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									Assessing and reviewing the impact of small arms
projects on arms availability and poverty: a case
study for El Salvador UNDP/BCPR Strengthening
Mechanisms for Small Arms Control project



Lydia Richardson
Triple Line Consulting

William Godnick
International Alert
Table of Contents
1. Introduction                                                                  2
1.1     Country and poverty context                                              2
1.2     Political Context                                                        3
1.3     Meeting the Millennium Development Goals                                 4
1.4     Arms and Violence                                                        5
1.5     Economic cost of violence                                                6
1.6     Social cost of violence                                                  6
1.7     The government‟s agenda for poverty reduction                            6
2. Objectives and Methodology                                                    6
3. The „Society Without Violence‟ Programme                                      7
4. Strengthening Mechanisms for Small Arms Control Project                       8
4.1     The “Firearms and Violence” Study                                       9
4.2     Law Reform and Strengthening the Institutional Framework                11
4.3     Public Awareness and Education                                          12
4.4     Planned next steps to take forward initiatives started by the project   14
5. Relationship between project and MDGs                                        15
6. Areas of investigation for indicator development                             16
7 Assessment according to DAC criteria                                          16
8 Lessons learned                                                               17
9 Conclusions                                                                   18
10 Recommendations                                                              19
10.1 UNDP El Salvador                                                           19
10.2 International Community                                                    19
Annex 1: Statistics on El Salvador and Millennium Development Goals             21
Annex 2: El Salvador Country Profile                                            24
Annex 3: List of people met                                                     25
Annex 4: Stakeholder analysis                                                   27
Annex 5: List of institutions involved in the project                           28
Annex 6: Types of violence in El Salvador and effects on project                29
Annex 7: Areas of indicator development                                         30




                                             1
1. Introduction

1.1 Country and poverty context

El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America and one of the most densely
populated countries in the Western Hemisphere. The World Bank classifies it as lower-
middle income. About 50% of the population live in rural areas and over 80% of
agricultural producers work farms of less than 3 ha. Its social indicators are below
average for Latin America with a Human Development Index of 0.704 (1999). It can be
estimated that taking the US$1 and US$2 poverty lines, El Salvador has approximately
1.4 million (21.4%) living in extreme poverty and 45% living in relative poverty (1997
figures, DFID web site).

National figures based on a the cost of a basket of basic food (Human Development
Report [HDR], 2003) show that 42.9% of households live in poverty of which 19.2% can
be classified as living in absolute poverty. Poverty [absolute poverty] is more prevalent in
rural areas concerning 53.3% [62.4] of households compared to 46.7% [37.6] in urban
areas. The gap between rural and urban areas increased throughout the 1990s. The
departments with highest HDI in both 1996 and 1999 were San Salvador and La
Libertad, the lowest were consistently Cabañas and Morazán.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita fell during the 1980s. Although, it grew
during the 1990s at an average of 2.7%, in 1997, it was still 5% lower than in 1978
(UNDP, 1999). Inequality persists - in 1997, the average income in urban areas was 2.3
times that in rural areas. The 10% of the population with highest incomes had 29 times
the income of the poorest 10%.

The Gini index showing inequality based on per capita income is 0.54 compared to a
global average of 0.4 and a Latin American average of 0.47 (the most unequal region in
the world).

The high level of inequality is one of the principle impediments to poverty reduction – if
per capita income increases by 30%, poverty will only reduce by 10%, however if
inequality was 30% less, then the same increase in per capita income would bring a 23%
reduction in poverty (HDR, 2003).

Although the macro-economic stability and growth has prevailed since the end of the
civil war, unemployment and underemployment remain high. Low access to jobs is a
source of insecurity, especially for the poor. Remittance income represents 3% of GDP.
Remittance income from the US remains an important part of the economy (3% of
GDP, 30-40% of family income) and for many families it is a survival strategy.

The Maquila (export orientated processing zones) and coffee sectors are growing faster
than the other sectors. Maquila may be a good source of employment in the short-term
but the long-term benefits are unclear, especially as the locations of the maquilas are not
where poverty is greatest.




                                             2
1.2 Political context

It has been twelve years since El Salvador‟s political armed conflict ended. At the time
of this mission there were three inter-related issues dominating the national agenda:
electoral politics, youth gangs and free trade. Additionally, the Government of El
Salvador, along with Honduras and Nicaragua, has sent troops to Iraq to support the US-
led coalition.

National elections are scheduled for the last week of March 2004 and polls indicate that
for the first time since the Peace Accords there exists the possibility that the National
Republican Alliance Party (ARENA) will have to compete seriously with the political
party formed by the ex-guerrillas (FMLN) for the presidency. While both key parties
represent constituencies of all socio-economic levels ARENA tends to promote a pro-
business/neo-liberal economic agenda while the FMLN tends to be more populist in its
proposals. This election is also different in that there is a new coalition of centrist parties
that don‟t have enough infrastructure to win the election, but may be able to influence
the second round of the contest by committing their vote to one side or the other.

Since the end of the war one of the most visible problems in Salvadoran society has been
the growth in youth gangs known as maras. Significant number of these youth gangs are
individuals who at one time resided in the US and were deported to El Salvador for
involvement in criminal activity. Many of these youth arrive in the country without job
skills, lacking proper Spanish-language proficiency and much experience in various
aspects of petty and semi-organised crime. Public opinion polls indicate that youth gangs
constitute one of the four most important issues on the national agenda, behind
unemployment, violence and housing.

According to the head of the National Commission on Public Security (CNSP) the
government, specifically the National Civilian Police (PNC), has made significant
progress in combating organised criminal activity (e.g., auto theft, drug trafficking and
kidnapping), but progress against the activities of the maras (gangs) has not been
substantial. During the last eight months President Francisco Flores launched a
campaign in the media called Plan Mano Dura (Plan Iron Fist) to deal directly with the
youth gangs. Several months later a controversial anti-youth gang law was passed
through congress by the ruling party which has allowed for significant increases in the
number of youth gangs arrested, but has not allowed for similar increases in judicial
action due to the doubts of many judges as to the constitutionality of the law‟s
application. The FMLN and centre parties have opposed the law and this opposition has
been used by the ARENA party in the political campaign to define itself as the party that
is tough on crime.

The current government led by the ARENA party is promoting the adhesion of Central
America to a free trade agreement with the US, Canada and Mexico as a way to develop
the country‟s economy, increase foreign investment and employment in the global
economy. The opposition argues that entering into such an agreement under present
terms will have negative effects on local industry and many agricultural sectors. It should
be noted that in national public opinion polls where respondents are able to define their
own answers unemployment is perceived as a greater problem than poverty in itself.




                                              3
1.3 Meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Statistics show that El Salvador has made considerable progress in meeting the
Millennium Development Goals based on progress since 1990. However marked
differences remain between rural and urban areas, especially in relation to access to
services. Health care coverage was 68% in urban areas and 45% in rural areas in 1997.
Clean water is available to 78% in urban areas compared to only 37% in rural areas. The
progress made since 1990 has to be looked at in the context of the war which ended in
1992. Poverty figures have shown considerable reduction between 1990 and 2000 but
latest estimates from UNDP show that there may be a slight increase since 2000 from
38% to 38.9% in 2002.

In terms of the gender-related development index (GDI), El Salvador fairs better than its
neighbours but it is still less than the average for the Latin America Caribbean (LAC)
region. The constitution establishes equality between men and women in employment
but women‟s salaries still average 69.1% of those of men. Cultural factors and machismo
are often cited as causing gender disparities and inter-family violence.

The poor have less than 3 years schooling and one of the most crucial factors in
determining poverty is the level of education. Insecurity in housing and vulnerability to
environmental disasters affect the poor more than the rich as was shown by the
destruction caused by Hurricane Mitch in October 1998 and in the two earthquakes in
2001 which affected about 20% of the population, mainly the poor thus increasing
poverty levels by 3-4%. 1,200 people died and 250,000 were homeless in January 2001.
There are few policies tackling brown environmental issues and polluted water systems
are an increasing problem especially for the urban poor.

Health statistics still lag behind the LAC average. However infant mortality has been
reduced from 46/1,000 live births in 1990 to 29/1000 in 2000 (WB statistics). UNDP
figures show much higher levels especially for rural areas 33/1000 to 53/1000 on a
departmental average. Although government spending on health and public security has
increased (Table 1), a disproportionate amount of resources currently go on tertiary level
activities and on salaries as opposed to medicines. Household contribution to the cost of
healthcare is more than the amount the government spends.

Table 1 - Government spending (Millions US$)

Sector                        1993 1994 1995          1996    1997   1998   19991/   20001/
Education                     122 154 186             231     271    321    330      387
Public works                  66    85    123         148     171    194    126      120
Defence and public security   105 96      193         231     233    260    259      280
Public health and social      78    100 123           143     145    177    181      206
security
Agriculture and livestock     24    23    23          25      31     43     32       40
1/ Preliminary figures
2/ Exchange rate: 1US$= ¢8.75
Source: Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador.      Annual economic indicators 1993-
2000




                                            4
1.4 Arms and violence

Weapons have been prominent in Salvadoran society dating back to the time of
independence from Spain in the 1800s. However, in the years leading up to, during and
immediately after the country‟s civil war the acquisition of both military and civilian small
arms accelerated notably. The number of legally registered small arms circulating in the
country is approximately 450,000; mostly revolvers and pistols are present but this also
includes significant numbers of semi-automatic assault rifles and shotguns1. As part of
the UN-sponsored Peace Accords beginning in 1992 the FMLN guerrillas handed over
approximately 10,000 small arms in addition to explosives and ammunition. The
discovery of countless hidden weapons caches over the years allegedly belonging to the
FMLN indicates that this disarmament was limited in scope.

