Army Pt Fall Out Memorandum Headquarters

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Army Pt Fall Out Memorandum Headquarters Powered By Docstoc

                                                     Richard K. Tierney

                                          Part II-Academics and Training

     M    AJ WILLIAM W. FORD              at Fort Sill, Okla.
           headed a list of light avia-                                       In July 1942 volunteers with
     tion enthusiasts who throughout                 THE FIRST STEPS        civilian pilot ratings were
     1941 had worked                                                        quested to attend the tactical
                           diligently to    Shortly after the birth of flight
     bring about the birth of Army                                                 course. The 19 students in
                                          Army Aviation Colonel Ford Class One reported to
     Aviation. In late 1942 he was went to Washington to                                             Fort Sill
     named by Gen Robert M. Dan- the final details                 arrange on 1 August and after prelimi-
                                                          and Major Wolf nary orientation, tactical
     ford, the chief of Field Artillery, remained                                                         flight
                                                    at Fort Sill to handle training commenced
     to organize and train a                                                                      on 3 August
                                  group arrangements and to secure a       and lasted until 18 September.
     of aviators who would test
                                     the competent corps of instructors.   The course, which was later
     concept of making light airplanes   The first instructors were civil- lengthened, used
     organic to the Field Artillery.                                                          the L-4B Piper,
                                         ians employed at a salary of $300 the L-2B
     The tests, discussed in Part I                                                     Taylorcraft, and the
                                         per month. Eventually most of L-3C Aeronca. The first class of
    of this story, were successful       these civilian instructors were mechanics had
    and on 6 June 1942 the War                                                              begun on 27 July
                                    De- commissioned and given flight 1942 and lasted 5
    partment approved organic av- pay. The                                                     weeks.
                                                     Department of Air       When the Department of Air
    iation for the Field Artillery.
                                         Training was ready for busi- Training began
    Lieutenant Colonel Ford was in- ness by the end of                                      operations, it had
                                                                 July and 23 aircraft on hand and on order
    structed to establish and direct consisted
                                                    mostly of the mem- 100 Piper J-3s (L-4s) and 50
    the Department of Air Training bers of
                                                 the test group.           Taylorcraft (L-2s).


    Post Field was turned over to
 the Army Ground Forces by the
 Air Corps and several small
 auxiliary fields were built either
 on the reservation or on nearby
 leased land. A number of tacti-
 cal training strips were built on
 the reservation and on the wild-
 life refuge.
    For the first five classes the
 Department of Air Training ac-                                The first pilot class. This class was graduated in September
 cepted for its liaison pilot classes                     1942. Reading from left to right they are: front
 both officers and enlisted men                                                                            row, Lt S. A. Wil-
                                                          liamson, Capt J. E. Swenson, Lt H. R. Phillips, and Sgt J. S. Ren-
 from the ground forces and serv-
                                                          gers; middle row, Sgt R. S. Wilkinson, Sgt W. C. Schoonover,
 ices of, supply. However, each
                                                          Lt J. W. Byrd, Lt W. D. Stephens, and Sgt C. B. Allen, Jr; top
 student was required to have at
                                                          row, Lt B. A. Devol, Jr., Lt G. M. Albert, Lt R. P. Stallings, II,
 least 60 hours of flight and to
hold (or have recently held) a
                                                          Capt J. M. Watson, Jr., and Lt T. L. Hendrix. Absent when this
                                                          picture was taken were Capt E. S. Gordon and Lt J. U. Over-
pilots license. The student's max-
                                                                                      aU (inset).
 imum weight limit was 170
pounds and he must have been
able to pass the physical exam-
ination for Class II pilots of the
Air Corps.
    During the early years of the
war a number of civilians were
recruited for the air training de-
partment by air shows which
were put on at surrounding com-
munities. This aroused a great
deal of interest and, along with
the recruiting slogan, "that
you're better off flying than dig-
ging a hole," resulted in a num-
ber of applications.
    Students received about 15
hours of dual and solo time,
mostly air work to refresh their                            Col W. W. Ford, first director, and Lt Col G. J. Wolf, first
flying technique. Then they were                                  executive, of the Department of Air Training.
given about 28 hours of flying
in and out of small fields, taking
off and landing on roads and
over obstructions. Toward the                              Capts T. F. Shirmacher and T. S. Baker, the first squadron
end of the course they were
                                                                commanders of the Department of Air Training.
given 6 haH-days of instruction
as observers. Students also re-
ceived 12 haH-days of ground
instruction on navigation and
meteorology; 27 half-days on
maintenance and repair of air-
planes and engines; and 3 haH-
days on tactical employment of
organic air observation. All
pilots were issued a kit of hand
tools and did the maintenance on


 I:                   I

                                       JULY 1962
 ,       ,

 !,               ,

                                  .                                                                        .



                              ;                                                                     BIRTH CERTIFICATE                                                                        :
         ~            r       ;                                                                     OF ARMY AVIATION
                              .        WDGCT 320.2 (2-5-42)                                                                                                                June 6, 1942 .
                                       MEMORANDUM FOR THE COMMANDING GENERAL, ARMY GROUND FORCES:                                                                                                .
                              ;        Subject: Organic Air Observation for Field Artillery.
                              .           J. Reference is made to letter War Department, February 25, 1942, AG 320.2 (2-5-42) MT
                              .                                                                                                          -C, subject: Service Test of Organic Air Obser- .
                                       vation for Field Artillery, and 1st Indorsement thereto.                                                                                              .
                              .          2. Your recommendation that organic air observation units be included in Field Artillery organizations is approved.                                .
                                         3. It is desired that you take immediate steps to effect the necessary changes in organization, equipment and training entailed by this action. .
                              ;        The following will govern:
                              .             a. Organization:
                              .                                                                                                                                                             .
                                               (t) Liaison airplanes will be authorized for Field Artillery units at the rate of 2 per light and medium Artillery Battalion, 2
                                       Division Artillery Headquarters and Headquarters Battery or Field Artillery Brigade Headquarters and Headquarters Battery.                      per. .
                              t                (2) Personnel will be authorized at the rate of I pilot and 'h airplane mechanic for each liaison plane authorized.                           .
                                               (3) The required changes in T/Os and T/BAs will be submitted as soon as practicable.
                              +             b. Procurement and Maintenance:
                          +                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                               (t) The Commanding General, Army Air Forces will be responsible for the procurement and issue of airplanes, spare parts, repair.
                                       materials and the necessary auxiliary flying equipment required by this program. The airplanes will be commercial low performance
                              .                                                                                                                                                 aircraft of .
                                       the "Piper Cub" type.                                                                                                                                .
                                               (2) All maintenance other than that requiring the facilities of base shops will be accomplished by the Army Ground Forces.
                              t                (3) Maintenance requiring the facilities of base shops (customarily referred to as 3d echelon maintenance in the

                              .        will be a responsibility of the Commanding General, Army Air Forces.
                                                                                                                                                                       Army Air Forces)      ;
                              .                (4) It is desired that you confer with the Commanding General, Army Air Forces regarding the number of                                       .
                          .                                                                                                                                       aircraft required under.
                                       the 1942 Troop Basis, the anticipated delivery rate, the estimated requirements of spare
                                                                                                                                   parts, repair materials and auxiliary equipment, as .
     I:,                  ;            well as the procedures and policies regarding their issue and delivery.
                                            c. Personnel:
                          t                     (I) Qualifications:                                                                                                                          t
     "                    .                         Recommendations for the detailed qualifications and specifications for both commissioned and enlisted personnel
                              .                                                                                                                                      will be     submitted   .
     1:1                               for approval. These will fall into two general categories: a pilot capable of piloting the liaison-type airplane as well as assisting    in
                          .            maintenance; and a mechanic qualified to service the airplane and perform repairs incident to 1st and 2d echelon                              normal.
     H                        .
                                                (2) Sources of personnel:                                                                                  maintenance.                   .
     1        :
                          t                         (a) PHots: Volunteers, now under your control, who are qualified to pilot liaison-type airplanes will be utilized to the              t
     I'                   +            as pilots. Additional pHots needed to fill requirements of the 1942 Troop Basis wHl be made available by the                              maximum
                                                                                                                                                       Commanding General,
     i'                   .
                              .        Forces.
                                                                                                                                                                                Army   Air.
                                                   (b) Mechanics: Mechanics will    be procured from sources under your control.                                                             .
                                               (3) Extra compensation and ratings:                                                                                                           .
     "'I                  t                         (a) PHots will be authorized additional compensation for participation in frequent and regular aerial flights. A
     II                   .            similar to that of a liaison pilot will be established for pilots.
                                                                                                                                                                         rating generally    t
 f                        .
                                                    (b) Appropriate ratings for mechanics may be Technician, Grade 3, or lower.
                                           d. Training:
                          .                                                                                                                                                                  .
                                               (t) The basic flight training of pilots (exclusive of those under your control already qualified) will be a responsibility of the Com-        .
                          t           manding General, Army Air Forces. This training will be limited to that necessary to enable safe
                                                                                                                                            operation of low performance aircraft and        t
                          +           qualify a student according to standards established for liaison pilots.
     !        I
                          +                    (2) You are authorized to organize at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, or other stations selected by you, a course of instruction                         .
     i        I
                          .           tional training of pHots, mechanics and observers in the tactical employ ment of organic air observation in Field                   for the opera-     .
              I           .                                                                                                                             Artillery units.                     .
     il:                                 4. Changes in training literature will be prepared at the earliest prac ticable date.
     I'                   t              5. A copy of the directive to the Commanding General, Army Air Forces is attached hereto. The Commanding
                                                                                                                                                             General, Army Air Forces
                                      has been furnished a copy of this letter.
     II                   .
                          +                  By order of the Secretary of War:                                                                                                               .
     :1,1                 +
                          .                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                    I. H. EDWARDS,
                          +                                                                                                                                       Brigadier General,
             i!1          .                                                                                                                                   Assistant Chief of Staff.      .
     iì                   .                                                                                                                                                                  .
                                                     Birth Certificate of Army Aviation
     II!                              the aircraft they flew.                           formed all maintenance short of
     i:                                                                                                                                    Army Air Forces was directed
     1'1'                                Student mechanics were se-                     a complete
                                                                                                    overhaul.                              to supply 100 basically trained
     II                               lected from members of the                           The air training department                     pilots a month. The first of these
                                      ground forces who had consider-                   had no trouble filling mechanics                   reported to Fort Sill on 19 Sep-
                                      able    mechanical     experience.                classes. By 3 August 1942 over                     tember 1942, and those who
                                      They received extensive train-                    3,000 applications had been
                                                                                                                      re-                  qualified for the tactical course
                                      ing in maintenance and repair                     ceived. However, applications                      were enrolled in Class No.6.
                                      of aircraft and engines and upon                  from qualified pilots fell below                   These men had learned to fly
                                      graduation were capable of per-                   expectations. By 3 August there                    under the civilian pilot training
                                      forming in the field all first and                was only sufficient personnel to                   program and then were placed
                                      second    echelon    maintenance.                 provide a class of 20-30 students                  in the Air Corps Reserve. When
                                      The Army Air Forces was re-                       each two weeks instead of 30                       called to active duty they were
                                      sponsible for third and fourth                    weekly as had been contem-                         rated as Liaison Pilots.
                                      echelon maintenance, but in most                  plated the previous June.                            This plan failed to supply the
                                      cases   Army mechanics per-                         To remedy the situation the                      needed pilots. Between 1 Sep-

     ,.."!..                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                          _.J.          --~~

                                                                                                                                                                    THE ARMY AVIATION STORY

                  Upper right, pilots undergoing a course of
               instruction in mechanics. At lower right Cpl Bea-
               han (first name unknown), the first WAC instruc-
               tor in the Department of Air Training's mainte-
               nance division, explains carburetors to a class
                                  of students.

