"Assessment in Science Classroom - PowerPoint"
Assessment in the Inquiry-based Science Classroom Matthew T. Marino Professional Development Center Coordinator University of Connecticut firstname.lastname@example.org Today’s agenda • Introductions & expectations • What do we know about science instruction? • What do we know about assessment? • How can we improve assessments in student- centered, inquiry-based classrooms? • Break • Understanding the political nature of curriculum reform What’s new in science education? “Despite the dramatic transformations throughout our society over the last half century, teaching methods in science and mathematics have remained virtually unchanged.” (p. 20) Before it’s too late: A report to the nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (2000). “Next week we’ll cover chapters 2 & 3.” The textbook, in its present form, can no longer meet the educational needs of students in science courses. (Hurd, 2002) Science reform should place less emphasis on memorizing vocabulary and procedures and more emphasis on thoroughly understanding a relatively small number of important ideas. (Stern and Ahlgren, 2002) Taking stock of where we are Science programs rarely: provide students with a sense of purpose take into account student beliefs and prior knowledge engage students with relevant phenomena make scientific ideas plausible model knowledge that can be applied scaffold student efforts to make meaning of key phenomena (Kesidou & Roseman, 2002) Class… Here’s our agenda for the day! a review of previous material and homework a problem illustration by the teacher drill on low-level procedures that imitate those demonstrated by the teacher supervised seat work by students, often in isolation checking of seatwork problems assignment of homework Before it’s too late: A report to the nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (2000). Effective science instruction Zachos, Hick, Doanne, & Sargent (2000) identify two types of activities involved in scientific discovery. 1. Concept Building – the process of generating answers and proposing models based on natural phenomena. Concept building requires inductive, creative, or imaginative activities. 2. Concept Testing – evaluates hypotheses and theories through logical and empirical testing. Concept testing involves systematic hypothetical deductive reasoning. Effective learning environments Crawford (2000) notes six themes as critical to student learning in an inquiry- based classroom: 1. Instruction is situated in authentic problems 2. Problems are connected to society (who cares?) 3. Students grapple with data 4. Students collaborate with others 5. The teacher models behaviors of a scientist 6. Students have ownership in the learning process Authentic Problem – A problem that students could or are currently dealing with in their local environment. Example? How does the physical layout of the room contribute? Work Space Resource Computers Student Folders Criticisms of inquiry-based instruction Zachos, Hick, Doanne, & Sargent (2000) identify three criticisms of programs designed to promote student inquiry: 1. Vague educational objectives 2. Poorly defined components 3. Absence of objective assessments Overcoming the Criticisms Develop clear educational objectives • Teacher facilitates as the students define the problem, develop research questions, and link their inquiry to curriculum standards. • Students follow a concept building and concept testing guide to define their own daily objectives. • Teacher helps students determine if objectives are clear, measurable and achievable. Clearly define components of the investigation Concept Building Authentic Problem Prior Knowledge Research Questions Literature Review Key Concepts Key Vocabulary Theory Clearly define components of the investigation Concept Testing Brainstorm Justify List Constraints Outcomes Report Materials Skills Implications? Experts Analyze data and limitations Plan Design Test & collect data Predict Outcomes Construct Solution Define Assessment Activity Please take five minutes to discuss your ideas about assessment with your colleagues. On the chart paper, define the purpose of assessment and provide descriptions of the assessments that you brought with you today. • Purpose • Examples Perspectives on Assessment “If properly used, good assessments can be a powerful catalyst for improving both curriculum and instruction. Poor assessment practices, on the other hand, can impoverish our expectations for learning science, focusing teachers’ and students’ efforts on less important concepts and skills or on test taking as an end in itself (p. 889). (Stern and Ahlgren, 2002) Perspectives on Assessment Teachers should use classroom assessments to continually: 1. Monitor student progress toward academic goals 2. Adjust instruction 3. Refine future assessment practices 4. Help students take responsibility for their own learning 5. Translate classroom assessment into descriptive feedback with specific suggestions for improvement 6. Engage students in self-assessment 7. Actively involve students in communicating with their teacher and families Stiggins (2002) Perspectives on Assessment Black and William (1998), in a synthesis of more than 250 articles related to assessment, purport formative student self-assessment is an essential component of learning because it allows students to identify their present knowledge and skill level, redefine the desired goal, and plan steps to achieve the goal. (Key terms formative vs. summative) Formative and Summative Assessments Concept Testing Authentic Problem Journal & class discussion Prior Knowledge Research Questions Report including references, Literature Review concepts, vocabulary, & Key Concepts Key Vocabulary theory Theory Bolded & defined in students’ own words Clearly articulated using key concepts, vocabulary, and examples. Student connects theory