In 1996 in response to the incomplete disarmament process and a growing post-conflict
violent crime rate a private sector association called the Patriotic Movement Against
Crime in co-operation with the Catholic Church, Rotary Club, police and military
implemented a voluntary weapons collection and destruction scheme exchanging
weapons for vouchers redeemable in supermarkets, shoe stores and pharmacies. The
Goods for Guns programme lasted until 2000 thanks to initial support from the national
government and private sector and was later supported by donors from the international
community. Upon completion the programme succeeded in collecting and destroying
9,527 small arms, 3,157 grenades and more than 100,000 rounds of ammunition.2

While Goods for Guns did address the immediate material needs of many programme
participants it did not have a sustained long-term impact on crime, arms proliferation or
poverty. In fact during the time period 1994-1999, as the programme was implemented,
70,889 new small arms were imported legally to El Salvador not to mention the illegal
trade.3 However, the project did provide other substantial benefits. Firstly in the years
following the conflict military-issue, fragmentation hand grenades were commonly used
by youth gangs, organised criminals and common citizens in violent acts. The project
succeeded in removing more than 3,000 of these artefacts from the streets. Secondly, the
police and military provided technical support out of uniform and unarmed as volunteers
demonstrating a shift in their role in a newly democratic society.

The issue of addressing small arms proliferation and use has been concentrated in three
key contexts over time that are not mutually exclusive: demobilisation, disarmament and
reintegration; increase in common organised crime; and the growth in youth gang
activity. In the latter case a new problem emerged namely the production and
proliferation of handmade weapons known as armas hechizas. The national assembly
(congress) passed a new law on small arms in 1999 and in 2002 which reformed the law
to include provisions outlawing the circulation of small arms in certain public places, the
re-export of weapons to third countries and the express prohibition of handmade
weapons production, possession and use. Additionally, the Government of El Salvador
has signed and ratified most of the major international agreements related to combating
small arms such as the Inter-American Convention against the Manufacturing and
Trafficking in Illicit Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials.

1
  Armas de Fuego y Violencia, San Salvador: United Nations Development Programme, 2003, p. 59.
2
  Ibid.
3
  William Godnick, Stray Bullets: The Impact of Small Arms Misuse in Central America, Geneva:
Small Arms Survey, October 2002.


                                               5
1.5 Economic cost of violence

High levels of violence and a feeling of insecurity have resulted in a high and increasing
level of public spending on defence and public security (Table 1). The spending on
injuries is also reflected within the public health budget. The cost to the economy is
shown in through for example the lack of tourism compared to other countries in the
region. The competitiveness of Salvadoran businesses is reduced by the cost of hiring
private security.

1.6 Social cost of violence

There are areas of the country which are not safe to go into because of the high levels of
gang violence. This negatively affects the people living in these areas which are mainly
urban but are increasing in their number and extent. Other areas are not safe at certain
times (e.g. in the hours of darkness). The result of this is that bus routes are diverted and
public spaces (e.g. football pitches) are not possible to use. This impedes the quality of
life for those living in or near the dangerous areas. The feeling of insecurity is an aspect
of poverty that Salvadorans live with on a daily basis.

1.7 The government‟s agenda for poverty reduction

In 1997, the government established a National Development Commission by
presidential decree who were responsible for developing a national plan for poverty
reduction. After eight months of extensive consultation a plan for improving economic
growth in different regions of the country was developed. Its implementation went well
until the earthquakes of 2001. In 2003 the national development plan had some renewed
momentum and it is hoped by the commission that the new government will take this
forward once they are elected in March.

The plan emphasises the need to have more infrastructure in the less developed areas of
the country (north and east) in order to ensure that employment was generated in all
areas of the country.

The “National Plan” (1998) and the “New shared strategy for national development”
(2003) are looking at the solution to poverty and violence being economic growth evenly
spread throughout the country. This is not therefore a social spending plan in the way
that some of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSPs) are. The party manifestos are
demonstrating what areas different political parties are interested in investing in if they
are elected. However, current tax collection is very low and the little there is to spend
does not generally go towards helping the poorest. Unemployment and violence are
issues which the party manifestos are promising to address. Poverty is important but it is
not top of the agenda.

2. Objectives and methodology
This study was the first of several case studies to look at the links between small arms
related violence and poverty through the lens of a donor funded project. The research is
based on a nine day field visit where two consultants (one poverty specialist and one



                                             6
armed violence specialist) were supported by the lead organisation (UNDP) in El
Salvador in order to:
     Understand armed violence and poverty in El Salvador
     Review UNDP Strengthening Mechanisms for Small Arms Control Project
     Draw lessons for International Community
     Identify indicators for measuring change
     Recommendations for UNDP El Salvador and the International Community


The methodology was based on:
    Review of documentation
    Interviews with stakeholders (government, civil society and private sector
      organisations, productive projects, beneficiaries of project and programme, think
      tanks and opinion leaders from right and left political affiliations, International
      Financial Institutions and donors) See Annex 3 for full list.
    Media monitoring


The overwhelming support from the UNDP in El Salvador made this possible within the
very restricted time frame.

3. The „Society Without Violence‟ Programme
The UNDP project sits within the Society Without Violence Programme and an
understanding of this is therefore important in order to appreciate the linkages between
the project and poverty reduction.

In 1998, national governmental and civil society institutions, with the support from
UNDP El Salvador, began analysing the causes of violence prevailing in Salvadoran
social relations, and initiating the design and implementation of strategies aimed at
preventing and transforming the problem.

Influential leaders in the country proposed the ideas behind the project which two people
from within the UNDP (including the resident representative) championed despite some
resistance from within government. They were able to find funding to support the
initiative and to play a facilitation role throughout the programme.

The immediate causes identified were related to social practices and lifestyles
characterised by authoritarian institutional practices; family life that had broken down
and was severely marked by unhealthy and often dominating relationships; and persistent
imbalances in the social, economic and labour spheres as well as problems of identity. In
this context the „Society Without Violence‟ Programme was designed with the objective
of contributing to the process of transforming Salvadoran society through the creation of
spaces and conditions favourable to tolerant and peaceful social coexistence. To achieve
this overarching objective the following lines of intervention were defined:

      Strengthen national capacity for conceptualising the phenomenon of violence;
      Train human resources specialised in the prevention and transformation of the
       phenomenon;
      Strengthen national capacity for the design, implementation and evaluation of
       policies, programmes and projects for the prevention and transformation of
       violence; and
      Public awareness raising and education on key issues.


                                           7
To promote the programme a steering committee made of well-known professionals was
formed - including the director of the National Council on Public Security as the primary
government counterpart; representatives from the Central American University (UCA)
and the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO); and a representative from
the editorial board of one of the country‟s most important newspapers. From the
UNDP side a team of technical professionals took responsibility for overall coordination
and programme management. Each project consists of many partners from government
and civil society who share in the implementation of project activities.

From the beginning, UNDP‟s role has been to foster a space for the construction of a
shared vision about the phenomenon of violence and to facilitate linkages between
different initiatives. Table 2 outlines the projects with the „Society Without Violence‟
Programme.

Table 2 - List of projects which form part of the Society
Without Violence Programme.

Project                                                   Cost      Dates
                                                          (US $)
Violence and Social Exclusion in San Salvador                60,000 Feb. 2000 – Dec.
                                                                    2002
Master‟s Programme in Community Psychology                   32,000 Aug. 1999 – Dec.
                                                                    2002
Graduate Diploma in Domestic Violence Prevention             10,000 Jan. 2000 – Dec.
and Attention                                                       2000
Permanent Seminar on Violence                               100,000 Jan. 2002 – Dec.
                                                                    2004
Strengthening Mechanisms for Small Arms Control             300,000 Feb 2001 – Dec.
                                                                    2003
Preparatory Assistance Project for Small Arms Control       340,000 Aug. 2003 – April
in Central America                                                  2004
Basic Training for Judges                                   596,000 Nov. 2000 – Dec.
                                                                    2004
Locally-Based Prevention and Attention of Youth           2,000,000 Aug. 2002 – Aug.
Violence                                                            2006
Inter-institutional coordination for Criminal Justice       140,000 Mar. 2003 – Dec.
                                                                    2004
Research Assessment on Urban Violence and Public            27,7000 Jan. 2002 – Mar.
Spaces                                                              2004
Research Assessment on Drugs and Violence in El             150,000 Jan. 2002 – March
Salvador                                                            2004
Total                                                     3,755,700


4. Strengthening Mechanisms for Small Arms
Control Project
The Strengthening Mechanisms for Small Arms Control Project started its design phase
in December 2000. Implementation began in February 2001. Though the first phase of


                                             8
the project has officially concluded in December 2003, some activities continue taking
advantage of linkages with other programme projects and several proposals for a second
phase have been formulated. The project itself sought to promote the disarmament of
the civilian population as a pre-condition for reducing violence and improving human
security, through an integral strategy:

      Producing information that guides public policy and actions for reducing and
       controlling small arms and their impact on violence;
      Reforming weapons-related legislation and strengthening institutions associated
       with its application; and
      Creating social awareness and public education in favour of disarmament.

4.1 The “Firearms and Violence” Study

This study on the status of weapons and their relationship to the phenomenon of
violence was designed by the project‟s Technical Panel and carried out by the Central
American University Public Opinion Institute (IUDOP) and the Foundation for the
Study of Applied Law (FESPAD), in close coordination with the Statistics Department
of the National Civilian Police.

The study began with the suppositions that firearms play an important role in shaping
criminality and violence in El Salvador; that firearms are one of the primary instruments
for the exercise of violence against others and against oneself; and that violence and
criminality in the country are, in part, a product of the population‟s strong relationship
with firearms, of the extreme social permissiveness around them and of the still weak
institutional control mechanisms that exist to deal with them.

The study took into consideration the implications that weapons have for public health
in general and for the respect of citizens‟ rights. The following specific objectives were
set out for the study:

      Establish the impact of firearms on violence in El Salvador.
      Explore the attitudes, opinions and norms of Salvadorans around the use of
       firearms as an instrument for security.
      Establish the types of trade and the access, both legal and illegal, to firearms that
       end up in civilian hands and their economic implications for the country.
      Establish how much the current regulatory framework contributes to citizens
       arming themselves.
      Evaluate the capacity of public security institutions to regulate and control the
       circulation of firearms in El Salvador.
      Identify the opinions, proposals and perspectives of the officials in charge of
       carrying out and/or promoting public security policies related to the firearms
       problem.
      Draw up policy recommendations on the issue of firearms.

