Artist Agent Representation Agreement

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Artist Agent Representation Agreement Powered By Docstoc
					     Image Metadata: What users will
      want from mature interoperable
         image retrieval systems


                   Howard Besser
        UCLA School of Education & Information
          http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                         1
   Image Metadata: What users will
    want from mature interoperable
       image retrieval systems-
   _     Developmental Stages
     _ Metadata background
     _ Merging Images from 7 Museums (MESL)
     _ Structural and Administrative Metadata (MOA2)
     _ Image Technical Information (NISO/DLF)
     _ Finding Image Origins
     _ Other Metadata & Issues (IPR, Moving Images,
         Complex Objects)
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                               2
              Developmental Stages
    _   Experiment with methods
    _   Build real operational systems
    _   Build interoperable operational systems




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                          3
              Traditional Digital Library
                       Model
     DL                                                DL

                              DL                                               DL
search & presentation                           search & presentation

                        search & presentation                           search & presentation




                            user                      user
 Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                                   4
          Ideal Digital Library Model

                   DL                      DL


                           DL                   DL


                            search & presentation




                            user            user
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                             5
              Developmental Stages
    _   Experiment with methods
    _   Build real operational systems
    _   Build interoperable operational systems

         –   For DL Initiatives
         –   For OPACs
         –   For I & A Services
         –   For Image Retrieval
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                          6
        Metadata is not just indexing terms

    _   CBIR attributes used for retrieval on color, shape,
        texture, etc.
    _   Structural attributes used for page-turning
    _   Administrative attributes used for managing a digital
        work over time
    _   IPR attributes to limit unauthorized use
    _   Identification attributes to determine what application
        software is needed to view a particular digital work

    _   Can be located anywhere
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                          7
             Merging Images from 7
               Museums (MESL)
    _   Project Description
    _   Inconsistent Metadata Issues-
    _   Strange Search Results-
    _   User Needs Assessment-




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                8
         Samples from a MESL Site




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00            9
         Samples from a MESL Site




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00            10
           Creating New Image Sets
                    (Views)




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00             11
Fields in MESL Data Dictionary (1.1)
    _   1. data agreement number                   _   17. support
    _   2. holding institution                     _   18. dimension/extent-quantity-unit
    _   3. accession number                        _   19. parts/pieces
    _   4. accession method                        _   20. marks/inscriptions
    _   5. credit line                             _   21. edition/state
    _   6. label                                   _   22. associated events, people, organizations,
    _   7. object type/ objectclass/ object name       places
    _   8. object title/caption                    _   23. concepts/subject
    _   9. creator/maker - name                    _   24. concepts/style-period
    _   10. creator/maker - culture/nationality    _   25. concepts/function
    _   11. creator/maker - role                   _   26. description
    _   12. creation place                         _   27. accompanying image - file name
    _   13. creation begin date                    _   28. accompanying image - caption
    _   14. creation end date                      _   29. accompanying image - capture data
    _   15. creation technique/method/process      _   30. accompanying document - file name
    _   16. material/medium                        _   31. accompanying document - type
                                                   _   32. version identification
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                                               12
     _    Museum Collectn                          _   MESL Data
          Mgmt System                                  Dictionary
                                                   _   1. data agreement number
                                                   _   2. holding institution
     _  1. object title/caption                    _   3. accession number
    _   2. accession method                        _   4. ccession method
    _   3. accession number                        _   5. credit line
    _   4. label                                   _   6. label
    _   5. credit line                             _   7. object type/ objectclass/ object name
    _   6. creation end date                       _   8. object title/caption
    _   7. object type/ objectclass/ object name   _   9. creator/maker - name
    _   8. holding institution                     _   10. creator/maker - culture/nationality
    _   9. ...                                     _   11. creator/maker - role
    _   10. ...                                    _   12. creation place
    _   ...                                        _   13. creation begin date
    _   ...                                        _   14. creation end date
    _   99. creation begin date                    _   15. creation technique/method/process
    _   100. data agreement number                 _   16. material/medium
    _   101. creation
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00
    _   ...                                                                                   13
         Authority control over artist
                    name
    _   Goya y Lucinetes, Francisco de (Houston)
    _   Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jose de
        (Harvard)
    _   Goya, Francisco de (NGA)




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                           14
     Museum
                     MESL Technical Info
                           File Forma t     Large st File       Smallest File


     NMAA                  TIFF             1056x930            286x892
                                            2.8MB               800K

     LOC                   JPEG/JFIF        540x420             552x420
                                            39K comp ressed     32K comp ressed
                                                   p
                                            5:1 com ression            p
                                                                7:1 com ression

     NGA                   JPEG/JFIF        729x600             333x768
                                            305K                42K
                                            76% compr ession      1     p
                                                                17: com ression

