Unit Destinations Currency Pair by MikeJenny

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Unit Destinations Currency Pair

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									                                        Unit 15 Destinations
                                    Period 1 listen and speak!
Goals
◆Talk about travels and cities.
◆Practice making complaints.
◆Improve students’ abilities of listening and speaking.
Procedures
Leading in (1): by discussion. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
T: Morning class! In our last unit, we learned I HAVE A DREAM by Martin Luther King, Jr. Do
you have a dream to travel around the world?
S: Yes.
T: Now there’s surprising news for you. I will “offer” you a free air ticket that lets you travel
around the world. And you can make five stops along the way. Where would you go and why?
(Organize the students to discuss and ask one or two students to give his/her answers.)
Leading in (2): by watching slides. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Hello, everybody! In our last unit, we learned Freedom Fighters. Today we shall turn our eyes to
some famous cities. Please look at the screen, and let’s enjoy!
(Let the students enjoy the following pictures of cities, such as New York, Washington, Hawaii,
London, Venice, Paris, Beijing, Shanghai, Sydney, Tokyo, Cairo, Ottawa and so on)
Great! Suppose you are offered a free air ticket that lets you travel around the world and you can
make five stops along the way. Where would you go and why?
Task 1: Drawing a flight line. ( individual and group work, approx.10 mins)
First ask students to have a discussion and draw their flight lines, marking the cities they expect to
visit and writing down the reason why they choose the cities. Then have them exchange their
maps and share their opinions.

Task 2: Looking, listening and speaking. ( class work, approx. 15 mins)
1. Ask the students to look at the picturs on page 33 and answer some simple questions:
What can you see in picture 1?
What’s the most famous place of interest in picture 2?
Do you want to stop in a place as shown in picture 5? Why or why not?
2. Ask the students to listen to part 1 twice and fill in the missing information on page 34.
3. Ask the students to listen to part 2 twice and use the information on the tape to complete the
role cards on page 34.
(Before listening to the tape, make sure that the students know what to do. After listening, check
their answers.)
4. Divide the student into pairs or groups and ask them to discuss which plan they like best and the
reason. After discussion, ask one or two students to report their decision to the class.

世界著名游览胜地英文名

Mount Fuji, Japan 日本富士山
Taj Mahal, India 印度泰姬陵
Pyramids, Egypt 埃及金字塔
The Nile, Egypt 埃及尼罗河
Sahara Desert 撒哈拉大沙漠
Sydney Opera House, Australia 澳大利亚悉尼歌剧院
Notre Dame de Paris, France 法国巴黎圣母院
Effiel Tower, France 法国艾菲尔铁塔
Arch of Triumph, France 法国凯旋门
Elysee Palace, France 法国爱丽舍宫
Louvre, France 法国卢浮宫
Kolner Dom, Koln, Germany 德国科隆大教堂
Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy 意大利比萨斜塔
Colosseum in Rome, Italy 意大利古罗马圆形剧场
Parthenon, Greece 希腊巴台农神庙
Red Square in Moscow, Russia 俄罗斯莫斯科红场
Big Ben in London, England 英国伦敦大本钟
Buckingham Palace, England 英国白金汉宫
Hyde Park, England 英国海德公园
London Tower Bridge, England 英国伦敦塔桥
Westminster Abbey, England 英国威斯敏斯特大教堂
The Mediterranean 地中海
Niagara Falls, USA 美国尼亚加拉大瀑布
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 美国夏威夷檀香山
Panama Canal 巴拿马运河
Yellowstone National Park, USA 美国黄石国家公园
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, USA 美国纽约大都会艺术博物馆
Statue of Liberty, New York City, USA 美国纽约自由女神像
Times Square, New York City, USA 美国纽约时代广场
The White House, Washington DC., USA 美国华盛顿白宫
World Trade Center, New York City, USA 美国纽约世界贸易中心
Central Park, New York City, USA 美国纽约中央公园
Hollywood, California, USA 美国加利佛尼亚好莱坞
Disneyland, California, USA 加利佛尼亚迪斯尼乐园
Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 美国内华达拉斯威加斯
From: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn

Task 3: Speaking up. ( pair work, approx. 10 mins)
In our daily life, when we meet with some poor services, what shall we do? Now here are some
situations. Ask the students to turn to page 34 and ask them to act out the situations. Student A is a
customer, student B is a manager. Ask Student A to give his or her complaints about the poor
service and Student B should explain, apologize or argue as a reply.
Useful expressions used to complain and explain
I’m sorry to say…
I hate to say this, but…
I’m so sorry.
Why didn’t you tell me the truth?
Could you do something about…?
You really have to do something about..!
I will look into it immediately.
What seems to be the problem!
What don’t you do something about it?
I’ll do everything I can to help you
I apologize to you for…
What’s the matter /troule?
I admit it’s our fault.
I’ll give back you money.
Closing up by interviewing a customer. ( pair work, approx. 5 mins)
Now it’s time for our face-to-face interview. Suppose you had dinner in a restaurant and were
offered the poor service. Your partner is a reporter of your city TV station. Now you are being
interviewed by the reporter about the poor service. Try your best to give your complaints and
desires.
Homework
Ask the students to write a short letter to editors to describe one of the bad services he or she has
ever been offered. (About 120 words)

                                          Period 2 read
(DESTINATIONS)
Goals
◆Provide students with opportunities to know about the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Kitzbubel.
◆Learn how to compare two cities and express one’s preferrences.
◆Improve students’ ability of reading comprehesion.
◆Master some key phrases and sentence patterns.
Procedures
Leading in (1): by brainstorm. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Good morning, class! Do you know something about Brazil and Austria? Now please anser my
questions.
Where are Brazil and Austria located?
What are the capitals of Brazil and Austria?
Do you know the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Kitzbuhel?
Can you tell me something about the Carnival?
What sport would you like to do in Kitzbuhel?
In order to know more about the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Kitzbuhel, please turn to page 35. We
shall learn DESTINATIONS today.
Leading in (2): by watching slides. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Good morning, everyone! Do you want o visit Rio de Janeiro of Brazil and Kitzbuhel of Austria?
Let’s enjoy some slides.
Picture 1: the scenery of Rio de Janeiro
Picture 2: the Copacabana beach
Picture 3: the Carnival of Brazil
Picture 4: the scenery of Kitzbuhel
Picture 5 : the scene of skiing
Picture 6: the ski schools of Kitzbuhel
In order to know more about the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Kitzbuhel, please turn to page 35. We
shall learn DESTINATIONS today.