After a year‟s work, the main results were published in March 2003 under the title
“Firearms and Violence.” The breadth of issues addressed in the study drew particular
attention both nationally and internationally. Different methodological tools were used to
address the defined objectives during the course of the study.




                                            9
4.1.1 Data collection from public institutions

The documentary and statistical collection primarily consisted of compiling the data on
violence and the use of firearms originating from public agencies in the areas of security,
health and the administration of justice. The information obtained enabled documenting
the impact of firearms on violence and crime, and estimating the number of firearms
entering the country. In addition, the weapons‟ registry and institutional regulatory
measures were examined.

4.1.2 National survey on attitudes, opinions and norms about
violence

The survey made it possible to learn about the essential ways in which Salvadorans view
firearms, as well as measuring the level of victimisation. The sample size was 2,400
adults who were surveyed nationwide in 42 municipalities in all 14 departments of the
country.

4.1.3 Computerising the PNC‟s “Incident Registries”

A team of 70 researchers and 35 supervisors from IUDOP, together with the staff of the
Statistics Department of the PNC, reviewed the PNC‟s hard files for 2000. The
researchers processed the “incidents” (crime reports) using 125 variables, and built a
database with 58,000 cases, that assembled information on over 80,000 crimes. The facts
about the crime, perpetrator and victim were analysed, as well as the instruments used to
commit the crime. The information gathered demonstrates the impact of weapons on
violence. This information collection was made possible with the collaboration of the
police agency, which opened its files and allowed the research team to work inside their
offices for six months.

4.1.4 In-depth interviews

The interviews served to learn the opinions, proposals and perspectives of
businesspeople, opinion makers and officials in charge of executing and/or promoting
public security policies related to the problem of firearms. They also enabled evaluating
the capacity of public security institutions to regulate and control the circulation of
weapons.

4.1.5 Focus groups

Four focus groups were formed during the study with representatives from the PNC,
legal arms merchants and citizens who possess weapons. The objective of these groups
was to collect opinions about the role of institutions in small arms control.

4.1.6 Sentinel site surveillance in the Rosales Hospital and
San Bartolo Hospital emergency rooms

The emergency services of the two general hospitals in the San Salvador Metropolitan
Area were selected as sentinel sites. The objective was to obtain data on the impact of
weapons on public health, due to the paucity of information in health records and
statistics about armed violence. Information was gathered 24 hours a day for a one-week
period, by recording the number of emergencies and their circumstances.


                                            10
The study found that serious problems persist in coordination between the institutions in
charge of firearms control and regulation. Although significant efforts have been made
to improve coordination, the greatest problems lie in difficulties over information
sharing, in the existence of work areas that do not appear to be clearly defined for
officials and in the absence of technological and human resources to optimise the
coordinated tasks of control, regulation, supervision and punishment of illegal weapons
use.

A large segment of the population, although not the majority, views arms as an
appropriate instrument for personal defence. However, the research makes it possible to
say that this kind of response constitutes a “normalisation” of the use of violence as a
means to resolve conflicts and for self-defence. Slightly more than 40 percent of the
population, primarily men and rural dwellers, would like to have a firearm for their
personal defence and protection.

The information assembled through this study provided essential input for drafting
proposed reforms to the regulatory framework and for designing the public awareness
and education strategy and campaign. During the two weeks following the report‟s
release, virtually all the country‟s radio, newspaper and television mass media outlets
disseminated some of the results. Likewise, the “Firearms and Violence” report was
disseminated through prestigious electronic publications dedicated to weapons‟ issues,
such as Desarme.org and the IANSA website, as well as other sites related to issues of
violence.

4.2 Law Reform and Strengthening the Institutional
Framework

The above-mentioned study includes a review of the national legislation and international
obligations acquired by the Salvadoran state relative to small arms and light weapons and
the capacity of State institutions to implement regulations. The results show that El
Salvador has traditionally had permissive laws covering the possession and carrying of
small arms, with extremely lax control mechanisms. Laws of this type have probably
contributed to the “normalisation” of the use of violence as a means to resolve conflicts.

The current Law for the Control and Regulation of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives
and Similar Items (1999), with reforms passed in 2002, is a relative improvement over its
predecessors; nevertheless, it contains a series of legal loopholes that leave open the
possibility for arms falling into the hands of those who would use them with criminal
intent.

The study identified certain factors related to institutional capacity that hinder the
enforcement of current laws:

   Lack of a reliable firearms registry.
   Inadequate enforcement of the mechanisms for regulating access to weapons: of the
    four tests stipulated, only one is required- the written test; two others – medical and
    psychological – are only partially used; and the practical test is not given.
   The duties provided for in the law surpass the capacity of the institutions responsible
    for registry and control.



                                            11
   The National Civilian Police maintains a registry of ballistics tests for registered
    firearms. However, the lack of technological tools and human resources does not
    allow the test to be useful for solving crimes.

Based on the study and further input obtained from the project leadership a new reform
proposal to the arms law was developed for work in the project‟s second phase. The
main points in the bill are the following:

   Eliminate carrying of arms by private individuals in public places.
   Reduce the size and calibre of arms permitted.
   Limit the quantity of arms and ammunition that one person or company may obtain.
   Raise the minimum age to 21 for obtaining an arms use permit.
   Improve the screening procedures for obtaining a user‟s permit.
   Establish as a precautionary measure the confiscation of arms from individuals
    undergoing criminal prosecution and the prohibition or revocation of permits and
    registrations for individuals with a record of domestic violence.
   Set new tax rates for individuals who wish to obtain an arms permit and registration.
   Reduce the period of validity for registration and permits.
   Make it a requirement to purchase and use an external locking mechanism to prevent
    accidents with firearms.
   Make it a requirement to have special accident and third party compensation
    insurance.

4.3 Public awareness and education

The public awareness and education strategy was initiated in early 2002, targeted at
informing about the risks implied in the possession and carrying of arms, to publicise the
rejection of weapons expressed by over half of all Salvadorans and to influence the
opinion of individuals who expressed support for weapons.

The strategy was translated into the “Angels of Peace/Weapons... Not Even As Toys!”
campaign, which included activities nationwide and locally in twelve municipalities,
selected because of their high levels of violence and crime and because they are places
that report greater problems with small arms. In these locations, inter-institutional
committees working on violence prevention already existed, and these became key actors
in the campaign‟s implementation.

The campaign sought to project its messages in two ways: directly, through social
activities, and indirectly, through the mass media and alternative media. It was conceived
of as starting from the recognition of children as the subject of rights, stressing the rights
of children to live in peace, in a less violent society, free from weapons. The main
protagonists were the girls and boys. They participated in the development and
validation of logos and messages and in organising the different pro-disarmament
communications initiatives. Working directly with children separated the issue from
political agendas and brought diverse actors together who participated with different
levels of activity and leadership.

Among the activities promoted by the Angels of Peace, currently surpassing 2,500 girls
and boys, the following stand out:




                                             12
     Exchanges of toy weapons for school supplies held in 40 schools and the Tin Marin
      Children‟s Museum, which collected over 9,000 toy weapons.
     34 recycling workshops held with the toy weapons turned in.
     12 sculptures designed and built with recycled toy weapons, installed in municipal
      plazas, parks and recreational centres and in the Tin Marin Children‟s Museum.
     Distribution of 6,000 T-shirts, 1,000 caps, 1,000 badges, 1,000 notebooks and 1,000
      buttons with the campaign‟s logo.
     Role-playing scenes of crises common in everyday life, with and without the presence
      of firearms, to analyze the possible outcomes.
     Workshops aimed at developing abilities for confronting critical situations without
      resorting to violence.
     Production and transmission of 28 half-hour-long radio shows in coordination with
      Radio UPA, the children‟s radio station. Children, national and international experts
      and inter-institutional committee members from different municipalities participated
      in the shows. They addressed issues tied to firearms and their impact on violence.
      The campaign is currently working with community radio stations to produce and
      broadcast programmes in favour of disarmament.

Map 1: Areas selected for the „Weapons not even as
Toys‟ campaign and who was involved 4.


                                        Quezaltepeque                  Aguilares                Guazapa
                                   •10 OG´s y ONG´s             •14 OG´s y ONG´s         •10 OG´s y ONG´s
                                   •7 Centros Escolares         •2 Centros Escolares     •3 Centros Escolares
                                   •350 Ángeles de la Paz       •150 Ángeles de la Paz   •150 Ángeles de la Paz


                 Santa Ana                                                                                            Tonacatepeque
          •20 OG´s y ONG´s                                                                                        •15 OG´s y ONG´s
          •7 Centros Escolares                                                                                    •3 Centros Escolares
          •350 Ángeles de la Paz                                                                                  •150 Ángeles de la Paz



                Sonsonate                                   J       B                                                      Apopa
          •15 OG´s y ONG´s                                         A C                                            •15 OG´s y ONG´s
                                                                      D
          •6 Centros Escolares                                       E                                            •6 Centros Escolares
                                                                               F
          •300 Ángeles de la Paz                    K                      G                                      •300 Ángeles de la Paz
                                                                       H
                                                                   I

            Nueva San Salvador                                                                                            Nejapa
                                                                                                  L
          •25 OG´s y ONG´s                                                                                        •10 OG´s y ONG´s
          •7 Centros Escolares                                                                                    •3 Centros Escolares
          •350 Ángeles de la Paz                                                                                  •150 Ángeles de la Paz




                                        San Salvador                   Mejicanos               San Miguel
                                   •15 OG´s y ONG´s             •20 OG´s y ONG´s         •10 OG´s y ONG´s
                                   •7 Centros Escolares         •4 Centros Escolares     •7 Centros Escolares
                                   •350 Ángeles de la Paz       •200 Ángeles de la Paz   •350 Ángeles de la Paz




Men between the ages of 18 and 35 were identified as one of the groups most inclined to
use firearms. For this reason, one portion of the campaign‟s messages was targeted to
this segment. Municipal sports events brought together hundreds of young people and
were an ideal place to spread messages referring to the risks implied in the proliferation
of weapons. In these cases, the slogan was: “With Firearms, Nobody Wins.”