               tember and 26 November 1942,                                                                                Field Artillery officers were to      signed officers attending courses
               the Army Air Forces furnished                                                                               report to Denton each week            at the Artillery School were sent
               338 such pilots,                                                                                            thereafter. They received 9
                                  many diverted                                                                                                                  for flight training.
               from the glider program. Of                                                                                 weeks of training as liaison pilots      While Air Corps reservists
               these, 102 did not qualify for the                                                                          from the Harte Flying Service         were flowing through this sys-
               tactical course-most of them                                                                                before reporting to Fort Sill for     tem it was necessary to increase
               being overweight. Of the 236                                                                                the advanced course. The course       the advanced course at Fort Sill
               accepted, 16 percent washed out,                                                                            at Sill ran 5 weeks, but often was    from 7 weeks to 10. The reserv-
               and the net yield from the pro-                                                                             extended because of delays,           ists were given 5 weeks of basic
               gram was only 198.                                                                                          caused mostly by bad flying           military training which they had
                  Since few Army officers with                                                                             weather.                              not received previously. By 1
               civilian pilot ratings were com-                                                                               The first officers sent to Den-    February 1943 reservists ceased
               ing into the Army in 1942, an                                                                               ton were selected from the staff,     to come into the program and it
               agreement was made with the                                                                                 faculty, school troops and the        was found feasible to reduce the
               Air Corps to                                    establish                 a   source                        Field     Artillery    replacement    advanced course to 5 weeks.
               for primary training of pilots.                                                                             training center at Fort Sill.            The Army Air Forces' pri-
                  On 26 November, 25 Field Ar-                                                                                Beginning with the Denton          mary flying school at Pittsburg,
               tillery officers began primary                                                                              class of 3 December 1942, se-         Kan., began accepting Artillery
               flight instruction at Denton,                                                                               lected Officer Candidate School       pilots for flight training about
               Texas. The same number of                                                                                   graduates and attached, unas-         15 February 1943. Starting      with


-":"":'~1"""ï,:",,,,:,-~~!,,,,,,,''''ry~''''-,_1Y'':l!'~<;''k'''''''-'-:'-';~,_~~'-"'--'--~'C'   .--""!',   .'-- ".-.--~
                                                                                                                                     -,-   ".~.__...-.-.....
    Ii!     The first training fatality at        Two unidentified mechanics check an L-4A used in seaplane
I:        the Department of Air Training                         training at Lake Lawtonka.
          at Fort Sill, Okla., occurred on
i~;       8 March 1943. Lt
                            R. P. Stallings,
I;        a  flight instructor, was kiUed       of their number experienced the      listed personnel to attend OCS
1:1       when he and a student crashed         wrath of the veteran artillery-      before going to flight school, and
i:11      in the L-2 pictured above. The
                                                man, the students acquired       a   on 20 April 1943 enlisted men
I,!       aircraft was on a downwind turn       little humility-and stayed off       ceased to be eligible for liaison
          when it stalled out and spun in.
I':                                             the grass.                           pilot training.
I;                                                      GROWING PAINS                  An Army Ground Forces di-
III        the class reporting to Denton on
           18 March 1943, the classes              Original plans called for 80
                                                                                     rective dated 15 September 1943
                                                                                     named only Pittsburg to be used
I'!        nated between Denton and Pitts-      percent of the Field Artillery       for primary training. However,
           burg.                                pilots to be enlisted men. The       a few students continued to be
ii                                              20 percent officer pilots            sent to the Denton school until
              The environments at Denton                                  were to
Ii!        and Pittsburg were not the best      provide supervision. The plans       about 16 November 1943.
                                                didn't work-mainly because the         In January 1944, Colonel Ford
1:11        (academically    speaking)
           turning out aviators. At Pitts-
                                                enlisted men who were able to        departed for troop duty and
III        burg the students were quar-         perform an acceptable job as         Colonel Wolf succeeded him as
I:!I       tered in a hotel and were on per     liaison aviators were usually        director of the department until
1:11       diem. At Denton they lived in        officer candidate school material.
                                                Consequently,     enlisted pilots
                                                                                     the end of the war.
HI,'       a  men's college dorm. At both                                              Seaplane training for pilots
                                                generally left troop units for       and mechanics was begun on 7
II!I       training sites there were plenty
          of young ladies to distract the       OCS shortly after reporting for      April 1944 as part of the tactical
1,:1      young flight students. In fact,       duty. The War Department de-
                                                cided it would be better for en-
                                                                                     course, and facilities were built
                                                                                     at Lake Lawtonka. Also, train-
    !IJ   there was a women's college at
I:::      Denton, and the situation there
1',                                                 THE FLEET! Lt Col G. J. Wolf (front), Lt M. J. Fortner (right
,I"       reached a point where the only
)':1                                            rear) and an unicI:entified mechanic take a spin in the CTash rescue
I'i       flight students that didn't get
                                                boat during seaplane training at Lake Lawtonka, Fort Sill, in 1944.
1-;       married were those who were
          already married.
              At any rate, the brand new
          second lieutenants were given
          silver wings upon graduation
          and then reported to Fort Sill
          overweight,     with    50-mission
          crushed hats, and without any
          respect whatsoever for Colonel
          Ford's desire that they keep off
          the grass. However, after a few



                            --.-   -~

                                                                                     THE ARMY     A VIA nON   STORY

    ing in the use of the Brodie de-     ginning with Class No. 101 which         from troop duty, was named As-
    vice was directed by the com-
                                         was enrolled on 18 June 1945.            sistant Commandant for Air
    manding general, Army Ground
                                           AGF AIR TRAINING SCHOOL                Training and again directed the
    Forces, on 31 October 1944. The
                                                                                  tactical air training program.
    Brodie device was a cable
                                            The highly successful employ-         Under the new system, primary
    launching and landing apparatus
                                         ment of Army Aviation in com-            flight training was still provided
    which enabled aircraft to get
                                         bat resulted in numerous                 by the Air Corps.
   in and out of confined or unim-                                      re-
                                         quests for light organic aviation           Six Field Artillery pilot class-
   proved areas and to operate from
                                         from branches other than the             es were in session when the
   Naval landing craft.
                                         Field Artillery. To serve vital          changeover came and another
      In fall 1944, it was decided
                                        needs, most major ground com-             was enrolled before the student
   that an adequate number of
                                        bat units were borrowing the             of the first Officers' Army
   pilots had been trained to meet
                                        Cubs from the Field Artillery            Ground Forces Airplane Pilot
   requirements until the first of
   the year. As a result, Class         whenever possible. Consequent-           Course assembled on 28 Janu-
                                No.     ly, the Cubs were effectively em-        ary 1946 at the school. However,
   88, which reported to Pitts
                               burg     ployed in such missions as               not enough students were on
   on 27 July 1944, was the last                                     cour-
                                        ier and liaison operations, photo-       hand to begin instruction and
  to be enrolled until January
                                        graphic and visual reconnais-            the group had to wait until
  1945. Meanwhile, the
                          Army Air                                               Class
  Forces terminated its contracts
                                        sance, column control, emer-                      No.3 reported on 11
                                        gency resupply, and evacuation March.
  with civilian flying schools and                                          A
                                        of wounded. (A more detailed          similar situation existed
  Class No. 88, which was at Pitts-
                                        account of Army Aviation in with the Field Artillery Air Me-
  burg 11 weeks, became the last
                                        combat is presented in another chanic Course. Three were in
  to be trained there.
                                        portion of this story.)              session and       allowed to finish,
      Class No. 89 resumed the
                                           In August 1945, the War De-       but no more were enrolled. The
  training program on 13 January
 1945 under                             partment adopted an agreement        first enlisted Army Ground
               Army Air Force in-       which extended organic avia-         Forces Air Mechanic Course
 structors at Sheppard Field,           tion to five- more users: Cav-       started on schedule-21 January
 Texas. After 14 weeks of basic                                              1946.
                                        alry, Infantry, ~gineers, Armor,
 instruction the class received an
                                        and Tank Destroyer. The agree-         By June 1946 the demobiliza-
 additional 14 weeks of instruc-
                                        ment, which had been reached         tion of the Armed Forces
 tion at Fort Sill's advanced
                                        previously by General Jacob L.       brought about a severe Army-
                                        Devers, CG, Army Ground             wide shortage of personnel. As
   In early 1945 pilot   losses in      Forces, and General Ira C.           a result the Air Training School
 combat necessitated an increased       Eaker, CG, Army Air Forces,         had to eliminate seaplane train-
  input of from 30 to 40 students       also called for additional light    ing from the curriculum and
  every 2 weeks and a reduction         aircraft for the AGF.               sharply reduce the time devoted
  in basic training to 11-12 weeks.       Instruction at the Department     to the Brodie device.
  The tactical instruction              of Air Training had previously
                               was                                             Although courses of instruc-
  slashed to 5 weeks and liaison        been limited to Field
                                                                Artillery   tion were being tightened, the
 pilots were rushed overseas            personnel. Now it became neces-
                               un-                                          Air Training School was ex-
 til the situation eased. Begin-                                                                                                          I
                                       sary to expand the program, and      panding its facilities at Post                                I
 ning with Class No. 94 which re-      effective 7 December 1945 the         Field. In July construction was                                  !
 ported for basic training on 9
                                       Department of Air Training of         started on a concrete runway
 March 1945, the Army was able         the Field Artillery School was        5,000 feet long, 200 feet wide,
 to resume the full schedule of
                                       redesignated the Army Ground          and included taxiway and in-
 14 weeks both at
                    Sheppard Field     Forces Air Training School. This      creased apron space.
 and Fort Sill. This schedule was      school was established to
                                                                    pro-       The sod surface previously
continued until the Department         vide tactical training to include
of Air Training gave way to the                                              satisfactory for training purposes
                                       the added ground arms incor-         .with light airplanes had begun
Army Ground Force Air Train-           porating organic aviation. The       to deteriorate as heavier air-
ing School. The only other             school was placed under Maj                                                                        I
                                                                            craft used the field in increasing
change under the department            Gen Louis E. Hibbs, Comman-          numbers.
was the reduction of student in-       dant, Field Artillery School.
put from 40 to 30 per class be-                                                During the postwar period the
                                       Brigadier General Ford, back
                                                                            Army began reorganizing its



      JULY 1962
                                                                                  ministration at the Air Training
                                                                                  Department and led to the es-
                                                                                  tablishment of the U. S. Army
                                                                                  Aviation School at Fort Sill.
                                                                                     The school was established ef-
                                                                                  fective 1 January 1953 as a Class
                                                                                  I activity under the commanding
                                                                                  general, Fourth Army, by au-
                                                                                  thority of Department of the
                                                                                  Army General Orders No.9,
                                                                                  dated 16 January 1953. Actually
                                                                                  the school came into existence
                                                                                  on 1 July 1953 when the De-
                                                                                  partment of Air Training was de-
                                                                                  activated. However, in 1960 the
                                                                                  official birthday of the United
                                                                                  States Army Aviation School
                                                                                  was established as June. Prev-
                                                                                  iously, the birthday was recog-
           Maj Robert M. Leich (center) was the first engineering officer         nized as 1 January, but corres-
      of the Department of Air Training. His assistants were 1st Lts L. M.
                                                                                  pondence dated 15 January 1960
                      Bornstein (left) and M. J. Fortner.                         from the U. S. Army Aviation
                                                                                   Center, Fort Rucker, to the Adj-
      school systems. In November             cur  many more      significant      utant General, Department of
      1946, the Department of Air             changes until it was dissolved       the Army, requested that "the
      Training again was established          and the U.S. Army Aviation           birthday of the United States
      at Fort Sill and the Army               School was established.              Army      Aviation   School   be
      Ground Forces Air Training                                                   changed from 1 January to 6
                                                The successful growth of the
      School was discontinued. The            Department of Air Training can       June to coincide with the birth-
      department offered training sup-        be traced to the tireless efforts    date of Army Aviation."
      port for all the ground arms,           of a great many people. Most           Indorsements of the request
      rather than just Artillery as it        notable are General Ford and         at Third Army and Continental
      had prior to 7 December 1945.           Colonel Wolf who each served         Army Command recommended
         The Korean War brought               as director of the department.       approval. Secretary of the Army
      about an increase in student in-        Other key personnel include          Wilber M. Brucker approved
      put at the Department of Air            Capts Robert R. Williams and         the request on 23 February 1960
      Training. On 28 August 1950 a 4-                                             and ordered that the 6 June
                                              T. S. Baker, who at various
      week National Guard refresher           times served as chief of the         birthdate be made a matter of
      training course in Army A via-          Flight Division; Captain E. F.      record.
      tion tactics was authorized, and                                              School courses at Sill offered
                                              Houser, chief of the Tactics Di-
      in November 1950 a United               vision; and 'Captain R. M. Leich,   only to officers included: air-
      States Air Force Pilot Artillery        and Lts M. J. Fortner and Lloyd     plane and helicopter tactics
      Observation Course was started.                                             courses, instrument and instru-
                                              M. Bornstein. Lieutenant Fort-
      It was set up for four classes of       ner, a member of the original       ment examiners courses, and a
      5 days duration and could han-          test group, was an aeronautical     twin-engine transition course.
      dle 10 pilots a class between 6         engineer with experience in           Officer and enlisted personnel
      November 1950 and 23 February           light aircraft maintenance. He      were eligible for the Cargo Heli-
      1951. Numerous facilities also          was primarily responsible for       copter Pilot's Course (enlisted
      were added and early in 1951            developing maintenance cours-       graduates were made warrant
      the Air Training Department             es for both pilots and mechanics.   officers). Repair and mainte-
      was using three new stagefields.'                                           nance courses for fixed and ro-
                                                 ARMY AVIATION SCHOOL
         Outside of the helicopter                                                tary wing aircraft also were
      training program (covered else-           The use of aircraft by all arms   available to enlisted men.
      where in this story), the Air           and services rapidly increased        Primary flight training was
      Training Department did not in-         the volume of training and ad-      given by the Army Air Forces

                                                                                                          "'-'.--'-.:>'   030..'-'=-':"~'.;.õ.~~.~.;~::....-._--~-~-=-   ~-"   --'.--   -

                                                                                                                                                                                            --~::;~-       r

                                                                                          -_.-~..~,."                                                                                                .'Î


                                          Col Gordon J. Wolf                Brig Gen Carl I. Hutton                                     Col E. O. Hopkins
   Brig Gen William W.