Task 1: Fast reading for general ideas. ( individual work, approx. 10 mins)
Please read the text quickly and answer the following questions:
1. What are the people of Rio de Janeiro famous for?
2. What does the word cariocas mean?
3. What’s the best known beach in Rio de Janeiro?
4. Where is Kitzbuhel?
5. Why do visitors like to go to Kitzbuhel?
Task 2: Reading and copying. ( individual and pair work, approx. 10 mins)
OK. Now it’s time for you to read the text again and copy down all the useful expressions.
Useful expressions from DESTINATIONS
Get the itch for…, feel the urge to do sth., pack the bag, stretch itself along…, give…a glimpe
of…, stand next to…, remind…that…, be known as…, celebrate one’s birthday, get tired of…,
cool off, leave…feeling dispointed, all over the world, try a visit to„, be located in…, try a
skiiling, be hohe to …, work out at the gym
Task 3: Discussing and finishing. ( group work, approx. 15 mins)
1. Now in groups discuss the following question:
As a visitor, which city do you prefer to go, Rio de Janeiro or Kitzbuhel? Why?
2. Fill in the blanks according to the text and your discussion.
I prefer to go to Rio de Janeiro because
①__________________.
②__________________.
③__________________.
④__________________.
I prefer to go to Kitzbuhel because
①__________________.
②__________________.
③__________________.
④__________________.
Closing up by discussing. ( group work, approx. 5 mins)
Now let’s compare the two cities in groups.
1. What are the differences between Rio de Janeiro and Kitzbuhel?
2. What are the similarities between them?
Homework
Make sentences with the useful expressions you have found in the text.

                                     Period 3 grammar
                               (Grammar Review Nonfinite Verbs)
Goals
◆Improve the students’ ability of proofreading.
◆Help the students review Non-finite Verbs.
Procedures
Leading in (1): by listening. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Hello, everybody! We learned DESTINATIONS yesterday. Now let’s listen to it. While listening
to the tape, pay attention to the Non-finite Verbs in the reading.
Leading in (2): by presenation. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Morning, class! Yesterday we learned the text DESTINATIONS. I’d like one of you to tell us why
visitors like to visit Rio de Janeiro and Kitzbuhel in your own words.
Task 1: Filling in the blanks. ( individual work, approx. 5 mins)
Ask the students to fill in the blanks with the words from the text on page 37.
Task 2: Correcting. ( individual work, approx. 5 mins)
Ask the students to read the short paragraph on page 37 first. Then decide whether there is a
mistake in each line. If there is, please find it and correct it.
Task 3: Studying Non-finite Verbs. ( class/ individual/ pair work, approx. 25 mins)
1. Now it’s time for us to review Non-finite Verbs. Please turn back to page 35, look at the text,
and find out where Non-finite verbs are used. It is excellent to find out their functions if possible.
2. Help the students to review the functions of Non-finite Verbs. (Details seen in Part V Grammer)
3. Ask the students to choose the best answer.
① ___ froom the top, the 2008 Olympic stadium in Beijing looks just like a bird’s nest made of
tree branches.
A.To see B.Seeing C.Seen D.See
② The performance usually takes place outside the house, with the audience___ on benches,
chairs or boxes.
A. having seated B.seating
C. seated D.having been seated
③ I don’t mind___ the decision as long as it is not too late.
A.you to delay making          B.your delaying making
C.you delaying to make D.you delay to make
④ After the guests left,she spent as much time as she could___the rooms.
A. tidy up          B.to clear away
C.clear away D.tidying up
⑤ Our daughter doesn’ know___ at the university; she can’ make up her mind about her future.
                            t                                     t
A.what to take up B.what taking up
C.taking up what D.what takes up
⑥___ in an atmosphere of simple living was what her parents wished for.
A.The girl was educated            B.The girl educated
C.The girl’s being educated D.The girl to be educated
⑦ Jennifer Braunschweiger never dreams of___ for her to be sent abroad for furthar education
soon.
A.there being a chance         B.there to be a chance
C.there be a chance           D.being a chance
⑧ The doctor advised her___ the oily food .
A.not eating B.not to eat C.not eat D.to not eat
⑨ As early as 1647 Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be set up in every
town ___ 50 household or more.
A. having           B.to have
C.to have had D.haivng had
⑩ People enjoy___ with him because Jack Schlatter has a good sense of humor.
A. to work B.to have worked
C.working D.having worked
KEY:①-⑤ CCBDA; ⑥-⑩ CABAC
4. Ask the students to finish the exercises on page 38.
Homework

                           Period 4 read and write!
(GETTING THERE-TRAVEL TIPS AND PRACTICAL ADVICE)

Goals
◆Provide the students with apportunities to learn about travel tips and practical advice.
◆Let the students practice in writing a descriptive essay/ paragraph.
Procedures
Leading in (1): by discussing. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Good morning, class! I know most of you like travelling. Now let’s discuss the following
questions:
1. What should we do before we set off traveling?
2. What problems are likely to appear during our journey? And how should we deal with them?
Wonderful. Please turn to page 38 and see what useful travel tips and advice we need. Our task is
to learn GETTING THERE-TRAVEL TIPS AND PRACTICAL ADVICE today.
Leading in (2): by watching slides. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Hello, everyone! What should we do before we travel? Please see the screen.
Picture 1: two person are talking about where to go
Picture 2: a man is on the Internet to find some information about his destinations.
Picture 3: some passports and credit cards
In order to know more, please turn to page 38 and see what useful travel tips and advice we need.
Our task is to learn GETTING THERE-TRAVEL TIPS AND PRACTICAL ADVICE today.