4
    OG = governmental organisation; ONG = NGO; Centros Escolares = Schools.


                                                                               13
The Division of Arms and Explosives (DAE) and local precincts of the National Civilian
Police prepared informational material regarding preventive, administrative and legal
measures related to the possession and carrying of weapons. This information was
handed out by police officers at the homes of around 30,000 firearms owners, identified
through the Arms Registration Office‟s database, under the Division of Logistics of the
Ministry of National Defence.

The awareness initiatives targeted to specific groups created a favourable climate for
launching a high-impact advertising campaign in the mass media. Molina Bianchi Ogilvy,
an advertising agency, designed the campaign, which included material for newspapers,
radio, television and advertising along public thoroughfares. They persuaded producers
and the media to do as they had done, and donate their work and a large amount of
commercial space and time.

Broadcasting top-quality mass communication materials produced by this prestigious
advertising agency gave the campaign greater scope and coverage with a significantly
lower outlay of resources than the usual costs of a campaign of this dimension. The
messages disseminated in the mass media depict children as the primary victims of
firearms. The concept was based on projecting the image of “children‟s happiness
interrupted” as a result of armed violence. In this way, the issue could be introduced
from a non-conflictive perspective that was accepted by the general public and avoided
having the message be trapped in the polarisation of political debate.

The advertising campaign was kicked off at the Tin Marin Children‟s Museum, with the
participation of children, PNC officers, national authorities, businesspeople and the
media.

To complement this, “weapons-free zones” were designated in coordination with local
governments, and were marked by signs located in markets and places where large
numbers of people gather. Additionally, 10,000 posters, 10,000 stickers and more than
2,000 T-shirts and 1,000 caps with messages referring to the issue were distributed.

4.4 Planned next steps to take forward initiatives
started by the project

4.1.1 Presentation of the Bill to amend the Arms Law to the
Legislative Assembly

The bill to amend the arms law has been drafted and is ready to be presented to the
Legislative Assembly of El Salvador once the elections are over and a new government
underway. To gather supporters and generate a favourable climate, a lobbying plan will
be implemented, which includes presenting the study‟s results and the contents of the
amendments to the Legislative Assembly‟s commissions, the political parties and business
associations, among others. The plan also foresees holding symbolic public activities,
such as gathering signatures, and public statements by famous people in the art, culture
and sports world, among others.

4.1 2 Implementation of the second phase of the project

To modify attitudes and behavioural patterns deeply rooted in the culture requires
carrying out actions at different levels, systematically, over long periods of time.


                                          14
Likewise, strengthening the institutions in charge of implementing national regulations
on the subject of arms and of the international obligations assumed by the Salvadoran
state, demands continuing the activities already commenced.

For this reason, a second phase of project implementation is proposed that would
include taking actions in the following strategic intervention areas:

   Support for initiatives designed to reduce the supply of small arms and light
    weapons.
   Provide assistance aimed at improving the regulation and controls exercised by state
    institutions.
   Support for national authorities in the design and implementation of a national
    disarmament plan.
   Promote initiatives to reduce the demand for small arms, through an awareness and
    information campaign, that would generate conditions favourable to the design and
    implementation of a national disarmament plan.

This second phase has been designed taking into account the information gathered
through the study and capitalising on the lessons learned during the work.
Implementation will be based on alliances, consolidated networks and established
strategic partners. An inter-institutional Technical Panel will continue to provide
guidance and coordinate implementation of the actions included in the four areas. It is
expected that the current technical panel will be broadened as other institutions linked to
the issue join.

4.1.3 Regional project

Starting with the experience of the “Strengthening Mechanisms for Small Arms Control”
Project promoted in El Salvador, the design phase has begun for the Regional Project on
Arms Control, involving the seven Central American countries. The project will be
implemented in coordination with the System for Central American Integration (SICA).
One of the first steps will be to produce information and build alliances and capacities
for its implementation. The design phase will be accompanied by the implementation of
several actions aimed at a reduction in weapons in selected geographical areas.

5. Relationship between project and MDGs
There is no direct link. However, the project has been part of on-going development
initiatives, which if taken as an interlinked web of projects have together contributed
towards the MDGs. For example in relation to education for all, the level and breadth of
education has been enlarged by this and other programmes such as the Ministry of
Education‟s Life Education programme; the Municipality of San Salvador is involved in
this project together with the police, school teachers, parents and pupils. They are
working with the same people to ensure that the environment of the municipality is clean
and safe. The health indicators in the long-term will improve if the cost of armed
violence to the health system is reduced and more money can be spent on much needed
prevention and care for mothers and children. HIV/AIDS is not directly tackled but
forms part of a wider educational awareness programme. The project is having an
empowering influence on school age girls and boys through the Angels of Peace part of



                                            15
the project. The partnership approach that is being promoted through this project is
contributing to the MDG to develop a global partnership for development.

6. Areas of investigation for indicator development
See Annex 7 for detailed information about this. The main findings were that the project
had not been designed to consider the links between poverty and the project outcomes.
Poverty reduction, and a reduction in armed violence come about by a number of
contributory factors. Therefore while trends can be studied and these can then be related
to project activities, attribution to the project is difficult. It was therefore felt that in the
future, a project design could include more specific mention of the target group and
measure the combination of factors which affect the development of that group over
time. Linkages between this and other projects addressing both violence and poverty is
therefore vital to assess as part of project monitoring. Some useful indicators for example
could be:

   Public opinion polls - disposition towards small arms possession and use (measure of
    change from year to year)
   Victimisation survey - assaults, homicide and injuries (measure of change from year
    to year)
   Media reports – quantity and quality
   Surveys on motivation of children and teachers to join disarmament/anti-violence
    campaigns.
   Change in number and size of “no go” areas controlled by gangs
   Qualitative assessment of perceptions of security/insecurity (annual surveys)
   Number and effectiveness of links between this project/programme and other
    developmental initiatives (are challenges to poverty and violence reduction addressed
    through this or other projects?)
   Is poverty being reduced in the region of the project, what part is the project playing
    in this? (qualitative assessment of people‟s perceptions in different periods of time)
   Measurement of empowerment through attitude surveys and observation


7. Assessment according to DAC criteria
                 In relation to the project’s own       In relation to poverty reduction
                 goals
Relevance        UNDP: reduction in violence could    In relation to poverty, this project does not
                 benefit development projects and     tackle many aspects affecting poor people
                 also provides experience and lessons and does not measure its target group in
                 for other UNDP small arms            relation to poverty. It has not specifically
                 interventions                        addressed the MDGs although aspects of
                                                      empowerment, gender, and using this project
               Country: Yes, very relevant. Armed as an entry point to broader developmental
               violence reduction is an explicitly initiatives makes it relevant.
               articulated national priority.
Sustainability Very well inserted into government UNDP helped better articulate an existing
               and civil society structures making it agenda and create a sustained forum where
               very sustainable.                      diverse actors were unified by a common
                                                      objective and continue to work together at
                                                      national and local levels.



                                               16
                                                       This project was an entry point for other
                                                       initiatives,    especially  through     youth
                                                       empowerment.
Impact          Police have shifted policy position    Impact       on     gender    relations   and
                based on findings/construction of      empowerment has not been measured
                database, findings of research and     beyond the direct impact of armed violence
                engagement with project partners.      on the female population.
                Human rights ombudsman office          Inter-family violence is not addressed by the
                has publicly embraced project goals    project.
                of prohibiting public carrying of
                small arms and the development of a    Schools that participated in the Angels of
                national disarmament plan on           Peace/Weapons Not Even As Toys
                national television.                   campaign have shown commitment to being
                Public debate has increased and        agents of change within and outside schools.
                justifications for arms possession     Activities observed during the field visit
                presented by opposition have been      demonstrate a high level of self-confidence
                tempered.                              of both girls and boys in relation to arms,
                Coordination among international       violence and other value-driven issues.
                agencies has increased (e.g., UNDP,
                UNICEF and GTZ) and civil
                society/private sector/government.
                Research component of project has
                produced a report which provides
                baseline data for future project
                assessment and a body of reliable
                knowledge       for   evidence-based
                advocacy strategy.
Effectiveness   Project has been more effective than   In relation to poverty objectives          no
                the programme directors and project    indications of short-term effectiveness.
                technical team anticipated, with the
                exception of short-term goals for
                legislative change.

8. Lessons learned
   At times natural allies for advocating small arms control and disarmament in society
    are not willing to take the political risks required on such a controversial issue while
    some actors that would be considered opponents are willing to co-operate on points
    of consensus even when in disagreement with the overall agenda (e.g. conservative
    parliamentarians on the security commission).
   Some aspects of the public awareness work were de-politicised by directing the
    campaign towards school age children and allowing the messages regarding to
    disarmament to merge naturally in context with issues such as conflict resolution and
    avoiding youth gangs.
   The political will of project partners and the UNDP country office to endure difficult
    political and social events earned them greater respect and credibility.
   The UNDP provided a forum that allowed multiple initiatives to come together
    under a common identity as well as create a point of encounter for civil society and
    government.
   Local projects benefited from cooperation with pre-existing inter-institutional
    structures in violent communities discarding the need to „create‟ new institutions.




                                             17
   Capacity of partners to carry out research and general social dynamism allowed for
    evidenced-based advocacy strategy that has provided substance and support to the
    various public campaign messages.
   International development agencies (in contrast to security and law enforcement)
    help prevent small arms control work from becoming exclusively technical exercises.

9. Conclusions
The programme and the project developed organically and locations were chosen
according to criteria of violence but also on the basis of interest from local leaders. There
were existing local organisations so no new structures were formed. Many groups were
already working on violence reduction issues and this project was therefore a facilitator
of change rather than initiating the idea. This makes the project much more sustainable.

Any programme in El Salvador will have to consider the high state of actual and
perceived violence in order to be successful. This is a major obstacle to the economic
and social development of the country.

Those most directly impacted by armed violence are male youth (15-35 years). These are
the productive sector of the population whose death and injury has a high socio-
economic cost directly to the family, but also to society in general by the lack of income
generated by that person and by the high costs of medical treatment. Socially, the vicious
circle of violence continues as revenge is often sought.