                  Diredors of the Department of Air' raining
              And C..andants of the U.S. Ar., Aviation Sc:hool
                                                           1944-7    Dec~mber 1945. He            School did not become fully opera-
         Col (Brig Gen) Wallace W. Ford             ary
                                                    directed the Army Ground Forces Air           tional until 1 July 1953, when the De-
      was the first director of the Department
                                                    Training School from 7 December               partment of Air Training was discon-
      of Air Training at Fort Sill, Okla.,
                                                    1945-31 December 1945.                        tinued. Therefore, from 16 January
      from 6 June 1942-January 1944. After
                                                       Col (Brig Gen) Carl J. Hutton was          1953-1 July 1953 Colonel Washburn
      a  tour overseas he returned and di-
                                                    director of the Depar.tment of Air            was in charge of both organizations.
      rected the Army Ground Forces Air
                                                    Training from August 1947-November            From 1 July 1953-June 1954 he wore
      Training School at Fort Sill from Jan-
                                                    1949. He was commandant of the U.             one hat, that of commandant of the
      uary 1946-November 1946 when the
                                                    S. Army Aviation School at Fort Sill          U.  S. Army Aviation School at Fort
      AGF School was disbanded. The AGF
      School had been established on 7 De-          from July 1954-September 1954 and             Sill.
                                                    commandant of the U. S. Army Avia-               Maj Gen Bogardus S. Cairns was
      cember 1945 and placed under the com-
                                                    tion School at Camp-Fort Rucker               commandant of the U. S. Army Avia-
      mand of the commandant of the Field
                                                    from 1 September 1954-7 June 1957.            tion School at Fort Rucker from June
      Artillery School. General Ford filled
      the position of Assistant Commandant             Col Edward O. Hopkins was director         1957-December 1958.
                                                    of the Department of Air Training from            Maj Gen Ernest F. Easterbrook was
      for Air Training, which was responsible
                                                    November 1949--October 1951.                  commandant of the U. S. Army Avia-
      for operation of the fiying school. Gen-
                                                        Col I. B. Washburn was director of        tion School from February 1959-
      eral Ford became director of the re-
      established Department of Air Training        the Department of Air Trianing from           March 1962.
                                                     October 1951-16 January 1953 when                Brig Gen Robert R. Williams, present
      in November 1946 and held the position
                                                     the U. S. Army Aviation School was            commandant of the U. S. Army Avia-
      until July 1947.
                                                     established at Fort Sill. A period of         tion School, began this assignment in
         Col G. J. Wolf was director of the
                                                     transition followed and the Aviation          March 1962.
       D~partment of Air Training from Janu-

     Col I. B. Washburn                  Maj Gen Bogardus         S.             Maj Gen Ernest F.                                      Brig Gen Robert R.
                                                                                     Easterbrook                                             WilUams

                                                                                                                                                                                        ~   .

                                                                                                                                                                   ,þ'~   ',~
                                                                                                                                  J.L:' "'.',                            '*/                    ,"

                             JULY 1962

                          at Gary Air Force Base, San           covered at Gary plus ground instrument school to supplement
                          Marcos, Texas. (In May 1946           force tactics, adjustment of ar-     the program. In January 1953
                          Gary had been partially reacti-       tillery and mortar fire, map the Instrument Flying Course
                          vated' and primary rotary and         reading, aerial photography, re- was organized and placed under
                          fixed wing flight training of         connaissance, development of the supervision of the Depart-
                         Army Ground Force personnel           Army airfields and related sub- ment of Flight, Army Aviation
                         had been moved from Sheppard          jects.                                School at Fort Sill.
                         Air Force Base to Gary. In early          Instruction in adjustment of         The LC-126 was used in the
    ',i                  1949 Gary was closed and flight
                                                               artillery fire started in the class- 8-week course which included
    :'1                  training shifted to Connally Air      room with training aids. Stu- 80 hours of hooded
                         Force Base, Waco, Texas. Gary                                                                      flight, as
    ,               ,
                                                               dents sat in chairs and observed
    ]i:',                was reactivated again in early        puffs of smoke which appeared
                                                                                                     much actual instrument time as
        "                1951 as a result of the                                                     weather permitted, and about
                                                  Korean       on a huge terrain board and           120 hours of ground school.
        Iii              War and expansion of the U. S.        represented fire missions which
        ,II                                                                                             In August 1953 the Instru-
                         Air Force. Consequently, all          they conducted. Once they ment Flight
I,:::                    rotary and fixed wing primary         learned how to adjust fire on the
                                                                                                                  Examiner's Course
                         flight training of Army officers                                            was initiated to teach pilots to
                                                               board, they took to the air and conduct and
I':'                                                                                                               grade the Army's
                         was transferred back to Gary          practiced on Fort Sill's artillery
                         by March 1951. The Army fixed                                               annual instrument flight exami-
                                                               ranges. Similar procedures were nations. The students
,               '
                         wing mechanic and the Army            used to instruct other courses.
,iI                                                                                                 about 40 hours of instrument
1'1                      and Air Force rotary wing me-            During the final phase of the time during
                         chanic programs, had been at                                                             the 4-week course.
1'1                                                           course the class would establish
II                       Sheppard, but were moved to                                                   The 2-week twin-engine trans-
I'                                                            an airfield and operate from it
I"i                      Gary early in 1951.)                 as a division aviation section in
                                                                                                    ition course was set up in Janu-
                                                              a field                               ary 1953 to train Army Aviators
1',1                             FIXED WING TRAINING
                                                                  Upon graduation the new
                                                                                                    to fly command type aircraft.
I:                                                                                                  Students trained in the L-23 and
                             By 1953 primary fixed wing       Army Aviator could apply for
                                                                                                    received 36 hours of ground
I:                                                            the helicopter course, instrument
                          students were spending 17 weeks
                                                                                                    school and 25 hours in actual
                          at Gary and receiving 418 hours     training, or the twin-engine tran-
                          of ground school and 100 hours      sition course.
                         flying time. Ground school in-                                                    RAPID GROWTH
                         struction covered aerodynamics,          INSTRUMENT TRAINING
                                                                                                    The day the Korean War
                         meteorology, aerial navigation,        Instrument training in Army       started, 25 June 1950, the De-
                         aircraft maintenance, flight regu-   Aviation originally was only        partment of Air Training had
                         lations, aircraft instruments, and   provided by contract schools.       about 50 members on the staff
                         communications. Flight training      However, as the requirement for     and faculty, about 100 students,
                         included the basic maneuvers         instrument    trained  aviators     and about 125 aircraft-L-5s,
                         and an introduction to instru-       grew, the Army realized the         L-16s, L-17s, and H-13s.
                         ment flying. The L-19 and the        need for establishing its
                         L-21 were used in flight training.                              own        By August 1954, staff and
                            The 12-week tactical course at
                        Fort Sill included 120 more
                        hours in the L-19. Training in-
                        cluded operations from small
                        strips, dirt and paved roads;
                        landing and taking off over an
                        obstacle about 25 feet high, and
                        on a rocky strip about 250 yards
                        long; low-level flight; advanced
                        flight maneuvers; night and
                        cross-country flying; evasive ma-
                        neuvers; and other types of mis-
                          Tactical ground school includ-
                        ed an expansion of the topics

                                                                                        THE ARMY AVIATION STORY
           FLIGHT LINE. BUILDING 4908, 28,000
                                                                                     ness and that the facilities at
           ACCOMMODATES S6 PLANES FOR                                                Fort Sill did not meet the needs

                                                                                     of Army Aviation. Consequent-
                                                                                     ly, plans were under study in
                                                                                     1954 to move the Army Aviation
                                                                                     School to       a   home of its own.
                                                                                       A   number of possibilities to
                                                                                     relieve the Aviation School's
                                                                                     problem were considered. The
!                                                                                    possibility of expanding activi-
                                                                                     ties at Fort Sill and utilizing
                                                                                     abandoned Frederick Air Force
                                                                                     Base as a su bpost was explored.
                                                                                     Other facilities considered were
                                                                                     at Shawnee and EI Reno, Okla.;
                                                                                     San Marcos (Gary) Air Force
    faculty of the Army Aviation                craft extremely vulnerable to
    School at Fort Sill had grown                                                    Base, Texas; DeRidder Army
                                                frequent and severe storms.          Field Forces Base, Camp Polk,
    to almost 300 members. Also,                   Periodic storms of great in-
    there were 800 students and                                                      La.; Stewart Field at Savannah,
                                                tensity pointed out the lack of
    about 500 aircraft (8 types).                                                    Ga.; Camp McCall, N. C.; Fort
                                                adequate hangar space at Post
    Such rapid growth resulted in                                                    Riley, Kan.; Camp Rucker, Ala.;
                                                Field. One storm in particular
                                                                                     and an abandoned Air Force in-
    numerous problems and crowd-                (on 4 August 1946) was accom-
    ed conditions which began to                                                     stallation at Childress, Texas.
                                                panied by 3-inch hailstones and
    hamper the school's ability to              severely damaged 231 (48 per-          Camp Rucker was chosen over
    perform its mission.                        cent) of the aircraft. Training      other sites mentioned above pri-
                                                time lost was 15,975 hours and       marily because Ozark Army Air
       Aviation is a highly special-                                                 Field had three 5,000-foot run-
    ized activity, and requires the             the estimated total damage cost
    highest standards of instruction.           to aircraft was $575,000. Over       ways. Buildings had just been
    These high standards required               an ll-year period, ending in         renovated at a cost of $8 million.
    adequate and sufficient mainte-             1953, total storm dam age            Huge truck stands on the reser-
                                                amounted to $2,161,730 and 39,-      vation would serve as good heli-
    nance space, airspace, class-
                                                505 training hours lost.             ports. Large buildings used for
    rooms, administrative space, and
                                                   The location of the heliport      truck repair would serve as good
                                                also posed a problem, due to its     rotary wing maintenance hang-
       Inadequate hangar space, dis-
                                                encroachment on other training       ars.
    persal of activities, and submar-
    ginal facilities for aviation at            activities at the Artillery School      Camp Rucker had its draw-
    Fort Sill resulted in excessive             and its proximity to fixed wing      backs, but so did other installa-
    costs and inefficient operations.           traffic at Post Field.               tions inspected. And none of the
                                                   The Army realized that avia-      other sites had all four advan-
       Insufficient aircraft parking
    hardstands (see photos) meant               tion is a highly specialized busi-   tages mentioned above.
    that about 80 percent of the air-                MOTOR REPAIR SHOP TAKEN                              ;~I;1._f~'n.."   ,.-..'"   .
    craft had to be parked on the                    FROM TROOP UNIT AND DIVERTED               TWO MOTOR REPAIR SHOPS
                                                     TO AIRCRAFT MAINTENA~CE                    DIVERTED TO AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE.
    sod, and continuously operated               .

