GENETICS

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					GENETICS
            Genetics

• Body weight is the result of genes,
  metabolism, behavior, environment,
  culture, and socioeconomic status.
           Genetic Factors
• Obesity tends to run in families,
  suggesting a genetic cause
• However, families also share diet and
  lifestyle habits that may contribute to
  obesity
• Separating genetic from other influences
  on obesity is often difficult
• Even so, science does show a link
  between obesity and heredity
           http://www.win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/understanding.htm#whatis
                       Genetics
    "The human gene pool has remained stable over
     thousands of years, so the blame for the current
  obesity epidemic can be put squarely on the modern
'obesogenic' environment. However, many believe that
 this 'obesogenic' environment has caused a subgroup
  of the population, who are genetically susceptible to
   severe weight gain, to become excessively obese.
  These individuals may possess 'thrifty genes', which
      protect against starvation, therefore conferring
    selection advantage historically. However, in the
present day 'obesogenic' environment, this group could
          overreact and develop severe obesity."

           http://www.biomed-singapore.com/bms/sg/en_uk/index/research_resources/
           research_highlights/year_2006/examining_the_genetics.html
     Thrifty Gene Hypothesis
• Although there is no definitive explanation
  for the recent increase of obesity, the
  thrifty gene hypothesis provides some
  understanding of this phenomenon, and
  suggests why certain populations and
  individuals may be more prone to obesity
  than others


                    Source: Wikipedia
                Genetics
• As with many medical conditions, the
  caloric imbalance that results in obesity
  often develops from a combination of
  genetic and environmental factors




                    Source: Wikipedia
                Genetics
• Polymorphisms in various genes
  controlling appetite, metabolism, and
  adipokine release predispose to obesity,
  but the condition requires availability of
  sufficient calories, and possibly other
  factors, to develop fully
                 Genetics
• While it is thought that a large proportion
  of the causative genes are still to be
  identified, much obesity is likely the result
  of interactions between multiple genes,
  and non-genetic factors are likely also
  important.



                     Source: Wikipedia
             Genetics




Scientists investigating the mechanisms and
treatment of obesity may use animal models
   such as mice to conduct experiments.
                 Source: Wikipedia
                      Genetics
 “Despite obesity having strong genetic
determinants, the genetic composition of
the population does not change rapidly.
   Therefore, the large increase in . . .
 [obesity] must reflect major changes in
           non-genetic factors.”



        Hill, James O., and Trowbridge, Frederick L. Childhood obesity: future directions and
        research priorities. Pediatrics. 1998; Supplement: 571.
                 Genetics
          How do genes affect obesity?
• Science shows that genetics plays a role in
  obesity
• Genes can directly cause obesity in disorders
  such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Prader-Willi
  syndrome
• However, genes do not always predict future
  health
• Genes and behavior may both be needed for a
  person to be overweight
        Environment, Not Genetics

•Increasing obesity rates occur in relatively
constant gene pool
•Genetics accounts for 25-40% of variation
in BMI
•Number of obesity cases attributed to a
single gene defect in humans <50
•Number of genes/markers associated
with obesity >200
•Two main factors : food supply and
activity, both determined by
socioeconomic environment
Possibility of Fat Child
Becoming Obese Adult

•Parents normal
weight< 10%
•One parent obese40%
•Both parents
obese80%
•(20 % of US 6-17yr
olds overweight)
Personal Physician Counseling and
               You
•   Your Personal Physical Health
•   Your Unique Situation
•   Your Medical Conditions
•   Your Psychological Make-Up
                 Private Consultation
•   We strongly encourage you to set up a personal consultation with one of our HOPS
    Doctors.
•   So if you do not fully understand all of these different options, medical or surgical
    options and would like a personal consultation with one of our HOPS Doctors, we
    can further explain these procedures to you. Please discuss with one of your HOPS
    Weight Loss Counselors on how to set up an appointment with us.
•   The cost of private consultation probably will not be covered by your health insurance
    company, Medicare, and or Medicaid. We will issue you a receipt and a bill and would
    expect you to submit the bill to your insurance and collect reimbursement on your
    own. The cost of consultation is $250 per hour and there is a minimum of two
    hours consultation time recommended. Payment is expected in advance of the
    consultation.

•   If you would like a trial of Xenical along with HOPS Weight loss program the cost of
    private consultation probably will not be covered by your health insurance company,
    Medicare, and or Medicaid. We will issue you a receipt and a bill and would expect
    you to submit the bill to your insurance and collect reimbursement on your own. The
    cost of a FULL DETAILED HISTORY AND PHYSICAL is ONLY $250. Payment is
    expected in advance of the consultation.
   Private Consultation With HOPS
       Weight Loss Counselors
• We strongly encourage you to set up a personal consultation with
  one of our HOPS Weight Loss Counselors
• So if you do not fully understand all of these different CONCEPTS,
  and would like a personal consultation with one of our HOPS
  Weight Loss Counselors we can further explain these concepts to
  you. Please discuss with one of your HOPS Weight Loss
  Counselors on how to set up an appointment with us.
• The cost of private consultation probably will not be covered by your
  health insurance company, Medicare, and or Medicaid. We will
  issue you a receipt and a bill and would expect you to submit the bill
  to your insurance and collect reimbursement on your own. The
  cost of consultation is $25 per hour and there is a minimum of
  two hours consultation time recommended. Payment is expected
  in advance of the consultation.

				
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