This project has been addressing the demand for arms through the campaigns. It is a
long-term project which has brought together different sectors and institutions in order
to create a critical mass for change. In the short-term there has been a noticeable impact
especially within schools who are participating as „Angels of Peace‟ There are more
institutions united against violence now than three years ago. However the desired
change continues to meet strong opposition within society, institutions and parliament.
The current hard line policy against gangs is increasing the culture of violence rather than
addressing its causes. It is raising fear and the perception of violence is therefore
increasing.

One of the project‟s innovative features lies in the strategic partnerships and leadership
roles taken on by a variety of actors ranging from the state entities associated with the
issues of public security, education, health, NGOs, cultural and community service
agencies, as well as private enterprises, artists and the mass media.

Although the concept of the project is replicable (as UNDP are doing in Haiti), the exact
nature of the design is dependant on local circumstances. The timing in El Salvador was
appropriate and there was strong institutional support which the UNDP built upon. The
UNDP had facilitated the process and brought different stakeholders together to give
more momentum and profile to an on-going process.

El Salvador is a small and dynamic country with a strong civil society. The high level of
academic and political thinkers who championed the project may be difficult to replicate
in less developed countries with weaker civil society movements.




                                             18
10. Recommendations

10.1 UNDP El Salvador

      UNDP needs a clear monitoring and evaluation strategy for this work in future
       stages
      Monitoring should disaggregate by socio-economic group
      One-year study on links between armed violence and development
      Plans to link programmes addressing violence and poverty should be supported
       both within and outside UN agencies.

Note that many of the above are already in progress and have been incorporated into the
design of the second phase of the project. UNDP El Salvador found this study timely
and useful in order for them to improve the design of the second phase and also to set
clear terms of reference for a full evaluation of the project to date.

10.2 International community

Poverty reduction cannot be tackled in countries where armed conflict, instability and
violence prevail. It is therefore recommended that a long-term and preventative approach
be taken which relies on international development agencies taking forward the reduction
in SALW as part of the fight against poverty. The broad scope of this project as fully
integrated into a violence reduction programme shows one way forward for integrating
SALW within the development agenda.

Additionally, should the major international development agencies determine that
funding small arms control initiatives does not fall under their long-term institutional
mandates it is important that other international actors are engaged on how to prevent
SALW reduction from becoming exclusively a technical endeavour.




                                          19
Annex 1: Statistics on El Salvador and Millennium
Development Goals

       1    Income poverty


                 $1 a day poverty line                                              Proportion
                                                                                         of
                                                                                    population
                                                                                      below
    Percentage of         Number of                                                     the             Income
     population            people         Proportion of                              national           share of
     below $1 a Poverty     below          population                                poverty            poorest
         day      Gap (%) (millions) Yr. below $2 a day                   Yr           line    Yr         20%        Yr
         38.95                                 02
       21.4 %           7.9 %       1.3696     97       45 %              97             %       -       3.3%        98


       2    Education


                                    Percentage of                                                Youth
                                       children     Gross secondary       Gross tertiary        (15-24) Adult (15
                                      enrolled in       school              education           literacy & over)
      Net primary school           grade 1 reaching enrolment rate        enrolment rate           rate   literacy
        enrolment rate                 grade 5 3         (%)4,6               (%)4,5              (%)6   rate (%)7


1990 yr. 2000              yr.     1995-1999 yr.      2000     yr.         2001          yr.     2001        2001
    75     92      81      99         71        98     54       -              18         -      88.5           79


       3    Gender


                                                   Gender    Seats in                                         Total
                             Gender        Female equality parliament                                       fertility
                            equality in     % of             held by                                           rate
    Gender equality in      secondary      labour in youth women (as                Life expectancy at     (births per
    primary education2      education3     force4 literacy5 % of total)6                birth 20017         woman)8


    1990 yr 2000 yr         2000      yr     2001    2001       2001            Total Male Female            1999
    101.2 -      95.5 -      100     98      36.9     99            9.5             70   67.1    73.1           3




       4&5              Maternal and child health




5
    Figures from 2002 survey based on latest UNDP calculations.


                                                        20
                                                          Percentage of
                                              Infant       1 year olds       Under-5
Maternal                                     mortality     immunised       mortality rate        Prevalence of child
mortality       Births attended by          per 1,000        against       per 1,000 live        malnutrition, weight
 ratio2          health staff (%)3         live births4     measles5           births6              for age (%)7


  1990-
  1998          1990 yr 2000 yr               2001         2001      yr    1990     2001     1990 yr 2000 yr
   120           87     94    90      99       33           99       99     60        39         11    93    12    98


   6     Communicable diseases


                   Contraceptive
 HIV prevalence     prevalence
(% of women aged (% of women aged                    Incidence of TB per          TB treatment             DOTS
     15-24)2          15-49)3                          100,000 people4            success rate5        detection rate6


       2001                  1995-2001        yr             2001                     1999               1998-2000
         0.4                   59.7           98                36                     78                    56


   7     Environment and infrastructure


                                           Industrial               Forest
Percentage of Percentage of                  carbon     Energy     area as a Biodiversity:
 population     population Electric power   dioxide    efficiency    % of      land area
with access to with access to consumption  emissions   (GDP per    national protected (% of
  improved       improved      per capita (tonnes per    unit of    surface    total land
    water2      sanitation3      kwh4       capita)5  energy use)6   area7       area)8


1990      2000        1990    2000          2000            1999           2000            2000             2002
 66        77          73      82            587                1           8.1              6              0.4




                                                           21
   8.1 International linkages


                                                  Information and                Telephones
                        Primary share Net foreign communication                 (mainline and
Trade          Trade in of exports (%    direct      technology       Internet     mobile
(% of          goods % of merchandise investment expenditure (% of     users     phones) per
GDP)2          of GDP3    exports)4   (% of GDP)5      GDP)6       (thousands)7 1000 people8


2001 yr 2001 yr                    2001              2001       yr            2001                   2001         yr       2001         yr
72         -           -             44               2         -              -                      50          00        218         -


   8.2 Other economic indicators


Debt service as     Gross         Gross      Gross National     Gross
% of exports of   National      National    Income per capita domestic                                                 Unemployment
  goods and     Income (US$ Income per       average annual savings (% of                                              rate 15-24 years
   services2      billions) 3 capita (US$)4    growth % 5      GDP)6                                                         old7


  2001           yr        2001          yr   2001        yr         2001          yr        2001          yr         1995 - 2001       yr
     6           -            13         -    2040          -            0         -            2           -            13.3           97


   8.3 Aid flows 2001


               Net Bilateral oda/oa2


                                                                                                       Total aid
                               UK as % Total net  Imputed UK                                           per poor               Total net
                 Total          of total oda/oa     share of                                            person               oda/oa (all
 United          DAC              net     per    Multilateral net                    Total             from all             donors) as a
Kingdom         Donors          oda/oa   capita     oda/oa 3                       multilateral         donors               % of GNI


(£ million)     (£ million)        (%)         (£)              (£ million)            (£ million)              (£)               (%)

     2.1          160.4            1.3         37                    1.9                  1.8               118.4                 1.9




                                                                    22
     8.4 Bilateral aid: £ thousands


                 Financial Aid
                  (Excl ATP)                                                                                                     Other Programmes

                                                    Grants
             Project                                 and              DFID    Total
               or                          Aid and Other Humanitarian Debt    DFID                     Total Gross
             Sector Programme Technical     Trade Aid in Assistance Relief Programme    CDC      Other   Public
              Aid      Aid    Cooperation Provision Kind    (1)        (2)     (3)   Investments (4) Expenditure

 1998/99             -                -                8          -      252                     39           -          299                 -   -   299
 1999/00             -                -                3          -      315                       -          -          318                 -   -   318
 2000/01             -                -                 -         -      369                  1451            -         1820           4445      -   6265
 2001/02             -                -                 -         -      271                   160            -          431           4141      -   4572
 2002/03             -                -                76         -      235                     27           -          338               607   -   945
Source for Tables 1-8: http://www.dfid.gov.uk

Annex 2: El Salvador country profile

                                                  El Salvador Country Profile
Click on the indicator to view a definition                                     1990          1995            2001          2002
1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger                                 2015 target = halve 1990 $1 a day poverty and malnutrition rates
Population below $1 a day (%)                                                        ..                21.4             ..            ..
Poverty gap at $1 a day (%)                                                          ..                 7.9             ..            ..
Percentage share of income or consumption held by poorest 20%                        ..                  ..             ..            ..
Prevalence of child malnutrition (% of children under 5)                         15.2                  11.2             ..            ..
Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (%)                 12.0                    ..          14.0             ..
2 Achieve universal primary education                                                     2015 target = net enrollment to 100
Net primary enrollment ratio (% of relevant age group)                           74.7                  78.1          80.9             ..
Percentage of cohort reaching grade 5 (%)                                        58.0                  76.7             ..            ..
Youth literacy rate (% ages 15-24)                                               83.8                  86.1          88.5           88.9
3 Promote gender equality                                                                 2005 target = education ratio to 100
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)                   100.2                  98.7             ..            ..
Ratio of young literate females to males (% ages 15-24)                          97.0                  97.7          98.2           98.3
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector (%)                            ..                  ..             ..            ..
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament (%)                     12.0                  11.0          10.0           10.0
4 Reduce child mortality                                                  2015 target = reduce 1990 under 5 mortality by two-thirds
Under 5 mortality rate (per 1,000)                                               60.0                  47.0          39.0             ..
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                                    46.0                  38.0          33.0           31.3
Immunisation, measles (% of children under 12 months)                            98.0                  93.0          99.0             ..
5 Improve maternal health                                               2015 target = reduce 1990 maternal mortality by three-fourths
Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)                 ..            180.0                ..            ..
Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)                             52.0                  51.0             ..            ..
6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases                                  2015 target = halt, and begin to reverse, AIDS, etc.
Prevalence of HIV, female (% ages 15-24)                                             ..                  ..            0.4            ..
Contraceptive prevalence rate (% of women ages 15-49)                            47.0                  53.3             ..            ..
Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS                                              ..                  ..       13,000.0            ..
Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)                                       ..                  ..          64.2             ..
Tuberculosis cases detected under DOTS (%)                                           ..                45.0          56.0             ..
7 Ensure environmental sustainability                                                      2015 target = various (see notes)
Forest area (% of total land area)                                                 9.3                   ..            5.8            ..
Nationally protected areas (% of total land area)                                    ..                 0.5            0.3           0.4




