Artists House Essay Registrant Form by dwf91931


More Info

Saemaul Undong Movement has been spread through out the world during the past
few years. Many foreigners have visited Korea to find out what Saemaul Undong
Movement is, considering it as a successful model to develop communities in
the developing countries.

They asked many questions with keen interest; how to start Saemaul Undong
Movement? From where should it be started? What do we need to start it? Are
there any references we can take a look at?

This handbook is made to answer these questions, and for those who have
interest in Saemaul Undong Movement, whether they have a chance to visit
Korea or not.

Thus the contents of this hand book is:

1. Focusing on the practical work of Saemaul Undong Movement in detail,
rather    than   theories or   policies.   Most of   them   are   chosen   to   offer
generalized selections among the most successful examples done by Korean
activists of the movement.

2. Mainly dealing with the experiences performed during the first 10 years of
the Movement in Korea, the period when it was mainly focused on developing
rural villages, out of the whole 30 years of its history.

3. Classified into several parts (or steps) for the convenience of the
readers. But practicing process of the Movement is very dynamic and complex.
Therefore, you don’t have to bother yourself to stick to those steps and
categories suggested in this handbook. Be flexible.

This book is totally based on the exclusive experiences in Korea and things
are different in each country. So, there will be difficulties to apply them
to your case exactly. It’s up to you what and how to apply to your case.

In addition, some contents might run counter to your culture and sense of
values. However, it is just because of the differences between Korean culture
and your countries’, not on purpose. So We’d like you not to get offended.

Ultimately Saemaul Undong Movement is a movement operated by people who want
to Be Happy. It will be moved not by others but ME, not alone but with OTHERS,
not by passively but ACTIVELY.

We sincerely hope this book will come in pretty handy in your seeking for
happiness and well being, in a humble measure.

Thank you.

December, 2003

National Council of Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea
1. About the Saemaul Undong Movement

1) What is the meaning of ‘Saemaul Undong’?
2) What are the goals of Saemaul Undong Movement?
3) What are the guiding spirits of Saemaul Undong Movement?
4) How did the Saemaul Undong Movement start in Korea?
5) Does Saemaul Undong Movement have to be led by
6) Is Saemaul Undong Movement for rural communities only?
7) Why is Saemaul Undong Movement so famous?
8) Was there no negative impact from the Movement?
9) How is Saemaul Undong Movement being developed in Korea
10) What kinds of international cooperation activities is the
Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea doing now?

2. Five Steps of Saemaul undong Movement

1) Seeding (Basic arrangements)
① Three Arrangements for the start
② Building a Core Group 1 - Leaders
③ Building a Core Group 2 - cooperative working
④ Forming a core group 3 - applying existing organization
⑤ Forming a core group 4 - Sectional organizations
⑥ Raising seed money 1 – through sample cooperative project
⑦ Raise seed money 2 – by cooperative work

2) Operation of Projects
① Principles and standards for selecting a project
② Planning a project
③ Persuading villagers 1 – Set a model to the villagers.
④ Persuading villagers 2 – ‘You can do it.’ Present results.
⑤ Collecting consensus 1 – small group meeting
⑥ Collecting consensus 2 - General meeting of villagers
⑦ Let everybody plays a part
⑧ Prepare and manage public property.
⑨ Preparing center
⑩ Encouraging each other
⑪ We are one living creature. Let blood circulate.
⑫ Getting assistance from outside

3) Main Stage of Projects
① Project 1 for living environment improvement –Eliminate
inconveniences of the houses.
② Project 2 for living environment improvement –Eliminate
inconveniences of the village.
③ Project 3 for living environment improvement –Create an
environment needed for income increase.
④ Project 1 for income increase –Remove the obstacles.
⑤ Project 2 for income increase –Launch cooperative projects.
⑥ Project 3 for income increase –Commercialize things around
⑦ Project 4 for income increase –Introduce something new.
⑧ Project    5   for   income   increase   -   Modify   distributive
⑨ Project 6 for income increase - Operating factory
⑩ Consolidating community 1 – Revise good morals and manners and extirpate evil
⑪ Consolidating community 2 – providing culture center and facilities.
⑫ Consolidating community 3 –Residents’ credit union movement

4) Final Stage of Projects
① Share the results and celebrate the success.
② Share the long-term prospect
③ Stabilization of Joint Fund
④ Active sectional organizations
⑤ Regularizing meetings for technology research
⑥ Establishing Village Hall
⑦ Publishing Local Newspaper
⑧ Establishing partnership with other regions and government
⑨ Setting up sisterhood relationship with foreign countries

5) Feedback at National Level – Korea
① Creation a favorable environment by the government in
② Provision supplies and funds by the government in Korea.
③ Comprehensive government support system by the government
in Korea.
④ Intensive information and technology education – Saemaul
Training Center.
1. About the Saemaul Undong Movement

1) What is the meaning of ‘Saemaul Undong’?

‘Saemaul’ is a combined word of ‘Sae’ and ‘Maul’.
‘Sae’ in Korean means ‘new’ or ‘refreshed’ and ‘Maul’
means a village which is the basic unit of community.

‘Being new’ involves emerging from the old customs and
breaking   off   from   the   convention.    It   is   inevitably
accompanied with changes and reformations.

A ‘village’ also could be expanded to your work place,
living space, and local community, not only limited to your
own hamlet.

In other words, ‘Saemaul’ means a movement of making your
local community better ways, and also a village rehabilitated
by efforts of its own residents.

For this purpose, we need the self-reflection on ourselves.
We should get the answer about ‘what we must conserve and
what we must change’.

That answer we get is ‘the hope for ourselves’. And the
hope is to seek to be realized, naturally. Here, it needs
‘Undong’, namely people’s movement in Korean.

Who shall do it? It should be done by the community as a
whole. Who shall get benefits from it? Its fruits should be
enjoyed by the community as a whole.

THAT is the basic concept of Saemaul Undong Movement.
2) What are the goals of Saemaul Undong Movement?

Basically Saemaul Undong Movement is a movement for well-

Of all things, it is a movement to escape from poverty. ‘Let
us   eat   well,   get   dressed   well,   and   live   in   safe   and
comfortable houses. Let our children educated well. Get us
well treated when ill, and get us live in a civilized life as
well as large cities’.; the movement like that it is.

Not living well for me only, but living well for my village
and for my country.        Not depending upon somebody else for
help nor dreaming of lucky fortune, but doing it by our hands
in right ways; the movement like that it is.

It can’t be done by a single man. Most of residents in a
rural village have little in their possession. We must stand
together and help each other to move forward. Our village is
a community of living and working, having common purpose of
its dwellers’ well-being.

It is also a fight against old and deep pessimistic views,
the thoughts of ‘Poverty is our fate’ or ‘We cannot do
it’. It is a movement of getting over our pessimism. A
movement of helping and caring for others rather than myself.
A movement of thinking and acting as the master of my life. A
movement of finding values and achievement from the progress
of my community. It is the movement of moral reformation.

After all, Saemaul Undong Movement is the movement of well-
being, the movement of fighting our own way, and the movement
of moral reformation.
3) What are the guiding spirits of Saemaul Undong Movement?

‘We can do it. We will do it’; it is the basic spirit of
Saemaul.     How can we do it when nobody can help us and every
one of us is in desperate? Let us united and do it with
‚Diligence, Self-help, and Cooperation‛, the Three doctrine
of Saemaul Undong Movement.

‘Diligence’ is an idea reflecting the natural and social
characters of Korea. Korea is located in a temperate monsoon
zone.   It    suffers      drought        in   spring,      heavy       raining      and
typhoons     in     summer    and     severe      cold      in     winter.      It    is
surrounded     by    sea     in     three      ways   and        70%   of    land    is
mountainous country. Most of farm households were petty
farmers,     raising    rice.       Little      mistake      and       idling     could
destroy the whole year of farming, and could not survive a
winter without good preparing of food and firewood. In Korea,
they could avoid starving only by cultivating even a small
piece of land and collecting wild vegetables. ‘Diligence’
was survival in Korea.

There are countries in the world where you have good climate
and don’t need to be diligent only for survival. But the
spirit of diligence is not just for a survival. It also
contains the spirit of thinking and working rationally,
planning          carefully         and         practicing             consistently.
‘Diligence’ is the spirit of putting eyes afar, getting
thoughts broadly, and doing action firmly.

‘Self-help’ is the spirit of doing my work by myself;
realizing that my fate and future depends on myself, and
doing the best in my efforts.

‘Cooperation’ is the spirit of believing in the power of
unity. When we unite as a whole, we can do much more than the
simple add-up of each ones. It is the spirit that cares for
others first and encourages each other, and that shares with
and help each other and work and get over together hardness.

When we are diligent, we don’t need to depend upon others.
When we are self-help, even the heaven would help us. When we
cooperate, there is nothing stopping us. ‘Diligence, Self-
help, and Cooperation’ is the spirit of invincible which
made a myth of success in poor Korea.
4) How did the Saemaul Undong Movement start in Korea?

Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea started in the year of 1970
at the instance of the late President Park Chung-Hee, then
head of state.

Korea had suffered severe eras from the early 20th century
through the mid of it. It had undergone tyrannical ruling by
foreign imperialists, and got divided into two countries by
force after that. There was a fierce war and political
disruption and chaos followed it. From 1960s Korea began
national program for industrialization but had not much
resource for that and there were not enough jobs for people.

In rural area, it was worse in the worst. Farming houses are
70% of the national population, but most of them can’t
afford meal of a day.         Young children had to give hands for
farming instead of going to school, but still they did not
have enough to eat. The gap between urban and rural areas was
kept broadening, so many people swarmed in cities and it made
the urban area very unstable.

Korea couldn’t expect any progress of the nation. But the
national   resource     was    not   abundant   and    the   government
couldn’t take the responsibility of supporting the rural
communities. The only possible breakthrough was the awakening
and participation of people

But   farmers    were   tired    and   exhausted      of   poverty   and
alienation and hardly had any will of reformation. Actually
they didn’t have any hope that their life could be better.

Thus the government proposed Saemaul Undong Movement for
rural communities to inspire the people for their sleeping
energy and lead them into the progress of rural communities.
5) Does Saemaul Undong Movement have to be led by

It’s not true. The most important thing in Saemaul Undong
Movement is the will and efforts of the community to make our
life better and higher.

Supports from government could be big help, but it can’t be
like that always. It could be that the government has no
ability and intent to help, that the government have intent
to help but no ability to do, or that the government itself
be in desperate condition.

Even if the government would help, it is ourselves who have
the best knowledge of our standings and goals, and thus too
much intervention form government could disturb or misguide
the progress of the community.

Even if there was no help from outside, we can open up our
ways by sharing resources and helping each other. And by that
way you can get the government concerned for your movement,
or even get helping hands from international organization and
foreign aids. Heaven helps who help themselves.

In Korea, there were community leaders who thought sincerely
and acted first and people who struggled and worked with
those leaders. They were the real heroes who made Saemaul
Undong Movement succeed and accomplished the economic growth.
6) Is Saemaul Undong Movement for rural communities only?

Saemaul Undong Movement is not for rural communities only.
But rural community is the best place to start it and make
its impact spread well.

Rural area is usually inferior to cities in income, living
conditions, welfare and health care. But it shows strong
solidarity in community and high correlation of work and
labor. Rural community shares many things among its members
in daily life, which cannot be found in cities. In other
words, it has high demands for change and progress, and very
good condition for cooperation.

Also   rural     communities    and     farming   industry   are   the
fundamentals of a whole nation. The progress of rural area is
directly related to the progress of national industry, and
human and spiritual resources bred in rural communities give
huge impact on urban communities.

In Korea, Seamaul movement first started in rural communities,
but soon spread into cities and turned into a national
movement       and   the       symbol     of      modernization    and

In the ends, Saemaul Undong Movement starts from rural area
but do not remain as a movement of rural community only. It
is a movement for everybody. Whether you are in rural village
or large city, whether you are a farmer or factory worker,
whether young or old, you do your best in your place to
develop your community, your work place and your country
better and stronger; it is Saemaul Undong Movement.
7) Why is Saemaul Undong Movement so famous?

Have you ever seen Korea in its 1950s and 1960s, in pictures
or with your own eyes? And Korea in its 1980s or after? Then
you would realize there is really startling changes between
those two eras.

Saemaul Undong Movement earned its fame of today from the
rapid   growth    of   Korean   economy   which   turned   the   poor
agricultural country into high developed industrial country
within two decades.

When Saemaul Undong Movement first started in 1970, Korea was
much poor and it could hardly be anything more than a
movement to escape from starving. But by the end of 1970s,
people were saying the words of ‘Miracle in Han River’ and
from 1980s Korea was called as one of the Four Dragons in

Of course it is not like that Saemaul Undong Movement made
all of the miracles. But you can say that it did one of the
most essential parts in the whole process.

It could be said that economic growth of Korea was a process
of creating wealth from nothingness. There was no role model
we could study and follow after. Material resources were
hardly available. The only one thing we could depend on was
the power of people. Saemaul Undong Movement was the national
agenda that united that power of people under the flag of
economic development.

The real fame of Saemaul Undong Movement is not in the
outcome of economic growth. It was earned from the struggles
and spirits of the innumerable nameless who challenged the
fate of poverty shouting the faith of ‘we can do it! We will
do it’ and supported the era of high growth all the way just
with their bare hands and fights.
8) Was there no negative impact from the Movement?

During the three decades of Saemaul Undong Movement, there
were many marvelous succeeds but also trial errors as many.
You should be very careful that such a failure would not
happen in the early stage of induction, especially if the
government get involved in the Movement.

In Korea, Saemaul Undong Movement got it involved very deeply
with government organizations, from the President himself to
the low level civil servants. It offered strong driving force
for the Movement in the early stage, but later became the
source of negative influences.

Government   organizations   tend   to   prefer   strictness   of
procedures and orders from its nature. Thus they forced
uniform standardized working plans and emphasized showing
results rather than long term progress. It turned out that
government officials boasted a lot of numbers but villagers
had little to take for them.

Many plans were proceeded only for showing off and frequently
turned into destroying environments without consideration or
devaluing renouncing traditional cultures in the community
under the pretense of modernization.

But, you can overcome and minimize negative impacts of such a
kind if you know and stick to the principle of self-help
relying upon the power and resources of community. Common
experience of getting over trial and errors together would
turn into a tradition and role as salt of the community.
9) How is Saemaul Undong Movement being developed in Korea

In the year of 2003, Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea greeted
its 33rd anniversary. During the time, many things have
changed    in    the     Movement    as    its     characters,     leadership,
courses and other things have shifted.