to literature review, current problem, and prior knowledge. Formative and Summative Assessments Concept Testing - Part 2(a) • Brainstorm - Class discussion and journal • Justification - Individual meetings / proposal • Constraints - Proposal • Materials - Proposal • Skills - Proposal • Design Plan - Visual representation and narrative • Outcomes Prediction - Proposal Formative and Summative Assessments Concept Testing - Part 2(b) • Construct Solution - Model, Digital Photos, Video • Test & Collect Data - Lab Report • Analyze Data & Limitations - Lab Report • Implications? - Lab Report • Outcomes Report - Presentation, Culminating Paper, Video, etc. The outcomes report should include student self-analysis and reflection on the learning process. Organizing Assessment Components - The Folder System John Goodlad River Restoration Project 9/15/01 - 10/15/01 Ugly Folder Literature Review Proposal Plans Experiment Journal Authentic Problem Authentic Problem Authentic Problem Authentic Problem Research questions Research questions Research questions Research questions Authentic Problem Theory Justification Visual Representation Lab Report Research questions Standards Key Concepts Methodology Narrative Directions Data Analysis Prior Knowledge Key Vocabulary Constraints Physical Evidence (Photos, Video) Brainstorm Materials Limitations Daily Plans Budget Implications Meeting Minutes Skills Outcomes Report Raw Data Experts Reflections Predicted Outcomes Paperclip Trick ! Sample Student Journal: Daily Entry Template Name: Kim Smith Date: 12/1/01 Problem Statement: My parents took away m y stereo because I played it so loudly one of my mother’s antique vases fell off her table and smashed. Research Question(s): How does the stereo’s volume infl uence the movement of solid objects? CT State Standard: The student will recognize that waves ma y interact with the materials they enter. Stage of Inquiry: Experiment Daily Objective: Outcome Materials List: Data Collected (see lab report and video) Next Time: Data Analysis Daily Participation Rating: 1- 10 Scale Justification: Why the student gave themselves the score. Teacher Meetings with Students Sample Journal Entry Elizabeth – Meeting on 02/12/01 Goal – Determine what types of composted food scraps produce the best soil for growing sunflowers. Focus Questions What nutrients does the sunflower need to grow? How does temperature and the amount of sunlight affect the growth of a sunflower? How does temperature affect the rate of decomposition within the compost? How does the surface area of materials in the compost affect the rate at which the materials break down? Briefly describe the microorganisms that live in compost and how they help decompose material. Elizabeth will have these questions answered by Friday 23rd at the end of class. Action Steps - Elizabeth will complete the following prior to our next meeting Conduct research to answer the focus questions listed above Reorganize her science fair proposal and hypothesis based on her research findings Sample Summative Scoring Sheet Eight h Grade Learning Center Assessment Chart Investig ation Criteria Stud ent Teacher Self Score Score Investigation goal was clear and obtainable The concept map enabled students to see how the daily objectives tied to the investigation goal, activities and vocabulary The investigation was taught in a whole to part manner The investigation included eighth grade standards and vocabulary The investigation asked students to apply new information Handouts were informative and appropriate The investigation asked students to answer and propose critical questions about the topic The investigation challenged students to make connections between new information and previous knowledge in the subject area Reflection on the project (See guidelines in “Final Organization of your Learning Center”) Cumulative score for the investigation Reflections on Assessment How have your thoughts on assessment changed? What strategies will you use in your classroom? What questions remain to be answered? References Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 1, 7-74. Before it’s too late: A report to the nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (2000). Retrieved 02/25/04 from http://www.ed.gov/americacounts/glenn/toc.html Crawford, B. A. (2000). Embracing the essence of inquiry: New roles for science teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(9), 916-937. Hurd, P. D. (2002). Modernizing science education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(1), 3-9. Jacobs, H. H. (1997). Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating Curriculum and Assessment K-12. Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Kesidou, S., & Roseman, J. E. (2002). How well do middle school science programs measure up? Findings from project 2061’s curriculum review. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 522-549. Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & McTighe, J. (1993). Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment using the Dimensions of Learning Model. Alexandria, VA. As sociation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Stern, L., & Ahlgren, A. (2002). Analysis of students’ assessments in middle school curriculum materials: Aiming precisely at benchmarks and standards. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(9), 889-910. Stiggins, R. J. (2002). Assessment crisis: The absence of assessment for learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(10), 758-765. Trevisan, M. S. (2002). The states’ role in ensuring assessment competence. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(10), 766-771. Zachos, P., Hick, T. L., Doanne, W. E., & Sargent, C. (2000). Setting theoretical and empirical foundations for assessing scientific inquiry and discovery in educational programs. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(9), 938-962.