                                                                   23
GDP per unit of energy use (PPP $ per kg oil equivalent)                         6.0             6.7            7.0                 ..
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)                                           0.5             0.8            0.9                 ..
Access to an improved water source (% of population)                          66.0                 ..          77.0                 ..
Access to improved sanitation (% of population)                               73.0                 ..          82.0                 ..
Access to secure tenure (% of population)                                         ..               ..             ..                ..
8 Develop a Global Partnership for Development                                         2015 target = various (see notes)
Youth unemployment rate (% of total labor force ages 15-24)                   14.7              13.3              ..                ..
Fixed line and mobile telephones (per 1,000 people)                               ..            52.7          218.4                 ..
Personal computers (per 1,000 people)                                             ..               ..          21.9                 ..
General indicators
Population                                                             5.1 million       5.7 million     6.4 million       6.5 million
Gross national income ($)                                               4.8 billion       8.9 billion   13.0 billion   13.5 billion
GNI per capita ($)                                                           940.0          1,570.0         2,040.0           2,080.0
Adult literacy rate (% of people ages 15 and over)                            72.4              75.9           79.2              79.7
Total fertility rate (births per woman)                                          3.9             3.6            3.0               2.9
Life expectancy at birth (years)                                              65.6              68.5           70.0              70.1
Aid (% of GNI)                                                                   7.4             3.2            1.7                 ..
External debt (% of GNI)                                                      45.5              27.8           34.8                 ..
Investment (% of GDP)                                                         13.9              20.3           16.0                 ..
Trade (% of GDP)                                                              49.8              59.4           71.8                 ..
Source: World Development Indicators database, April 2002
Note: In some cases the data are for earlier or later years than those stated.
Goal 1 targets: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. Halve,
between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
Goal 2 target: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary
schooling.
Goal 3 target: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education
no later than 2015.
Goal 4 target: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
Goal 5 target: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.
Goal 6 targets: Have halted by 2015, and begun to reverse, the spread of HIV/AIDS. Have halted by 2015, and begun to
reverse, the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
Goal 7 targets: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss
of environmental resources. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. By
2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.
Goal 8 targets: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Address the
Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries. Address the Special Needs of landlocked countries and small island developing
states. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in
order to make debt sustainable in the long-term. In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies
for decent and productive work for youth. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable,
essential drugs in developing countries. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies,
especially information and communications.
Source: http://www.worldbank.org




                                                                 24
Annex 3: List of people met
                    6                       Institution              Purpose of meeting
Name and position
Katrin Kasichke,(youth programme)           GTZ / FLACSO             Presentation of work with FLACSO
Wim Taleman                                                          on inter-school violence
Maria Antoineta Beltran
Marcella Smutt                              UNDP technical team      To outline the programme and the
(Governance programme oficial)              for society without      projects within it. Describe current
Lissette Miranda                            violence programme       status and future plans.
(Coordinator of Violence Prevention
Project)
Daniel Carsana
(Consultant, Violence Prevention Project)
René Iván Morales (Programme official)
Peter Grohmann (Deputy Resident             UNDP                     Briefing on the purpose of the
Representative)                                                      mission, discussion of schedule and
Renata Claros, (Programme coordinator)                               list of people planned to meet.
Mauricio Gaborit, (Masters Programme        UCA                      Key stakeholder interview
Director, UCA & Member of society
without violence programme steering
committee)
Jaime Martínez, member of technical         Fundación de estudios    NGO
disarmament group.                          para la Aplicación del   Legal aspects violence in El
                                            Derecho (FESPAD)         Salvador and aspects of project
                                                                     relating to this.
50 Angeles de la Paz,                       Gonzaga de Santa         Meeting Angels of Peace
Eduardo Montoya (Sport Teacher) San         Tecla School             Interview with teachers active in
Luis Gonzaga School                                                  promoting peace and human values
Elizabeth Guzmán de Girón (Psychologist                              within the school through
Marcelino García Flamenco School)                                    programme and education for life.

Vigilio Peña (Project Coordinator)          Yek Ineme Assocation     Interview with conflict-reduction
                                                                     NGO
Iris de Reyes (in charge of Education for   Ministry of Education    To understand about education for
life division of MOE)                                                life and link with Angels of Peace.
Dr. Ignacio Paniagua                        MESARES                   Project partner and responsible for
Dra. Emperatriz Crespín                     Hospital Reales           research on the economic cost of
Dr. Ademar Guardado                                                   violence to the health service.
Dr. Melvin Guardado Ramos                                             Visit to Hospital and interview with
Victim of armed violence                                              victim of armed violence.
Ana María Molina                            Molina Bianchi            Agency who was responsible for
                                                                      publicity and marketing of Weapons
                                                                      Not Evan as Toys Campaign.
Juanita España (headmistress)               Madre del Salvador        Ad hoc interviews with classes of
Yolanda María Folgar (Administration)         Catholic School         school children who have and have
Ana Julia Escobar (Librarian)               Santa Ana Department      not been involved in workshops on
                                                                      violence.
Meilyn de Castro (Museum Director)          Tin Marin Children‟s      Visit the museum with Angels of
                                            Museum                    Peace. See sculpture made of toy
                                                                      arms handed in during the campaign
                                                                      and see the permanent workshop of
                                                                      conflict resolution.




6
 Thanks to al the people who gave their time to talk to use, especially to Morena Valdez, Rosana
Henriques and Marcella Smutt for organising the programme and to Daniel Carsana for accompanying
us throughout the visit.


                                                  25
                   6                       Institution               Purpose of meeting
Name and position
José Miguel Cruz (member of technical      IUDOP-                     One of the most respected
disarmament group; responsible for         UCA                        academics on arms and violence in
research on violence and arms in El                                   El Salvador
Salvador)
Salvador Samayoa,                          CNSP                      Influential figure who was one of
(President del Consejo Nacional de                                   the founders of the programme.
Seguridad Pública – CNSP & Member of
Steering Committee of society without
violence programme. Member of National
Development Commission)
5 Angeles de la Paz de Aguilares           Aguilares Town Hall       Angels of Peace and market radio
María Luz Madrid (member of defense of                               visit with broadcast from Angels of
the rights of the child and family of                                Peace.
Aguilares)                                                           Discussion with teachers involved
Olga Guadalupe Alvarenga,                                            in other related activities through
(administrator of youth centre)                                      programme - art, dance, sport
Rosío Tejada (administrador of youth                                 initiatives.
centre)
4 Angels of Peace, School Radio,           Tonacatepeque             Meet Angels of Peace and visit
Edwin Mauricio Pérez Juárez (Director of   Distrito Italia School    radio programmes in market and
Distrito Italia                                                      school. Meet members of the local
Narciso Avalos (member of pro-children                               committees who work in violence
and adolescents committee of                                         prevention and disarmament
Tonacatepeque – in charge of football                                support. Meet those in charge of
school “Nueva Generación” of Distrito                                sports component of “With arms
Italia                                                               nobody wins” campaign

Héctor Dada, (MP & Steering                UNDP                      Key stakeholder in programme, one
Committeee Member for Programme)                                     of founding members,
Women who are part of UNDP sponsored       Adeprocca, Nahuizalc      To meet the women who have started
“Typical Sweets” Project. Accompanied      Municpality, Colonia      a small economic Project three
by Neus Bernabeu (gender specialist,       Italiana, Canton Sabana   months ago.
UNDP Sonsonate) and Mario Baratta          Grande, Sonsanate
(engineer, UNDP)                           Depatment
Ernesto Galdámez (facilitator)             ADEL (local economic      ADEL programme design workshop
ADEL team                                  development agency)
Fabrizio Brutti (UNDP / Italian            UNDP
Cooperation, Sonsonate)                    Community
                                           Association, Women
                                           NGO
                                           2 Mayors Sonsanate
                                           Department
Ricardo Valdivieso and wife, founding       Santa Leticia Coffee     To obtain view on violence and
members of Arena party, large coffee          Farm                   poverty of coffee producer and right
producer, hotel owner, radio station                                 wing political activist.
sponsor.
William Pleitez (coordinator of UNDP       UNDP                      To discuss Human Development
HDR 2003)                                                            Report, 2003
Carlos Acevedo Flores                      FUSADE                    Key figure on socio-economic
                                                                     development.
Agents of CAM                              Cuerpo de Agentes         Talk with Angels of Peace, Police
Angels of peace, teachers, police, DAE     Metropolitanos            and teachers about project and other
Helen Verspeelt (Regional project,                                   related activities they are doing in
UNDP)                                                                San Salvador
Erik Van Mele                              Oxfam Belgium             To discuss poverty, rights and
Manuel Muñiz (regional representative)                               violence in El Salvador from
                                                                     perspective outside the UNDP
                                                                     project



                                                 26
                        6                              Institution                       Purpose of meeting
Name and position
David Mena (territorial coordinator)                   National Development              To understand the El Salvadoran
                                                       Commission, National              equivalent to PRSP / economic
                                                       Development Plan                  growth plan, how it was consulted,
                                                                                         who participates.