In 1970s, the Economic Development Plan was operated all over
the nation and the Movement focused on the development of
rural area, which was led by government. The main targets of
it were rehabilitation of living conditions and enlargement
of income.

By the year 1980 the national fundamentals of industry was
established and the Movement started to spread from rural
villages to cities. During the decade from 1981 to 1989, the
model cases of Saemaul Undong Movement in rural areas were
introduced and followed in the factories, working places,
towns in large cities. By that time, the role of government
in the Movement stated getting reduced and the civil parts
like the group of community leaders took greater role. The
Movement ended the stage of led-by-government and turned into
joint-operation of government and civil leaders. The focus of
Movement       shifted    from    the     income    enlargement      to   moral

From 1990s Korea entered into higher stage of industrialized
country and the Saemaul Undong Movement transformed from the
movement of well-being to the movement of harmony and unity
of community. Now the Saemaul Undong Movement is led by pure
civilian leadership.

Based     on    the      traditional      subject     of   local     community
development,       Saemaul       Undong    Movement    takes     a   part   in
environment protect, networking volunteers, re-unification of
Korean peninsular, international support and cooperation and
many other fields. Now it becomes all-court player in the
civil movement, from daily life reformation to national
10) What kinds of international cooperation activities is the
Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea doing now?

The international cooperation of Saemaul Undong Movement is
practiced in three ways; mutual exchanges, supports, and
educations.          We     impart   culture       of      korea,     share        our
experiences of Movement, and offer material supports if

As of December 2003, in Vietnam, East Timor, and Philippines,
Saemaul     model    villages     are   set    up,        with   them      we    have
established cooperative relationship. Each year volunteer
workers from Korea visited these villages and help them. We
support them to build roads, waterways, schools, medical
centers, water wells and other welfare facilities.

In the Primorski Kray of Russia, volunteers of Korea have set
up Saemaul Center and been operating education programs like
personal computer training. Also each summer lager unit of
student volunteers visits it to promote cultural exchange
between     the     two    countries.   They       help     farming     work      and
renovation of village facilities at the same time.

With Japan an exchange program has been operated regularly
for 17 years up to now. We share model cases of community
development with each other and run on-the-spot study program
for it.

Also we have educational program in the Saemaul Training
Institute in Korea for government officials and community
leader of foreign countries who visit Korea to learn about
the   experiences         and   knowledge     of    Korean       Saemaul        Undong

The National Council of Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea is a
member of UNDPI(UN Department of Public Information)                               and
ECOSOC(United Nations Economic and Social Council). As an NGO
representing Korea, we are trying to exchange and cooperate
with various counties and contribute to the community of
2. Five Steps of Saemaul Undong Movement

1) Seeding (basic arrangements)

① Three Arrangements for the start

 You need people
- Saemaul Undong Movement is a movement being done by people. It can’t be
done by someone from outside, nor by guide of government officials. It should
be done by people in the local communities from their daily life. So what you
need first is the organization of people of your village.

- This kind of organization does not evolve itself. There are someone who
move first, and villagers follow them listening what they say and seeing what
they do.

- In other words, you need leaders and core group. They become the heart
around which the organization grows to embrace the whole members of the

 You need Seed Money too
- Now you got a very good idea for the village. Then, Would your neighbors
say ‚Wow that’s really a great idea! When do we start it‛? Mostly, they
say ‚it’s a good idea but what could we start it with?‛ or ‚What the hell
are you saying? We barely manage to get our meals now.‛So you need to make
Money first.

- But how could we make it? Search for a generous benefactor? Collect
contributions from wealthy people? We do not do it that way. It should be
done and can be done by the villagers, the owners of the movement.

- The money made by the villagers is not money as it is. It is an excellent
example for everyone when the first-goers make seed money with their own
hands only. ‚Huh, I thought it was just a boast but they seem to go for
something real!‛ They observe you closely. They get interested now. If the
money is made by the efforts of the whole village, it gives them self-
confidence. It gives them hope. ‚Wow we really can do something!‛ It is the
biggest driving force of the movement.

 And you see that the Basic Principles of Saemaul Undong Movement is:
- Making the outcome accumulated within the community and enjoyed by all the
members of community.
- Operating projects based on the solidarity of community.
- Put the cooperative work before everything as the way of things.
- Making examples from execution of projects.
- Upbringing people through the process of working and reserving fund for

 When Saemaul Undong Movement started first in Korea,
- There were no leaders elected by somebody. No experts who could plan and
guide it. It was just ordinary village people who started the Movement,
determining that they could not go on a life like that. They created hope of
their own by their hands.

- In those days, movement leaders of Korea loved to say ‚it will be
blossomed in the days of our children, even that we cannot enjoy it. We live
and sweat for that today.‛

 Stand ahead first for yourself.
- Saemaul Undong Movement is a movement who feels thirsty digs a well first,
a movement challenging the words of fate, impossible, and unable and a
movement of taking trouble myself for my children’s future.

- Have you ever wanted to be an animal in the wilderness disheartened at your
poverty? And have you cried deeply despairing of the future of your children?
Then you are deserved to be the master of Saemaul Undong Movement.

- Right now in your neighborhood, have you people who are in the same hard
life as you? And there is nobody to dare to try something new?
Then YOU stand ahead first for yourself.
② Building a Core Group 1 - Leaders

 A Leader of Saemaul Undong Movement is like
1. A spark in the dry grass.
You can’t expect the whole village to be unified from the first. A leader
moves first and introduces others into the movement by his guiding practice.

2. The captain of a ship on the open sea.
He(She) shows visions for the movement. He(She) finds break-through when
there are obstacles. He(She) guides and leads the whole community through the
uncharted area of the sea.

3. A cornerstone of an edifice.
Without a leader, there is no movement successfully executed. The existence
of competent leaders is an essential element deciding whether the movement
succeeds or not.

 To set up a leader,
1. It should be decided by community vote in a general meeting of whole
village if your community unites well and most of its members agree to the
idea of Saemaul Undong Movement.

2. It could be decided by the discussion of core group if you start first
with most of villagers not knowing well about the Movement.

 Who deserves eligible for the position is
1. The one who has a sense of duty and passions.
If you have passionate and sincere, you can learn and fill up what you need.
(In Korea, there was a case of community leader who concluded stock raising
the best choice for his village but knew nothing about livestock. He had no
one who could help or advise it. So he started working in large farms and
learned stock farming. After 2 years of farm working, he mastered himself
stock raising and built a community farming facility in his village.)
2. The one who has patience and perseverance.
In the early stage of the movement, you can’t get much cooperation from your
neighbors and have lot of trial and error. When everybody gets disappointed
and fallen off, it is the leader who should be able to get over the
frustration and start again.
(In Korea, there was a story of a community leader who tried to introduce a
new species of watermelon in his village. It failed three times in seeding
because of temperature and humidity control. Finally he wrapped watered seeds
in cloth and had it worn on his belly for two days to get it sprouted.
Nowadays his village is famous for its specialty watermelon.)

3. The one who has lot of confidence and popularity in the community.
Saemaul Undong Movement can be done only when the people believe ad follow
their leaders. A community leader should be a person who has deep interests
in the livings of his neighbors and understands them well. A leader should
understand and love his village and be loved and followed by its people.

 Also you should consider
1. He(She) represent the interest of the whole community.
It could be easy at first making an ex-government official the leader of
community. But who has no experience of rural life and farming can’t
understand the real situation of community and make it into the movement. Or
if you an elder man of village a leader to follow the traditional rule of
community, it can’t bring real power of reformation.

2. He(She) could do real work in the filed.
A community leader has lot of things upon his shoulders. He should visit and
meet every home and house in the village to catch the state of his village
and check every step of every project to make it run well. He must have
strong mentality and physical stamina. A man who would put his title on the
desk and stay in the office can’t take this task.

 If you are going to stand up as a leader, you should first
1. Prepare yourself against your neighbors’ scorning and inhospitality.
You can’t expect your neighbors would welcome and encourage you. Many of
community leaders in Korea faced indifference and sneer in the early stage of
movement. ‚Don’t say nuts!‛, ‚You must be not busy to say things like
that‛, or ‚Nobody praises you with that‛; were told to them.

2. Get rid of your bad habits if you have any. (for an example, heavy

3. Get consents and cooperation of your family. (it’s especially important
if you are a woman.)

[Reference to related contents]
For Community Meeting       page
③ Building a Core Group 2 – cooperative working

 A core group is

1. The main practicing force which approves the idea of the movement and lead
the movement actively with its leader.

2. The one who moves first and induce the rest of village by its activities
in the first stage of movement.

3. Made from the existing organizations of community, or newly started by
organizing a certain section of people, like young man group or by organizing
a cooperative working system for a actual project.

 Cooperative working system is
1. A system to promote a project with many people’s knowledge, capital,
technique, and labor force.

2. Generally the contents of a project would be profit-oriented business, but
sometimes it could be infrastructure business such as building a canal.

3. People could participate in the whole procedure of a project -financing,
purchasing, producing, processing, and distributing -, or they could join
just one part of the project.

 Merits of cooperative work system are

1. Being able to accomplish a project that can’t be done with few work force
(For example, if one person can not afford to buy a machine necessary to
produce and process, people pool their money to buy and share it by
instructing its manual.)

2. High possibility to success
(For example, when new business is introduced, teamwork from purchasing to
distributing can reduce expenses and unnecessary trial and error out of rich

3. Realize thee arrangements of Saemaul Undong Movement - organization, seed
money, and model project - at the same time.

 To organize cooperative work system
1. Gather people agreeing on the same project and decide parts to be done
cooperatively and ways to divide work concretely.
2. With the consent of members, set the rules and restrictions of violation.
3. Choose a person in charge and divide workload for each member in detail.
4. Always record the results of every meeting.

 Things to consider

1. Are the contents of a project helpful to the whole villagers?
For instant benefit, it should not be a project that is beneficial to only a
small number of residents and against the profits of the whole residents of
the village.

2. Isn’t it out of the boundary of our village?
You need to obtain a consent from a person in charge in other towns in
advance in those cases: the target area is connected to other towns (canals,
roads, and etc.), the results of a project influence on other villages (dirt
sewage from livestock farming complex), and synergy is expected when other
towns join the project (processing a certain kind of production).

3. Have we made a promise of joint fund and joint property?
Cooperative project is a kind of a sample business for the future of one’s
village. For the oncoming business of the town, dwellers must reach on
agreement that part of the income or property should be put in the joint fund
or joint property.

[Reference to related contents]
Preparation for seed money 1    page / Joint fund    page
④ Forming a core group 3 – applying existing organization

 The existing organizations include:
1. Fishing and forest industries related to regional specialties
2. Same age union, accompaniment union, and mutual benefit union for mutual aid and
3. Retired people’s group similar to religious organization.

 Apply existing organizations in the cases of which:
1. New organization does not seem prosperous because the village consists of kinship,
or the influence of one religion is too big. (clan society, religious organization, etc.)
2. The main business of the village relates to market, fishing, and forestry. (fishing
union, forestry union, and market prosperity union, etc.)
3. The tradition of existing gatherings is similar to the doctrine of the Saemaul Undong
Movement. (mutual benefit union, accompaniment union, etc.)
4. The condition is not favorable - the size of a village is small and the atmosphere is
inactive – activate one of the stagnant groups already existing.

 Benefits of utilizing existing organization is:
1. No needs to bother to meet people to persuade.
2. Prevent convening many meetings due to their close relationship.
3. With its high renown it attracts residents into a project easily.
4. The members already have experienced cooperative work through previous projects.

 Things to be considered:
1. If they have strong prejudice against each other, they may have difficult time in
2. Hierarchy in a group does not allow democratic decision to be made.
3. Extant mannerism prevents dramatic change.
4. In case of a religious group, it cannot appeal to people who have different religion.
5. Unnecessary energy might be wasted for simple social-gatherings.
 Let’s do like this.
1. Keep merits of a group and start with an activity that is corresponding to the goal of
the group.
(Mutual benevolence group consisting of same age for the purpose of mutual help saved
some money from fraternity fee and purchased a reaping machine. They provided an
opportunity to establish mechanical farming group by harvesting rice plants in the busy
farming season.)
2. Constantly challenge and suggest alternatives for the wrong customs and culture. If
it’s possible, suggest cooperative project model as for alternatives.
(A leader in a fishing village reminded villagers of the danger of unlicensed dragnet
fisheries and dissuaded them from doing that by showing its chronic disadvantage. He
made 3-4 families get together and purchase necessary equipment for getting the
license. This alternative completely changed producing equipments and production
method quite falling behind.)
3. If the effects are certain, you can make a challenge taboo.
(A married woman in a fishing village broke the taboo, – women are not allowed to be
on board of a fishing boat – going to sea with her husband, and made good money. This
provided an opportunity to make joint fishing fleet of married couples for the entire
fishing village.)

[Reference to related contents]
Cooperative work system          page / Cooperative project    page
⑤ Forming a core group 4 - Sectional organizations

 Sectional organizations:
Are autonomous organizations established by a certain group of people who have
something in common in terms of sex, age, or the role in the community. They include
organizations of the women, juvenile, youth, middle-aged men, and seniors. In Korea,
the women’s and juvenile association play an important role in Saemaul Undong

 Women’s association:
1. Consists of married women. Single women at a given age could be members as well.

2. They have very high desire to renovate their lives, because they suffer from
housework and agricultural affairs.

3. With their common agonies, they once get together their energy will be exploded.

4. Women can play more various roles than men can: babysitting, doing housework,
farming, and helping matters great and small in the village.(to manage cultivation group,
to renovate houses, to develop village, to provide facilities, to assist neighbors in need,
to run joint market, and etc.)

5. They have potential energy and perform their work tenaciously and perfectly.

 In running a women’s association, consider these things first.
1. Typical emotional traits of women, like abomination against corruption or competitive
spirit. By explicating expenditure of fund and demonstrating specific individual
advantages along with public goals, a leader has to provoke competitive spirit to run the
group smoothly. Eventually members have to realize mutual strength through activities
on the association.

2. Need to get family’s assent through activities.
In many cases, husbands and mother-in-law do not approve their wives’ or daughter-
in-laws’ participating in a women’s association. However, after they see improvement
in their home and village, they usually change their minds and start to support the
activities. Even some of them support very enthusiastically.