Safety Considerations 旅行安全常识
Be There with Bells On - Place Christmas type bells on your carry on, and when someone tries to
move it, you will hear. Always, when standing around or sitting drinking coffee, keep your foot
through the strap. If someone drops something, or something happens, look at your backpack. This
may be a diversion to steal your backpack.
Clothing With Secret Pockets - Tilley Endurables specializes in clothing for travelers. There are
secret pockets in many pieces of the clothing. Secret pockets have foiled many pickpockets. The
clothing is also designed to be washed in your hotel room sink or in a creek, hung to dry and worn
the next day (without wrinkles)!
Don't Advertise Your Home Address - Luggage tags should not have your home address on them.
Instead fill in with your business address.
Don't Look Like a Tourist - Do not stop on the street to consult a map or ask for directions. This
immediately identifies you as a tourist. Step into a busy business to look at maps or check
directions.
Don't Put All Your Money In One Place - When you shop, split your spending money up and put it
in several different packets. Always put some in a pocket that is inside a jacket or next to your skin.
This way, if you are pick-pocketed, you will always have money.
Task 1: Listening and reading aloud. ( class work, approx. 5 mins)
Now listen to the tape and read aloud the passage on page 38, paying attention to the
pronunciation and intonation.
Task 2: Copying down useful expressions. ( individual work, approx.10 mins)
As is known, language is made up of words and expressions. So, why not read the article and
write down all those useful to you?
Useful expressions
go on a trip to…, avoid problems, find out about…, save money, read about…, get ideas for…,
make copies of…, change…with…, make a list of…, make one’s own arrangements, keep…in a
safe place, make photocopies of…, buy foreign currency, exchange money, leave time for rest,
make a list of…, travel light, use… for…
Task 3: Discussing. ( group work, approx. 15 mins)
As you know, there are four topics in this passage. Now you are divided in groups to discuss each
topic carefully. Then decide which top you think is the most useful and give the reasons.
Closing up by reporting. ( individual work, approx. 5 mins)
Now that’s all for the discussion. I’d like one of you to tell us which topic you think is the most
useful to you and why.
Homework
Ask the students to write a short paragraph about his or her favourite destination, including travel
tips. (about 200 words)



                                      第三部分 篇章分析
                                      (DESTINATIONS)
一、课文图解
Read the text DESTINATIONS, and complete the following chart.
Items     Rio de Janeiro Kitzbuhel
Country Brazil      Austria
Location Along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in southern Austria
People Big hearts and friendliness Friendliness
Attractions    Downtown Rio, Copacabana, Carnival a world-class ski resort, old village culture
Best time to visit June or July Winter
二、课文复述
Retell the text using about 120 words.
Notes:
1. Try to use your own words.
2. Make use of the chart above while retelling.
3. The possible version below can be used as material for both retelling and dictation.
One possible version:
If you want to travel abroad, I’d like to recomend two famous cities. One is Rio de Janeiro of
Brazil, the other is Kitzbuhel of Austria.
Rio de Janerio, Brazil’s second largest city, stretches itself lazily along the coast of the Atlantic
Ocean. So there are many famous beaches there, the best known one is Copacabana. Besides this,
you can see a lot of modern malls and theme parks. The best time to visit Rio de Janeiro is in Jane
or July. If you go around March, you are likely to meet one of the world’s most famous
festival—Carnival.
The best time to Visit Kitzbuhel is winter because is a paradise of skiers Kitzbuhel is also home to
one of the most challenging and exciting downhill slopes in the world. No matter Whether you
have learnt skiing or not, you can enjoy yourself very much there. After skiing, you can go to see
some village culture, making your journey richer and more comfortable.
三、Moral Education 德育渗透
★Travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education; in the elder a part of experience.
----Goethe
旅游对年轻人来说是一种教育,对老人是一体验。
----歌德
★True enjoyment comes from activity of the mind and exercise of the body the two ever united.
----A.Humboldt
真正的快乐来自头脑的活动和身体的运动,这两者永远是不可分割的。
----洪堡
★Without tradition, art is a flock of sheep without a shepherd.
----Churchill
没有传统的艺术犹如没有牧人的羊群。
----邱吉尔
★The conditions of conquest are always easy. We have but to toil a while, endure awhile, believe
always, and never turn back.
----Seneca
征服环境四大要领:片刻努力,须臾忍耐,信心坚定,永不回头。
----塞尼加
四、写作技巧
1. 开头巧妙, 自然引出下文
文章首句用了 Every now and then, we get the itch for travlling. 一下子就钩住了读者的注意
力,  接着就来„you may want to consider one of the destinations below, 为下文引出介绍 Rio de
Janeiro and Kitzbuhel 两城市作好铺垫,自然过渡。
2. 叙述详略得当,重点突出
文章对 Rio de Janeiro 和 Kitz buhel 的介绍重点突出,对 Rio de Janeiro 重点介绍了其概况、
海滩等,而对 Kitzbuhel 则重点突出其 ski resort 的特色。

第四部分 文化背景
Around the world in 50 exciting places
哪里是你最心仪的旅游圣地?美国                       《国家地理》        杂志为你精选出 50 个不可错过的人间仙境!
If you had all the time and money in the world, where would you travel to? Editors of National
Georgraphic Traveller magazine have put together a landmark collection of the world’s 50 greatest
places in five separate groups:
1. Urban spaces: the most exciting big cities.
2. Wild places: the greatest adventures.
3. Paradise found: the most beautiful and relaxing spots.
4. Country unbound: the far away and peaceful places.
5. World wonders: the top cultural sites.