                                                                                                34,644 SQUARE FEET TOTAL
    under extremely dusty condi-
    tions. The sod had deteriorated
    and was a sea of mud when it
    rained and dusty when it was
    dry. Dust circulating through
    engine parts resulted in exces-
    sive deterioration of aircraft
    parts and frequent engine re-
    placements. In addition, a lack
    of hangar space made the air-

              JULY 1962

                ADepartment of the Army             departed Fort Sill for Camp             get under way at Camp Rucker
           letter dated 23 July 1954 in-            Rucker with an advance party            was a combined Army Aviation
           formed the commandant of the            of 50.                                   Tactics Course. Class AA TC-54-
           Army Aviation School that "The             On 28 August 1954 General             K completed
                                                                                                           primary at Gary
           Secretary of the Army has ap-           Hutton left Fort Sill and on 1           Air Force Base on 10 September
           proved the transfer of the Army         September assumed command at             1954. These students were either
           Aviation School and the Avia-           Camp Rucker. Colonel Jules E.            held at Gary or granted leave
           tion Test Section of [Army Field        Gonseth, Jr., assistant comman-          with orders to report to Camp
           Forces] Board No.1 to Camp              dant of the Aviation School, re-         Rucker on 9 October 1954.
           Rucker, Alabama, from Fort              mained at Fort Sill as acting              Meanwhile AATC-54-L grad-
           Sill, Oklahoma."                        commandant until early in No-            uated at Gary on 8 October and
              The letter further directed          vember when he departed for              reported to Camp Rucker on 12
           that the commandant of the              Rucker. Lt Col Charles Ernest            October 1954. The two classes
           Aviation School would work              took over for Colonel Gonseth            were combined (AATC-54-K-L)
           with the commanding generals            until the rest of the personnel          and on 18 October 1954 became
           of Third and Fourth Armies to           moved and command of the                 the first Aviation School flight
           prepare movement plans which            school passed to Rucker.                 class at Camp Rucker. This
           would be submitted to the De-              The move was effected with            combined class of 120 officers
           partment of the Army not later          a
                                                      minimum cancellation of class-        was graduated on 29 January
           than 1 September 1954 for ap-           es. Some smaller courses, which          1955.
           proval.                                 were scheduled consecutively
              Brigadier General Carl I.             (twin-engine, instrument, and                AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT
           Hutton, who had been comman-            some mechanic classes) were                      The responsibility for moving
           dant of the Army Aviation               cancelled. The school was forced              the School's aircraft rested with
           School at Fort Sill since July          to cancel some helicopter courses              the Department of Flight and
           1954, named Lt Col Carlyle W.           after problems developed during               the Maintenance Section.
           Arey as his Chief of Staff. On          the move.
                                                                                                    Since a number of pilot class-
           about 20 August Colonel Arey               The first course of study to               es were in residence at Sill when
I:    .
                                                                                                 the move began, it was neces-
            ~+.+.+++++++.+++++++.+++.+.+++++++.+++.+++~.+++. sary to schedule the movement
          I      The following civilian employees of the Army Aviation School were      i        of aircraft from early August
            + transferred from Fort Sill to Camp Rucker and
                                                                       still at Fort
            t All were flight instructors with the Department of are at Fort SillRucker. + 1954 through the following Feb-
                                                                   Flight            except.
            t Mr. SteItenpohl who was an aircraft maintenance inspector with the Air- ; ruary. As a class would finish
              craft Maintenance Division.

          i   NAME
               Milton P. Crenchaw
                                                     PRESENT ASSIGNMENT
                                                     Dept of Adv F/W
                                                                                                 training at Sill, the graduates
                                                                                            ; and instructors would fly their
                                                                                            ; 'aircraft to Rucker in time to be
               Richard J. Followill                  U. S. Army Aviation Board
              John Jacob Green                       Dept of Adv F/W                         ...
                                                                                                 used by a class phasing in there.
              Doyle E. Grigsby                       Dept of Adv F /W                       t       The L-19s had the shortest
              George H. Howard                       Dept of Adv F /W                       .
                                                                                                 range of the fixed wing aircraft
              Jimmie Johnson                         Dept of R/W                            : that
                                                                                                       were moved. The School
          i~c~John J. Kochis
              Malcolm F. Landrum
              Charles E. Maggart
                                                  ~~~Dept of Adv F/W
                                                     Dept of Adv F /W
                                                                                           : began moving its L-19s in Oc-
                                                                                                 tober 1954 on a 788-mile journey
                                                     Dept of Adv F /W                            that included two stops. The
          ; Charles L. Martin, Jr.                   U. S. Army Aviation Board             .
                                                                                                 LC-126 movement began in No-
          í Schuyler L. Mathews                      Dept of Adv F /W                      .
          .. Virgil M. Mingus                        Dept of Adv F/W                       ...   vember 1954 and the L-23 in
          t James P. Morris                          Dept of Adv F/W                       t January 1955. The L-20s were
          .   James R. Paul                          Dept of Adv F/W                       .
                                                                                                 used      control aircraft during
          +   Clarence G. Stockwell                  Dept of Adv F/W                       ; some as the flights.
          t   Gerald T. Thorpe                       Dept of Adv F /W                     ;
              Francis R. Werner                      Dept of Adv F /W                               Moving the 250 rotary wing
          .. Robert L. Chisolm                                                            ...
                                                                   F /W
                                                                                          t aircraft was more of a problem.
          i   Neil S. Dodson
              Philip Gennuso
                                                     Dept of Adv
                                                     Office of the DOl
                                                     Dept of R/W
                                                                                          .      They made 12 stops over an
                                                                                          ; 85S-mile course. The longest leg
          i   Melvin H. May
              William P. Whitman
              Wayne G. Steltenpohl
                                                     Dept of R/W
                                                    Dept of Adv F /W
                                                                                          .      was a 97 -mile flight from Green-
                                                                                          ; ville to Longview, Texas, and
          +++.+.........+.+.+++.+++.+++.+.+.+.+++.+.+.+~.~~. the shortest hop was 35 miles,

                                            -----...-~-----_.   ----
    .r-                                                                                     THE ARMY AVIATION STORY
    ~         from Ruston to        Monroe, La.         was stationed at Camp Rucker. early days. The fixed wing
                Types of helicopters moved in-          The 351st, along with the 517th schedule was adjusted by the
                cluded H-13s, 23s, 19s, and 25s.        Engineer Company and the 98th elimination of some portions of
                   Each helicopter carried an          Army Band, was designated as the courses. However, rotary
    '.          auxiliary 5-gallon gas can. Also,       a   regimental combat team to wing training continued to slip,
    :i          an L-20 and an H-19 accom-             provide training support troops despite weekend flying. Addi-
                panied the flights as control air-     for the School. Despite the addi- tional helicopters and instruc-
    ;)          craft and each carried extra gas       tion of the 338th Field Artillery tors were considered as a solu-
                in 5-gallon cans. The first mass       Battalion, the 351st was not tion, but it was reasoned that
                movement of helicopters took           brought up to strength and on this would only double the in-
                place in late October 1954.            30 September 1956
                                                                               was reor- struction problem since it would
                  Establishing a new home at           ganized into the 99th Battalion take two months, and badly
                Camp Rucker involved a great           Combat Team. On 24 March needed instructors, to standard-
                deal of extra work and many            1958, the combat team was re- ize the newcomers. There was
                disappointments for the faculty        designated the 2d Battle Group, no easy solution-it took hard
                and staff of the Army Aviation         31st Infantry Division.            work and time to solve the many
                School.   Although often dis-              By the end of 1954 the School problems facing the School.
               couraged, the situation improved        had seven classes in session. All
               as the aircraft began to arrive.        of the necessary facilities were     F/W CONTRACT TRAINING
                  The fall of 1954 was devoted         operating, the hospital was open,
               primarily to the development            and the Army Aviation School         Personnel of Class 56-7 were
               and renovation of facilities es-       had celebrated its first Christmas the first Army students to re-
               sential to the operation of the        in its new home.                    ceive primary training in the
               School. Rehabilitation was start-           The two most significant L-19 from a contractor. Instruc-
               ed on the Post Headquarters            events of 1955 were the estab- tion was conducted by the Haw-
              building and the Department of          lishment of the Army Aviation thorne School of Aeronautics at
               Tactics was moved into some ex-        Center on 1 February 1955, and Spence Air Base, Moultrie, Ga.,
               cellent classroom buildings in         the redesignation of Camp Ruck- beginning on January 1956.
               the Tank Hill area.                    er as Fort Rucker-a permanent         Air Force personnel were
                  At Ozark AAF, the control           Department of the Army instal- training Army students at Gary
              tower was relocated in an area          lation-on 13 October 1955. Gen- Air Force Base, but the Air
              from which the ends of all three        eral Hutton became command- Force requested that part of the
              runways could be observed.              ing general of the Center as well Army's input be diverted to
              Also, work was started on Knox,         as commandant of the School.       Spence. Classes of 27 Army stu-
              Ech, Northwest Corner, and                  While many problems were dents were to be phased in at
              Hooper stagefields. A number of        encountered in the early months, Spence every 13 training days
              strips were constructed for fixed       sand proved to be one of the until six classes had entered.
              wing operations in the western         most disturbing to the training        Maj G. W. Jaubert and MSgt
              part of the 60,000 acre reserva-       program. The wild grass on the Harold Scales formed the Spence
              tion and work was begun                stagefields at Rucker did not Air Base Unit of the Aviation
             through the Mobile District En-         last due to downwash of the School Regiment to handle ad-              'J
             gineers to negotiate leases for                                                                                 i
                                                     helicopter rotor blades.            ministrative matters pertaining     I
             areas on which off-post strips,              The sand problem developed to the Army students. Mr. Leslie
             stagefields and airports could be       into a major, unexpected head- H. Locke was Hawthorne's su-
             constructed.                            ache and resulted in loss of time perVisor in charge of Army
                 December 1954 was a busy            and badly damaged bearing sur- training.
             month at the Army Aviation              faces inside the engines of the       Class 56-7 and the two follow-
             School. The Third Army man-             aircraft. The problem gradually ing classes completed normal
             euver, FOLLOW ME, centered              disappeared with the applica- training and graduated from pri-
             at Camp Rucker with over a              tion of a thin asphalt coating on mary before word
             thousand troops from other posts
                                                                                                            was received
                                                     some of the strips and hovering that Army training at Spence

             on duty at Rucker for two
             months. Also in December, the
             351st Infantry Regiment
             turned from Trieste, Italy, and
                                                     pads, and the addition of more would terminate on 30 June
                                                     training areas.                     1956. The training pace of Class
                                                          The flight training schedules 56-10 (scheduled to graduate on
                                                     began faIling behind during the 10 July) was quickened and the

    t'f,'",'!                --'"   '"----.,".--..'-. ...--...-"
    Ir              (

                         .JULY 1962
    f~ i
    ,           ,

                         students graduated on 30 June.                    rides and all of the civilian ac-         sent to Gary for training under
                            Classes 56-11 and 56-12 were                   ceptance flights. They also vis-          Graham and 2,151 successfully
                         transferred to Gary Air Force                     ited student briefings and aca-           completed the course.
                         Base on 1 July and within a few                   demic classes and one rated                 To further consolidate fixed
                         weeks had completed primary                       officer served in a quality con-          wing training, the Army moved
                         training and reported to Fort                     trol and advisory capacity as air-        primary to Fort Rucker on 1
                         Rucker. In all, 128 out of 135                    craft maintenance officer.                July 1959. Class 59-13, still in
                         students successfully completed                                                             residence at Gary at that time,
                                                                             Mr. Graham, president of the
                         training at Spence.                               contracting firm, was in charge           was transferred to Fort Rucker
                            On 19 April 1956 a Depart-                     of his operation at Gary. Mr.             where the advanced course in-
                         ment of Defense memorandum                        Garnet Howell, on leave of ab-            structors gave the students the
                         directed the Anny to assume re-                   sence from the Aviation School,           remainder of their primary train-
                         sponsibility for all Anny A via-                  was Director of Training; Mr.             ing and then carried them
                         tion training. It further directed                Virgil Mingus, also on leave from         through the advanced phase.
                         the Army to assume command of                     the School, was Director of Fly-            Primary set up temporary
        ':i              Gary Air Force Base and to let                    ing; and Mr. A. L. Taylor was             headquarters at Lowe Anny Air
                         bids for a civilian contractor to                 Director of Academic Training.            Field. Lieutenant Colonel Jau-