 Juvenile association:
1. Consists of late teenagers and early twenties. If there are many students among them,
divide it into two groups as one for students and the other for young people.

2. Mostly, they are either engaging in farming without going to school, or being a
student, the head of a family, and a farmer all the same. Thus, they are potential leaders
in the future for community development.

3. They participate in Saemaul Undong Movement most enthusiastically because they
can receive and understand new things immediately.

 Consider following things in a juvenile association.
1. Since they are different in physical strength and psychological condition, give them
their own project different from one of adults and guide them to doing it independently.
When they participate in a village project along with adults, assign an individual task for
them to have their own role.

2. Due to the lack of experiences, they need to be instructed for skills and information
required. Pay special attention not an accident to happen at the work site.

3. Provide educational opportunities such as information technology, farming, and other
vocational skills to make them able to be independent, whether they leave for city or
stay in the village.

 [Reference to related contents]
Active Sectional organizations     page
⑥ Raising seed money 1 – through sample cooperative project

 What is the seed money for Saemaul Undong Movement?
1. Financial asset providing foundation for village projects.

2. Mainly raising fund by villagers themselves is a rule. To accomplish it, cooperative
project and cooperative movement are considered. Usually the two methods are used

3. Both of the two methods above are managed by cooperative work system.

 A cooperative project is:
1. A business plan, the direct goal of which is increasing income.
2. If you think the time is premature, you can just start it with those who consent to it.
3. Deduct some money from individual income and reserve it as fund for village project.
4. It gives an example to people that shows ‘Doing is achieving.’
5. Once it succeeds, it will be settled down as a model project in the village, and it will
lift up dwellers’ income in relatively short period of time.

 Things to be prepared:
1. Information and knowledge for the project.
2. Accounting ability.
3. Suppliers for production materials and equipments, and markets for the goods
4. Individual investments by members of the project group. If you can’t make it, find
solution in a collective way.

 In case of lacking money
1. Raise cooperative fund out of cooperative labor.
(A sericulture cooperative working group in S village, Korea, raised fund by exploiting
hillock together and planting mulberry trees there.)

2. Provide basis for big project through small cooperative work.
(A cooperative working group in D village, Korea, originally started from raising
chickens, and then bought pigs with the profit of selling chickens. With the earnings
made by selling pigs, they exploited hillock jointly, developed it as a live stock farming
complex, and raised cows there.)

3. Raise cooperative fund by developing value added products.
(A red pepper cultivation group in B village, Korea, reclaimed fallow ground jointly and
reaped red pepper. And then, they changed the field into a public drying facility and
processed the crop into dried red pepper, making much more value added to raw pepper.
It gave them enough money to build a fully equipped green house facility and raise
green produce in winter.)

4. Contribute as much as you can; labor, land, money, skills, etc.
(A mechanized farming group in H village, Korea, started by purchasing a used tractor
through day labor in busy farming season. One person took in charge of repairing the
machine and instructing operations. Another one who owned a store provided it as an
office. And the other four members were responsible for contracting harvest jobs.
Through the joint efforts and work, they could increase the number and kinds of

 Things to be careful;
1. In a model cooperative project, the leader should show responsibility, patience,
friendship, boldness, and resolution. Among those qualities, boldness and resolution are
more important.

2. Be alert to the changes in market. Keep an eye open about the information to
purchasing, distributing, and selling.

3. Be welcome to any residents who would like to join the cooperative project.

4. Keep record on the results of project and contents of expenditure clearly, and let the
record be open to all residents.

[Reference to related contents]
Principles and standards to select project     page / Planning project   page
⑦ Raise seed money 2 – by cooperative work

 What is Saemaul cooperative work
Part of or the whole residents get involved in a cooperative work for a certain period of
time voluntarily to achieve a goal of the group.

 Features different from a model cooperative project.
1. More residents can participate more easily.
2. Goals are much broader.
(all the areas included except a direct profit oriented project.)
3. As the result of one cooperative work leads to another cooperative work, it makes
more residents become involved in the project voluntarily and the movement growth.

 Effects increase in the cases like followings:
1. When there is an imminent need in the village.
(ex: Reconstruction of bridge impaired by flood.)

2. When there is high demand for public facilities.
(ex: town house and clinics)

3. Goals with order and clear explanation are better.
(ex: Pavement of entrance road to village. : ** 2004. 00. 00 ~ 200x. 00. 00)

4. Public goal based on the interest of individual family will be good.
(ex: One bank account per each family.)

 Koreans did like this.
1. Recycling
It produces three benefits: raising seed money, cleaning environment, and recycling
- Collecting and selling bottles and other waste materials regularly.
- Obtaining surplus materials from large construction sites and use them instead of
buying new ones.
- Make students collect empty bottles and other waste materials, and earn pocket
money by selling them. Encourage this movement among children

2. Utilizing unused things in different ways
Make use of fallow ground and deserted facilities. It is good for the owner and user.
- Develop hillock and fallow ground jointly. Raise seed money with the earnings made
through selling lumber and grass and the profits resulted from cooperative cultivation.
- Cultivate fallow ground of absent owners, and manage together a salt farm deserted
by the lack of money.

3. Save and use what they have.
It is making something out of nothing, by constant efforts of daily life.
- Reducing a spoonful of rice whenever cooking a meal. (a movement of rice saving).
- Purchase daily necessaries in great numbers at low price. Distribute these items at
reasonable price to each family and save the difference.
- Purchase industrial products such as salad oil in large package of lower price and
share it. Deposit the difference.

4. Participate in day labor together.
It is a way to earn money quickly by collaborating familiar work in a short period of
- Save wages earned by cooperative work like weeding and reaping in busy farming
- Save wages earned by cooperative work of seasonal jobs such as picking fruits at
orchard and doing some chores at stock raising farms.

 Let’s pay attention to the facts like followings:
1. Let each family and individual have clear meaning of a cooperative project before
they participate in it.

2. The project should seek not only group interest but also individual family interest.
(ex: Put money partly on individual banking account and save some for cooperative

3. Manage fund clearly and distribute dividend according to the members’ agreement.
Also inform the result to everyone participating in the project.

4. The longer the period of movement is, the better motivation is needed.

[Reference to related contents]
Residents’ credit union movement page
2) Operation of Projects

⑬ Principles and standards for selecting a project
 Saemaul Undong Movement is largely divided by
1. Improving environment project(Renovating houses, reconstructing roads, and
building facilities)

2. Increasing income project (Solidifying foundation of living, varying cultivation,
and diversifying business)

3. Reforming consciousness in the community (exterminating bad habit)

 Courses at beginning stage:
1. Should be analogous to convenience and interest of majority of residents.

2. Can incite expectation and motivation
Choose an appropriate project that inspires thought that Saemaul Undong
Movement improves our village and life this much and we should do our best.

3. Can be an exercise for a cooperative work.
Pay special attention not to make it a superficial project and attract only small
number of townspeople.

 Two projects of beginning stage in Korea
1. The most desired project among environment reforming project
(Renovating houses, constructing driveway, building sewage system, and
establishing town house.)

2. Infrastructure business that directly connects with profit increasing project
or income.
(Part time job during the farmer’s slack season, broadening a farm road,
constructing joint workshop, building bridges, paving an entrance of a
village, and etc.)
 Check lists
1. Can it be accomplished by residents’ spontaneity?
Let’s consider range of the result and ratio of followers in the beginning
stage. In case of objection reasons and validity should be reflected.

2. Is it suitable to the traits and conditions of a village?
Consider nature, geography, history, and traits of population composition in the

3. Is it eligible to the ability of villagers?
Cooperative and educational level, resource, labor, and nature have to be

4. Can this project bring long-term development?
Relation between expectation for future development and current business, my
and next villages, and entire town should be reflected as well.

 Income based project is especially:
1. For the purpose of financial self-supporting, location type of a village has to
be evaluated.
Is it a fishing, farming, or mountain village? How close to city? How is the
traffic condition to near commercial areas?

2. Assess property to see if they need aid or not. Here comes check lists.
How much land is available? Is there any fallow that can be developed? How is
the nature of the soil? How is average economic strength? Are there any public
facilities that can be applied? How is the quality and accommodation of
facilities? How are the educational and technical levels of villagers?

3. Examine cooperative level to see if they can manage adversity.

4. Consider conditions in circumference, policies of central and local
government, and trend of neighboring nations and
[Reference to related contents]
Small group meeting page
⑭ Planning a project

 A project plan is
1. As no building can be built without blueprint, designing a project is
essential process.

2. Don’t expect windfall. Evaluate the current status objectively and plan

3. Approximate estimate should be avoided. Plan correctly and in detail
according to the inspection made in advance.

4. Referring to various opinions from many workers prevents from making

5. The original copy of a plan acts as a guide during the whole procedure of
a project. Make it as a document and let it be available to every villager at

 Essential elements to be in
1. Who would conduct this project?
(Participating members/ goals of a project/ contents of a project/ size of a

2. Scale of necessary financial resources
(machine/ tools/ kinds and quantity of a seed/ the demand of land, building,
and movable estate/ scale of total money demand)

3. Ways to procure necessary funds.
(route of purchasing items/ methods to procure funds – financing, loaning,
cooperative labor/ methods of payment – monthly installment, paying off,
reimburse, spot transaction, distribute dividend, etc.)

4. Ways to put labor force in and divide workload.
(kinds of work expected/ ways to put labor force in – division of work
according to a part, synchronous cooperative work, cooperative work by turns,
etc./ division of workload, work boundary and responsible persons for each
part of work.)

5. Quantity of consuming materials and ways to procure them.
(fertilizer, fodder, agricultural medicines, kinds and amounts of consuming
materials/ route of acquiring/ time to buy, etc.)

6. Ways to distribute information
(necessary    technology/   route   of   distribution    –   people,   institutions,
practicing areas in the field, magazines/ ways to distribute – inviting
instructors, self-education by an advance runner, sharing booklets)

7. Route and methods to sell: only for income oriented project.
(routes to sell/methods to sell – collaborative or individual selling at a
producing    center,   direct   transaction   on the    field/   shipping   method   –
temporary, order, and after processing/ methods to divide dividend/ formula
to accumulate public fund, and place to use, etc.)

8. Developing plan afterwards
(goals to achieve in the first round/ main issues in the second round/ plans
for long term)

9. Devices at emergency

 Example from Korea.
: A successful example from H village in J island.
1. Goals of a project: providing self-reviving base by raising rapes in a
large quantity.

2. Necessary materials: sufficient land but short of seeds and fertilizer.

3. Ways to resolve: making a contract with a company consuming rape. (being
supplied with seeds and fertilizers from a company and providing the whole
production to the company.)
4. Standard to divide profit: individual’s amount of laboring hours and

5. Joint fund: reserving 10% of the returns and appropriating for buying
seeds and fertilizers

6. Developing plan for the second year: other than the contracted amount
secure a certain amount of yield for the village/ start apiculture business
based on the rape project.

7. Expectation for development for a long term: building a plant in the

[Reference to relevant contents]
Small group meeting     page
⑮ Persuading villagers 1 – Set a model to the villagers.

 At the beginning of a project, the villagers usually say:
- What can we do?
- We have lived like this for long period of time. Why bother to change?
- We don’t want to waste our precious time on unfruitful things.
- Are you out of your mind or something?

 At first glance, these reactions
1. Look like they are lack of the will to improve their lifestyle.
However, the real reason of these reactions is not their lack of the will but
their lack of self-confidence. They are just waiting for someone else going
for it first.

2. They look totally indifferent.
However, with their bad memory of being taken advantage from others, they
only keep a distance a little bit, but they are never indifferent. Rather
they pay a lot of attention to it saying to themselves, ‘let’s wait and

 Thus, the leaders and core group of Saemaul Undong Movement:
1. Have to trust the fact that true heart would work without fail.
(There is one good example in Korea. Even though many leaders was slapped in
the face by villagers in the beginning, the project succeeded in the end.)

2. Have to persuade people constantly.
(If a leader gives up his/her persuading after a few times of trying,
villagers will be disappointed saying ‘See. I told you’. Many examples from
Korea show the fact that a leader visited every house everyday walking 20 –
30 miles suffering from footsore.)

3. Have to have a genuine pride.
(Sometimes a leader has to beg, may be given a cold reception in front of a
house, or may be slapped by a villager. Under all circumstances a leader has
to understand villager’s situation and should not be mad at them.)

4. Giving them a good example is the most important matter.

 Korea’s cases - I will go for the hardest one!

1. A case of persuading certain villagers who had to sacrifice their lands to
broaden streets in the village.
A leader abandoned his land destroying the fence of his own house and decided
to persuade an old man who had to sacrifice huge amount of land. The leader
started to visit the owner two times a day. At first the owner refused to
meet him, but after a while he was moved by his steady effort and surrendered.
After this incident, villagers who were against the project withdrew their

2. A case of persuading male villagers indifferent to building public well
and public laundry place
Members of women’s association helped great and small matters in village
such as attending funeral and cleansing sewage and village steadily. Finally,
they won approval of the project through community meeting.

 Korea’s cases - accomplishing miracle through setting a model to
: A case of a fishing village called a cat village.
- It was a remote sea-side fishing village with 173 families and 804 residents.
A big projecting part of ‘a cat rock’ located in seashore cut off the village from
traffic with outside world and the sea. With a produce yielded in an average
0.6ha barren land, they lived worrying about meals.
- In community meeting a leader suggested breaking the rock and cutting a path
leading to outside world. Furthermore, move the debris to waterfront and
cultivate oyster.
- Reaction was fanatic. People said that touching the rock would bring disaster.
- After forming a task force consisting of 5 relatives they started to break the
rock only with hammers and levels over 2 months.
- People said at first, “Let’s wait and see what’s happening. It’s the weirdest
thing ever. It will take 100 years to complete it.” However, their mockery
changed into compassion, and they started to participate in it.
- Soon all the young men in the village decided to participate it, and after six
months one fifth of the work was completed.
- Finally, old men, the worst objectors for this project, supported it
enthusiastically, and every resident participated in it by taking turns.
- Two years after the project started, the cat rock disappeared from the village.
350,000 rocks were dropped into the sea and cultivation bed for oyster was
- Within 3 years after this event thin-shelled surf clam and lugworm as well
as oyster became special products in the village. Along with these special
products they could secure additional farmland by building sea wall through
cooperative work.
⑯ Persuading villagers 2 – ‘You can do it.’ Present results.