Travel tips
Travelling can be a fun way to gain life experiences, especially during Spring Break—a week long
school vacation in the United States.
But what if you’re a student and don’t have enough money for a trip? Don’t worry.
Here are some useful tips.
★Save: This probably is the most important preparation for traveling. Cut expenses to fatten your
wallet so you’ll have more choices about where to go and how to get there.
★Plan ahead: Don’t wait until the last minute to plan your trip. Tickets may cost more when
bought on short notice. Giving yourself several months to get ready can mean security and
savings.
★Do your homework: No matter where you go, research the places you will visit. Decide what to
see.
Travel books will provide information on the cheapest hotels and restaurants.
★Plan sensibly : Write down what you expect to spend for food and hotels. Stick to your plan or
you may not have enough money to cover everything.
★Travel in groups: Find someone who is interested in visiting the same places. By traveling with
others you can share costs and experiences.
★Work as you go: Need more money to support your trip? Look for work in the places you visit.
★Go off the beaten path: Tourist cities may be expensive. You may want to rethink your trip and
go to a lesser-known area. Smaller towns can have many interesting activities and sights.
★Pack necessary things: The most important things to take are not always clothes. Remember
medicine in case you get sick and snacks in case you cannot find a cheap restaurant.
★Use the Internet: The Net can help to save money.
第五部分 难点解析
知识要点
重 点
单 词 complaint airline uncomfortable phenomenon stretch downtown commercial
disappointed   surrounding guarantee breathtaking          inexpensive feast budget   rate
arrangement passport sight currency seasoned accommodation
重点短 语 every now and then, get tired of, look into, be known for/as, plenty of, go dancing,
too much, make a list of, bring up, play tricks on, change„with