    I:                   conduct primary fixed wing
                         training. The commanding gen-
                                                                             All told, 2,898 students were           bert was made first director of

    i,1                  eral, Fourth Anny, responsible
    i:i                 for planning and operations, was
    I,ll                                                               +   .++++++......~++++++++~+++++~++++........++++.
    I:H                  authorized to utilize the com-                ~                               CLASS  ROSTER-57-9                                .
                                                                             Toler, William K                                            L
    ,       ,
                                                                       .                                    2/Lt  Holmes, Robert
                        mandant of the Aviation School                                                                                            2/Lt   +
                        as a technical advisor.
                                                                       ;     VanDervort, Edmund L           2/Lt      Phillips, John H            liLt ~

                                                                       +     Antoniou, Michael N            2/Lt      Purcell, Robert W           liLt .
                            In May 1956 Col Jules Gonseth

                                                                       ~     Askin, Ronald J                2/Lt      Schmidt, Elbert J           liLt .
                        was sent to Gary to administer                 ~     Bagnal, Charles W              2/Lt      Seymour, Edward C           liLt +
                        the contract and Col John D.                   ~     Bell, John E                   Capt      Spence, Thomas H            liLt ~
                                                                             Blewster, James C              2/Lt      Anderson, Karl R            2/Lt   .
                        Edmunds was named to succeed                   ~
                        him as assistant commandant at
                                                                             Bratt, Clarence M              2/Lt      Anderson, Paul F            liLt .
                                                                       ~     Christopher, Harry G           2/Lt      Andree, Robert G            2/Lt   +
                        the School. Upon completion of                 .     Cobb, John E                   Capt      Andrews, Joseph J           2/Lt   ~
                        his duties at Spence, Major J au-              +     Crouter, Edgerton T            2/Lt      Claggett, William           liLt   .
                        bert reported to Gary to assist
                                                                       ~     Defrance, RUdolph B            2/Lt     Dale, Teddie A               2/Lt   .
                                                                       .     Dewey, Arthur E                2/Lt     Dalrymple, William C
                        Colonel Gonseth.                                                                                                          liLt   +
                                                                       ;     Doiron, Nicholas H             2/Lt     Frack, Joseph C              2/Lt   ~
                           The Anny officially took over               +     Gallagher, James E             liLt     Herbert, Bentley J
                                                                       ~     Isham, Keith L
                                                                                                                                                  liLt   ~
                        Camp Gary on 14 December                                                            liLt     Hlywa, Nicholas G            2/Lt   .
                                                                       .                       H                     Hobbs, Harry V
                        1956. W. J. Graham and Sons,                         Jenkins, Edward                liLt                                  liLt   +
                                                                       .     Kallestad, Richard D           liLt     Jespersen, Vale D            2/Lt ~
                        Inc., had been awarded the train-              +
                                                                             Massengill, James R            liLt     Johnson, David S             2/Lt !
                        ing contract and on 7 January                  ~     Newkirk, Eddie H               liLt     Johnston, Lowell E           2/Lt .
                        1957 began training the first                  ~     Rhein, John H                  2/Lt     Luckey, James F Jr           liLt í
                        class, 57-9, which was made up                 .     Riggins, Gary R                liLt     Ortner, Anthony J            2/Lt :;:
                                                                       ..    Roughen, Albert H              liLt     Sanland, Donald T            2/Lt .

                        of 115 Army students. Mr. Wil-                       Schull, Dunell V               2/Lt     Singletary, Charles B        2/Lt .
                        liam R. Hailey and Mr. Thomas                               Peter J                          Suttle, Albert B Jr
                        A. Webb, were flight command-
                                                                             Wagenheim, Herbert M
                                                                                                            2/Lt     Tucker, Bert E Jr
                                                                                                                                                  2/Lt   i
                        ers of the group.                                    Wall, John F Jr                2/Lt     Utz, John S                  2/Lt   .
                                                                       ~     Williford, Henry G             liLt      Walker, Wayne                    t
                                                                                                                                                  liLt 1:
                           The permanent military con-                 ~     Bailey, Paul 0                 Capt      Wash, William B             liLt

                        tingent at Gary was made up of
                        the military commander (Col-
                        onel Gonseth), his deputy (Ma-
                                                                             Creson, Robert F
                                                                             Draper, Edwin L
                                                                             Dunegan, Walter L
                                                                             Flinn, Robert F
                                                                                                                      Weinstein, Leslie H
                                                                                                                      Bergstrom, Richard H
                                                                                                                      Burbank, Robert A
                                                                                                             2/Lt     Carter, Carl V              liLt   +
                        jor Jaubert), 22 other officers,               í     Frank, Winfield C                        Champlin, Donald A                 ~
                                                                                                             2/Lt                                 liLt
                        and 22 enlisted men. They were                 ì
                                                                             Gafner, Richard L               2/Lt     Gillingham, Richard I       liLt
                        responsible for the military op-               +     Gentry, Roy C                   2/Lt     Harris, James R             liLt
                        eration of the base and checked                ~     Goodman, Robert A               2/Lt    Hover, Charles E             liLt
                                                                       .     Grivna, Lawrence F              2/Lt    Hulett, Clarence M           liLt
                        the contractor's job performance.
                                                                       .     Hodges, George A Jr             liLt    Killough, Charles K          2/Lt
                        The rated officers conducted at                                             Kirkpatrick, Andrew C       1 ILt

                        least hill of the student check
                                                                       ;                                                                                 ~


                                                       OFWAC 60-1
                                        11 September 1959     -
                                                                 27 January 1960
                                             Hawthorne's First U.S. Army Class
                                            Green 1 on Left
                                                                Green 1I on Right
1st Row (L 10 R) Maj R. M. Shoemaker; Capt J. F. VanSant; Maj C. B. Sinclair; Maj R. S. Kellar; Maj K. E. Davidson;
Maj R. L. Gabardy; Lt Col W. C. Boehm; Lt Col M. H. Parson; Lt Col G. S. Beatty, Jr; Col A. M. Burdett, Jr; Lt Col J.
                                                                                                 Capt W. E. Crouch, Jr;
W. Hemingway; Lt Col G. A. Peyer; Maj M. M. Mahmud; Maj R. J. Dillard; Maj T. A. Crozier;
Capt W. A. Lusk, Jr; Capt J. M. Blair; Capt J. A. Lynch.
2nd Row (L to R) 1st Lt D. J. Kim; 1st Lt A. L. Powell; 1st Lt C. Chin; Capt C. Chang; Capt K. Yoon; 1st Lt P. L. J.
Klempnow; 1st Lt J. B. Morgan; 1st Lt D. T. Moentmann; 1st Lt W. D. Gess, Jr; Capt J. H. Mapp; Capt W. T. Fitts, Ill;
                                                                                                             2nd Lt K.
Capt J. B. Hatch; 1st Lt H. E. Malone, Jr; 1st L. E. Scoggins; 2nd Lt R. L. Hazlewood; 2nd Lt R. W. Nelson;
O. Hulse; 1st Lt C. E. Sauer; 2nd Lt R. L. Chancellor.
3rd Row (L to R) 1st Lt C. G. Robertson; 1st Lt R. L. Filson; 1st Lt J. M. Henderson, Jr; Ist Lt R. D. Millspaugh; 1st
Lt Z. K. Rector; 1st Lt F. W. Russell; 1st Lt T. R. Chapman; 1st Lt C. F. Morgan; 2nd Lt R. M. Rusch; 1st Lt J. A.
Matos, Jr; 2nd Lt J. L. Christie; 1st Lt F. D. Scott; 2nd Lt D. M. Whitehead; 2nd Lt D. H. Halsey; 2nd Lt G. W. Nelson;
2nd Lt J. P. Vaughn; 2nd Lt C. F. Shearer. Absent--Capt H. L. Wheeler and 1st Lt W. F. Boyle.

Primary Fixed Wing Training at          square yards (128 acres) of              and became the Army's first heli-
Fort Rucker and Maj Parris              black-topped surface were added          copter pilot. Others who received
Welch the first deputy director.        just before the move from Gary.          their training from the Air Corps
  On 22 June 1959 Hawthorne             Primary's      permanent     home,       include Capts Kenworthy Doak,
School of       Aeronautics was         Auxiliary #3, was completed              Thomas J. Rankin, and J. Y.
awarded the primary fixed wing          and occupied this summer. The            Hammack, and Lts Robert R.
training contract and began             installation includes a 2-story          Yeats, Daniel Wilson, and Nor-
training the first primary class        instructor building with a floor         man Goodwin.
enrolled at Fort Rucker, 60-1,          area of about 12,000 feet; a 6-             In 1946 the Army obtained its
on 11 September 1959. The class,        story control tower; a 2-story           first helicopters, 13 Bell YR-13s.
composed of 57 officers ranging         operations building consisting of         (The Sikorsky H-19 and Hiller
in rank from second lieutenant          about 4,000 square feet and a            H-23 were added after the Ko-
to full colonel, was graduated on       single story fire and rescue build-      rean War started.) These YR-13s
27 January 1960 (above). Mr.            ing with a floor area of about           began coming off the production
Robert Snowberger and Mr.               2,800 square feet.                       line in December 1946.
Fred Gardner were flight com-              In all Auxiliary #3 will oc-             As interest in rotary wing op-
manders of 60-1.                        cupy about 200 acres and have            erations mounted, the Bell Heli-
   Hawthorne officials who start-       four 2,000-foot runways, connect-        copter Company was awarded a
ed at the school with Hawthorne         ing taxiways, and a parking              contract to train helicopter pi-
and are still there include Mr.         apron 1,456 feet by 380 feet.            lots and mechanics for the Army.
Leo E. Carver, General Manager;              ROTARY WING HISTORY                 In February 1947 Bell began the
Mr. Earl Mengle, Director of               Early in 1945 the Army began          first formal Army helicopter
Flying Training; and Mr. James          investigating the feasibility of         pilot training course. Attending
Thursby, Director of Academic           adapting rotary wing aircraft to         were Lt Col Jack L. Marinelli
Training. Mr. Brax Batson, who          the Army Aviation mission. The            (now Col and president of the
was Director of Training until          first Army helicopter pilots were        U.S. Army Aviation Board, Fort
February 1961, was succeeded by         trained in late 1945 and in 1946          Rucker, Ala.); Capt Hubert D.
Mr. Leslie H. Locke, who had            under an informal agreement               Gaddis (now Lt Col and direc-
supervised Army training at             with the Army Air Corps. They            tor Aircraft Division, U. S. Army
Spence Air Base.                        were selected on an individual           Aviation Board, Fort Rucker);
   Lowe AAF had been com-               basis and trained in Sikorsky            Maj Jack Blohm (now Lt Col,
pleted in 1957 for use as a base        R-4, R-5, and R-6 helicopters at         retired and with HumRRO, Fort
field for the Advance Contact            Scott Field, Ill., Sheppard Field,      Rucker); and Capt Darwin P.
Flight Division, Department of          Texas, and San Marcos, Texas.            Gerard (now Lt Col, retired,
Fixed Wing Training. To accom-             In 1945 Capt R. J. Ely com-           and with Grumman Aircraft En-
modate primary, about 62,096            pleted the course at Scott Field         gineering    Corporation)     This

iii'"   .