 When a new project is given, villagers usually say:
- We live from hand to mouth. Why the hell bother to start a new project?
- What do you know about this? Can you take responsibility for that?
- What difference does that make?

 These reactions:
1. Comes from deep anxiety. They worry they might lose what they have now
while trying a new project. This deep-rooted anxiety cannot be removed easily.

2. They often say words demonstrating disregard, distrust, and contempt
hiding their real fear. Those words are just because they distrust the result
not because they show aversion toward the leaders.

3. Seeing is believing! Showing them the result is the best policy. Only
after villagers see the results and get provoked, they will run into the
movement enthusiastically.

 Korea’s case - In S village, only the leader started a project alone.
- The town had 56 families and 315 residents, located near highway connecting two consuming
cities. Most of the villagers were poor-landed peasants with average 0.5ha farmland and mainly
earned money as farm servants or day laborers.
- The leader, who came back to his hometown after dropped out of college, decided to do high-
grade horticulture after considering location conditions of the town and persuaded villagers.
- Most villagers ignored, distrusted, and even derided him saying what he said was totally
moonshine. People despised him as a jobless looser even studying at college.
- For the young men in the town, the leader provided a class to teach skills about cultivating
plants by inviting a professor from agricultural department in his college. However, residents
showed constant indifference saying that the lecture was beyond their intellectual ability.
- In winter, by way of showing an example, the leader cultivated cucumbers and tomatoes in
green house alone.
- For 60 days he made twenty times as much as the other villagers earned by raising barley,
staple in that village.
- Right after villagers saw the unbelievable result, they were eager to learn it.
- Delivering skills and Multiplying profits by sharing the essential materials.
- Within a year many dwellers started high-grade horticulture and from the second year they
planned livestock farming to obtain many organic fertilizers.
- Three years after that the town could have 30 cows, 100 goats, and 50 pigs. Along with it, they
reclaimed mountain and planted persimmon trees there, and doubled their income.

 Korea’s case – In I village, youngsters gathered.
- There were 59 families and 301 residents in the town, and the staple of this
village was rice. Since 80% of the land belonged to 5-6 great landlords, most
residents were poor.
- The leader, a retired mechanic officer, suggested making mechanical farming
group. The idea came out of from the fact that most villagers did not have their
own land, and the neighborhood was suitable for raising barley and rice.
- Most villagers were in half doubt, and treated the idea as daydream.
- With retirement pay and loan he bought one reaping machine.
He reaped all the barley with that machine and proved its
effectiveness. It led a mechanical farming group consisted of
51 people to be made.
- To raise money to procure machine for mass automation, women cut reed and
made tapestry and men made strand and straw bag collectively.
- With this money three rice planters and two combines were purchased and
kept as public property. Several divided groups worked as subcontractors for
neighborhood and absentee landlords. 50 % of its early income was saved as
public fund.
- 7 years after that, 11 rice planters, 5 tractors, 8 binders, 14 water pumps,
40 pest repellents, public barn for these machineries, and plant for rice
pounding were provided.

 Key Point.
Choosing a project that produces quick result is better.
⑰ Collecting consensus 1 – small group meeting

 Two ways are used to collect consensus
1. Community meeting run by over majority of residents
2. Small group meeting run by less than 10 people.

 Merits of Small group meeting are:
1. The contents of meeting are very profound because the number of its
members is very small.
2. Since all of the members can have a chance to speak their opinions, public
opinion could be reflected equally.
3. Since meeting is held in relatively small place, a few members’ disturbing
actions such as long speech, filibuster, fault finding, and backbiting could be
avoided. So, the efficiency increases.
4. It is a place for mutual education: members present their comparative cases.
5. It is a training place; villagers learn democratic debating attitude by
6. It is a very powerful device: ideas and will gather simultaneously.

 How to proceed the meeting efficiently:
1. The leader of the meeting suggests a subject.

2. Group the whole participants into units. Each unit consists of less than
10 people. Select a chairperson and a writer for each unit. (Chairperson can
serve as a writer as well.)

3. Proceed meeting in order as followings:
- Share the present circumstances of the occasion.
- What are the problems to solve? (Specify them.)
- What is the solution? How can we improve it? (Result: ways to improve)
- How can we put them into practice? (Result: concrete solution)
- What are precedent cases and information to refer? (Result: complementary
matters for solution)
- What should the whole group or individuals do to carry the solution into
practice? (Result: Decision on a course of action to practice)
- Summary and finish the meeting(Result: resolutions)

4. Every member should give his/her opinion at least one time. If the
atmosphere is passive, force every member to comment at least one time.

5. When meeting is over, the chairperson summarizes determination and let
members be aware of it clearly.

6. If there are many small group meetings, set the time to discuss and share
the decisions when every member is together. (In certain cases, only the
chairperson of small groups will gather.)

7. After the leader collects and summarizes the entire opinions, he/she
reports final determination and agenda that need additional discussion.

 Let’s be careful on these things.
1. Chairpersons should create comfortable atmosphere so that all the members
can speak their opinions and cases clearly and concretely.

2. Result has to list individuals’ courses of action to practice very
concretely and in detail.

 Key Point
1. When the subject is general(dealing with village affairs), mix members of
a small group meeting       regardless of their class, blood relation, and
closeness. Different factors and trends among these members will help
communicate and understand. Thus, each member would behave and speak more
responsible remarks.

2. When the subject is special(cooperative working system and income oriented
project), divide the meeting groups according to members’ high relevancy
such as neighborhood, working group, and sectional group.
[Reference to related contents]
General meeting of villagers     page
⑱ Collecting consensus 2 - General meeting of villagers

 General meeting of villagers:
1. About important issues in the village, electing staffs, and deciding
2. By over majority of residents
3. Pass a resolution against or in favor of them.

 Merits of General meeting of villagers are:

1. Contents of projects can be publicized and announced to the whole
residents at the same time.
2. Collect residents’ opinions at a time.
3. Decisions once made in community meeting carry binding force.
4. Boost whole residents’ participation in a project.
5. Let the whole residents be aware of democratic procedures and methods
required to debate.

 Let’s consider these things in advance.
1. Does the village already have resident community meeting or meeting
strategies similar to it?
- Yes. Have a thorough grasp of its functions, merits, and demerits clearly,
and take advantages of them.
- No. Make them while proceeding with a project.

2. In what degree does the tradition of clan society exist?
- If the tradition of clan society is strong, change the existing methods of
meeting little by little.
- If the tradition of a clan society is week, use modern community meeting
methods in the beginning.

3. Aren’t there enough drafted labor and paying labor?
- If residents have been mobilized unilaterally many times, they are not
likely to show passion to community meeting. Persuasion and publicity in
advance are expected.
- If residents have been mobilized paying labor run by government office many
times, expectation for income will be high. Community meeting has to be
summoned with having a plan for this.

4. There is a slim chance to attract many residents to community meeting from
the beginning.
The bigger the effect of project and the more experience about modern
community     meeting   villagers    have     the   more   enthusiastically   villagers
participate    in   a   project.    Example   from Korea     shows that the     average
participating rate was 50-60% in the beginning, barely over the majority.
However, as the project advances 80-90% villagers participated in the project.

 Arrangement for a meeting
1. Prepare the subjects to discuss.
Publicize actively the subjects to be notified to and attract residents.

2. Prepare the place of meeting.
If there is a place used regularly, use it. Otherwise, choose a place which
can accommodate the whole residents and is easy to access forall residents.

3. Inform the meeting schedule.
- Subjects, place, and time.
- Notify the schedule at least 7 days ahead except an emergency.
- Make the notice large, and put it in easily visible way, in public places
where many people gather.

 Progress of a meeting
1. Declaration of opening by the village headman or chairman.
Singing national anthem and reciting rules of the community will excite mood
of the meeting.
2. Explanation of subject by a proposer or a leader
Make    it    brief   and short,      and   refer   only    its   point.   To    improve   its
effectiveness, use handouts, diagrams, charts, and pictures.

3. Discussion
- Give every man a chance to speak equally.
- Designate passive people to speak out.
- Don’t let any influential or old people ignore the procedure of the
- Restrict subjects irrelevant to the meeting, like slanders, speaking the
same stories repeatedly, and speeches too long and pointless.

4. Vote
You can take the vote by show of hands if the atmosphere is casual and free.
But you’d better use secret voting if it is authoritative.

5. Announcement of results and closing the meeting

[Reference to related contents]
Small group meeting            page

⑲ Let everybody plays a part

 To accomplish the decision of the general meeting of villagers
1.     Make   a   plan   that   can    accommodate    all    residents,    and    manage   it
2. Decide the whole schedule and procedure of a project in advance.
(ex: is it working together simultaneously or by taking turns?)
3. Within the consented working schedule, divide the work according to
villagers’ age, gender, and capabilities.

<Example: improvement of waterways>
- Decision: preparing against flood by putting in good order of river around,
consolidating bank, paving the road leading to the bank with pebbles from the
river, and forming flowerbed.
- Ways of cooperative work: cooperative work by neighborhood by taking turns,
(villagers in 00 area: when, from where to where, villagers in ** area: when,
from where to where.)
- Division of work according to their age: adolescent and manhood (dredging
floor of river, delivering rocks, renovating roads, and paving road with
pebbles), women (delivering rocks, cooking for laborers, and reclaiming
farmland from plateau), elderly people (taking care of babies, reclaiming
farmland from plateau, and forming flowerbed on the road to the bank), early
teenagers (taking care of babies and forming flowerbed on the road to the
bank), and late teenagers (delivering rocks, pulling weed out of the bank,
and using the weed as manure)

 Set an example, and followings are brought by tacit understanding.
< Example: establishing studying village>
- Condition: It was a rural area neighboring to pleasure quarters in suburb.
Distracting atmosphere threatened teenagers’ studying.
- Women group initiated to established a village library and study room for
- To raise fund villagers worked at wages such as planting rice and pulling
out weed. They rented follow, yielded vegetables, and sold them in markets
- Manhood moved by women’s efforts patrolled neighbors at night to control
public morals.
- Elderly people volunteered in taking care of babies, teaching Chinese
characters, and running etiquette class.
- Supporters with money and interest and administrators donated land and
- Finally, a village library and study room was established. Feast for
elderly people was held on the opening day.
- Schools nearby and from cities contributed books.
- It is a place to study not only for teenagers but also for adolescents.

 Children and teenagers are villagers’ future.
1. Allot work to children under their responsibility.
2. It could be a live educational field where students can learn cooperative spirit,
responsibility, and pride.

<Example: children’s rabbit unit>
- Children tried breeding rabbits as a source of protein and tuition as well.
- Children got fodder and fed on rabbits cooperatively. Later they started to
raise pheasants and traditional chickens.
- They devoted themselves to their work. Thus, there was not anything which
needed adults’ help.

< Example: teenagers’ procuring tuition>
- For the purpose of procuring tuition themselves, teenagers reclaimed
hillock and cultivated beans by rotation.
- After harvesting they made fermented soybeans with it. (Fermented soybeans
is essential ingredient of soybean paste which is also made by fermenting,
and there were a lot of demand from city dwellers.)
- They sold them at permanent markets neighboring city, and procured their

 Elderly people are source of wisdom for Saemaul Undong Movement.
1. Always consult their opinions.
2. Give them charge of things that need little energy but needs a lot of
caution. Villagers can entrust them with an important project, because they
are sincere and have a great number of experiences.

 Let’s pay attention to these things.
Don’t forget to educate children and teenagers about safety rules and
techniques which are needed at work in advance.

[Reference to related contents]
Active sectional organizations     page
⑳ Prepare and manage public property.

 Make a list
1. List all the names and quantities of items come across.
2. Among the listed items, exclude existing and unnecessary. Items that can
be replaced by other items should be omitted as well.
3. Make a separate list on the items that can be procured by residents.
4. According to priority, keep residual items in order and readjust quantity.
5. Small group meeting is effective.

 Let’s prepare like this
1. To prevent disorder notify personal bringing in advance and confirm them.
2. Among the purchasing list leave out things that can be obtained from
3. Rent extremely expensive items or things that would be used only one time.
4. Purchase necessary items by public fund.
5. For each item, decide how to purchase it after checking the merits and
demerits between financing and paying off.
6. When purchasing machinery people have to get warrant (especially for used
one) and instruction.
7. For bulk and constant purchase unify suppliers and get discount.
8. Regulate purchasing timing for the items that have different prices per
different seasons.

 How to keep them?
1. If there is a public storage, save them there. And select general manager,
and have him enter all the items in the ledger.
2. If there is not a public storage, have each family keep one of the items.
In this case, make a list on the items and educate the keeper how to store it.

 How to Manage?
1. Appoint a person in charge and manage them permanently.
2. The responsible person takes care of checking out and in and maintaining
it. To prevent chaos record check out and in, and to avoid errors in the plan
maintain it well.
3. If the item is used for personal purpose, charge it and save the fee for
public fund.

 Pay attention to these things
1. To avoid waste set strict daily limit of consumables and keep an accurate
account everyday.

2. To avoid breakdown of machinery and misuse of building materials educate
the usage in advance and keep cautions posted at storage place.
ex) How to use cement?
- It takes 10 hours to solidify it. Thus, be careful not to step on it or
heat it within 10 hours.
- Keep them from getting humid by separating them from the earth by 30cm.
3. Keep dangerous materials at a place far from the center of the town and
take a good care of them.

[Reference to related contents]
Small group meeting page / Joint fund page
21 Preparing center

 If there is a center, there is No:
1. Need to visit every house at every time to impart information. News would
be on the notice board routinely.
2. Need to meet people to promulgate technique. Education could be given at
the center indiscriminately.
3. Need to move meeting place. People could discuss about the project stably
to their hearts’ content.
4. Need to wonder about the progress. People could check daily results on the
notice board.

 If you have one already, change it into a project center.
1. Get a place for Saemaul Undong Movement and put daily results on the
notice board. Responsible person for each section stops by the place every
day to collect results and check necessary matters.

2. Put flags or posters standing for Saemaul Undong Movement in front of the
center. This will remind villagers of Saemaul Undong Movement ordinarily.

3. When every villager works together, the center is used as dinning room or
day care center.

4. Let people use this place as a meeting place. Different group of people
could get together and share information here in the different time of a day:
early afternoon for elderly people and children, late afternoon for teenagers,
and night time for manhood and women.

