Communication Technology Communication Systems #8125 Communication: The successful transmission of information through a common system of symbols, signs, behavior, speech, writing, or signals. Communication System: A system that forms a link between a sender and a receiver making possible the exchange of information. Components of Communication • Sender – Person or Machine creating the message. • Message – Sent via. Channels and must be encoded and decoded. • Receiver – Person or Machine receiving the message. • Feedback – Determines if the message was received successfully. • Channel – Mode by which the message travels. • Noise – Anything that might disrupt the message. The Communication Systems Model Purposes of Communication Communication is a PIECE! • P ersuade • I nform • E ducate • C ontrol • E ntertain Classwork • List 3 examples of each purpose of communication. Persuade: • Television commercials and magazine ads are produced to promote a certain product for people to purchase. • Billboards and Flyers Inform: • Information is provided about people, events, and relationships through various media. • People read books, newspapers and magazines to obtain information. • Radio, television, and the Internet are other sources for information gathering. Educate: • Individuals use textbooks, computer and video resources to convey information on many subjects to students. • Education is also effective with a Socratic (discussion) format. Control: • Communication Technology plays an important role in controlling machines, tools, and robotics. • Traffic signals are a common example of using communication to control things. • A common example is how a computer controls a printer. Entertain: • People listen to the radio, watch television and play electronic games for entertainment purposes. • People are entertained as they participate in or observe events. Types of Communication • Human-to-Human – Speech, Non-verbal Comm., Etc. • Human-to-Machine – Data Entry, Keyboard, Etc. • Machine-to-Machine – Alarm Clock, Timer, Etc. • Machine-to-Human – TV set, Computer Screen, Speedometer, Etc. Categories of Communication • Data • Graphic Production • Optics • Audio and Video • Technical Design • Integrated Systems Data Communication . . . • Sending and receiving information through computers. Technical Design . . . • Drawings that describe technical devices or systems • Drafting, mechanical drawing and engineering design Optics . . . • Optic Systems use light to transmit and record messages. • Photography, fiber optics, lasers, holograms Graphic Production • Communicating through printed images. • Computer graphics, screen printing, lithography, gravure printing Audio and Video • Communicating through broadcasting images and sound. • Radio, TV, telephones, CD players, etc. Integrated Systems • Communicating through a variety of systems that may overlap • Digitization of telecommunications History of Communication • Music • Phonograph • Images • Motion Pictures • Alphabet - Phonetic • Radio • Moveable Type • Television • Photography • Transistor • Telegraph • Microchip • Telephone • Satellite Music • The earliest form of communication was through music. Crude instruments predate agriculture. Images • Images painted on cave walls are the earliest recorded history. These date back nearly 500,000 years. Alphabet - Phonetic • Enabled people to store information and communicate with each other without having to be physically present. Printing Press - Moveable Type • Enabled the mass production of written material and sharing of knowledge. Its true impact is world literacy. Photography • Developed in the 1800’s, this invention enabled people to see for the first time the horrors of war. Telegraph • Samuel Morse’s telegraphy formed the basis for the transmitting of electronic signals over wire at the speed of light. Telephone • Enabled voice messages to be transmitted electronically over long distances. Phonograph • First audio storage and retrieval invention. Motion Pictures • The Kinetiscope invented by Thomas Edison relied on the principle of “Object Permanence” to give the appearance that motion was taking place. Radio • Marconi invented the wireless telegraph, the basis of the radio. • Eliminated the need for transmission wires to communicate. • Enabled instantaneous mass communication, and brought about broadcasting. Television • Mass produced after WWII, it provided both picture and sound and greatly increased the impact of mass communication. Transistor • Enabled electronic devices to be reduced in size with increased reliability and higher energy efficiency. Microchip • This device permitted the development of smaller and more powerful computers and evolved into personal computers. Satellite Communication • Enabled an individual to speak with others around the world within seconds through networking of worldwide communication (cable TV and news events). Understanding the difference between the Elements of Design and the Principles of Design. • The principles of design serve as a guideline as to how the elements of design are used. The elements of design make up the design. How the elements fit together -are the principles of design. The principles of design provide the guidelines for using the elements effectively. The Four Elements of Design The Elements of Design include: • Line Line This element gives direction to design. It can be used to point to an important feature in a design or convey a feeling. Line thickness is the most popular use of this element. Line • Lines give direction to a design. Lines give design movement and can express feelings. Lines can have different qualities, which is dependent on the type of tool used to create the line. They can be made “thick” to show importance or “thin” to demonstrate quick movement or give the meaning of less importance. Lines can be used to organize such as the outline of images to be colored. Line • Vertical Lines – carry the eye up and down. They convey a feeling of awe or challenge. • Horizontal Lines – carry the eye across from side to side. These line help to convey a calm or peaceful feeling. • Diagonal Lines – Add interest to a design. • Curved Lines – Give a soft, relaxed look to a design. They are generally gently bent. The Elements of Design include: • Line Color Color Color does many things. It helps in identifying objects. It helps in understanding things, and it helps to communicate feelings and