the nature of these differences , show social aspects of gender segregation , to describe paradox of gender: why , when women can be found in substantial numbers in many occupations and professions, are there so few women in the position if authority in modern industrialized societies ? –that is a purpose of the article.

INTRODUCTION
“Leaders must begin by setting aside that culturally conditioned ‘natural’ instinct to lead by push, particularly when times are tough. Leaders must instead adopt the unnatural behavior of always leading by the pull of inspiring values. The difficulty lies in that imperative always.” —James O’Toole: Leading Change

Leadership is defined in so many different ways that it is hard to come up with a single working definition. Leadership is not just a person or group of people in a high position; understanding leadership is not complete without understanding interactions between a leader and his or her followers. Neither is leadership merely the ability or static capacity of a leader. We need to look into
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IS 6314 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF INTERDISEPLINARY STUDIES CHATHURANGA B.H.K

the dynamic nature of the relationship between leader and followers. In these unique social dynamics, all the parties involved attempt to influence each other in the pursuit of goals. These goals may or may not coincide: Participants actively engage in defining and redefining the goal for the group and for themselves.

DO MALES AND FEMALES LEAD DIFFERENTLY? Leadership qualities such as aggressiveness, assertiveness, taking charge, and competitiveness are traditionally associated with strong, masculine characters. Even women executives tended to show these characteristics in the traditional corporate world. In fact, many of these women executives were promoted because they were even more competitive and assertive than their male counterparts. These successful women executives often sacrificed a family life, which their male counterparts did not necessarily have to do.

As far as the differences between male female leadership styles, three distinct points of view have emerged
No differences: Women who pursue the nontraditional career of manager reflect the feminine stereotype and have needs, value, and leadership style similar to those of men who pursue managerial careers. Stereotypical differences: Female and male manager differ in ways predicted by stereotypes, as a result of early socialization experiences that reinforce masculinity in males and femininity in females. Non stereotypical differences: Female and male manager differ in way opposite to stereotypes, because women managers have to be exceptional to compensate for early socialization experiences that are different from those of men.

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF RUHUNA

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IS 6314 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF INTERDISEPLINARY STUDIES CHATHURANGA B.H.K

Type of differences Behavior Task oriented People oriented Effectiveness ratings

Research result between men and women

No differences No differences Stereotypical differences in evaluations of managers in laboratory studies: males Favored. No differences in evaluations of actual managers. Stereotypical differences Male use norm of equity, whereas female use norm of equality. Stereotypical differences Males use a wider range of strategies, more positive strategies, and less negative strategies. This difference diminishes when women managers have high self – confidence. No differences in some studies. Non stereotypical difference in other studies. Female motivational profile is closer to that associated with successful managers. Inconsistent evidence regarding difference. Stereotypical differences in responses to managers in laboratory studies: Managers using style that matches sex role stereotype are favored. No difference in responses to actual managers.

Response to poor former Influence strategies

Motivation

Commitment Subordinates response.

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF RUHUNA

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IS 6314 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF INTERDISEPLINARY STUDIES CHATHURANGA B.H.K

CONCLUSION

Women often use a different leadership style than men and that different style can be a plus in the dynamic organizational world of the. Those are the most important conclusions we can make based on a number of recent studies focusing on gender and leadership style. Women tend to adopt a more democratic leadership style. They encourage participation, share power and information, and attempt to enhance followers’ self-worth. They lead through inclusion and rely on their charisma, contacts, and interpersonal skills to influence others. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to use a directive command-and-control style. They rely on the formal authority of their position for their influence base. However, there is an interesting qualification to these findings. The tendency for female leaders to be democratic than males declines when women are in male-dominated jobs. The leadership styles women typically use can make them better at negotiating, as they are less likely to focus on wins, losses, and competition, as do men. They tend to treat negotiations in the context of a continuing relationship – trying hart to make the other party a winner in its own and others’ eyes

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