5. Put notice board at the center and let this place full of information such
as great and small matters among villagers, news about Saemaul Movement, and
tips for technique, education, and life.

 If you haven’t any, find a place where can be used even temporarily.
1. There would be a place villagers often gather. To begin with use that
place as the center.

2. A certain potentate’s private place or religious institution also can be
used as the center, only if the villagers don’t have antipathy against it.

3. If anything above is not possible, use the leader’s house as the center.
In this case, the house should be large, and the location of the house should
be convenient for reach.

 When building new Village Hall
1. Refer those conditions when you pick townhouse.
- A place available for every villager.
- A place convenient for traffic.
- A place with an open space around it is desirable to build additional
facilities near it,
2. Use materials that are available within the town.
3. Shorten the period of construction and strengthen affection for it though
residents’ participating.

 When Using the Center
1. Clean and put stuffs in order after using the center to avoid giving bad
impression to other users.
2. When many residents use the Center, provide a sheet for reservation at the
entrance to avoid conflicting schedules between users.
3. If illiterate rate of the village is high, use many pictures on notice

[Reference to related contents]
Establishing Village Hall     page
22 Encouraging each other

 Atmosphere is important.
‚We are doing Saemaul Undong Movement.‛ ‚We are doing this because of this
and that.‛ ‚Cheer up.‛ If people see and hear these cliches often, they
will be sick and tired of it. Thus, create an atmosphere that could boost
Saemaul Undong Movement spirit implicitly.

 Use common emblem.
Internally common emblems such as song, flag, and badge help unite members
together. Externally they publicize Saemaul Undong Movement and make its
identity settled down naturally.

1. Saemaul flag is proclamation.
Hang Saemaul flag at the entrance of townhouse and village. It will incite
people’s curiosity. Then, how would villagers reply? They will say that we
are doing Saemaul Undong Movement and Saemaul Undong Movement is this and
that. They will put all of their energy in explaining Saemaul Movement. This
will act as self-proclamation and self-promise. They see the flag whenever
they in and out of the village, and it reminds them of its spirit over and
over again.
And when people work cooperatively, put small flags at the place to boost

2. Songs give energy.
Compose a song for the village. New song or existing song with new lyrics
will do. If possible use melodies of traditional songs played when people
work together, and use it when they work together. Camaraderie develops from
the moment when they sing the song to learn.
In Korea, song of Saemaul Undong Movement was composed and song whenever
people work together. Even the song was song before the meeting begins.

3. Expand emblems to cap, badge, and scarf after starting with flag and song.
 Mutual aid is desirable.
1. Whenever there are great and small matters among villagers, notify them,
help each other, and share the joy and sorrow.
2. Help the family in need resulted from unexpected accidents with the public
3. Loan to the family that needs big amount of money from the joint fund with
low interest.
4. Establish scholarship association to help students in the village. Give
scholarship regularly and let as many students get its benefits as possible.

 Let the exemplary people be known widely and praise them.
1. Award people who practice virtues encouraged by villagers such as great
mothers, daughter-in-laws, sons, and nice students. Hold a party to celebrate
2. Let’s praise and award people who work hard and achieve goals of Saemaul
Undong Movement earlier than due day or who achieve more than planed.
Celebrate them on ceremonial day for the completion or anniversary day. To
avoid trouble clarify process based on objective standard.

 Hold a party and praise each other’s effort that they made.
1. Hold a public gala and take care of neighbors in need during festive days
and the season of harvest.
2. Throw a party for elders regularly and make it a custom.
3. Every resident get together to prepare it by the rule of Saemaul Undong

[Reference to related contents]
Joint fund      page
23 We are one living creature. Let blood circulate.

 The most terrible thing for the Movement is:
Not failure of the project but conflict and separation among villagers. Only
if Saemaul spirit is alive, failure can be restored quickly, but if the
spirit is disappeared, that’s it. Two main elements that damage Saemaul
spirit are as followings:

1. When information is not shared properly.
2. When staffs are corrupted and hold a monopoly.

 Sharing information of the present project has to be guaranteed.
1. Some leaders and officers tend to be lazy at reporting after Saemaul
Undong Movement gets on the track. Don’t be loose on reporting and listening
opinions like the beginning.

2. Even after people leave, the system stays. Maintain intelligence system
- Settled small group meeting
- Frequently notify within the center and regulate reports of community
- Publish local newspaper.
- To communicate smoothly villagers make up teams. Each team is in charge of
reporting, delivering notice, and collecting opinions from the small number
of residents and illiterates in remote places.

 Clear management has to be guaranteed.
1. Representatives, leaders, and residents of the village sign jointly as for
depositor of the joint fund and registrant of public property to prevent

2. Public fund can be used by the decision made in community meeting, and its
results must be reported.
3. Close account about consumed materials by one day, keep an accurate
account after completion, and report it in the residents community meeting.

 Cut out malfeasances immediately.
1. Hesitation to take an action on corruption, due to humaneness, could
result in suspicion among villagers. By the name of the general meeting of
villagers, give a royal summons to suspect. After the suspicion turns out to
be true, the person should be fired instantly.

2. Of course, in the case of interest intervention, the suspect will get
royal summons from the general meeting of villagers, and right after his
fault is found out the person has to leave the position.
In this case, whether the project run by the suspect will be kept or not will
be decided by its magnitude of gain and loss. What really matters is the
understanding by the villagers. Thus, if the project is promising and the
fault can be corrected, there is not any reason to stop the project.

 But!
Other conflicts among residents should be handled by self-regulating rules.
As long as they influence on public project, a little intervention is allowed.

[Reference to related contents]
Small group meeting page / Publishing local newspaper page
24 Getting assistance from outside

 In those occasions, assistance is necessary
1. When resources required to achieve a long-cherished desire are lack.
2. If it is related to national policy.
3. When self-supporting bases are lost by war, disease, famine, and flood.
4. A great number of labor forces are needed due to natural disaster.

 Supporting groups from outside include:
1. Central government, local government, and district administrator
2. Domestic supporting groups
3. Overseas supporting groups
4. City dwellers from the town
5. Religious groups

 When you get assistance from outside
1. Exclude self-sufficient parts.
2. Attach detailed plans for a project.

 You should include those elements in the plan
1. Abstract about the current status in the town.
2. Contents of the project requiring assistance (necessity and outline of the
3. Detailed plans for the project (plans by the order of day and self-
supplying resources and labor force)
4.   Detailed   contents about   supporting   request   (usage   and   quantity   of
necessary items, and the kind and the number of assisting labor force)
5. Undertaking assisting material, safekeeping and managing, and making rules
to use.

 Develop it as a permanent relief force
1. Report the progress to the supporter often.
2. Send something as a mark of appreciation. (Such as letter of appreciation
and local products)
3. Enlarge interchanging human resources such as inviting to commemoration
exercises, dispatching service group, and inspecting village.
4. Broaden interchange and cooperation in technology, information, and
education areas.

[Reference to related contents]
Establishing partnership with other regions and government offices
page / Setting up sisterhood relationship with foreign countries
3) Main Stage of Project

① Project 1 for living environment improvement –Eliminate
inconveniences of the houses.

 This project:
1. makes houses safer and more convenient.
2. makes villagers more enthusiastic to improve their living
3. makes the entire village more passionate about the Saemaul
4. promotes friendship among villagers.

 In the 1970s, a farmer’s house in Korea:
- had a fireplace for cooking which was inconvenient to use.
- had no well nearby.
- had a thatched roof, which leaks rain.
- had an unsanitary sewage system.

How about your house?
(                                                         )

 Your project should:
1. target a symbol that represents the village.
For example, in the 1970s, Korea put priority on eliminating
the thatched roofs, which was a symbol of the poor farming
community.     When such symbol is transformed, villagers feel
pride and confidence.

2. bring real benefits.
If the project is only symbolic, it cannot be supported by
the villagers in the long term.      Thus, the project needs to
bring actual benefits.      Korea’s project to use tiles or
slates rather than rice straws for roofs saved villagers a
lot of labor, money, and rice straws.       The saved rice straws
were used as fuel, compost, or materials for making various

 The project should be carried out this way.
1. When the project is jointly carried out,
- set up a committee in charge.
- estimate needed expenses and manpower.
- use materials that are easily obtained.              They can be
recycled ones or made by the villagers themselves.
- jointly purchase needed goods to save costs.
- set up a joint labor team and get the job done one by one.
- work on houses in urgent need first.         If the houses are in
a similar condition, determine the order by drawing lots.

2. When the project is carried out by individual households,
-   the   Saemaul    leaders   and   leaders     of   the   women’s
organization should do the job first to set an example for
- new houses should be built in accordance with the project.
- materials and supplies should be obtained in the same way
as the case above.

 Key Point:
It is better to have a standard model.

[Reference to related contents]
Getting and managing materials and goods for public use     page
 Project 2 for living environment improvement –Eliminate
inconveniences of the village.

 This project:
1. makes the village safer and more convenient.
2. encourages villagers to work jointly.
3. makes the villagers feel pride and confidence.

 In a Korean farming village in the 1970s:
- all the roads were narrow and unpaved. Thus, the movement
of people and goods was slow.
- women had to go to the well to get drinking water and go to
the stream to wash clothes.
- drinking water was not managed properly. As a result,
people often died of waterborne diseases.

How about your village?
(                                                          )

 Your project should:
1. involve the most inconvenient part of life.
In a Korean village in the 1970s, the most inconvenient part
was the narrow and unpaved roads. Thus, expanding and paving
roads was the priority project.

2. lessen women’s work.
Women give birth to society members and are important labor
providers. Therefore, it is essential for the project to make
women’s lives better by reducing unnecessary work.

3. be carried out without outside help if possible.
This way, villagers become more confident about what they do
in the future.
 The project should be carried out this way:
1. The project plan should be approved as a village project
at a village meeting.
It is important to have most villagers participate in the

2. The project plan should be agreed upon by interested
Such   projects    always   involve   someone’s   land.     Before
launching the project, let those interested know the purpose
of the project and obtain their agreement.

3. The project should be carried out through joint work by
most villagers.

 Keep the following in mind:

1. If the project involves facilities such as wells and water
supply systems, take every precautionary measure in order to
avoid polluting water.      For example, such facilities must be
far away from toilets, pens for farm animals, compost piles,
or sewers.

2. The project needs to be carried out in a way that lessens
women’s work considerably.
For example, digging a well is not enough.        Around the well,
facilities for washing clothes and draining waste water
should be built.

[Reference to related contents]
Village meeting        page / Joint work    page
 Project 3 for living environment improvement –Create an
environment needed for income increase.

 This project:
1.   improves     the   living   environment    and    sets   up
infrastructure that can increase income of the village.
2. nurtures human resources that can carry out profitable
projects in the future.
3. is carried out more easily when the villagers cooperate

 In the 1970s, Korea:
1. put priority on projects that improve the living environment of the
farming community.
- expanding the access road to the village
- constructing multi-purpose basins
- repairing irrigation ditches
- maintaining small rivers & repairing river banks
- providing electricity and phone lines

2. carried out projects in which both the village and the government are
- beautifying the roadside
- promoting forestation and developing idle land
- doing erosion control work
- cleaning up small rivers
- building bridges
- constructing levees

 This project should be carried out this way:
1. The project should be a multi-purpose one.
For example, a project should involve not only maintaining
irrigation ditches but also repairing levees.         Also, when
launching a forestation project, plant trees that bear fruits
or provide protection against the winds.

2. The project should be the one that strengthens the
nation’s infrastructure.
This way, the government can get needed manpower more easily
and the villagers can make money while carrying out the
village project.

3. After completion, the project outcome should be managed by
an official in charge.

 Korea’s case : Installment of power lines by a youth
organization in a mountain village with no electricity
-   The    adults     thought   that   installing      power   lines    was
something only government can do, and there was no village
- The children decided to get power lines and made various
things to sell in the market.
- With the profits from the sale, they bought a calf.                  When
the calf became a cow, they sold it.
- The children got enough money to install power lines.
- Then, the adults expanded the access road to the village,
which was necessary to get power lines into the village.

 Korea’s case : A levee project initiated by only ten
- The village was on the riverside and the villagers were
- Every year the farmland of the villagers was swept away by
torrential rain.
- Constructing a levee was the top priority.
-   Only    ten     villagers   started   to   build     the   levee    and
eventually all the villagers participated in the project.
- The local government office provided construction heavy
- In a year, a levee measuring 850m in length and 3m in
height was built.
- Since then, the villagers’ lives have been enriched.

[Reference to related contents]
cooperative movement     page / Joint work     page/
 Project 1 for income increase –Remove the obstacles.

 Why isn’t our productivity going up?
Look for the answer to this question.    You will find a way to
increase income.

 In a Korean farming community in the 1970s:
1. the obstacles to productivity increase were small and
infertile farmland, droughts and floods, damages from disease
and harmful insects, and insufficient manpower.

2. Thus, the following projects were carried out.
- constructing basins
- installing and improving agricultural water supply systems
- building more water supply and drainage systems
- increasing compost and adding fertile soil
- preventing damages from disease and harmful insects
- building public storehouses and public workplaces

What are your problems?   What are you going to do about it?
(                                                              )

 Establish the cooperative system.
1. The cooperative system increased productivity in the
Korean farming community.
2. The cooperative system is a system in which people jointly
carry out a project.    The entire project or a part of it can
be conducted jointly.
3. If neighboring villages with similar farming conditions
have such system, they can reduce production costs, prevent
damages from natural disasters, disease, or harmful insects,
and achieve technological innovation more easily.

 It is advisable to have public facilities.
1. With a public storehouse, you can buy goods in large
quantity when they are cheap and store them.                   Also, you can
store your products for a long time and sell them in the
market at the right time.
2. With a public workplace and processing center, you can
save your time and resources and share information and know-
how with others.          Eventually this leads to productivity

 Public facilities are established and run this way:
1. Select the location of the facility which is suitable for
its purpose.
- Public processing centers such as a rice mill or public
storehouses should be located at the entrance of the village,
which is near the access road to the village.
- Public workplaces such as the places where compost or
bricks are made should be located near the farm road.

2. The structure of the building should be suitable to carry
out its function.
-   The    entrance     of   the    public        processing    centers    or
storehouses should be big enough for vehicles to drive
through.       The    building     should    be    protected     from   heat,
moisture, and damages from harmful insects and mice.
- The structure of the public workplaces needs to be designed
considering     the    characteristics       of     the   products.       The
building should have good ventilation and drainage systems.