:1"                                                                                                           ---'-'''''-~-'---~-'n''''_~.
                  JULY 1962

                  group received its instruction in
                  the successful new YR-13 (H-13)
                  at Buffalo, N.Y.
                   In 1947, under a formal
                  ment with the Army, the U.S.
                  Army Air Corps began giv-
                  ing Army students primary
                                            ro-           Above, the first group of Army officers to
                  tary wing training at San Marcos                                                    receive informal heli-
                                                      copter flight training from Bell. They
                  AFB. The first class, consisting                                           are (left to right): Lt Robert
                                                      R. Yeats, Capt Thomas J. Rankin,
                  of four students, began                                                    Capt Kenworthy Doak, and
                                          on 1 Sep-   Lt J. Y. Hammack. Below, the group that
                  tember 1947 and lasted 6                                                             attended Bell's first
                                             weeks.   formal helicopter flight Course. They aTe (left
                 Training was in the YR-13. The                                                             to right): Capt
                                                      Hubert D. Gaddis, Lt Col Jack
                 first students to receive                                              L. Marinelli, Maj Jack Blohm, and
                                           training                          Capt Darwin P. Gerard.
                 under this agreement were Maj
                 Harry Bush (now Lt Col); Capt
                 Jack Tinnen (now Lt Col and
                 with the White House presiden-
                 tial flight); Capt Troy
                                          B. Ham-
                 monds; and Lt L. C. Boyd
                 Lt Col and Deputy DOl, Fort
                 Rucker) .

                   It was hoped that Army stu-
                 dents would train with Air
                 students, but the Air Force
                                                       of   helicopter flying.    Conse-      In the summer of 1953 the
                                                       quently, the Army Helicopter         Army established a course which
                                                      Advanced       Tactical   Training     graduated warrant officer cargo
                                                      Course was established at Fort         helicopter pilots for Transporta-
                                                      Sill on 1 November 1948. Capt          tion Corps helicopter companies.
                                                      Hubert D. Gaddis set up the            Applications came from enlisted
                                                      flight training course and flight
                                                                                             men or warrant officers and the
                                                      standardized the first Army ro-        prerequisites did not require
                                                      tary wing instructor pilots. Mem-      prior aviation training.
                                                      bers of this group, who took their        The Army had negotiated with
                                                      helicopter flight training from       the Air Force to conduct this
                                                      either the Air Force or Bell,         course, but the Air Force refused
                                                      cluded    three Army officers         -stating that helicopter flying
                                                      and two civilians: Lts Rodney         could not be taught to individ-
                                                     J. Collins, Norman Goodwin, and        uals who were not already pilots
                 Capt R. J. Ely, first               Marcus Sullivan, and civilians         and that teaching enlisted men
                                       Army   R/W    James K. Knox (now deceased)           to fly was against policy.
                              pilot.                 and Charles L. Martin (now                Bell Helicopter Corp. also
                                                     with the U.. S. Army Aviation                                        re-
             trained their personnel in R-5s                                                quired prior fixed wing training
                                                     Board, Fort Rucker). These men        before it would accept students
             and R-6s, and a separate system         instructed the Army's first tacti-
             of training in YR-13s                                                         in its rotary wing course.
                                    was set up       cal helicopter training course,                                   Never-
            for the Army students. The                                                     theless, the Army took a bold,
                                                     which consisted of eight students
            Army students were turned out                                                  unprecedented step and estab-
                                                     who were graduated on 3 De-           lished the course.
            as qualified helicopter pilots
                                           aft-     cember 1948.
            er 25 hours of instruction.                                                        Candidates in the enlisted
                                                        In July 1949 this course was       men's portion of the course
               The Army felt that 25 hours
                                                    renamed the Army Field Forces
            of instruction was                                                             underwent intensive OCS-type
                                   inadequate       Helicopter Pilot Course, and in
            and that its rotary wing pilots                                                training. They were given a
                                                    August 1951 it was changed to          sergeant's pay while in the
            really knew little or nothing           the Army Helicopter Aviation
            about techniques or finer                                                      course and wore no insignia.
                                        points      Tactics Course.
                                                                                           The candidates were subjected

                                                                                          THE ARMY         A   VIA TlON STORY

     to an intensive hazing program          Mineral Wells, Texas, for use as          mary Helicopter School at W 01-
     and stood rigid personal inspec-        the Army primary helicopter               ters became     an official Army
     tions. For example, it was not          school. This presented a problem          school.
     uncommon to see a candidate             since the Army did not desire to            Shortly thereafter the South-
     standing at attention and con-          continue basic rotary wing train-        ern Airways Company was
     tinuously saluting a telephone          ing at Gary and did not plan to          awarded a contract to provide
     pole and addressing it in the           start its training program at W 01-      all flight training and associated
      proper military manner.                ters until late in the year. Conse-      ground school instruction, plus
        The students were trained in         quently, plans were made to              the maintenance of government
     flight fundamentals, advanced           move the program from Gary to            owned aircraft and equipment at
     flight techniques, theory of flight,    Rucker. Orders for Class 56-17           the school. In 1957 Southern
     navigation, meteorology, mainte-        to report to Gary on 22 June             signed a new contract which con-
     nance, map and photograph read-         1956 were cancelled and the class        tained a clause allowing the con-
     ing, helicopter transport subjects, was directed to report to Fort               tract, if renewed each year, to
     and transition flight training. The Rucker on 13 July 1956. The                  run throughJ une 1964.
     Army's decision paid off. The class began training on 17 July               The first class to be trained
     course proved most successful and was graduated on 21 Sep- at Wolters
                                                                                             was 57-6, the Army
     and still is a part of the program. tember.
                                                                              Aviation Transport Pilot Course
        In August 1954, when the             When it was decided that W 01-    (Rotary Wing) It got under way

     Army Aviation School was ters AFB would be used, Col on 26 November and was gradu-
     moved to Camp Rucker, the ro- John Inskeep was sent from ated on 27 April 1957. (See pic-
     tary wing course was changed Rucker to Wolters to administer tures on page 26.) The class was
     from a section of the flight de- the contract. On 14 May 1956 divided into two phases of train-
     partment to a department of its Major Gaddis left Rucker for ing:
     own. Lt Col James W. Hill was Wolters to provide aviation tech-             .  a  4-week officer-candidate-
     made director of the Department nical data and guidance. He se-
                                                                              school type training for enlisted
    of Rotary Wing Training at lected sites for location of four
                                                                              men who were graduated as war-
    Rucker and Maj Hubert D. Gad- stagefields and designed the main
    dis the deputy director.                                                  rant officers upon successful com-
                                           base heliport.                     pletion of the course;
        As a result of the move, Army        Wolters AFB was transferred            a 16-week
                                                                                                course in primary
    Cargo Helicopter Pilot Course from the Air Force to the
                                                                       Army and basic flight training for Med-
    55-E was cancelled and ACHPC on 1 July 1956
                                                             and Colonel Ins- ical Corps service officers below
    55-F ordered to report to Rucker keep assumed
                                                            command. Colonel the rank of captain, warrant of-
    on 18 October 1954. This class         Chester H. Meek was named ficers, and the warrant officer
    made up of 25 officers and office; deputy post commander and Col candidates who had successfully
    candidates, was the first rotary Wayne E. Downing was assist- completed the OCS-type train-
    wing class to begin instruction at ant commandant. On 13 July ing.
    Rucker and on 30 April 1955 it 1956 Secretary of the Army Wil-              The first students at Wolters
    was the first to be graduated.         ber M. Brucker redesignated the were instructed by 27 Southern
     (See box below for list of post "Camp Wolters" and
                                                                       on 26 Airways instructors who had
    students.)                            September the U. S. Army Pri- been standardized during Au-
       Army Helicopter Aviation Tac-
    tics Course 55-H reported to .t++.+.+.+.+++""""++++.+..++..++.t++.+++.+.~...1.                              .
    Rucker on 11 January 1955 for .                FIRST HELICOPTER CLASS GRADUATES AT
    advanced training after having
                                          +    WIO Jack M. Hendrickson         Sgt Bobby G. Bruce               +

    been graduated from the basic .
                                          t    Ist Lt Donald F. Lusk           M/Sgt Robert W. Beechter         .
                                               1st Lt Willie
                                                             M. Dixson         SFC Rex C. Flohr                 ;
    course at Gary AFB on 7 Janu- .            1st Lt Curtis O. Greer
                                               CWO William L. Ruf
                                                                               Pvt Charles R. Hall              .
    ary 1955. AHA TC 55-G was can- ..     .
                                                                               SFC Donald R. Joyce              +
                                                   Capt Glen W. Jones                  M/Sgt M. I. Keys                    .
    celled.                              ::t
                                                   2d Lt Raymond
                                                                   E. Smith            SFC Raymond T. Kline                .
       The Department of Defense                   1st Lt Jack C. Snipes               Sgt Michael J. Madden               +

    memorandum of 19 April 1956          t         M/Sgt Donald C. Beachnew            SFC Eugene E. Price                 t
    directing the Army to assume         t         M/Sgt Henry R. Beau                 SFC Lucis L. Share                  .

    all aviation training and com-
                                         .         M/Sgt John F. Williams              M/Sgt Joseph M. Truitt              .
                                         .         Sgt Stanton C. Beedy                SFC Jay L. Dugger                   .
    mand of Gary AFB also initiated                                       SFC L. T. Brown
                                         .                                                                                 +
    action to obtain Wolters AFB,                                                                                          .


             JULY 1962

             gust and September at Fort                  finished primary on 6 September     also recorded its 1,000,000th au-
              Rucker. The students flew H-23s            1958.                               torotation which was accom-
             which were brought in from Fort                Permanent Army personnel at      plished by Warrant Officer Can-
             Rucker. Upon completion of pri-             Wolters conducted instruction in    didate Dudley D. Moss in an
             mary, a portion of the graduates            military subjects and maintained    H-23D. About 900 autorotations
             reported to Fort Rucker for tran-           a  quality control group which      are accomplished each training
             sition training in transport heli-          also gave each student two check    day.
             copters and the remainder were              rides.                                 Colonel Inskeep, who had di-
             sent to various Army units to                  By the end of June 1961 the      rected the fortunes of the US-
             fly observation and utility heli-           Wolters'    curriculum    offered   APHS since it was established,
             copters.                                    three courses: the Warrant Offi-    retired from active duty on 31
                During the first graduation              cer    Rotary   Wing Aviation       July 1961. He was succeeded by
             ceremonies at Wolters the facili-           Course, which consisted of en-      Col Jack K. Norris who assumed
             ties constructed by the 931st               listed National Guardsmen and       command on 1 August.
             Engineer Group (under Col Wil-              Reservists on active duty for ro-      This fall (1962) the Army
             liam N. Beard) were formally                tary wing training; the Officers    plans to establish an Observation
             turned over to Camp Wolters.                Rotary     Wing     Qualification   Helicopter Tactics Course which
                Wolters and Rucker each han-             Course, which consisted of fixed    will be conducted at Camp W 01-
             dled half of the primary helicop-           wing aviators qualifying in heli-   ters and Fort Sill. After complet-
             ter training input until 1958               copters; and the Officer Rotary     ing primary rotary wing training
             when it was turned over in its              Wing Aviator Course, for non-       at Wolters, half of the graduating
             entirety to Wolters. The last pri-          rated officers.                     class will be sent to Fort Rucker
             mary class to be trained at                    The primary helicopter school    for transitioning into cargo heli-
             Rucker was Army Aviation Hel-               had recorded a total of 365,000     copters and the rest will remain
             icopter Course 58-10 which was              flight hours by 5 July 1961. On     at Wolters for 15 hours transi-
             enrolled on 30 June 1958 and                that date the helicopter school     tioning into the H-13, the aircraft

                              FIRST CLASS TO GRADUATE FROM USA PHS
                                           WARRANT OFFICERS
                   1.   Clayton L. Anderson          18. Martin A. Jetton
                   2.   Alvin D. Arrington           19. Lloyd K. Kaul
"I                 3.   John A. Banks                20. Anthony G. Kusilka
 I'                4.   James E. Beeman              21. Pascual Lentini-Bottey
                   5.   Virl A. Black                22. Robert W. Meade
Ii                 6.   Donald D. Bright             23. John E. Moodt
I,I                7. Basil B. Catalano                     24.   Henry C. Norton
Ii                 8.   James B. Childers                   25.   James M. Parker
                   9.   Benson M. Collett                   26.   James P. Pickel
                  10.   Gerald H. Dirks                     27.   Joseph L. R. Pinard
                  11.   Roger L. Eichelberger               28.   Leslie G. Purdom
                  12.   James A. Godfrey                    29.   Royce D. Raley
                  13.   Lawrence C. Hammond                 30.   Hu B. Rhodes
                  14.   Raymond L. Henry                    31.   John W. Schwegler
"                 15.   Joseph P. Holland                   32.   William T. Slye, Jr.
::/1              16.   Charles R. Honeycutt                33.   Alfred E. Smith
'Ij!              17.   Carl H. Hunter                      34.   Dale L. Stockwell
:i!i                                                  and
                                        35. CWO Robert E. Helterbran
 i'l'                        Right, candidates undergo intensive DCS-type training.