重 点

句 型 1. I’ll do everything I can to help you.
2. The many tall office building remind visitors that Rio is an important commercial city.
3. But there’s no need to worry if you have never skied before.
4. Never change money on the street or with strangers.
语法项 目 复习和掌握非谓语动词的各种用法
词语用法
1. stretch vt.& vi. 展开;伸展;延伸
The ocean stretches as far as they can see on all sides. 海洋十分辽阔,他们极目远眺无边无际。
The long summer holiday stretched ahead of the students. 漫长的暑假就在学生们的眼前。
The girl stretched out her arm to take the book. 那女孩伸长手臂去拿书。
[相关链接]
①stretch n. 拉长;延伸;扩展。
The dog woke up, had a good stretch and wandered off. 那条狗醒过来,              舒舒服服地伸展了一下
身子便走开了。
②stertch 构成的常用习语:
stretch one’s legs 去散步; stretch a point 做出让步;stretch out 延续,伸出; at a stretch.
连续地;not by any /by no stretch of the imagination 无论怎样想像
2. commercial adj. 商业性的;商务的;商业的
If you want to do business, you should know about some basic commercial laws, activities and
arts. 如果你想做生意,你就应该了解一些基本的商业法规、活动和技巧。
Her novels are well written and commercial as well. 她的小说写得好,销路也广。
Oil is present in commercial quantities. 石油的储量有开采价值。
[相关链接]
① commercial n. (电视或无线电中)广告
②commercially adv. 商业化地;commercialism n. 商业主义,营业主义;commercializ(s)e vt.
(常作贬义)使商业化,通过(某物)赚钱
3. guarantee vt. 确保;保证;保证„免受损失或伤害
We can not guarantee the punctual arrival of planes in foggy weather. 我们不能保证收音机在雾
天正点到达。
This food is guaranteed additive-free. 该食品保证不含添加剂。
He guaranteed the payment of his son’s debts. 他担保偿还他儿子的债务。
[相关链接]
①be guaranteed to do sth. (口语中常用的反语) 必定做某事。
It’s guaranteed to rain when you want to go out. 你想出门,天准下雨。
②guarantor n. 保证人,担保人;guaranty n. 保证(书)
4. budget n. 预算;预算案
The government is expected to announce the peasants’ tax cut in this year’s budget. 人们期望
政府本年度预算中削减农民的税收。
[相关链接]
① budget vt. 预算;安排专款
The city government has budgeted one million yuqn for education spending. 市政府将 100 万元
列入教育预算。
If we budget carefully, we’ll be able to afford a new car. 我们精打细算就能买辆新车。
② budget adj. 便宜的;廉价的
③ on a budget 缺少钱;拮据
A family on a budget can’t afford meat every day. 经济拮据的家庭不能每天享用肉食。
5. rate n. 价格;费用;速度;效率
at a rate of 80 mile an hour 每小时 80 英里的速度
the birth/death/marriage rate 出生/死亡/结婚率
a high pass/failure rate 高的及格/不及格率
the exchange rate=the rate of exchange 兑换率
a first-rate level 一流水平
postal/advertising/insurance rate 邮资/广告费/保险费
[相关链接]
① rate 构成的常用习语:
at any rate 无论如何;at a rate of knots 极快地;at this/that rate 照这样/那样下去
②rate vt. 评定某人/物的价值;分等级或对待
She is highly rated as a novelist. 作为一位小说家,她受到极高的评价。
6. sight n. 景象;情景;视力;视觉
The flowers are a lovely sight in spring. 春天百花盛开十分美丽。
This drug is likely to affect your sight. 这种药可能影响你的视力。
Get out of my sight! 滚开!
This kitchen is a sight.Clean it up a once! 这厨房太乱了。马上整理一下吧!
[相关链接]
sight 构成的常用习语:
at first sight 乍看之下;      at/on sight 立即; keep sight of=keep„in sight 监视,       了解; of sight,
                                                                                   out
out of mind 眼不见,心不念;a sign of the times (常用贬义)某时期的标志
7. look into 调查;研究;了解;朝 „„里看
Our manager will look into your complainments. 我们经理将调查你的投诉。
He travelled from place to place, looking into the social problems of all kind. 他到处奔跑,了解
各种社会问题。
[相关链接]
look 构成的常用习语:
look about 朝„四周看,仔细察看;look after 照顾,照看;look ahead 向前看,展望未来,
注意:look around 环视,四下张望;look as if 看起来似乎;look at 看,采纳;look back 回
头看,回顾;look down 向下看,用目光制服(某人)                              ;look down on/upon 看不起;look for
寻找,期待;look forward to 盼望;look like 看起来像;look on 旁观;look on/up on..as 把„
看作,认为;look out 朝外看,当心;look over 检查,忽略;look through 浏览,详细调查;
look up 查找,鼓起勇气;look up to 尊敬;look worried 看起来着急
8. every now and then 不时地
I go to the theatre every now and then. 我有时去看看戏。
[相关链接]
①短语 every now and then 中 every 可省去。
②now then 通常用于口语句首,用来引起一个新的话题,意为“喂,好了”                                         。不要与 now and
then 弄混了。
Now then what on earth are you up to? 喂,你在搞什么鬼?
9. be known for 以„著名(多指以某种长处或特征著名)
The lady is known for her fine poems. 这位女士诗写得特别好。
[相关链接]
①be known as 以„著名(尤指以某种身份著名)                           。
Liu Xiang is known as a althlet. 刘翔是个著名的运动员。
说明:在 be known for /as 中 known 可用 famous 代替。
②be known to sb.被某人知晓。
The Great Wall is known to all the Chinese. 全中国人都知道长城。
10.get tired of 对„感到厌倦;对„失去兴趣。
Students have got tired of one examination after another. 学生们早已对一个接一个的考试感到
厌倦了。
If one gets tired of life, he/she will succeed in nothing. 如果一个人对生活失去了兴趣,他/她将
一事无成。
11.plenty of 许多,大量
在中学课本中,表示“许多、大量”的短语较多,有些后接可数名词,有些后接不可数名词,
有些则二者均可,因此,使用上很容易弄混。现将这类短语归纳如下:
序号         “许多”表达法 接可数名词 接不可数名词
1 a lot of/lots of √             √
2 a great/good deal of           √
3 plenty of √ √
4 a group of          √
5 most of √ √
6 A great/ good/ large number of           √
7 a great many √
8 a large amount of              √
9 scores of √
10 millions of        √
11 a large quantity of √ √
Lots of people like to travelling abroad. 许多人喜欢到国外旅行。
You can find a great of information about how to learn English on the Internet. 要互联网上你能
找到大量关于如何学英语的信息。
Is there plenty of rain in spring in your country? 贵国春天多雨吗?
I saw a group of people standing outside the bank. 我看见许多人站在银行外面。
Scores of policemen were sent the spot to keep order. 许多警察被派去维持秩序。