3. Establish joint ownership and operational principles
- The public facilities should be registered as a joint
- The facility’s operational principles have to be set.
Different principles should be applied to members and non-
members.    Non-members of the cooperative system should pay a
fee for using the facility.
[Reference to related contents]
Cooperative system     page
 Project 2 for income increase –Launch cooperative projects.

 Saemaul Cooperative Project
1. This project is carried out jointly by many people.      Each
participant provides his or her labor, skills, and ideas.
2. This is a model Saemaul project in which villagers
cooperate to achieve something that cannot be done without
3. People who have participated in such project cooperate
with others in everyday life.       This project strengthens
cooperation among villagers.

 The projects can be categorized as follows:
1. Projects involving cooperation in production and marketing
This project involves cooperative work in raising funds,
purchasing goods, labor, and marketing.

2. Projects involving cooperation in labor
This project involves intensive cooperative labor.     In Korea,
such project was conducted to set up a joint fund at the

3. Projects involving cooperation in raising funds
Such projects include developing forests, public storehouses,
and public rice mills, which require a lot of money.

4. Projects involving cooperation in technology and know-how
Such projects help people get the needed technology by
cooperating with those who have technology and know-how.

 Cooperative projects have a good chance to be successful
1. they save costs,
2. collective information, experience, and technology are
3. new technology and machines can be easily adopted thanks
to the joint fund,
4. errors and failures are more likely to be prevented,
5. they make more profits.

 The project should be carried out this way:
1. If the project has many participants without experience in
cooperative projects,
- launch a simple project with a better chance of success at
first—for    instance,   developing   idle   land,    growing   crops
guaranteed to be sold, and preventing damages from disease
and harmful insects.
- After the initial project, carry out projects that are
linked   with   the   first   one   and   involve    cooperation   in
production and marketing—for instance, growing crops jointly,
building public facilities, and improving the distribution

2. If the project has a small number of participants with
strong cooperation,
- launch a project that requires joint work from fund raising
to marketing.
- Thorough preparations are essential since the risk is high.
- Participants should do their best to make the project a
success so that it becomes a model project in the village.

 Keep the following in mind:
1. You may have to get technology transfer or advice.
2. You have to pay attention to the consumer and economic
trends in and out of the nation.
3. The fund should be managed in a transparent manner, and
profits should be distributed fairly.
4. Some of the profits need to be deposited in a bank for
later use.

[Reference to related contents]
Cooperative system     page / Model cooperative project
 Project 3 for income increase – Commercialize things around

 Can it be commercialized?
You can commercialize things that you always make for your
own use.

 Examples:
1. Things that the villagers make everyday but not in large
For Korea, straw bags and straw ropes were such examples.                 At
first, no one thought of them as things for sale.              But later
they became important products that increase income.

2. Foods that are commonplace in the rural areas but rare in
the urban areas
For Korea, wild vegetables were such examples.                 They were
everywhere in the rural areas but hard to be found in the

3. High-quality agricultural or fisheries products in the
Promote     some   agricultural       or     fisheries   products    as    a
specialty of the village.

4.     Things   that   are   needed    for    city   dwellers’      leisure
For example, children and the elderly in a Korean village
earned a considerable amount of money by selling lugworms as
a bait for people in the cities.

 Keep the following in mind:
1. What you produce needs to be sold.
2. At least one aspect of the product should be attractive
enough to get people to buy it.     It can be quality, price,
packaging, or processing methods.

 The project should be carried out this way:
1. Basically the project has to be a cooperative one.
This will work to your advantage in buying goods and selling

2. Think about where and how to sell the products before
launching the project.
It is advisable to move from indirect selling to direct one
and from selling without brand names to the one with brand

3. Change the production method gradually.
For example, move from picking wild vegetables to growing
them and from producing in small quantity to making in large

 Keep the following in mind:
Keep the production at an appropriate level so that the
products can be sold for a good price.

[Reference to related contents]
Cooperative system page
 Project 4 for income increase – Introduce something new.

 A bigger change comes with something new.

 Examples:
1. New crop varieties: varieties that grow and taste better
and are resistant to disease

2. New crops: crops that are in great demand and have high
added value.

3. New types of business: the types of business that are in
line with the demand in and out of the village—-livestock
raising,     chicken      raising,   fish    farming,   medicinal     herb
growing, or cash crop growing.

4. New growing methods: methods by which crops grow better in
each season

 Introducing something new is not easy.
1. Most villagers are not willing to try it.
This is because the risk involved in something new is high.
Therefore, the village leaders should try it first to set an

2. New technology has to be learned.
At   least    one    of    the    leaders   should   learn   the    needed
technology and teach it to others.               It is good to have
someone      who    can    give    advice   regarding    technology    in
neighboring villages.

3. You will go through the agonizing process of trial and
error.     Do not get discouraged too much.          Find out the source
of the problem and resolve it.
 Introduce something new when:
1. people who already tried it got good results
2. villagers’ confidence is          high after completing a village
3. villagers need a new income source
4. villagers no longer earn enough money with the existing
land and crops due to natural disasters
5. there is a lot of idle manpower

 Keep the following in mind:
1. Location of the village
If the village is too far from the consumer cities, it is not
advisable to grow garden plants.

2. Economic and consumer trends in and out of the nation
- For example, if consumers are increasingly interested in
health, grow organic agricultural products or medicinal herbs.
- In Korea, a mountain village dramatically increased its
income by growing and selling plants and birds which can be
grown     and   raised   indoors    when   apartment   buildings   were
mushrooming in cities.

3. Link with the existing production basis
- For example, if the village needs organic fertilizers in
large quantity, have the villagers raise cows.
- In a fishing village, people used rocks found while
cultivating their farmland for fish farming.

[Reference to related contents]
Persuading villagers              page / Principles in selecting a
project         page / Project planning          page
 Project 5     for income increase   - Modify distributive

 Modifying distributive construction is:
Buy things with low price and do not sell them with a dirt-
cheap price.

 When you buy, buy things cooperatively.

1. Buy production goods such as seeds, agricultural medicines,
and fertilizers cooperatively.
If villagers purchase large amount of production goods for
the entire village from the factory cooperatively, they can
obtain them at the factory price. Even though they don’t buy
them from factory and from individual dealers they can get
them at wholesale price. Furthermore, if you buy items a
large quantity you can get free delivery. In this case you
can save delivery charge.

2. Buy essential goods of life cooperatively.
It is very difficult for villagers to go shopping frequently
due to the inconvenience of traffic and farming. With these
reasons villagers are often supplied with poor quality of
industrial products, dried fish, and pickled sea foods even
at more expensive price.
If members of women’s association buy some of these items at
the place of its origin or bigger market, they can purchase
much better quality of items at cheaper price.

3. Save a joint fund and run a local market with it.
Choose some articles for daily use and sell them to villagers.
If the reaction of villagers is good, open permanent market
in the village. Necessary fund can be raised by sample
cooperative buying.
For example, if previously villagers bought 1 liter of
vegetable oil at $1, buy 20 liter of vegetable oil at $16 and
share it. In this case, each family can get 1 liter of
vegetable oil at $0.9, $0.1 lower than before, and $2 can be
saved as joint fund.

 When you sell, sell jointly.
1.   Cope   with     collectively   when      you   have        to       deal   with
professional distributors.
When individuals compete with professional distributors they
are likely to be in inferior situation to them. They would
cut down the price voluntarily especially for fruits and
Establish selling band for same kinds of products to control
quantity and time of shipping and deal with their prices
collectively. If selling band deals with a large amount of
products, villagers can make a certain amount of profits
rather   than      selling   a   dirt-cheap     price      at        a    temporary
building at temporary rented place.

2. Devise direct transaction.
Open a market for direct transaction inside market near
consuming cities or public areas rented. It results in two
benefits: farmers can make more profits than dealing with
professional distributors individually and consumers can be
provided with more fresh food at lower price.

3. Building public storage by collecting joint fund.
Villagers buy and save production goods in bulk and keep a
great amount of the yield there. Villagers can regulate the
amount and time of shipping at opportune time by keeping the
products there.

 Example from Korea:
1. Women started to buy essential goods of life collectively.
2. Saving profits out of collective buying, and opening
permanent market in the village.
3. Providing assets to build a place for direct transaction
and storage by saving profits made from the market.

 If you have specialized products good at competition,
1. Build a relationship with markets at certain cities and
foreign countries and supply goods regularly.
2. If there are basic industries such as basic telephone and
internet, consider mail-order business sales.

[Reference to related contents]
Joint fund     page
⑨ Project 6 for income increase - Operating factory

 Benefits of attracting factories in the village.
1. Providing idle laborers with jobs.
2. Each family gets cash and village gets accessory benefits
form the factory.
3. Deter villagers from moving to cities in the long term.

 Two methods used to attract factories are:
1. Simple attraction of factory with outside fund.
2. Running factory with assets.

 When attracting capital from outside
1. Subcontracting style is prevalent: foreign enterprise
takes   care     of   management,   technology,   and     capital,    and
villagers provide labor force and raw materials.

2. The more idle laborers the village has and the better
conditions of location are, the higher possibility to success
the village has.(closeness to the place of special materials,
consuming places, and circulation centers.)

3. If possible attract stabilized modern enterprise. You can
learn skills, management, and operational techniques from
them, and later you can take over the right of management.
(When you attract capital or enterprise from outside make
written stipulation.)

 When you run it yourself.
1. Villagers take care of offering not only labor force but
raw materials, capital, technique, and management as well.

2.   Villagers    make   capital    through   joint     fund   or    joint
3. Increase additional value of main products by processing
or wrapping them. If you pay more attention to wrapping them,
they fly off the market more quickly.
- Grains such as rice: Pounding or wrapping. Found noodle
factory and yield production with the name of the village on.
- Food easily spoiled: drying, powdering, canning, bottling,
juicing, or preserving with sugar.
- Medicinal herbs and crops for special use: developing them
into healthy food such as dried food or juicing.

4. Cooperative power and experience of cooperative work
Instead of building factory right away, prepare for bases of
experience, manpower, and materials through cooperative work.

 Korea’s case : S village, J Island was instructed in
processing technology.
- After a villager introduced tangerine with high sugar and
succeeded     in    its     cultivation,     the      whole    villagers        were
willing to cultivate it
-   While     being        instructed,      villagers      acknowledged          the
importance of leadership and benefits of cooperative work.
Thus custom of joint marketing was settled down.
- With joint fund villagers equipped vehicles and paving
facilities. After they saw the increment of their products
they had desire to process their products.
- Originally they provided factory with raw materials. After
they   built       trust     they    were    instructed        technology        and
established     local       factory.     After    a    while    they        produced
finished products by OEM method.
- Size of finished products is smaller than raw materials and
manufactured       goods     can    be   easily       distributed      to     nearby
villages. This leads to reduce shipping fee. With these
reasons villagers would like to consult with persons in
charge at the factory about technology and running factory.
[Reference   to   related   contents]   *OEM   method:   with   raw
materials and technology offered from enterprise, manufacture
and deliver products with the name of the enterprise on.
⑩ Consolidating community 1 – Revise good morals and manners
and extirpate evil practices.

 Traditional culture and values are:
1. Connecting old generation with new generation, natives
with immigrants, and farming villages with cities.
2. However if they don’t correspond to changes of the age,
they will cause antipathy and conflict.

 70s in Korea:
1. There was tradition valuing filial piety and brotherliness.
Regardless of blood relationship respecting elderly people
and harmonizing with neighbors were two crucial virtues.
Sharing happiness and agonies and correcting misdoings were
the rule of community.

2. Feudal concept originated from agricultural society was
still there.
A proverb ‘It is a sad house where the hen crows louder than
the cock.’ served as a simple example for this. Even though
women played an important role in house, they didn’t have
any right to speak on important matters at home. Since the
custom handed down from an agricultural society, women even
felt pressure to deliver a son. Thus the burden women had to
carry was big.

3. Values of a society were shaken with the introduction of
an industrial society.
Drastic industrialization and urbanization resulted in a
trend that despised rural areas and the traditions prevalent
in rural areas. Idea respecting senior citizens was weakened
and egoism was regarded as modernism. The shrinkage of role
of   community     led   conflict   between   generations,   and
introduction of decadent foreign culture brought confusion to
 Those efforts were made against those trends mentioned
1. Women
- Formed women’s association and stabilized projects that
helped village and reduced women’s work.: developed village,
cooked together in the busy farming season, took care of
babies together, and bought things collectively.
- Promote projects such as throwing a party for senior
citizens, helping neighbors in need, and founding study room
with joint fund raised by collective buying.
- Invited instructors and gave lectures on family planning,
improvement of diet, and children’s education. And they
tried to realize those things in their lives.
- Created new tradition: help big events among neighbors such
as marriage and funeral with joint equipments and joint labor

2. Men
- Built new images of a head of a family by taking care of
things that women’s association can not do due to the lack
of strength, correcting evil practices such as heavy drinking
and    gambling,   giving   lessons      on   Saemaul   Movement,   and
discussing issues in the village.
- By teaching order and forming voluntary petrol group tried
to    fix   disorder   resulted   from    influx   of   strangers   and

3. Elderly people
Recovered their dignities by helping take care of babies,
telling stories and teaching etiquette and Chinese characters
to children, and handing down instrumental music of peasants
and traditional culture to teenagers.
 There are several features in examples from Korea.
1. Women, the underdog in traditional society, played a
crucial role.
2. Expand and develop good traditions and change old ones.
(buying things collectively, throwing a party for senior
citizens, helping neighbors, realizing family planning, and
enhancing right to speak.)
3. Exterminate evil cultures by spreading alternative ones
instead. (drinking and gambling problems in farmer’s slack
season were eliminated by introducing joint projects such as
twisting ropes and weaving straw bags together.)

 Devotion finishes half of a project such as helping
- Collecting and selling waste regularly, and saving profits.
- Supporting with actual things through movement for rice
saving and preparation of pickles for the winter jointly.
(traditional Korean style pickle is staple food in winter.)
- Decorating village by making seedbed of traditional flower,
and raising fund by selling it.

[Reference to related contents]
Activating associations in different categories          page /
Joint fund     page
⑪ Consolidating community 2 – providing culture center and

 Convenient farming villages and civilized villages are:
1. Developing potential of villages and enabling its long
term development.
2. Reducing differences between rural community and city to
arrest   population     efflux     to     cities:    medicine,   traffic,
culture, and education.