     Houston               JPEG/JFIF        1284x1876           608x1802
                                            2.3MB compr essed   315K comp ressed
                                            -7% compr ession      1    p
                                                                10: com ression

     Fowler                JPEG/JFIF, GIF   1472x999            1057x876
                                            1.45MB              32K comp ressed
                                            -55% compr ession     1    p
                                                                86: com ression

     Harvard               JPEG/JFIF        1024x672            605x483
                                            818K comp ressed    31K comp ressed
                                            59% compr ession      1     p
                                                                28: com ression

     Eastman House         PCD              16 Base             Base/16
                                            3072x2048           192x128


Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                           15
               Search Discrepencies




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00              16
                   Query for “surreal”
    University         Results      Notes
    American                 4      Two are photos of people with “Surreal”
                                    mentioned in the description.
    Columbia                 2      Same as others

    Cornell                  2      Same as others

    Illinois                 2      Same as others

    Maryland                 2      Case sensitive, yielded 0 results when
                                    capitalized.
    Michigan                 2      Same as others

    Virginia               Varied   Subject search: 2 (same as others),
                                    Full text: 4 (same as American)



Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                      17
                 Query for “haystack”
    University         Results      Notes
    American                 2      Searched on title (0 results for subject).

    Columbia                 1      Haystack in background (not main subject of
                                    work)
    Cornell                  5      Searched on full text

    Illinois                 2      Same as American

    Maryland                 3      One result different from any of the others.

    Michigan                 6      Searches on both subject field and “Quick
                                    search” yielded same results.
    Virginia               Varied   Subject search: 1
                                    Title search: 4
                                    Full text search: 5


Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                           18
               Query for “oil portraits of
                      children”
    University         Results   Notes
    American               0     Compound search, tried multiple fields

    Columbia               0

    Cornell                82    Medium=oil, Subject=child

    Illinois               6     Searched “child oil”

    Maryland               0     Searched on Keyword

    Michigan               31    Subject=child, medium=oil, majority of hits
                                 are relevant
    Virginia               82    Subject=child, medium=oil




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                       19
                    “Madonna” Query
    _   columbia (99)
    _   michigan (66)
    _   virginia (66)
    _   cornell (65)
    _   illinois (65)
    _   maryland (0)

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00              20
                           “Africa” Query
    _   illinois (273)
    _   virginia (249)
    _   cornell (195)
    _   michigan (104)
    _   columbia (99)
    _   maryland (0)

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                    21
        Search Discrepancy -- What
               Happened?
    _   different mapping btwn original data fields
        and perceived user needs
    _   different ways in which the various search
        engines work




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                              22
   Fields indexed from MESL Data
             Dictionary (1)
    _   1. data agreement number                   _   17. support
    _   2. holding institution                     _   18. dimension/extent-quantity-unit
    _   3. accession number                        _   19. parts/pieces
    _   4. ccession method                         _   20. marks/inscriptions
    _   5. credit line                             _   21. edition/state
    _   6. label                                   _   22. associated events, people, organizations,
    _   7. object type/ objectclass/ object name       places
    _   8. object title/caption                    _   23. concepts/subject
    _   9. creator/maker - name                    _   24. concepts/style-period
    _   10. creator/maker - culture/nationality    _   25. concepts/function
    _   11. creator/maker - role                   _   26. description
    _   12. creation place                         _   27. accompanying image - file name
    _   13. creation begin date                    _   28. accompanying image - caption
    _   14. creation end date                      _   29. accompanying image - capture data
    _   15. creation technique/method/process      _   30. accompanying document - file name
    _   16. material/medium                        _   31. accompanying document - type
                                                   _   32. version identification
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                                               23
   Fields indexed from MESL Data
             Dictionary (2)
    _   1. data agreement number                   _   17. support
    _   2. holding institution                     _   18. dimension/extent-quantity-unit
    _   3. accession number                        _   19. parts/pieces
    _   4. ccession method                         _   20. marks/inscriptions
    _   5. credit line                             _   21. edition/state
    _   6. label                                   _   22. associated events, people, organizations,
    _   7. object type/ objectclass/ object name       places
    _   8. object title/caption                    _   23. concepts/subject
    _   9. creator/maker - name                    _   24. concepts/style-period
    _   10. creator/maker - culture/nationality    _   25. concepts/function
    _   11. creator/maker - role                   _   26. description
    _   12. creation place                         _   27. accompanying image - file name
    _   13. creation begin date                    _   28. accompanying image - caption
    _   14. creation end date                      _   29. accompanying image - capture data
    _   15. creation technique/method/process      _   30. accompanying document - file name
    _   16. material/medium                        _   31. accompanying document - type
                                                   _   32. version identification
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                                               24
   Fields indexed from MESL Data
             Dictionary (3)
    _   1. data agreement number                   _   17. support
    _   2. holding institution                     _   18. dimension/extent-quantity-unit
    _   3. accession number                        _   19. parts/pieces
    _   4. ccession method                         _   20. marks/inscriptions
    _   5. credit line                             _   21. edition/state
    _   6. label                                   _   22. associated events, people, organizations,
    _   7. object type/ objectclass/ object name       places
    _   8. object title/caption                    _   23. concepts/subject
    _   9. creator/maker - name                    _   24. concepts/style-period
    _   10. creator/maker - culture/nationality    _   25. concepts/function
    _   11. creator/maker - role                   _   26. description
    _   12. creation place                         _   27. accompanying image - file name
    _   13. creation begin date                    _   28. accompanying image - caption
    _   14. creation end date                      _   29. accompanying image - capture data
    _   15. creation technique/method/process      _   30. accompanying document - file name
    _   16. material/medium                        _   31. accompanying document - type
                                                   _   32. version identification
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                                               25
            UCB Mellon Grant:
        Examining Faculty & Student
            Use & Usefulness