Annex 4: Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder              Description of group                                     Interest in reducing availability of
                                                                                         7
                                                                                  SALW
ARENA                    Political party currently in power – right               No
                         wing
PCN                      Right wing political party coalition                     No
CDU                      Left centre political party coalition                    Yes
FMLN                     Main opposition left wing party                          Yes
National Civil           Police                                                   They are increasingly in favour of a
Police (PCN)                                                                      reduction in arms
Catholic                 The majority of the population, stronger                 Yes, there are some ad hoc peace
community                in rural areas                                           movements within the church at the
                                                                                  local level
Other religious          Mainly Christian (protestant, Lutheran)                  There is no overt interest, Lutherans
groups                                                                            openly support FMLN
Farmers with             Rural areas, people with guns for                        Against reduction in arms as seen as
land and                 protection                                               needed for protection
livestock
People without           About half the population?                               In favour of reducing arms
guns
Media                    TV, press – tend to lack an understanding                -/+ The media has become more
                         about the implications of what they                      critical of armed violence in since
                         broadcast on violence, the space is                      2001. This could be attributable at
                         increasing for debate and increasingly the               least in part to the success of the
                         danger of armed violence is being                        project‟s campaigns.
                         reported.
Academics /              FESPAD, UCA                                              In favour and partners in the project
NGOs
International            UN institutions /bilateral donors / IFIs                 In favour
Community
Private sector           Industry is generally impeded by high                    Both views are held. Long-term in
                         cost of security                                         favour if disarmament can be
                                                                                  accompanied with effective legislation
                                                                                  and confidence and justice system to
                                                                                  reduce number of incidence of
                                                                                  violence
Private security         Often cited as collaborating with                        Against
agencies and             organised crime groups
arms dealers




7
  Interests for and against arms are polarised politically and not by socio-economic group. Gender divide is not as important in
deciding who is for and against arms, political affiliations are probably the single most important factor. El Salvador is highly
politicised with strong geographical divisions of support based on clientelism rather than policy loyalty.




                                                               27
Annex 5: List of institutions involved in the project

Political and          Steering Committee                                  Nationally recognised professionals,
Strategic              Society Without                                     opinion makers who participate in public
Programmme             Violence Programmme                                 policymaking
Direction

                                                                              National Council on Public Security
Project Technical                                                              (CNSP)
Advisors          Technical Panel                                          Latin American Faculty of Social
                                                                               Sciences (FLACSO)
                                                                           Foundation for the Study of Applied
                                                                               Law (FESPAD)
                                                                           Central American University Public
                                                                               Opinion Institute (IUDOP)
                                                                           United Nations Development
                                                                               Programme (UNDP)
                                      Research                         Law Reform            Public Awareness and
                                                                       Institutional               Education
                        IUDOP                                        Strengthening
                        FESPAD                                                              Molina Bianchi:
                       With support from:                           CNSP                        Ogilvy & Mather,
Main Strategic          Ministry of Defence                        National Civilian           Advertising Agency
Partners and            Attorney General‟s Office                   Police (PNC)            Tin Marín
Actors Involved         Bureau of Customs                          National Academy            Children‟s Museum
in Project                 Revenue                                   of Public Security      Network for
Implementation          Private Security Agencies                   (ANSP)                      Children and
                        Legal Arms Merchants                       Supreme Judicial            Adolescents
                        Politicians                                 Court (CSJ)             Scouts Association
                        Ministry of Health                         FESPAD                      of El Salvador
                        System for Central                         IUDOP                   Pro-Children and
                           American Integration                     Gender and                  Adolescents
                           (SICA)                                    children‟s NGOs             Committees and
                                                                    Inter-institutional         Networks working
                                                                     Networks                    regionally and
                                                                                                 locally within El
                                                                                                 Salvador (13)
                                                                                             PNC
                                                                                             CNSP
                                                                                             Ministry of
                                                                                                 Education
                                                                                             Ministry of Health
                                                                                             Mass Media
                                                                                                 (Newspapers,
                                                                                                 Television, Radio)
                                                                                             Artists
Regional and
International                          System for Central American Integration (SICA)
Coordination                           Arias Foundation for Peace and Human Progress
within Project                         United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and
Framework                               Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-LiREC)
                                       Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR)
                                       International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA)

Source: Weapons not even as toys!: an initiative for small arms control in El Salvador, UNDP 2003.




                                                             28
      Annex 6: Types of violence in El Salvador and effects on
      project

Type of          Who are those      Causes           Effects             Relation UNDP         Poverty links
violence         involved                                                project
Gang             Urban and rural    Deported         Increased crime     Preventative.         Gang population is
violence         uneducated         Salvadorans      and violence in     Angles of peace       comprised primarily
(divided         males with         from US with     places where        target young pre-     of poor, unemployed
between          disintegrated      experience of    gangs control       gang age in order     men.
knives, guns     family and         gang culture     territory. Public   to make them          Prevent
and              unemployed         and links.       transportation is   more aware of the     development from
grenades)        with some                           re-routed, lack     issues related to     entering area and
                 primary                             of police.          violence, guns and    from being effective.
                 education                                               conflict resolution   Increases burden on
                                                                         with the aim of       family from injury
                                                                         being more            and death. Break
                                                                         resistant to          down social
                                                                         pressure to join      cohesion. Prevents
                                                                         gangs or              economic activity,
                                                                         participate in        movement of
                                                                         student violence.     people.
Domestic         All social         Machismo,        Women are           Project does no       Poorer women are
violence         groups, men are    culture          damaged             address this.         less likely to end
(mostly          principle                           physically and      Programme does.       violent relationship.
without          aggressors,                         mentally.
weapons,         women victims
can include
knives and
guns)
Inter-           Poorer social      Alcohol          Injury, death,      14-18 yr olds         Rural areas,
community        groups primarily   fuelled,         family feuds.       angles of peace are   vulnerable
violence         in rural areas.    machismo,                            involved in           environmentally and
(mostly          Men are            culture                              conflict resolution   economically to
without          aggressors and                                          in rural areas.       shocks. Poorer
weapons,         direct victims.                                         Research is           people in these areas
can include      Women may                                               uncovering            are worse effected
knives and       loose main                                              information about     by the shocks. The
guns)            income earner                                           this.                 more vulnerable, the
                                                                                               more likely to
                                                                                               become violent.
Student          Students of        Need for         Deterioration of    No. Check about       Not really linked to
violence         public             identity,        learning            angels of peace.      poverty. Negative
(primarily       secondary          affinity         environment.                              effect on education
knives and       school. Mainly     towards gang     Limitation of                             would lower future
home made        men but women      culture.         transportation to                         income prospects.
weapons)         involved in                         school which
                 specific roles                      limits choice of
                 and support.                        secondary
                                                     school
Organised        Powerful illegal   Economic         Increased drug      No                    Not normally
crime            businesses         vacuum for       trafficking and                           targeting poorer
(increased       (guns, drugs,      those involved   drug use.                                 groups.
incidence of     stolen cars,       in and/or        Increased
military style   kidnapping),       benefiting       investment in
weapons)         commonly           from the war.    private security.
                 former military    Corruption and
                 and police         lack of state
                 officials.         control.
                 Primarily men.


                                                        29
Type of        Who are those      Causes            Effects             Relation UNDP         Poverty links
violence       involved                                                 project
Common         Unemployed         Lack of           Increased           Research has          Indiscriminate type
criminal       youth or ex-       economic          private security,   identified:           of violence, more
violence       combatants not     opportunities.    acquisition of      1) level of           impact on the poor
(knives and    integrated fully                     fire arms for           criminal          as they have less of
guns)          into society.                        protection.             violence          a safety net.
               Mainly men as                                                through policy
               aggressors,                                                  registries.
               victims are                                              2) Degrees of
               widespread.                                                  victimisation
                                                                            through
                                                                            opinion poll
                                                                            survey.
Political      Political party    Cultural          Political           No.                   None.
violence       sympathisers.      acceptance,       polarisation,
(mostly        Primarily men      lack of           injury, death.
without        aggressors, both   effective
weapons,       men and women      judicial
can include    victims            system.
knives and
guns)

     Annex 7: Areas of indicator development

     Area of indicator        Findings                   Indicators stated         Draw out other possible
     development                                         either explicitly or      indicators from your
                                                         implicitly and            analysis of the project.
                                                         comment on
                                                         usability8
         Extent of           Decreasing trend in        Implicit, but also        Reports on domestic sales
          reduction of arms   legal arms imports, but    depends on reliability    as reported by dealers
                              no change in legal         of data provided by       including ammunition
                              ammunition imports as      MOD. Does not             Number of new weapons
                              reported by National       characterise extent of    registered and old
                              Arms Registry MOD          illegal trade.            weapons re-registered
                                                                                   with MOD.

         Enforcement of      Significant increase in    Implicit, multi-causal    Number of arrests for
          regulation          number of arrests for      could potentially be      illegal possession and use
                              illegal possession and     exaggerated by one or     Number of sentences for
                              trafficking in military    two large operatives.     illegal possession and use
                              style small arms.
     Security &
     governance
      Increasing levels      Public trust in police     Implicit, reported in     Percentage of the
         of trust in state    has increased in recent    HDR 2003. Public          population with a positive
         security systems     years, but there are       trust and confidence in   level of trust in each
         (police, army,       some signs of a            key government and        institution as taken in
         government)          reversing trend            civil society             IUDOP national polls.
                              beginning to emerge.       institutions has been
                                                         measured through a
                                                         national public
                                                         opinion poll carried
                                                         out by project partner
                                                         (IUDOP/UCA)

     8
      Indicators used here were developed as part of the project with greater emphasis on informing the
     project activities rather than measuring project impact.