 What needed in Korea in 70s:
1. General facilities: convenient stores, local bus, and
public bath.
2. Educational and cultural facilities: day care center,
village library, and townhouse.
3.   Public    health    center:        clinics     and   facilities    for
developing physical strength.

What do you need in your village?
(                                                                              )

 This project should be carried out this way:
1. Preparing basic joint fund through cooperative work.
2. If there is a dilapidated building, use it after repairing.
If there is not any, build one with materials obtained from
building site nearby. If you need bricks made of cement, make
them through joint work.
3. Build basic construction and installment by villagers
themselves     and   register      them     under     villagers’       joint
4. Find ways to be donated necessary fixtures and expensive
equipments from related administrations, supporting groups
overseas, sisterhood cities, and city dwellers from the town.
5. Let villagers chip in expenses needed to manage and
maintain them. Charge fees to villagers for facilities other
than educational facilities, and let them participate in
managing those facilities.
6. Let several neighboring villages participate in a project
that can give benefits to many recipients such as running a
local bus, and run them regularly.

 Example from Korea : establishing and managing a village
1. Koreans are known as having high fever on education and
the   villagers      established     a   village   library        where   can
function as study room and library.

2. Establishment: women’s association worked as a main axis
and raised money through buying things collectively, laboring,
rice saving movement, and cultivating fallow.

3. Arranging equipments: men built bookshelves by cutting
down trees in the village, schools and libraries from cities
nearby     donated   books,    and   administrations        in    sisterhood
cities contributed cushions, desks, and chairs.

4.    Administration     and    management:      members     of     women’s
association     took    responsibility      by     taking        turns,   and
teenagers managed them autonomously.
- Sorting books systematically and keeping them by making
- Administration fees were collected from joint fund. And
villagers allotted land for a village library, and saved
profits from cultivating crops and vegetables there. Some
products from the land were used as snacks for children.
- With the fee villagers provided village library with new
books and magazines
- Let teenagers next village borrow them.
- Hold events such as teenagers’ camp and writing essay

 Re-exportation to cities is possible.
Folklore and folksongs passed down orally are important
assets.    Folklore,   folksongs,   and   dialects   collected   and
classified by teenagers would be important materials to
administration, media, and domestic and overseas researchers.

[Reference to related contents]
Activating associations in different categories            page /
townhouse      page
⑫ Consolidating   community    3   –Residents’    credit   union

 What is residents’ credit union?
1. It is an institution dealing with financial transactions
such as loaning and investing based on residents’ credit
with their deposits.
2. Put money in banks for the purpose of deposit, saving, and
withdrawal. One difference of this institution from regular
bank is employing money by villagers’ indiscretion.
3. It is different from joint fund because it gives not only
one banking account with joint signature on but also a
separate banking account for individuals. In addition, it is
operated by individuals’ agreement.
4. Residents’ credit union is institutionalized banking
system based on villagers’ trust and mutual aid.

 The benefits of it are:
1. Residents can finance a lot of money easily.
- Residents without security or residents with inadequate
security have difficult time in borrowing money from official
financial firm such as bank.
- However, residents’ credit union loans money easier than
any other official financial firms because it understands and
trusts its neighbors’ circumstances.

2. It loans money with low interest. Thus people can take
their time paying back.
- Rich individuals hardly loan money to villagers due to the
high risk of not getting it back, and even when they loan
money to residents usually they charge high interest and ask
short-term reimbursement.
- However, residents’ credit union rents money to villagers
for a long period of time even with low interest because the
depositors of residents’ credit union are villagers.
3. Residents’ money can be reinvested into their own village.
- When villagers want to expand their projects or start new
project they still have difficult time borrowing money from
the bank even though they have their own banking account in
that bank. Furthermore, the deposit is used in other places.
- However, the deposit in the residents’ credit union is
used to villagers’ projects only. Thus it serves as a base
for developing village in the long term.

4. It makes villagers independent and frugal, and boosts
their cooperativeness. Eventually, it strengthens villagers’
self-survival power.

 Let’s get started like this
1. Raise the first fund through cooperative work.
Raising the first fund cooperatively through movement for
rice-saving, cultivation of fallow, work at wages, collective
purchasing, collecting waste, and side job in the farmers’
slack season.

2. Opening private banking account and managing it jointly.
Put the profits divided into each villager’s banking account,
but the representative of its village keeps their banking
account until enough money collects. Villagers hardly have a
chance   to   have   cash,   so   if   they   have   cash   they   have
temptation to use them.

3. Motivate them to save regularly.
If there is a saving day it will serve as stimulus to

4. Let one representative take care of banking work.
On saving day representative visits each house, collects
money, and goes to bank to take care of it. On this day he
shows the amount of deposits each villager put until previous
month. When he collects money, records it on ledger to
prevent confusion.

5. Don’t set the upper limit too high.
Let villagers feel contentment and merits of it quickly.

 Keep the followings in mind:
1. Villagers initial reaction will be very passive.
Leaders have to visit every house and persuade them because
usually people don’t have spare money to deposit and they
think trading money is dangerous.

2. Manage the fund with clarity.
When one representative takes care of banking work on behalf
of all the villagers, representative should let villagers
check the amount of money they saved. Even after the credit
union gets on the track, record every change on the ledger in
detail and let every villager refer it whenever he/she wants.

3. Incorporate it if the scale of money becomes large.
If     the    scale   of   deposit   gets   bigger,   manage     it     more
systematically: several villages can be united.

 Korea’s case : First banking account with my name on
-     The    Villagers’    main   product   is   tobacco,    a   kind    of
monopolistic goods. So, its villagers rarely have a chance to
have cashes except its harvesting season.
-     Women’s    association      started   rice-saving     movement     and
collecting empty bottles to provide school supplies.
- After they made a certain amount of profits out of it, they
rented land with absentee landlords and planted beans there.
In the end, they could have banking account with their names
on it for the first time of their lives.
- While they were working collectively, one of member’s
husband got hurt. Villagers loaned money by deducing small
amount   of   money   from    their   banking   accounts   and   gave
condolence money separately.
- This incident made villagers realize the necessity of
credit union and encouraged them to have their own banking

[Reference to related contents]
Cooperative work      page
4) Final Stage of Project

① Share the results and celebrate the success.

  Reports and evaluations are needed to make people realize
how much they have achieved.
1. It is the villagers who carry out the project.       Therefore,
the leaders and officials need to provide them with progress
reports and evaluations of the project.
2. In the process, the villagers become more enthusiastic
about the project and the officials get a chance to evaluate
the whole process of the project.

 Discipline and regular practice are needed.
1. Even in a small group meeting, briefings and evaluations
should be given.
2.   After    completing   a   specific   project,   such   as   the
construction of a village hall, a party-like briefing session
should be held.     At this session, villagers celebrate what
they have achieved and share the future plan.

 The project briefing event should:
1. be held when the project involving many villagers has been
2. have a briefing session in the first half and a party in
the second.

 The briefing session should include:
1. the progress and result of the project (reported by the
leader of the project or the head of the village)

2. Briefings on the execution of funds (by the official in
3. Individual case reports (by villagers)

4. Congratulatory message (representatives of neighboring
villages and village schools, government officials, etc.)

5. Citation
Individuals or groups should be given citations for their
contribution to the success of the project.         It is advisable
to select groups rather than individuals.

6. Village Party
Villagers should congratulate each other for the success, sharing the food.

 The success should be visible.
1. Make the success visible.
Both the adults and the children in the village will feel
pride about their village.

2. Name the new facilities, such as a water tank, farm road,
road, and access road to the village.           The signpost should
have   the    name,   year   of   completion,   number   of   workers,
construction period, purpose of the construction.

3. A memorial tablet should be placed near the entrance of
the village hall, public storehouse, and clinic.

[Reference to related contents]
Mutual encouragement         page
② Share the long-term prospect

 Sharing the long-term prospect is essential to carry out
the movement for a long time.
1. The Saemaul Movement needs to be carried out for a lone
time.    Therefore, a long-term plan and vision are needed.
2. Some projects cannot show immediate results and may have
unexpected variables in the process.             The project’s prospect,
basic plan, and connection with the future project have to be
shared with the villagers.
3. This way, the villagers can push for the plan even at a
time of difficulty.
4. Also, the leaders can adhere to the plan from the
beginning to the end.

 Repetition is necessary.
1.    A slogan that represents the future of the village should
be used.     The slogan has to be about a long-term goal of the
village, for example, ‚30% increase in income, 30% reduction
in spending, 30% of the income deposited in the bank.‛
2. At a village party, hold drawing              and composition contests
for     children    under   the     title   of    ‚the    future    of   our
village,‛ and post prize-winning works on the walls of
public facilities.
3. Before launching a large-scale project, a briefing session
should be held to let all the villagers know the prospect and
plan of the project.

 The briefing session should:
1. be held before the launch of a new project involving the
majority of the villagers.
2. be a place where the blueprint of the project is presented
and     villagers    show   their     resolve     to   make   the   project
successful. It can be held as a general meeting or as a party
for seniors.
3. Small-group discussions need to be conducted to make sure
people know what the project is about.

 In the briefing session, the following should be presented:
1. Meaning and possibility of the project (Representative of
the village)
The necessity and possibility of the project are shared.

2. Specific plans (Official in charge, e.g. a Saemaul leader)
The goals, specific plans, and effects of the project are

3.   Case    reports   (Representative   of   a   village   with   the
experience of carrying out the project or someone who visited
a village which completed the project)
Sharing experience of other villages in carrying out the
project can be a great help.

4. Q & A session
Villagers ask questions and officials or leaders answer.

5. Announcement of resolutions
The representative of each local organization announces the
resolution made by the villagers.

6.   Speech    of   encouragement   (High-ranking    officials     and
support group leaders)
This serves as an opportunity for villagers to recognize the
interest from the outside in the project.

 Key Point:
If   there   is   a   village   which   has   completed   or   is   in
preparation for the project, have the villagers visit such
villages.     This will be a valuable opportunity for the
villagers to learn from other villages.

[Reference to related contents]
Small-group discussion          page
③ Stabilization of Joint Fund

   Saemaul Joint Fund:
1. This is a fund which is jointly established by the
villagers for the Samaul project.
2. The fund participants and managers can be villages or
smaller organizations.

 The fund is used in:
1. Building public facilities
Village halls, public storehouse, supermarkets, libraries,
clinics, public day-care center, water supply systems, access
roads to the village, phone lines, power lines, Internet
Network, etc.

2. Purchasing and operating joint assets
Vehicles, machines, materials and fixtures needed for public
facilities, household goods for public kitchens, musical
instruments for the village band, books for libraries

3. Reinvesting in profitable projects
Factories,    cooperative      production    complexes,    processing
facilities, public farmland, forest development

4. Operating and developing the community
-   Regular     expenditure:    parties     for   senior   villagers,
financial assistance for neighbors in need, and scholarships
- Special expenditure: expenses for joint observation tours
- Financial support for new villagers and villagers in need

 The fund is created this way:
1. Through cooperative labor
- General case: Cultivating idle land and hills
- case of a youth organization: Breeding goats
2. Through cooperative business
- General case of a village: Setting aside a certain amount
of profits from a joint sale of agricultural and livestock
- General case of a women’s organization: Setting aside a
certain amount of profits from a joint purchase

3. Through individual investment
: If the village is in bad financial condition, a small
number of wealthy villagers contribute some money.            If the
fund is too small compared to the amount needed for the
project, villagers make a joint investment.

 The fund is operated and managed this way:
1. The fund is managed by an official financial institution
under the joint name of the representatives and members.
2. Money must be spent only after approved by the members,
and   the   expenditures   must   be   reported   to   the   members.
Regular meetings should be held for the more efficient

 The fund can be increased this way:
1. Through the joint assets
- General case: Charging outsiders fees for using hulling
factories and local buses
- Case of a women’s organization: Setting aside a certain
amount of profits from village supermarkets
- Case of a commercial district: Setting aside part of the
income from rent

2. Through setting aside profits from businesses
A certain amount of profits from village-owned factories and
cooperative production complexes should be saved.
[Reference to related contents]
Cooperative labor   page / Cooperative business
④ Active sectional organizations

 Saemaul sectional organization:
1. This is an autonomous organization established by a
certain group of people who have something in common in terms
of sex, age, or the role in the community.

2. Such organizations include organizations of the women,
youth, middle-aged men, and seniors.

3. It is not necessary to have all the villagers become a
member of a certain organization from the beginning.      People
should   just    cooperate   centering   around    more   active

4. In the long term, the Saemaul Villagers’Organization
should be set up and the sectional organizations should carry
out the projects of the village.

 If the sectional organizations become active,
1. trust will be built among the villagers and the village
will become stable.

2. vigorous participation by the villagers in a future
project is guaranteed.

 The sectional organization is set up and operated this
1. The organization is set up by people who agree on the
purpose of the organization’s activities.

2. The common purpose of the sectional organizations is to:
- build friendship and promote mutual help
-    promote     cultural,    educational,         information-exchange
- carry out projects for the community

3. The staff members need to be elected.
- Chairman, Vice Chairman: The vice chairman shares the work
of the chairman and plays the role of the chairman when
- Manager: The manager is in charge of arranging meetings,
managing members and membership fees, and accounting.
- Secretary: The secretary is in charge of taking and
managing the meeting minutes.

4. Everyday activities are carried out in an autonomous way.
If the organization has a large number of members or covers a
large area, many small groups should be created and work

5. Expenses are covered by the Joint Fund, membership fees,
and profits from cooperative businesses.

6. Discussions on the agenda item are done in small groups.

 Korea’s case – Activities of a women’s organization
In   Korea’s     Saemaul   Movement,    the    women’s    organization
played a pivotal role.       The range of its activities is quite
1.   Building friendship: Throwing birthday parties, providing
labor when wedding ceremonies or funerals are held.
2.       Improving   situations:       Promoting     family   planning,
eliminating men’s drinking and gambling habits, improving
eating habits
3. Improving the environment: Planting flowers on the street,
maintaining     streams,   collecting    and   selling    recyclables,
directing traffic for school kids
4.      Providing help: Holding parties for seniors, helping
seniors who live alone, helping children who have to make a
living, providing scholarships
5. Improving the distribution system: Purchasing jointly,
running village supermarkets, running a place for joint sale
6. Arranging public facilities: Village halls, libraries,
playgrounds, village vehicles
7.     Improving   housing   conditions:    Remodeling   houses,
installing water supply and drainage systems
8.     Encouraging savings: Launching the ‚One Bank Account for
Each Household‛ campaign

 Korea’s case – Activities of a youth organization
In the 1970s and 1980s, many children in the rural area had
to quit school and make a living to provide for their family.
The Saemaul Youth Organization was a place where these
children comfort and encourage each other and get education.