A large quantity of his books have been translated into French. 他的许多书都已被译成法语了。
12. go dancing 去跳舞
Let’s go dancing tonight, shall we? 我们今晚去跳舞,好吗?
[相关链接]
go+v-ing 通常用来表示从事某一活动,特别是户外活动。
go shopping 去购物; boating 去划船; camping 去野营; fishing 去钓鱼; swimming
                         go                   go                  go             go
去游泳;go farming 去种地 ;go nursing 从事护理工作 ;go teaching 去教书;go sightseeing
去观光 ;go climbing 去爬山;go walking 去散步
13. bring up 教育;扶养;培养
The girl was brought up by her step-father. 这个女孩由她继父养大。
[相关链接]
“动词+up”构成的常用短语:
bring up 扶养,教育;come up 上来,抬头;make up 组成,构成,弥补;pick up 拾起,接
收;put up 举起,张贴;stay up 挺住,熬夜;set up 建立;take up 拿起,占据;turn up 调
高(声音)       ,到达;eat up 吃光 ;wake up 醒来; end up 结束;keep up 保持
14. play tricks on 捉弄,对„玩恶作剧(耍花招)
It’s bad manners to play tricks on disabled people. 捉弄残疾人是不礼貌的。
[相关链接]
play 构成的常用习语:
play a joke on 开(某人)玩笑;play a part/role in 在„中起作用,参与;play on 表演,利用,
欺骗;play with 玩,玩弄
15.tear „into pieces 把„撕成碎片
She tore his letter into pieces before she read it. 她连看都没看就将他的信撕成碎片扔掉了。
[相关链接]
tear 构成的常用习语:
tear down 拆掉,撕下,破坏(名誉等)                     ;tear off 撕开,脱去;飞奔而去;tear up 撕碎,根除
16. make a list of 列举
Please make a list of what you need in the experiement. 请列出你实验中需要的物品。
[相关链接]
make 构成的常用习语:
make fun of sb.取笑某人 ;be made of 用„制成(看出原材料)                        ;me made from 用„制成(看
不出原材料)         ;make a promise 许诺,答应;make a mistake/mistakes 犯错误;make up one’s
mind 决心;make room for sb.给某人让出空地或空间;make a round trip(乘船、车等)往返;
make a face/faces 做鬼脸,扮苦相;make a joke 开玩笑,讲笑话;make one’s way 克服困难
前进;make a/one’s living 谋生,度日;make a noise 吵闹/弄出声响;make sentences with
用„造句;        make friends with sb.和某人交朋友;           make progress 取得进步;  make yourself at home
请别客气(客套语)20.make use of 利用;make some/no difference 有些/没有影响(或关系)                              ;
make money 赚钱;made„into„把„制成„;make a fire 生火;make tea(沏)茶;make coffee
煮咖啡;be made up of 由„构成(或组成)                     ;make sure 弄清楚,查明,核实;make a study of
研究;make a plan for 为„作计划;make a record 录制唱;make a good effort 作很大的努力;
make friends with 同某人交朋友;make any necessary changes 作必要的修改;make films 拍电
影;make„to one’s own measure 按某人的尺寸做„;                      make it 做到;成功;make a joke on sb.
同某人开玩笑
难句详解
1. I’ll do everything I can to help you. 我将尽我的最大努力来帮助你。
这个句子中 I can 是定语从句,前省略关系代词 that,情态动词 can 后省去了动词 do,不定式
to help you 在句中作目的状语。千万不能将 help 前的 to 去掉。如:
His mother did all she could to send him to college. 他母亲尽全力供他上大学。
I’ll do what I can to help you. 我将尽全力帮助你。
He spent as much time as he cold practising spoken English. 他尽可能多地花时间来练习英语
口语。
2. The many tall office buildings remind visitors that Rio is an important commercial city. 那许许
多多的高层办公大楼告诉游人们,里约热内卢是一个重要的商业城市。
remind vt. 提醒(某人)注意某事或做某事。常用 remind sb.of sth.使某人想起某事;remind
sb.that clause 提醒某人„;remind sb.to do sth. 提醒某人干某事。
This song reminds us of Paris. 一听到这首歌我就想起了巴黎。
Please remind me to answer her call. 请提醒我给她回电话。
Travellers are reminded that the train is likely to delay two hours. 旅客们被告知火车有可能晚
点两小时。
3. But there’s no need to worry if you have never skied before. 如果你以前从未滑过雪,也不
必担心。
这里 there is no need to do sth. 是一习惯句型,意为“干某事没有必要”                            。
I think there was no need for us to get involved with the quarrel. 我认为我们没有必要卷入这场
争吵。
There may be much need to talk with your parents. 可能很有必要同你父母亲谈一谈。
[相关链接]
以“there be+名词”构成的类似句型还有:
①There is no doubt about/that„ „是毫无疑问的。
There is no doubt that The Great Wall is worth seeing. 毫无疑问长城值得一看。
②There is no possibility that„ „不可能。
There is no possibility that the manager changed his mind. 经理不可能改变主意。
③There is chance that„有可能„
There is chance that it will rain tomorrow. 明天有可能下雨。
④There is no point in doing sth. 做某事没有作用或没有意义。
There is no point in looking further into this case, I think. 我认为继续调查这个案子没有什么意
义。
4. Not knowing much English, I found it hard to understand them. 由于我英语知道得不多,                 我发
现很难明白他们。
①not knowing„是 v-ing 形式作状语,表示原因,其中 not 是否定形式。
Not knowing what to do, he has to stay home watching TV. 不知道该干什么,他呆在家里看电
视。
②句中的„find it difficult to understand„, it 是形式宾语,其形式始终不变,代替其后的不定
式(真正的宾语)            ,形容词 difficult 作宾语补足语。这一句型结构中,还可用名词作宾补,
也可用从句作真正的宾语。                   常用于这类结构的动词还有: think, find, believe, make, guess, feel,
suppose, imagine 等。
I think it a policeman’s duty to help the people in trouble.
我认为帮助陷入困境的人们是一个警察的职责。
5. Never change money on the street or with stangers. 千万不要在街上或同陌生人兑换货币。
这是一个否定的祈使句。祈使句常用的表达方式有八种:
①直接以动词开头构成祈使句:
Knock at the door before entering the office, please. 进办公室前,请先敲门。
②祈使句+and/then+陈述句(谓语多用一般将来时或情态动词)                            :
Go straight on and you’ll se a church. You won’t miss it. 一直往前走,你会看到一个教堂。
你不会错过的。
③使句+or/or else/otherwise+陈述句(谓语多用一般将来时或情态动词)                     :
Hurry up, or you’ll be late. 快点,否则你会迟到的。
④祈使句+ —(破折号)+ 句子:
Try some of this juice--perhaps you’ll like it. 尝点这种苹果汁,可能你会喜欢的。
⑤以一个名词短语开头构成的祈使句:
One more week, and we will accomplish the task. 再过一周,我们就将完成任务。
⑥Don’t 或 Never+动词原形构成的否定祈使句:
Don’t/Never touch it without permission. 未经允许,别去动它。
⑦No+v-ing/名词构成的否定祈使句:
No photos. 严禁照相。 No parking. 严禁停车。
⑧带主语的祈使句:
—Alice, you feed the bird today, will you? 艾丽斯,今天去喂鸟,好吗?
---But I fed it yesterday. 可是,昨天就是我喂的。