moods. Color adds a lot to a layout. The use of color makes a difference in the final result. Colors may be separated into various classifications such as Primary, Secondary, Intermediate, Warm, Cool, Earth Tones, and Neutrals. Color Hue, Saturation, and Brightness are elements of COLOR. Hue is the name given to a color, such as red, green and blue. Saturation refers to the amount of hue in a color. Both pink and scarlet are of a red hue; scarlet would be the most saturated since it contains the greatest amount of red. The addition of black, white, or gray to a color lowers the saturation, or purity, of a color. Lightness refers to how light or dark a color appears. A light green and a dark green lightness of a hue can be changed by adding white or black. Color Red • Excitement, danger, aggression, anger, love Orange • Lively, cheerful, friendly, energy, warmth Yellow • Cheerful, bright, sympathy, cowardice Green • Refreshing, restful, peaceful, luck, envy, hope Blue • Calm, serious, depression, dignified, serenity Purple • Dignified, dominating, mysterious, royalty White • Innocence, purity, faith, peace Black • Sophisticated, despair, death, mourning, wisdom Color Relationships • The Color Wheel shows how colors are related to one another. • Primary colors (Used for mixing inks and dyes- red, yellow and blue). Remember that no other colors may be mixed to form a primary color. • Secondary colors (Colors produced by combining primary colors-mixing red and blue make purple; mixing red and yellow make orange) • Intermediate colors (Colors produced by combining a primary color and a secondary color- blue-green, yellow-orange) Color Classifications • Primary – Primary colors of PRINT: Magenta, Yellow, Cyan. – Primary colors of LIGHT: Red, Green, Blue. • Warm – Colors related to Red, Orange, and Yellow. • Cool – Colors related to Blue, Violet, and Green. • Earth Tones – Colors related to Browns and some Pastels. • Neutrals – Colors related to Black, Gray, and White. Color Systems The ability to be accurate and consistent in describing which color to use, is very important to the reproduction of a design. Universal systems that assign codes to colors are referred to as color systems. Pantone, Musell and CIE color systems assign numbers to colors for accurate reproduction of desired colors. Hexidecimal color codes are used for specific colors while creating web pages. The Elements of Design include: Line Color • Shape Shape When lines enclose a space, a shape is formed. The three basic shapes are the Triangle, Square and Circle. Shapes are anything that has height and width. Shapes can be symbolic, such as the shape of a stop sign. Unusual shapes attract attention. Arranging type in the shape of a star may be more visually appealing than the traditional vertical column. The Elements of Design include: • Line • Color • Shape Texture Texture Texture relates to how something feels when you touch it and/or how it looks on the surface. This is usually created with dots and lines. Texture can add dimension to a design. The illusion of texture is often used for wallpaper to appear to be a type of fabric. The Six Principles of Graphic Design The six Principles of design are the “RULES” that govern how artists organize the principles of art. They serve as “guidelines” for using the Elements of Design. The Principles of Design include: • Balance Balance Balance provides a sense of stability in a work of art by equalizing visual principles. Two types of balance are symmetrical (formal) and asymmetrical (informal). Balance Consider balance as a tool that provides equal weight to the design. Balance can also be achieved through different border dimensions. The Principles of Design include: • Balance Unity Unity • Refers to the ability to make components of a design have agreement with no elements out of place or seem as they do not belong together. Unity gives the work a feeling of oneness. It gives a sense of strength that keeps the artwork from being confusing. The Principles of Design include: • Balance • Unity Proportion Proportion • Distinguishing the size relationship of various parts of the project or graphic as they relate to the finished product. • Proportion also gives the artist a way to stress areas. The Principles of Design include: • Balance • Unity • Proportion Harmony Harmony • Harmony is achieved in a composition by combining similar principles (for example, the use of analogous colors). • Harmony gives an uncomplicated look to the overall composition. • Utilized to add rhythm and allow the viewer to see items in an agreeable manner. The Principles of Design include: • Balance • Unity • Proportion • Harmony Emphasis Contrast (Emphasis) Establishing a point of emphasis to draw the viewer’s eye in on specific elements, normally to the most important part of the composition. Emphasis • Emphasis is achieved mainly through some type of contrast for example, in shape, size, color, value, etc. • It may also include texture, contrast (B & W; Colors), line size, shadowing, and font size. The Principles of Design include: • Balance • Unity • Proportion • Harmony • Emphasis Rhythm Rhythm • Rhythm indicates movement by the repetition of principles (for example, shapes and colors). • Visual rhythm is perceived through the eyes and is created by repeating positive spaces separated by negative spaces. Rhythm • The reoccurrence or repetition within a design that gives it the appearance that movement is taking place. The Principles of Design include: • Balance • Unity • Proportion • Harmony • Emphasis • Rhythm Variety Variety • Used to add elements of interest to a graphic or product without making the composition too random or chaotic. The 4 Color Overlays used in Color Printing. • Magenta • Cyan • Yellow • Black The Big There are three things which a “Sender” must consider before delivering their message. The Big • Audience Audience This is probably the most important consideration. You must plan your communication in accordance with the “Receiver”. This may include anyone from Pre-School Student to Particle Physics Professor. The Big • Audience Content Content Content should include only necessary information. Do not bore your audience with information that is not pertinent to the message. The Big • Audience • Content Format Format How do you intend to channel your “Message”. Impressive graphics and expensive ads do not equate to making your point. Choose your format wisely!