    _   What Faculty Do with Digital Images
    _   Major Issues for Faculty
    _   Faculty Concerns about teaching with
        Digital Images
    _   Faculty Concerns about Image Quality and
        Metadata
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                           26
    Faculty Use of Digital Images :
             Major Issues
    _   technical support
    _   training
    _   tools (software and hardware)
         – More than just query options
    _   time commitment



Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                  27
           Faculty Concerns about Image
               Quality and Metadata
    _   Image quality is important, but the quality
        needed is contextual
    _   For these faculty, digital image quality was
        no worse than slides
    _   Any metadata delivered must be
        customizable by faculty member


Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                               28
           MESL Follow-on Projects
    _   Academic Image Cooperative --
        http://www.academicimage.org/
    _   AMICO Project --
        http://www.amn.org/AMICO/
    _   Museum Digital Licensing Consortium --
        http://www.digitalmuseums.org/


Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                         29
       Structural and Administrative
            Metadata (MOA2)-
           Collections Material
     Special
     DLF Metadata for Interoperability Testbed
         Administrative Metadata-
         Structural Metadata-




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                          30
                 Making of America II
    R  &D
     Distributed Repositories
     Transportation, 1869-1900
     Testbed Project
     Best Practices
     Structural and administrative metadata


Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                       31
      MOA2 Goal is Interpoerability
     Book       example




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00              32
         MOA II Classes of Objects
     Continuous   Tone Photos
     Photo Albums
     Diaries, journals, letterpress books
     Ledgers
     Correspondence




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                     33
                     MOA II Metadata
    _   Administrative Metadata
         –   for enhancing resource management
    _   Structural Metadata
         –   for reflecting internal hierarchies and
             relationships btwn parts


    _   Raw/Seared/Cooked

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                               34
                    MOA II Behaviors
     Navigation
     Display/Print




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00               35
         NISO/DLF Image Metadata
              Workshop (4/99)
  Image Technical Information : Possible Goals

     Metadata  fields
     Rules for Field Contents (authority control)
     Core set of necessary fields


     Syntax   for expressing fields and contents
        (headers)
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                             36
                           Image Metadata

       Focus on Metadata that may
            prove helpful for
     management
     use
     preservation
     ...




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                    37
                           Image Metadata

            Break-out Groups: Work
                    Done-
     Characteristicsand Features of Images
     Image Production and Reformatting
      Features
     Image Identification and Integrity




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                      38
                  Image Metadata Elements for Data Dictionary

              Data Dictionary Entries
    _   Element Name
    _   Definition (short) of the element name
    _   Is the element required? (Identified as: Mandatory, Mandatory if
        Applicable, Recommended, Optional)
    _   How is the value of the element represented?
    _   Examples
    _   When is this data collected?
    _   What is the purpose of this data?
    _   Who would the identified users be?
    _   How is the metadata used?
    _   What other metadata standards reference it?

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                   39
                  Image Metadata Elements for Data Dictionary

        Characteristics and Features
               Element List
    _   Format Issues:
    _   Resolution Issues:
    _   Encoding:
    _   Compression:
    _   Others:



Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                        40
                  Image Metadata Elements for Data Dictionary

         Image Production Element
           List (Pertaining to the Image)
    _   In-image target(s):
    _   System target(s), associated with the object:
    _   Responsible agent
    _   Rationale:
    _   Hardware:
    _   Software:

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                        41
                     Image Metadata Elements for Data Dictionary