语法精讲
非谓语动词(1)

一、非谓语动词的构成形式对比
(一) 不定式的基本形式
1. 动词不定式的否定形式:由“not+不定式”构成。
The patient was warned ___ oily food after the operation. (NMET1996)
[说明:选项下划线为正确答案,下同。]
A. to eat not B. eating not
C. not to eat D. not eating
2. 动词不定式的被动形式:由“to be +过去分词”构成。
Little Jim should love___ to the theatre this evening. (NMET1992)
A. to be taken B. to take
C. being taken D. taking
3. 动词不定式的进行时形式:由“to be +现在分词”构成。
When his father came in, he pretended to be reading. 当他父亲进来时,他假装在看书。
4. 动词不定式的完成形式:由“to have+过去分词”构成。
I would love___ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finisha report. (NMET
1997)
A. to go B. to have gone
C. going D. have gone
5. 动词不定式的完成形式的被动:由“to have+been+过去分词”构成。
Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears___ everything. (NMET2002 上海)
A. to tell         B. to be told
C. to be telling D. to have been told
(二) v-ing 形式的基本形式
1. v-ing 形式的一般式由“动词+ing”构成,其被动式“being+过去分词”                                      。
The salesman scolded the girl caught___ and let her off. (MET1992)
A. to have stolen B. to be stealing
C. to steal          D.stealing
2. v-ing 形式的完成式由“having+过去分词”构成,其被动式为“having+been+过去分词”                                             。
The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, ___ that he had enjyed his stay here.
(NMET1994)
A. having added B. to add
C. adding            D.added
3.v-ing 形式的否定式为“not+v-ing”              。但现代英语中,其完成式的否定也可用“having+not+
过去分词”构成。
___ a replay, he decided to write again.(MET1992)
A. Not receiving              B. Receiving not
C. Not having received D. Having not received
[编者说明:此题当年公布是 C 项正确,但现在 D 项也通常认为是正确的,是可以接受的。]
(三)过去分词的基本形式
过去分词由“规则动词+ed”构成,不规则的则需要专门记忆。其否定则在前面加 not。
       t
Don’ use words, expressions, or phrases___ only to people with special knowledge. (NMET2002
上海)
A. being known B. having been known
C. to be known D. known
二、非谓语动词的功用对比
(一)作主语
只有动词不定式和 v-ing 形式可作主语。一般来说,这两者作主语时可互换,但不定式作主
语多表示将来或某种特定的情况,而 v-ing 作语则通常表示一般情况。它们作主语时,谓语
多用单数。为了平衡句子,通常把不定式作主语改为为 it 作形式主语,即:It’s +名词(形
容词)+ for (of)sb.+to do sth.结构。
Is___necessary to complete the design before National Day? (MET1989)
A. this B. that C. it D. he
___ after supper is good for your health. (MET1989)
A. Walking B. To walk
C. The walk D. A walk
(二)作表语
非谓语动词均可作表语。
1.不定式作表语: 不定式常用在系动词 be, seem, appear, get, remain 等后作表语,根据需要可
用不定式的被动形式。
Our plan is to finish the work in three weeks. 我们的计划是三周内完成这项工作。
We are to help him out. 我们将去帮助他摆脱困境。
Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains___ whether they will
enjoy it. (NMET2002)
A. to see B. to be seen
C. seeing D. seen
He let me repeat his instruction___ sure that I understood what was___ after he went away.
(NMET2000 上海春)
A. to make; to be done B. making; doing
C. to make; to do             D. making; to do
2. v-ing 形式和过去分词作表语时总是放在连系动词之后,构成系表结构,表示主语所处的
状态。v-ing 形式通常表示主动或进行,过去分词则表示被动或完成。
I think the shop is closed at this time of day. 我候这时商店关门了。
The story sounds inteesting. 这个故事听起来有趣。
常用来 v-ing 形式或过去分词作表语的动词有:interest, move, discourage, amuse, astonish,
frighten, excite, inspire, please, satisfy, tire, worry, surprise, bore, disappoint, encourage, puzzle,
shock, invite 等,    通常修饰人用过去分词,                   修饰物时则用 v-ing 形式。                   如
                                                                              另外, be covered with
被„覆盖;be lost in thought 陷入深思;be caught in the rain 被雨淋;be separated from 从„分
离;be/become interested in 对„感兴趣等等则已成为习惯搭配了。
—I’m very___ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious.
---Mm, it does have a___ smell. (NMET2002 春)
A. pleasant; pleased B. pleased; pleased
C. pleasant; pleasant D. pleased; pleasant
It is believed that if a book is___, it will surely___ the reader. (NMET2003 上海)
A. interested; interest          B. interesting; be interested
C.interested; be interesting D. intersting; interest
(三)作宾语
只有动词不定式和 v-ing 形式才能作宾语,并均有其相应的被动形式和完成形式。
1. 不定式作宾语
① 能直接接不定式作宾语的动词有:offer, learn, plan, ask, promise, agree, help, prepare, hope,
decide, choose, refuse, manage, wish, want,e xpect, demand, determine, pretend 等。
We agreed___ here, but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. (NMET1995)
A. having met B. meeting
C. to meet       D . to have met
②动词+疑问+不定式。这类动词有:decide, find out, forget, know, learn, remember, see, think,
understand, wonder 等。
I’ve worked with children before, so I know what___ in my new job. (NMET2000)
A. expected             B. to expect
C. to be expecting D. expects
The mother didn’t know___ to blame for the broken galss as it happened while she was out.
(NMET2002 上海)
A. who B. when C. how D. what
It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows___. (NMET2002)
A. it what to do with B. what to do it with
C. what to do with it D. to do what with it
③不定式作介词宾语。介词 except(but)之后接不定式时,如果介词前有实义动词 do ,则
except(but)后接不带 to 的不定式;反之,如果 except(but)前没有实义动词 do, 则不定式要带
to。
She has no choice but to wait for the news. 她除了等消息之外,别无选择。
The man can do everything but speak French. 除了不会说法语外,这个人什么都能干。
④有些动词后既可接不定式,也 v-ing 形式作宾语,但含义不同:
go on doing sth.继续干同一件事; go on to do sth.接着干另外一件事; stop doing sth. 停止干某
事; stop to do sth.停下来去干某事;forget doing sth.忘记已干了某事; forget to do sth.忘记要干
某事;      remember doing sth.记得已经干了某事; remember to do sth.记住要干某事; doing sth.            try
试着干某事; try to do sth.设法干某事;mean doing sth.意味着干某事; mean to do sth.打算干某
事; can’t help doing sth.禁不住干某事 can’t help (to)do sth.不能帮助干某事; regret doing sth.
