Basic Java Syntax Currency symbols

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					Basic Java Syntax

University of Sunderland
 Harry R Erwin, PhD
    Key Resources to Help You
           Learn Java
• You need to own and read Flanagan, Java in a
  Nutshell, 5th edition. My lectures are not enough
  to teach you Java.
• You need access to Flanagan’s other Nutshell
• You need an up-to-date Java 1.5 (or newer)
  compiler and run-time environment.
• You need access to eclipse 3.1.1
• You need to explore the Sun tutorials
• Java is written in the Unicode character set.
• Unicode characters are stored in 16 bits (some Far
  Eastern languages require 21) and can represent
  almost all written languages.
   – A
   – å
   – π
• Java programs can be written in ASCII or Latin-1
  characters, which most text editors support.
• Unicode can be used anywhere in a Java program.
• Single-line comments: //…………..
• Multi-line comments: /*…..*/
• Doc comments:
  – Begin with /**….
  – Provide embedded documentation
  – End with */
  – Worth investigating further, because they allow you to
    write self-documenting codefiles. This is an easy way
    to meet some of the project requirements.
  – Extended in Java 5 (discussed in two weeks)
               Scope of Names
• The ‘scope’ of a declaration is the region of the program
  within which the entity can be referred to using a simple
• Types must be imported or declared to be in scope.
• Members have class or interface scope.
• Method parameters have method scope.
• Local variables have block scope.
• When a name is hidden by another name, you must
  provide the full name. Sometimes (method parameters, for
  example) there is no full name you can use.
• Begin with a letter, underscore (_), or currency
  symbol (€$¥£).
• Contain any number of letters, numbers,
  underscores, and currency symbols.
• Avoid the currency symbols as compilers use
• Remember Unicode. The following are legal
   – π
   – Ö
           Primitive Data Types
   –   boolean
   –   char
   –   short
   –   byte
   –   int
   –   long
   –   float
   –   double
• Have machine-independent formats and default
  values. Know them! I usually ask a question on
  them in the TCT or exam.
• Contains Unicode text
• Constant—unlike C and C++ strings.
• A class, not a primitive type
• Literals consist of anything between a pair of
  double quotes. To include a double quote in a
  string, use \”
• Supports operator overloading (+, +=). This is the
  only place in Java where operator overloading
  takes place.
          Type Conversions
• Integer to floating point are automatic.
• char to/from integer and floating point
• Widening conversions (e.g., short to long)
  are safe.
• Narrowing conversions are dangerous. You
  need to understand why. I usually ask a
  question on this in the TCT or exam.
            Classes and Arrays
• Reference types.
• Created using the new operator
   – new type(args); // an object
   – new type[dim]; // 1-D array
   – new type[dim1][dim2] etc; //larger arrays
• A class or array object is null (does not exist) until
  it is initialized.
• Interfaces are reference types, too.
• Discussed in the next lecture.
• Generally as in C or C++. See the earlier
• Typecasting is handled by (type)var; , not
• Generally as in C/C++. See the earlier
• Additional:
  –   synchronized (threads)
  –   throw (an exception)
  –   try/catch/finally (to handle exceptions)
  –   All the new Java 5 stuff (discussed in two
• Correspond to functions in C or C++, but are
  always associated with a class.
• Defined by their signature:
   –   Name
   –   Arguments
   –   Return type (differs from C++, may be void)
   –   Checked exceptions thrown
   –   Method modifiers: public, static, abstract, final, native,
       private, protected, synchronized.
           Method Modifiers
• public—can be called from anywhere
• static—defined at the class, not instance level
• abstract—must be defined by a subclass to be
• final—no changes allowed
• native—calls native code
• private—hidden from other classes
• protected—visible in same package and subclasses
• synchronized—supports multithreading
• Java is not C or C++
• Everything is either a primitive type or a
  reference type.
• Primitive types have default values, while
  reference types do not exist until they are
• Java smells like C and C++, but a language
  that smells may not be to your liking… 8)

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