                                                        30
Area of indicator        Findings                     Indicators stated        Draw out other possible
development                                           either explicitly or     indicators from your
                                                      implicitly and           analysis of the project.
                                                      comment on
                                                      usability8
                                                      outside of project
   Extent to which      Angels of Peace              Explicit and useful,     Follow-up with
    alternative          campaign implemented         but not being            participants over time to
    dispute / conflict   in municipalities was        systematically           see if they have been
    resolution           directly linked to           measured by project.     successful in avoiding
    mechanisms have      training on CR with                                   participation in youth and
    been successfully    Yek Ineme Association                                 student gangs, compared
    embraced by          (local NGO partner)                                   to a control group from
    target group                                                               the same school. % of
                                                                               Angels of Peace joining
                                                                               youth gangs within five
                                                                               years time.
   Extent to which      Direct impact within         Explicit, demonstrated   Project research produced
    project has          targeted schools and         by adhesion of new       a significant quantity of
    contributed to       municipalities.              like-minded voices       indicators (primarily
    cultural change in   Advances in                  from police and          through a national public
    arms possession      developing a critical        human rights             opinion poll) that can be
                         mass of stakeholders         ombudsman and            replicated on an annual
                         against carrying arms        tempering of public      basis.
                         in public places.            discourse justifying
                                                      arms possession by
                         Increased quantity and       opposition.
                         quality of coverage in
                         media.                       Measured by
                                                      collection of articles
                                                      from major media.
   Security (feeling    Current „Iron Fist‟          Explicit, campaign       Continue to carry out
    safe and being       policy environment has       objective. Measured      victimisation survey and
    safe)                increased people‟s           by project in national   public opinion poll
                         sense of insecurity          public opinion poll      annually over time.
                         which has threatened to      and victimisation
                         undermine success of         survey. “number of
                         the project.                 respondents who had
                                                      been victim of an
                                                      armed assault or had a
                                                      family member
                                                      assaulted or killed
                                                      during last twelve
                                                      months”
Socio-economic
 Investment             Government is                Not stated. IDB is       Degree to which
    strategies /         reluctant to increase its    planning to present a    government budget
    economic             debt through                 loan to the next         changes to reflect
    decision making      development assistance       government to            changing needs in
    of government in     loans, especially in         increase work in the     relation to violence and
    project area         sectors where new            area of reduced          poverty.
                         sources of income will       violence.                Change in total funding
                         not be directly created.                              and % for productive
                                                                               initiatives.
   Investment           Some private sector          Not being measured       Extent of investment in El
    strategies /         organisations benefit                                 Salvador could be
    economic             from high level of                                    measured and correlated
    decision making      violence (private                                     to extent of actual and
    of private sector    security, arms dealers).                              perceived violence.
    in area              It is believed that they                              Number and cost of



                                                     31
Area of indicator        Findings                    Indicators stated      Draw out other possible
development                                          either explicitly or   indicators from your
                                                     implicitly and         analysis of the project.
                                                     comment on
                                                     usability8
                         may be collaborating                               private security personnel
                         with organised crime.                              in country
                         Some industries (e.g.
                         tourism) are vulnerable
                         to perceived and actual
                         insecurity
   Investment           Community and family        Not being measured     Correlation between level
    strategies /         structures have been                               of economic activity and
    economic             broken down by death                               incidence of use of arms/
    decision making      and injury caused by                               perception of insecurity.
    for family           armed violence.
    livelihoods
    strategies in area
   Ability to freely    A feeling of insecurity     Not being measured     Change in number and
    undertake            and the reduced                                    size of “no go” areas
    livelihood           movement due to gang                               controlled by gangs
    activities           violence in certain
                         areas restricts
                         movement.
   Access to            This is difficult to        Not being measured.    Number of bus routes
    markets/trade        assess, people                                     diverted.
   Ability to move      interviewed said that
    around freely        they felt insecure but
    (mobility of all     had to get on with their
    community            daily life. At night,
    members)             movement is less
                         likely.
   Social capital       Reduced social capital      Not being measured.    Numbers participating in
    (developing          has been both a cause                              campaigns for peace.
    networks,            and effect of violence.                            Numbers of children
    collective action    Lack of security and                               without a family unit.
    and institutional    identity is a cause of                             Numbers of community
    linkages and trust   gang violence.                                     activities and
    of others)           However there are                                  associations.
                         movements such as                                  Attitudinal surveys
                         Angels of Peace and                                measuring trust in other
                         Life Education to re-                              community members /
                         build values and social                            neighbours.
                         capital.
   Extent to which      The Angels of Peace         Not being measured.    Periodic surveys or
    project empowers     met during the field                               documentation of key
    the poor             visits showed a high                               events in relation to self-
                         degree of                                          esteem.
                         empowerment as a                                   Numbers of children able
                         result of the project.                             to broadcast their
                                                                            thoughts about building a
                                                                            peaceful society on the
                                                                            radio.
   Impact of violent    Education may be            Not being measured.    Correlation between
    conflict on          impeded in the quality                             school standards and
    education            of learning rather than                            incidence of violence in
    (including access    access in schools where                            school and surrounding
    to relevant          inter-school violence                              areas.
    infrastructure)      and gangs were
    and ways project     prominent


                                                    32
Area of indicator       Findings                    Indicators stated          Draw out other possible
development                                         either explicitly or       indicators from your
                                                    implicitly and             analysis of the project.
                                                    comment on
                                                    usability8
    addresses this
   Impact of violent   Addressed through           Number of                  HIV/AIDS victims
    conflict on         research component          hospitalised victims of    correlated with type of
    health, including   which analyses the cost     violence by type           violence and number of
    HIV/AIDS and        of hospital treatment of    weapons used, type of      incidents
    ways project        injuries caused by          incident, profile of
    addresses this      violence. HIV/AIDS          person, cost of
    (including access   not addressed by            treatment.
    to relevant         project.
    infrastructure)
   Impact of violent   Stray bullets hitting       Was not measured           Correlation between stray
    conflict on child   children was a major        specifically in project,   bullets injuring and
    mortality and       incentive for schools to    but new project            killing children and child
    ways project        join Angels of Peace        partners (medical          mortality statistics and
    addresses this      and campaign against        students) are              trends.
                        “weapons not even as        developing work in         Surveys on motivation of
                        toys”.                      this area.                 children and teachers to
                                                                               join anti-arms campaigns.
   Impact of violent   Although environment        Not being measured.        Environmental impact
    conflict on the     and poverty are                                        studies could be carried
    environment and     extremely linked in El                                 out in areas of high levels
    ways project        Salvador. armed                                        of violence.
    addresses this      violence and                                           Study on gang violence
                        environmental impact                                   and destruction of
                        is not being assessed.                                 environment could be
                                                                               carried out.
Process (Design)
 Extent to which       Yes, the project built      Not being measured.        Qualitative assessment
    primary target      on existing institutions                               degree of participation in
    group have been     and initiatives.                                       design based on
    involved                                                                   stakeholder interviews.
    throughout the
    project (design,
    implementation,
    evaluation).
 Extent and depth      As above                    Not being measured.        As above
    to which formal
    and non-formal
    authorities have
    been identified
    and consulted in
    the design and
    implementation
 Differentiation       This was not integrated     Not being measured.        Proportion of men,
    between men,        into the project design     Most data is               women, children, adults,
    women, children     although the target         disaggregated by           etc involved assessing
    in definition of    group of the angels of      gender, some is            needs. Documentation of
    needs and roles     peace and the weapons       disaggregated by age.      different opinions by
    and the extent to   not even as toys was        None to date mentions      stakeholder group and
    which these are     explicit in defining age    socio-economic             different interests
    addressed           groups.                     profile.                   reflected in design.
 Degree for            This was one of the         Lists of participating     Degree of collaboration
    establishment of    strongest points of the     institutions (Annex 3)     of different sectors and
    partnership /       project and the overall     showing a high level       types of institutions.



                                                   33
Area of indicator        Findings                     Indicators stated          Draw out other possible
development                                           either explicitly or       indicators from your
                                                      implicitly and             analysis of the project.
                                                      comment on
                                                      usability8
    coordination         programme in relation        of partners from           Comparison of before and
    between              to violence.                 different sectors who      after project scenarios of
    stakeholders and                                  traditionally do not       degree to which
    initiatives                                       cooperate. More links      objectives and interests
                                                      could be made to           coincide.
                                                      violence and
                                                      development
                                                      initiatives and
                                                      stakeholders.
   Extent to which      Levels of violence and       The selection criteria     Qualitative assessment of
    target group was     geographical location        for the second phase       transparency in selection.
    selected on basis    were clear transparent       of the project appears     Comparison of selection
    of clear and         criteria. More difficult     to be clearer:             criteria and resulting
    transparent          to assess was the             High level of            target group.
    criteria agreed by   degree to which                   armed violence
    all affected         selections within these       Manageable size
    parties              locations were made (a            of municipality
                         combination of interest           and population
                         in project, existing          Two
                         cooperation between               neighbouring
                         UNDP and                          municipalities
                         participating                     from different
                         institution, existing             political parties
                         inter-institutional           Sufficient existing
                         organisation, on-going            information from
                         anti-violence initiatives         the national police
                         etc)                              to avoid carrying
                                                           out a baseline
                                                           study.
                                                       Political support
                                                           from the Mayor
                                                           and municipal
                                                           government
   Extent to which      The design reflects the      Not being measured.        Understanding the
    project design       political framework. It                                 political, social and
    reflects             is not so clear on the                                  economic context in El
    developmental        links with the                                          Salvador and the ways in
    and political        developmental                                           which the government,
    framework            framework. See                                          civil society, the private
                         comments in relation to                                 sector and the
                         relevance below.                                        international community
                                                                                 is trying to address both
                                                                                 violence and poverty is
                                                                                 the first step in assessing
                                                                                 whether the project
                                                                                 reflects this context in its
                                                                                 design.
   Extent to which      Yes, one of the              The projects               Critical mass behind
    project is           strengths of the project     objectives are             campaigns
    addressing root                                   specifically to do this.   Teachers and students
    causes of                                                                    involved directly and
    violence                                                                     indirectly
                                                                                 Media space and level of
                                                                                 debate
                                                                                 Attitude surveys


                                                     34
Area of indicator        Findings                  Indicators stated      Draw out other possible
development                                        either explicitly or   indicators from your
                                                   implicitly and         analysis of the project.
                                                   comment on
                                                   usability8
   Extent to which      The context has been      Not being measured.    Qualitative assessment of
    context of           well documented by the                           different stakeholders
    security/insecurit   project and                                      understandings and how
    y is defined by      disseminated widely                              security/insecurity
    the target group     which has informed the                           measured at different
    and addressed by     debate at all levels.                            points in the project cycle
    the project.                                                          including ex-post.
Linkages
 To what extent         Very few explicit         Not being measured.    Number and degree of
    has the project      linkages.                                        links between
    linked into and                                                       stakeholders in project/
    utilised broader                                                      programme addressing
    development                                                           armed violence and other
    programmes &                                                          developmental initiatives.
    institutions
    (government and
    or donor)




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