后悔干了某事; regret to do sth.因要做某事而遗憾等等。
1. v-ing 形式作宾语
① 只能接 v-ing 形式作宾语的常用动词有:
admit, appreciate, avoid, delay, deny, eendure, enjoy, escape, finish, imagine, mind, miss, practise,
risk, resist, suggest, keep 等。
I would appreciate ___ back this afternoon. (MET1992)
A.you to call       B. you call
C. your calling D. you’re calling
② 动词 want, need, require, demand, deserve 等和形容词 worth 后接 v-ing 形式的主动形式作
宾语,表示被动关系,如接不定式时,则必须用被动形式。即: need doing=need to be done。
There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars___ road conditions need___.
(NMET2003 上海)
A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improved
C. where; improving              D. when; improving
③以下短语中的 to 均为介词,其后接名词、代词、v-ing 形式作宾语,不能接动词原形作宾
语。它们是:get down to 开始认真(做某事);pay attention to 注意;belong to 属于;face to
面对;get to 到达;do harm to 给„带来危害;say hello to 向„表示问候;help oneself to 随
便吃;listen to 听;look forward to 盼望,期待;refer to 指,谈到;come to 合计;stick to 坚
持;    turn to 翻阅,   求助于; used to(doing sth)习惯于
                              be                                     ;
                                                           (做某事) write to 写信给;         prefer„to„
喜欢„而不喜欢„;add up to 总计;devote onself to 献身于,致力于; see to 照顾;处理等。
She looks forward every spring to___ the flower-lined garden. (NMET1995 上海)
A. visit         B. paying a visit
C. walk in D. walking in
(四) 作宾语补足语(主语补足语)
非谓语动词均可作宾语补足语。                       如果谓语动词带有非谓语动词作宾语补足语,                            将句子变为被
动句后,其宾语补足语就变成了主语补足语。
1. 不定式作宾语补足语
① 有些动词可接带 to 的不定式作宾语补足语。这类动词有:warn, ask , allow, permit, order,
tell, advise, expect, wish ,force, beg, invite, encourage, persuade 等。
Mrs Smith warned her daughter___after drinking. (NMET1991)
A. never to drive        B. to never drive
C. never driving          D. never drive
② 有些动词可接不带 to 的不定式用宾语补足语。这类动词有:使役动词:have, make, let
等和感官办动词 see, hear, listen to, look at ,watch, notice, observe 等。这类动词用于被动语态
后,用作主语补足语的不定式不能省略不定式符号 to。
They kenw her very well. They had seen her___ up. (MET1988)
A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow
John was made___ the truck for a week as a punishment. (NMET 1991)
A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing
2. v-ing 形式和过去分词作宾语补足语
v-ing 形式和过去分词作宾语补足语不达意,                           通常用在感官动词如 hear, see, notice, watch, feel,
look at, listen to 等或使役动词如 find, make, let, have, get, keep 等的宾语的后面或 with+复合
宾语结构中。          其中过去分词表示宾语的被动动作或已完成,                              现在分词则表示主动动作或动作
正在进行。主要取决于宾语与动词的关系,即主动用现在 v-ing 形式,被动关系用过去分词。
The manager discussed the plan that they wold like to see ___ the next year. (NMET2000)
A. carry out B. carrying out
C. carried out D. to carry out
The missing boys were last seen___near the river. (NMET1994)
A. playing B. to be playing
C. play D. to play
A cook wil be immediately fired if he is found___ in the kitchen. (NMET2003)
A. smoke        B. smoking
C. to smoke D. smoked
专项练习(高考试题选练)                  :
1. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you won’t have time to ___ before the party.(NMET2004 全国卷
I)
A. get changed B.get change
C. get changing D. get to change
2. When first ___ to the market, these products enjoyed
great success. (NMET2004 全国卷 II)
A. introducing B. introduced
C. introduce D. being introduced
3. “We can’t go out inthis weather,” said Bob,___ out of the window. (NMET2004 全国卷 II)
A. looking B. to look
C. looked D. having looked
4.Helen had to shout___ above the sound of the music. (NMET2004 全国卷 III)
A. making herself hear B. to make herself hear
C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard
5. Reading is an experience quite different form watching TV; there are picture___ in your mind
instead of before your eyes. (NMET2004 全国卷 III)
A. to form B. form C. forming D. having formed
6. Alice returned from the manager’s office___ me that the boss wanted to see me at once.
(NMET2004 全国卷 IV)
A. having told B. tells C. to tell D. telling
7. It shames me to say it, but I tiold a lie when___ at the meeting by my boss. (NMET2004 全国卷
IV)
A. questioning B. having questioned
C. questioned D.to be questioned
8. My advisor encouraged___ a summer course to improve my writing skills. (NMET2004 北京)
A. for me taking B. me taking
C. for me to take D. me to take
9. He looked around and caught a man___ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. (NMET2004 北
京春)
A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting
10. According to a recent US survey, children spend up to 25 hours a week___TV. (NMET2004 上
海)
A. to watch B. to watching C. watching D. watch
11. The flu is believed____ by virses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and
throat. (NMET2004 上海)
A. causing B. being cause
C. to be caused D. to have caused
12. The flowers___ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.
(NMET2004 上海)
A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D.to be smelt
13. Don’t leave the water___ thile you brush your teeth. (NMET2004 天津)
A. run B. running C. being run D. to run
14.Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions againt the laws get parents___.
(NMET2004 重庆)
A. worried B. to worry C. worrying D. worry
15.I don’t know whether you happen___, but I’m going to study in the USA this September.
(NMET2004 辽宁)
A. to be heard B. to be hearing
C. to hear D. to have heard
KEY: 1-5 ABADC; 6-10 DCDDC; 11-15 CBBAA

								
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