         Image Production Element
          List (Pertaining to the Process)
    _   Format of the image
    _   Intrinsic characteristics of the image
    _   Identification
    _   Provides a means for defining methodology including documentation and rationale
    _   Who is involved with the file?
    _   Who created the image file?
    _   Who commissioned the creation of the image file (i.e., the chartering entity), as opposed
        to: Who is the responsible agency? Who is the owner?
    _   Where
    _   What
    _   When: necessary dates including: capture date/time, modification
    _   Checksum
    _   Navigational aid
    _   Encoding tools
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                                            42
                           Image Metadata

        NISO/DLF Image Metadata:
              In Progress

    _   Data Dictionary for both “Characteristics &
        Features” and for “Image Production
        Elements” due end of 6/00




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                              43
               Finding Image Origins




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00               44
           Identification/Provenance
                    (Images)-
        The number of variant forms of a work can be enormous
        Image Families
        A digital image frequently has many layers of parentage
        Information about the parentage that can indicate the
         quality and veracity of the image (Dublin Core "Source"
         and "Relation")
        how to deal with different versions derived from the same
         scan or different encoding schemes
        Vocabulary Standards to express this


Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                             45
       The number of variant forms
       of a work can be enormous
     different views of the same object
     different scans of the same photo
     different resolutions
     different compression schemes
     different compression ratios
     different file storage formats
     different details of the same image
     ...

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                    46
Image Families
             Identification/Provenance
     how  to deal with different versions (browse,
      hi-res, medium res) derived from the same
      scan or different encoding schemes (TIFF,
      PICT, JFIF)
     Vocabulary Standards to express this
         –   VRA Surrogate Categories
         –   CIMI's "Image Elements”

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                              48
          Are some of the images I
        retrieved actually identical to
                 each other?


    _   Canonical forms




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                  49
          Other Metadata & Issues-
    _   For IPR management
    _   Approaches to Indexing Moving Image
        Materials
    _   Structural Metadata for Complex Objects




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                          50
                               <Indecs>
       formal structure for describing and uniquely identifying intellectual
        property itself, the people and businesses involved in its trading, and
        the agreements which they make about it (primarily for publishing,
        music, and visual arts)
       will develop high-level specifications for the services that will be
        required to implement a global IP trading system based on this
        <indecs> generic data model
       focus is on encoding rights at a high level, not on resource discovery
       likely to involve metadata schma registration and directory to allow
        interoperation of personal identifiers for rightsholders and users
       supported by EEC DG-13
       First meeting July 1999
       http://www.indecs.org/
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                          51
                  Indexing of
             Moving Image Materials
    _   Whole works vs. parts of Works
    _   MPEG 7
    _   Approaches to segmentation & thumbnail
        representation
    _   Closed caption indexing
    _   Audio description indexing
    _   Semiotics


Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                         52
             Structural Metadata for
                Complex Objects-
    _   MPEG 4
    _   SMIL




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00               53
            Synchronized Multimedia
          Integration Language (SMIL)
    _   For repurposing and reuse in different ways
    _   Use XML to reference various pieces in different
        ways
    _   Supported by Realmedia but not Microsoft or
        Macromedia




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                   54
                           MPEG 4
    _   Object-oriented
    _   Very low level of granularity (even objects vs
        backgrounds)
    _   Scaleable bandwidth use
    _   Binary Format for Scenes (BIFS) borrows
        concepts from VRML




Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                 55
          What will we need in mature
               CBIR systems?
    _   Look at what users want
    _   Hooks to allow users to DO something with
        the images
    _   Interoperability
    _   Image Metadata & Standards



Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                            56
 Image Metadata: What users will want from
 mature interoperable image retrieval systems

    _   http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard
    _   http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Imaging/Databases/1998mellon
    _   Spring 1999 special issue of Visual Resources
    _   http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard/image-meta.html
    _   http://www.niso.org/image.html
    _   http://sunsite.Berkeley.EDU/Imaging/Databases/#standards
    _   http://sunsite.Berkeley.EDU/moa2/
    _   http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard/Classes/287-moving.html
    _   http://sunsite.Berkeley.EDU/Longevity/
    _   http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/ifla/II/metadata.htm
    _   http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard/Classes/287-mov-index-bib.html
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                                   57
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00   58
             Problems of Rich Media
    _   Complexity of formats (storage & compression)
    _   Synchronicity between media/streams
    _   Pieces and Boundaries
    _   Persistent IDs
    _   Interactivity
    _   Historical context
    _   Content
    _   Recontextualization (Postmodernism)
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                59
           Opportunities--a scenario
 _   Huge stable online DB of rich media (Prelinger
     Archives)
 _   Creators create new works that consist mainly of links
     to and transitions btwn pieces of the rich media DB
 _   Works are not really assembled until run-time
 _   Securing IP permission may shift from capital-intensive
     producer to end-user
 _   Economics of media production may change drastically

Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00                                   60
Besser--CIR 2000, 5/5/00   61

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Artist Agent Representation Agreement document sample