~ì   '

                                      --'~",""   -.-,---

                                                                         --,-...",.---,-----,.-~--,----          "-,----. -----------   .   ~

                                                                                    mE      ARMY AVIATION STORY

to be used in the tactical phase.    ter accidents caused by   a loss of       fic conclusions had been reached.
  The next 10 hours of the new       visual reference.  This clearly in-          Major Gaddis, Captain Lang-
course will cover tactical flight    dicated a serious lack of informa-        ford, and Captain Kluever "hit
training, followed by a low-level    tion in the field of rotary wing          the trail" to collect information
cross-country flight to Fort Sill.   instrument flight. This was also          on helicopter instrument flight.
The class will spend 4 weeks at      reflected in Army policy which            In February they visited the
the Artillery Center where in-       stated that "because of their             Navy, Marines, Air Force, and
struction will include artillery     aerodynamic characteristics and           National Advisory Committee for
gunnery, adjustment of artillery     inadequacy of flight instrumenta-         Aeronautics. Liaison also was es-
fire from the H-13, aerial gun-      tion, Army helicopters will not           tablished with New York Air-
nery, and various other phases       be flown unless visual reference          ways, Los Angeles Airways, and
of tactical training.                to the ground can be main-                the Bell Aircraft Corporation.
                                     tained." Exceptions were to be            However, the data acquired
        R/W AT RUCKER                made only for special tests or            lacked the necessary technical
   At Fort Rucker the Depart-        training activities.                      information. Despite this, the
ment of Rotary Wing Training             This policy was in direct con-        trio returned to Rucker fully
moved into its new home at Han-      tradiction to the growing hope            convinced that instrument flight
chey Army Air Field in October       that the helicopter would help            with Army helicopters was both
1959-5 years after the first ro-     balance the mobility-firepower            feasible and practical.
tary wing class reported to          scale disrupted by the develop-              In March and April 1955, the
Rucker. The new Army airfield        ment of nuclear power. To be              H-19 and H-25 were evaluated.
 (referred to as Auxiliary #2        effective it was necessary for the        Stability characteristics varied
while being constructed) was         helicopter to operate around the          between the single rotor H-19
named in honor of Maj Charles        clock and calendar in any part of         and the tandem rotor H-25. In
Wesley Hanchey. Major Han-           the world, and at near zero visi-          straight and level flight the H-19
chey, a Senior Army Aviator          bility.                                   proved to be more stable and
who served as an artillery ob-           A group of the
                                                          U. S. Army           had less tendency to pitch, roll,
servation pilot in W orld War II,    Aviation School felt the helicop-         and yaw. Excessive vibrations
was an outstanding pioneer in        ter had this potential. A member          on the H-25 instrument panel
the development of the Army's        of this group was Maj Hubert              during climbs, descents, auto-
rotary wing program.                 Gaddis, then director of the De-           rotations and airspeed transitions
   The average number of stu-        partment of Rotary Wing Train-             caused instrument interpreta-
dents at Hanchey at a given time     ing. In December 1954, he ap-             tions to be difficult. As a result
has risen from 100 to 145 since      pointed Capt Ellis G. (Sam)               the H-19 was determined to be
Hanchey opened. Courses of in-       Langford and Capt Emil E. Klue-            the more suitable instrument
struction are:                       ver to conduct a test and evalu-           trainer and was the only heli-
  Officers Rotary Wing A via-        ation program to determine the             copter used in the early months
                                     feasibility of helicopter instru-          of the program. Plans called for
    tor Course, phase 2
                                     ment flight. Captain Langford              possible     use   of   the   H-25
  Warrant Officers Rotary
    Wing      Aviator   Course,      was from the Department of Ro-             when more instructors became
    phase 2                          tary Wing and Captain Kluever              available.
  HU-1 Instructor Pilot Tran-        reported from the Instrument Di-              The first helicopter instrument
    sition Training Course           vision, Department of Fixed                class, consisting of CWO Clifford
  Army Aviation Medical Of-          Wing Training.                             Turvey and CWO A. R. Tucker,
    ficers Orientation Course            The two captains had to start          began on 3 May 1955. Captains
  Special Cargo Helicopter           from scratch. Some instrument              Langford and Kluever taught
     Transition Courses               flying had been conducted on a            this class and several others in
  Helicopter Instrument Fly-          small scale in Korea with H-19s.          order to qualify instructor pilots
     ing Course                       Also some preliminary work had            being assigned to the test and
  Helicopter Instrument Flight        been done at the School in De-            evaluation program. The stu-
     Examiners Course                 cember 1954 when Captains                 dents were selected at random
  The Army's rotary wing in-          Langford and Kluever accom-               from the qualified list of H-19
strument program was born out         plished the Army's first simu-            instructor pilots at the School.
of necessity. By 1954 there was       lated (hooded) helicopter instru-           CWOs Marvin M. Wingrove
an increasing number of helicop-      ment flights. However, no speci-          and Jack M. Crich completed the

JULY 1962

second    class and along with         the Instrument Helicopter Ex-             stayed in the game and called
CWOs Turvey and Tucker were            perimental Course which began             Lieutenant King's bluff. They
recommended in September for            on 26 March 1956 with 14 stu-            both agreed to go through with
standard instrument tickets.            dents and lasted 4 weeks. (See           it and DOl (much to their dis-
  Authority for the commandant          box.)                                    appointment) okayed use of an
of the Aviation School to award           The hope of operating helicop-         H-19 to conduct a test flight un-
helicopter instrument tickets was      ters at near zero-zero visibility         der the School's evaluation pro-
approved on 16 April 1956. The         has been a matter of debate               gram.
certificates were to be valid in       among rotary wing strategists for            The pair took off in heavy fog
rotary wing aircraft while the         years. In the summer of 1956,             at East Port and flew to the En-
holder was participating in the        two of these "strategists" talked         terprise homer where they were
instrument program.                    themselves into a flight in near          picked up by the Cairns GCA.
   On 1 May 1956, Brig Gen Carl         zero-zero weather conditions.            After "tooling around" in the
I. Hutton, commandant of the              Maj Oran B. Jolley was the             soup at 8,000 feet for a while
School, presented the first stand-      new commander of the Rotary              they made a perfect GCA ap-
ard helicopter instrument cer-          Wing Instrument Flight Divi-             proach-breaking out at about
                                                                                 15 feet. Lieutenant King calmly
tificates to Capt George A.             sion. During his first few weeks
Dalusky; 1st Lts Garland B.             at Rotary Wing, he had heard             set the H-19 down and asked
King, William A. Smith, Jr.;            considerable talk among the test         Major Jolley if he wanted to try
CWOs Tucker, Turvey, Win-               group pilots about their ability         an approach.
grove, Crich, Ralph L. Ebert,           to fly helicopters when visibility          Major Jolley declined and ad-
James B. Regan, Wesley E. Rose;         was down to nothing. One morn-           mitted that he had just had his
and civilians Don L. A. Whit-           ing fog had all operations               first helicopter instrument flight.
taker (deceased), Phillip Gen-          grounded and the test group was          Lieutenant King then admitted
nuso, and Charles D. Shuman.            sitting in the PX drinking coffee.       that he had just made his first
 (Mr. Whittaker received the            Major Jolley couldn't resist the         instrument approach below min-
first special helicopter instru-        temptation. He began needling            imums.
ment card early in August 1958.)        the group, and a friend of his,             The two agreed that they had
   A few months previously in
                                        Lieutenant King, in particular,          established, at least in their own
January 1956, the School was au-        about their boasts. He wanted to         minds, that the helicopter can be
thorized to fly helicopters under       know why, if they were so good,          effectively operated under near
actual instrument conditions.           they weren't out flying.                 zero-zero weather conditions.
This led to the first actual instru-      Lieutenant King replied that           Both Major Jolley and Lieuten-
ment flight, which was made by          they were unable to obtain an             ant King were familiar with the
CWO Tucker and Mr. Don G.               aircraft. Major Jolley laughed            saying about discretion and val-
Clark on 19 January 1956. The           that off as a poor excuse and             or-and they left the H-19 at
flight lasted one hour and was          stated, "I can get one anytime."          Cairns until the weather lifted.
conducted at various altitudes up       Lieutenant King quickly an-                 In 1957 the CAA (now FAA)
to 4,000 feet. Each pilot flew the      swered that if Major Jolley               sent two representatives from its
H-19 (No. 55190) for a half hour        would get the aircraft he would           air carrier division to Fort Ruck-
and experienced no serious prob-        be happy to take him up and               er to attend a special helicopter
lems.                                   demonstrate what the helicopter           instrument training course. Mr.
  Another part of the test and          could do in the heavy fog.                Kenneth Cooper and Mr. Wayne
evaluation program consisted of            Major Jolley, his bluff called,        Jordan began training on 25 Feb-
                                                                                           1957 and finished the
                                                                                  course on 26 March 1957. Since
t......................................Helicopter Experimental t
t   Personnel who were enroIled in the Instrument
                                                  ......................          then six more CAA-F AA rep-
                                                                                  resentatives have completed the
i     Cou~:
          Capt Darrough
          Lt Getz
                                             CWO Vaught
                                             Mr   Broyles
                                                                                     Another step in the develop-
t         Lt   Jack Burton                   Mr   Otto Buettner            t      ment of the rotary wing instru-
t         Lt Miles                           Mr   Gerry Decker             t      ment program was the revision
.         Lt Trapp                           Mr   Gordon Hazell            .
...       CWO Bouza                          Mr   R. D. Maier              ...    of Army Regulations to allow
t         CWO Moczygemba                     Mr   John Thompson            t      the operation of helicopters un-
.                                                                          .
                                                                                  der instrument conditions. A set

    ~~,~~:,,;.   "'
                      ..............."";;""",-,-~~",,,,'~",,-~-~..   '--~'-"""--------~---".....,..........._._--~       -."-.-------

t                                                                                                                                       -------- --~"'"'""'--~-~------"---.                                                        --


                                                                                                                                                           THE ARMY       A   VIA TION STORY

          of proposed changes was drawn                                        installation                  was             certified            by   AFB. At that time Mr. Dever-
          up by Mr. Whittaker and sub-                                         FAA. During fiscal year 1961,                                           eaux succeeded Mr. McShee as
          mitted for approval on 19 May                                        the rotary wing GCA handled                                             fixed wing senior instructor. The
          1958. Generally, the proposals re-                                   4,138 approaches. Records were                                          first class at Sheppard was
          quested that the regulations be                                      not kept previously.                                                    started shortly after 16 Septem-
          reworded to include helicopters                                                                                                              ber. Thereafter classes began
          in a number of exis:ing regula-
                                                                                                                                                       every 5 days and each averaged
          tions. Specifically, they request-                                       By 1954 mechanics were being                                        15-20 students.
          ed that rotary wing takeoff mini-                                   trained on three fronts. The Air                                             On 2 August 1950, Mr. Deve-
          mums be made lower than those                                       Force trained the Army's organi-                                          reaux was named senior instruc-
          applying to fixed wing aircraft                                     zational fixed and rotary wing                                            tor of the rotary wing course
          and also that helicopters be al-                                    mechanics at Gary AFB while                                               and Mr. Robinson took charge
         lowed lower minimums at desti-                                       third, fourth and higher echelon                                          of the fixed wing program. From
         nation and alternate airports.                                       mechanics were trained at Fort                                            this point, the history of Air
         Most of these changes were ap-                                       Eustis, Va. The Air Force did                                             Force training of Army heli-
         proved in late 1958.                                                 not have aircraft such as the                                             copter mechanics closely paral-
             The first formal Army Heli-                                      H-23 and L-23 and only taught                                             lels the fixed wing program.
         copter Instrument Flying Course,                                     maintenance courses on the H-13                                              When Sheppard was deacti-
         59-1, began on 14 July 1958 and                                      and L-19. Consequently, it was                                            vated, the mechanics course was
         closed on 20 September 1958.                                         necessary for the Army to oper-                                           transferred to Gary AFB. Mr.
         These graduates were immedi-                                         ate   organizational mechanics                                            Robinson and Mr. Devereaux
         ately enrolled in the Army's first                                   courses which the Air Force did                                           left Sheppard with an advance
         Helicopter Instrument Flight Ex-                                     not include. These Army courses                                           party on 26 February 1951 to
         aminers Course which ran from                                        were given at Fort Sill by both                                           set up shop at Gary. Training
         22 September 1958 to 18
                                      Octo-                                   the air training department and                                           resumed on 2 March 1951 on
         ber 1958. The graduates were                                         later the School.                                                        an accelerated basis which had
         1st    Lt Kenneth L. Wenn;                                              The first Air Force program                                            been started at Sheppard. Due
         CWOs Harold E. Marks, Rich-                                         for training Army mechanics                                               to the Korean War, classes had
         ard L. Piety, Douglas E. Story                                       was organized at Keesler Air                                             been increased to 30 students
         and Henry Coleman; and U. S.                                        Force Base, Biloxi, Miss., on 17                                          and two classes a day were con-
         Marine Corps 1st Lts Bruce W.                                       March 1948. Those responsible                                             ducted on a swing shift basis.
          Driscoll and David T. Forbes, Jr.                                  for setting up the fixed wing                                                 When the Army was directed
             Aircraft evaluated for use in                                   course were Mr. Donald McShee,                                            to assume responsibility for all
         the early portion of the instru-                                    the senior instructor; Mr. Joseph                                         of its aviation training (April
         ment program were the H-13,                                         M. Robinson, now with the                                                 1956) plans were made for the
         H-19, and H-25. The H-19 was                                        Department of Maintenance,                                                Air Force program to be ab-
         finally chosen and used until                                       USAAVNS; Mr. Robert I. Dev-                                               sorbed by the Army Aviation
         late 1958 when it began to be                                       ereaux; Mr. Charles Putz; and                                             School. In August 1956, the
         phased out in favor of the H-34                                     Air Force Staff Sergeant Ralph                                            training program at Gary began
         and H-21. The latter two aircraft                                   Peak. The civilians were civil                                            closing down. Instructors who
         are still used, but are gradually                                   service personnel working for                                             moved to Rucker were Mr. Rob-
         being replaced by the HU -IA                                        the Department of the Air Force.                                          inson, Mr. P. L. Gary and Mr.
         which was obtained for instru-                                         The first class began about                                            W. W. Ford. All are still work-
         ment training in late 1959.                                         mid-May and consisted of about                                            ing in the School's Department
           Another rotary wing first oc-                                        students-a mixture of Army                                             of Maintenance.
         curred when helicopter GCA                                          National Guard and Army per-
                                                                                                                                                            THE ARMY PROGRAM
         equipment was installed at Han-                                     sonnel. Classes ran 5 days a
         chey AAF in February 1960.                                          week for 13 weeks and averaged                                               When thl ~ School moved to
         Chiefly responsible for the de-                                     8-13 students. The input was                                              Camp Rucker, the Department
         velopment of rotary wing GCA                                        increased during the Korean                                               of Aviation Maintenance was es-
~        were Capt Darrell Sandel, Capt
         A. P. Betti, and MSgt John R.
                                                                                On 12 March 1949, the me-
                                                                                                                                                       tablished, which remained in ex-
                                                                                                                                                       istence until the Department of
         Reynolds. Experiments proved                                        chanics school was discontinued                                           Academics was organized in
         successful and in September                                         at Keesler and on 16 September                                            September 1955. The new organ-
         1960 the first
                        rotary wing GCA                                      1949 it was resumed at Sheppard                                           ization was a step in the consoli-


                                                                                                                             --.. _.         --                               '"

                                                                                                                                                                                   ~"-"-~: '~-.;-''':"'-----'':'''''"'-~   ".'-'''';'.1'-~
1   "

              JULY 1962

             dation of training and included       were started under Colonel            at the School in either advanced,
             both maintenance and general          Cogswell and continued by Col-       fixed, or rotary wing training.
             subjects instructors.                onel Kern. The new MOS struc-
                Lt Col C. P. (Ted) Damon di-                                               If the student continues in
                                                  ture, developed by Maj Arvil          fixed wing maintenance, he en-
             rected the Department of Aca-        Quinn and Mr. Howard, re-             ters a 5-week course in which
             demics until January 1957 when       tained the decimal, which was         he receives instruction on the
             he was succeeded by Lt Col           followed by various numbers to        L-19 (Bird Dog) and L-20
             David Cogswell. Mr. John Gable       indicate on which aircraft the        (Beaver). He then is generally
             was the civilian education ad-       mechanic was checked out.             returned to the field; however,
             visor, from September 1956 to
                                                     By the spring of 1960 com-         selected graduates from this
             March 1957.
                                                  manders in the field were hav-        class are sent to a 3-week course
               In August 1957 further reor-       ing great difficulty in releasing     of instruction on the UI-A
             ganization at the School result-
             ed in the formation of the
                                                  organizational maintenance per-       (Otter). After one year of ex-
                                         De-      sonnel for school attendance. A      perience in the field, fixed wing
             partment of Maintenance and
                                                  number of solutions were con-        mechanics are eligible for either
             the discontinuance of the De-
                                                  sidered, and one of the most         the 3-week L-23 (Seminole)
             partment of Academics. The gen-      plausable was to send the in-        class, the 4-week AO-l (Mo-
           eral subjects instructors were         structors to the field. Conse-       hawk) class, or the 4-week AC-l
           transferred to the Department
                                                  quently, the Department of           (Caribou) class.
           of Advanced Fixed Wing.
                                                  Maintenance organized the U.S.          Basic graduates who continue
              Colonel Cogswell headed the
                                                 Army Aviation School Organiza-         in rotary wing instruction are
           Department of Maintenance un-         tional Aircraft Maintenance Su-        given 5 weeks of training in the
           til February 1958 when he was         pervisor Mobile Instructional         H-13 (Sioux) and H-23 (Raven)
           succeeded by Lt Col Harry J.          Team.                                 course. The majority of these
          Kern. Colonel Kern has been               Three teams traveled to all        graduates return to the field,
          director ever since except for a       continental Army areas and pre-       but a few are accepted along
          period from 9 September 1958-          sented 40-hour courses of
          19 December 1958                                                      in-    with mechanics having field ex-
                                 when Col        struction at major posts. The in-     perience to enroll in either the
          Robert R. Schulz held the posi-        structors were military person-       2-week HU-l (Iroquois) course,
          tion. Mr. James Burkett Howard         nel assigned to the Department        the   5-week combined H-19
          has    been education advisor          of Maintenance. Current
                                                                             plans     (Chickasaw) and H-34 (Choc-
          since May 1957, two months             call for teams to be sent into        taw) course, or the 4-week H-21
          after Mr. Gable left.                 the field again this
                                                                      summer.          (Shawnee) course. Rotary wing
             The establishment of the De-
                                                   In July 1961 a new course was      mechanics who have one year's
         partment of Maintenance re-            organized at the Department of        field experience qualify for the
          sulted in an expansion of
                                         all    Maintenance to cover automatic        5-week H-37 (Mojave) course or
         phases of fixed and rotary
                                       wing     stabilization equipment, which        the 2-week Automatic Stabili-
         organizational maintenance.            is incorporated on the H-34s          zation Equipment course.
             A project to                                                     and
                           simplify the av-     H-37s.                                  Basic course graduates who
         iator mechanics MOS system                Courses on the Chinook are         are not elected for further air-
         was accomplished in July 1959           now being planned. Last Maya         craft maintenance training, and
         by the Department of Mainte-            group of civilian and military       are slated for overseas tours as
         nance. The original MOS sys-            instructors attended a 5-week        mechanics helpers, receive ad-
         tem designated mechanics only           Chinook maintenance course at        vanced individual training for
         as 671.1 (fixed wing) or 672.1,         the Vertol plant in Norton,          3
                                                                             Penn.      weeks.
         673.1, and 674.1 (rotary wing).
                                                Another group enrolled in June          The Aviation Department at
        This system did not give com-            and will return to the School        Fort Eustis began its first course
        manders any indication of which         to help write programs of
                                                                               in-    of instruction on 21 June 1954.
        aircraft a mechanic was quali-          struction.
        fied to work on. The decimal                                                  The department was urganized
                                       and         Today basic students report to     to offer resident instruction in
        "1" simply indicated that the
                                                the Department of Maintenance
        mechanic was only qualified for                                               Army Aviation maintenance and
                                                for a 5-week course which             supply, air movements, and all
        first echelon (organizational)
            Plans to develop a new system
                                                covers fundamentals. Following
                                                this course they can return to
                                                the field, but normally continue
                                                                                      other aviation subjects for which
                                                                                      the Transportation School was
                                                                                      responsible.   The Department
        ,        1.......---..




                            Cairns Army Airfield as it appears today at Fort Rucker, Ala, Originally this installation was named
                            Ozark Army Airfield, but on 10 January 1959 it was renamed in tribute to Maj Gen Bogardus
                                                    Cairns who died in an H-13 crash on 9 December 1958.

                           also provided assistance and       facturing Corporation of Middle-        Fort Rucker evolved from the
                           technical know-how for the de-     town, Ohio, was awarded the            contracting officer representative
                           velopment of numerous Army-        contract.                              position established in 1953. Its
                           wide aviation training projects.     A   e r 0 n c a  assumed aircraft    functions are to handle the con-
                                 CONTRACT MAINTENANCE          maintenance responsibilities at       tract, negotiate with the civilian
                                                               Fort Rucker on 1 July 1955 and         contractor and to act as overseer
                             Contract maintenance within       was headed by General W. W.           in a quality control capacity.
                          the Aviation School program         Ford, retired, who had been the           Actually, the CAM organiza-
                          originated in March 1953 at Fort    first director of the Department       tion was born on 22 August
                          Sill. The Korean War had            of Air Training. Aeronca was re-       1955 when Lt Col David E. Con-
                          spawned a rapid input of per-       sponsible for the school mainte-       don's position as contracting rep-
                          sonnel and aircraft which in        nance until 1 July 1956 when the       resentative officer was dissolved
                          turn resulted in an expanded        Hayes       Aircraft    Corporation    and he was made contracting
                          maintenance load. The school's       (currently called the Hayes In-       officer for aircraft maintenance.
                          maintenance schedule, plagued       ternational       Corporation)    of   In addition, his position was
                          by unstability of tours of duty,    Birmingham, Ala., was awarded          given staff status as the Deputy
                          fell rapidly behind. It was de-     the contract. Hayes has handled        Chief of Staff for Aircraft Main-
    r                     cided that contract maintenance     the contract maintenance at the        tenance.
    !                     was the only answer.                School ever since.                        In 1957 the position of con-
    i                        In April 1953, Lt Col Austin
    [I                                                           Mr. Glen O. Peterson was gen-       tracting officer for aircraft main-
    i                     J. McDermott was made the           eral manager of Hayes opera-           tenance was reorganized and
                          first Contracting Officer Repre-    tions at Rucker when the               transferred from the jurisdiction
                          sentative, a position created to    contract was first awarded. In         of the Chief of Staff to G-4. Its
                          represent the contracting officer   February 1959, Mr. Peterson            director, Lt Col Russell W.
                          on aviation matters. Bids were      was succeeded by Mr. W. T.             Humphreys, was made contract-
                          let and the Spartan Aircraft        Neal who had been the assistant        ing officer for aviation and Chief,
    II                    Corporation of Tulsa, Okla., was    general manager.        Previously,    Aircraft Maintenance. On 8 Sep-
    ~~                    awarded the first contract.
                             Spartan made the move to
                                                              Mr. Neal had been employed by
                                                              Aeronca at Fort Rucker as Di-
                                                                                                     tember 1958 Lt Col Donald B.
                                                                                                     Thomson       succeeded     Colonel
    Ii                    Rucker with over 200 of its em-
    I                                                         rector of Maintenance.                 Humphreys and absorbed the
    I                     ployees and remained with the          The CAM (Chief, Aircraft            added responsibilities of post
    'f                    School until the Aeronca Manu-      Maintenance) organization at           aircraft field maintenance officer.
~       ,


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