< Case of a girl with polio who did all the housework after
her mother’s death >
This girl overcame despair through interactions with other
children in a similar situation.     After years of working and
studying, she became a certified teacher.

[Reference to related contents]
Setting up a main organization        page / Dividing roles of
local organizations         page / Small-group discussions 
⑤ Regularizing meetings for technology research

 Research on what?
Research should be done on things that are related to income
increase and are needed for many people. Of course, experts
and government officials need to study hard.                          But farmers
should study harder because it is farmers themselves who will
do the farming.
Korea’s      case)    improving        seeds,     growing       new     varieties,
advancing farm technology, improving farm tools, processing
methods, growing cash crops, improving irrigation, improving
housing,     developing        new     technology        such     as     computer

 With whom?
1. Organize groups for people with the same interest.
Korea’s case) groups of farmers involved in greenhouse
production, groups of farmers interested in farm machinery,
**groups     of    farmers     growing      the   same    crops,       groups   of
livestock farmers, groups of farmers who want to improve
farming methods, committees on production increase, groups of
farmers interested in irrigation

2. Share experiences with neighboring villages.
Hold regular meetings with a village which has succeeded in
your    on-going     project     or    is    carrying     out     the    project.
Specific cases should be discussed.

3. Establish a partnership with nearby agriculture high
schools and university agriculture departments.
Research that needs expert knowledge or special machines
should be carried out with nearby agriculture-related schools.
This can make sure that students and researchers do not lose
touch    with     reality    and      farmers     get    expert       advice    and
information, education, and manpower.
4. Ask government offices for help.
Government offices    have a lot of information on technology,
trends, and prospects of crops.     Also, it is useful to know
government policies regarding agriculture when you select
projects or decide on research direction.

 Activities include:
1. Exchange of information and experience at regular meetings
A person with greater knowledge and experience should lead
the meetings and encourage the sharing of information and
experience among members.

2. Training by the villagers
Villagers with more experience teach the ones with less
experience.   Specific information on technology in various
areas is taught.     It is advisable to focus on success and
failure cases and to use pictures, charts, and real objects.

3. Training by outside experts
Invite   outside     successful   farmers,    agriculture-related
government officials, and scholars.

4. Visiting villages with success cases
Tour the facilities and listen to explanations.          You can
visualize the result of the project. After visiting, have a
meeting to discuss what you have learned and write a report.

5. Visiting farm facilities
Visit project-related farm facilities.       While staying there,
learn technology needed for your project. Share what you have
learned with your villagers when you return to your village.

 Publicize technology through booklets.
1. Make and give out booklets containing information and
experience of the technology research group.          This is the
fastest way to spread the technology to many people.
2. Share the result of the visit to other villages with your
villagers.    Use local newspapers or posters.
3. Distribute booklets from government offices and schools.

 Korea’s case : Industry-school cooperation led by a school principal
- It was a mountain village mainly doing slash-and-burn
farming.     Because the village had a small infertile farmland,
more and more villagers were moving out.
- The principal of a nearby agriculture high school thought
that the village should grow and sell wild edible greens and
started to experiment with his students.
- After numerous experiments, the principal finally developed
seeds which are resistant to damage from disease and harmful
insects and grow well without fertilizer.
- Spread the technology to nearby villages and make booklets
to introduce the technology for the army.
- Cooperating with the army, the school conducted technology
training and distributed the seeds in many villages in every
- The school and villagers worked together to develop special
packaging for the wild edible greens.        The greens became a
profitable product.
- The villagers repaired the school and set up the seed
distribution center in it.        The school became the center of
the region.

[Reference to related contents]
Cooperative business     page / Village newspaper   page
⑥ Establishing Village Hall

 Saemaul Hall:
1. It is a center that sustains the Saemaul Movement.
You need to have the Village Hall to carry out projects in a
stable manner.
2. If there is a place that has a similar function, utilize
it.   Otherwise, make a long-term plan to build it.

 The Hall plays a role such as:
1. Basic function
- place for village meetings
- liaison office for members and local organizations
- place for education in technology, living, and culture
- place that provides information on technology, living,
health, and education
- situation room for Saemaul projects

2. Additional functions
- place for senior villagers
- public kitchen and day-care center when cooperative work is
carried out
- place for village events like parties and weddings.

 In Korea, we established Village Halls this way:
1. Funding
- Villagers who support the idea provided the seed money
through joint labor.
(weeding, fruit picking, joint cultivation of idle farm land
and hills)
- All the villagers participated in financing the project.
(Campaign to save rice, provision of things like rice and
- The rest of the funding came from the wealthy people in the
region and government offices.

2. Factors to consider in deciding on the location
- Is it easily accessible for every villager?
- Is it easily accessible from the outside?
- Is there a place nearby to build amenities later on?

3. Constructing the Hall
- It was designed in consideration of opinions of villagers.
- It was built mainly using materials that are easily
obtained around the village.
- Villagers made cement blocks and bricks themselves.
- All the villagers work together to build the hall.
- The villagers were educated on how to use and store
materials before the construction.

 Korea’s case - structure of a general village hall
1. Meeting hall ( large and small halls)
- In the daytime, the hall is used as a place for senior
villagers, and in the evening, a place for meetings and
- It can be used as a place for village events.
- Also, it can be a public kitchen as well as a day-care
center when joint labor takes place.

2. Saemaul office
- Situation room for Saemaul projects.
- liaison office for the project-related matters
- Place that provides information on technology, living, and
- broadcasting room

3. Storage room and storehouse
- Store household goods for joint cooking
- Store musical instruments for the village band
- Saemaul project-related flags and articles used for various
- Equipment and expendable supplies

4. Amenities
- Supermarkets
- Public bathroom
- Library
- Recreation and sports facilities
- Lodging for the superintendent

 The hall is decorated and run this way:
1. In the front yard, set up a flagpole and hang the Saemaul
2. On the wall of the entrance, put up posters of events and
3. On the walls of the main hallway, put up the bulletin
board to post information on technology, education, and
4. The hall should be managed by a general manager and
members of local organizations or officials in charge of the
hall.       If   the   scale   of   the   hall   is   large,   get    a
superintendent and provide lodging and wages.
5. When many people use the hall, have people make a
reservation beforehand.
6. People who used the room should do the cleaning.
7. If possible, the broadcasting system should be installed.

[Reference to related contents]
Making seed money  page / Setting up the center              page
⑦ Publishing Local Newspaper

 If you have a local newspaper,
1. you can exchange information and opinions more actively.
2. you can get a lot of information at once.
3. you can prevent the truth from being distorted.
4. you can refer to the information and technology written in
the newspaper any time.
5. you can let people in other villages know about the news
of your village.

 Publish it according to your situation.
Decide on the following, considering the number of the
villagers, the joint fund of the village, the time that the
newspaper makers can spare.
- How often should it be published?
- In what form should it be published?
- How much information should be contained?
- How many newspapers should be published?

 There can be many forms.
1. Wall newspaper
: Handwrite the story and attach the photos on a large paper,
and put it up on the walls of places where many people can

2. Newsletter
: Type or handwrite the story on B4-size paper, and make
mimeograph or photo copies.
- Good points: The news can be delivered to many people with
less money and effort.
- Bad points: Information that needs a substantial space,
such as technology-related information, cannot be published.
- Things to consider: Mimeographs or photocopiers are needed.
General stories should be published with priority.     Specific
stories such as technology-related news should be published
in a special edition.

3. Tabloid-size newspaper
: Type, edit, and print the story using a typewriter or
computer in tabloid size.         If many photos need to be
published and the circulation is large, offset printing is
more effective.
- Good points: A lot of information can be contained in a
clean-cut format.   The newspaper looks more formal.
- Bad points: It takes too much money, time, and training.
- Things to consider: This form should be considered when you
have many villagers and can get help from government offices.

 The newspaper can contain:
1. News
- village news, events in each household
- important news in neighboring villages
- agriculture-related news in and out of the nation
- news regarding government offices

2. Information
- information on technology, living, health, and education
- agriculture-related information, such as prevention of
damages from disease and harmful insects

3. Saemaul project-related news
- progress report and evaluation
- future plan
- success cases

4. Villagers’ writings
- essays, poems, etc.
5. Information from the outside
- government policies
- agriculture-related technology introduced by experts

 The newspaper is made this way:
1. Recruit village reporters and select a person in charge.

2. Name the newspaper.
(The reporters should make the name considering villagers’

3. Get reporters to be in charge of each fixed section.
(news, information, events, information from the outside)

4.   Ask    Saemaul   leaders   and   heads   of   organizations   for
(Saemaul     projects,   education,    villagers’     writings,    and
success cases)

5. Insert photos, pictures, and charts.
If the village has high illiteracy, use many photos, pictures,
comics, and charts.

6. Get a person in charge of printing.
Handwriting should be done by several people with good
handwriting skills, and typing by a person in charge.

7. Proofread before making photocopies or printing.
The person in charge of general affairs needs to proofread
the final draft before making copies or printing.

8. Distribute the newspapers through local organizations.
[Reference to related contents]
Active sectional organizations   page
⑧ Establishing partnership with other regions and government

 You need partners.
1. Your village needs partners to share information and
2. The primary partner is your neighboring villages that you
share roads, mountains, water, and goods.            Carry out joint
3. A far-away village which is carrying out the same project
or growing the same crops is a great partner.
4. Government offices are essential partners.         Take advantage
of agricultural policy, technology, and funding.

 The following should be joint projects.
1. Establishing infrastructure covering a wide area.
- developing rivers and their surrounding areas, maintaining
big      roads,     constructing      mega-bridges,      large-scale
distribution facilities, and providing electricity to a wide
- Such projects should be pursued jointly with neighboring
villages and government offices because of high costs and a
lot of manpower.

2. Building joint facilities
- large-scale production complexes, processing factories,
machinery, transportation systems, distribution networks
-     high-cost   projects   should   be   pursued     jointly   with
neighboring villages.

 How to pursue joint projects with neighboring villages
1. Make a suggestion to launch a project to representatives
or leaders in the neighboring villages and hold meetings with
2. When the villagers agree on the plan, set up a joint
project team.

3. Make a specific plan for the joint project considering
villagers’ opinions.

4. Appoint a chairman and an auditor.

5. The funding and manpower should be provided by the
villages     concerned       under    the   instruction    by     the     joint
committee chairman and the joint project team.                  If necessary,
ask government offices for assistance.

6. The funding must be deposited in a bank under the joint
names of village representatives.

7. The project should be carried out like a cooperative
project of the village.

8. Set up a joint post-management system.

 When you ask government offices for help:
1. Officially ask with a plan.
- A wide-area development project is related with national
infrastructure         and   should    be   done   by     the     government.
Therefore, it is a duty for the government offices to provide
- Do not try to use personal relationships to get assistance.
Officially ask with a specific plan.
- The plan should be divided into two parts--one that can be
covered by the villagers and the other that needs assistance.
If needed, submit a petition signed by the villagers.
-   ask    for   not    only   equipment     and   facilities       but   also
technicians, fuel, and spare parts.
2. Make sure that you use the government funds and materials
in a transparent manner.
- The government funds and materials come from taxes.             Make
sure that they are not wasted.
- Use the funds and materials in a transparent manner, and
report the settled accounts.
- If you do not get trust from the government after the first
assistance, you may not receive support again.

3. If the project is part of a national project, the
government official in charge needs to participate in the
joint project team.

 Key Point:
1. It is important to build friendship with your neighboring
Invite   them    to   the   village    parties,   send   the   village
newspapers to them, and help them when a disaster occurs.

2. Set up a joint council based on the experience from the
joint project.
The joint council should be composed of representatives or
leaders of the village and government officials.           It should
be a place where the members meet regularly and discuss the
village’s projects, requests and problems.

[Reference to related contents]
Getting outside assistance           page
⑨ Setting up sisterhood relationship with foreign countries

 Sisterhood relationship:
1. Sisterhood relationship is a partnership between two
different communities to promote people-to-people exchange
and mutual help.
2. You can establish it with cities or organizations in and
out of the nation.

 Sisterhood relationship between cities and the farming
This relationship help people in both areas better understand
each other.          Moreover, it contributes to the nation’s
economic and cultural development.

1. Exchange of goods
-   selling    and    buying   agricultural   products   without   the
middleman (farming communities  cities)
- provision of school supplies, books, and equipment/material
(cities  farming communities)
- disaster relief efforts (cities  farming communities)

2. people-to-people exchange
- exchange of observation groups
- exchange of children for cultural experience
- disaster relief teams
- volunteers who want to provide labor during the harvest
season (cities  farming communities / families, college
- medical teams providing free medical service (cities 
farming communities / health checkup, dental care, disease
prevention education)

3. Exchange of information
- keeping in touch between small groups
- making pen pals among children

4. Cooperative activity
- protecting the environment
- helping the needy (providing goods and manpower)
- further developing traditional dishes (farming communities),
spreading the dishes (cities)

     Establishing        sisterhood        relationship        with   foreign
Establishing such relationship is a civic diplomacy that
promotes        the    understanding     of    culture     and     history   and
cooperation between the two nations.

1. Exchange of goods
-     selling    and    buying   agricultural          products    without   the
- provision of financial assistance for development and goods

2. People-to-people exchange
- Exchange of observation groups
- Exchange of groups for cultural experience
- Exchange of cultural performance groups
- Exchange of learners (language, technology)
-      Dispatch        of   volunteer         groups     (providing       labor,
technological manpower, IT manpower, and medical manpower)
- Dispatch of disaster relief teams

3. Exchange of information
- Keeping in touch between small groups
- Making pen pals among children

4. Cooperative activity
- joint seminar, symposium
- peace-keeping activity
- traditional costume shows
- traditional food-tasting party

 Your attitude about sister cities or villages should be
like this:
1. You should value every chance to meet the people of your
sister cities or villages.
2. You should understand that helping others means helping

 Consider the following:
1. Accept the cultural differences.   Do not try to force your
culture upon the people from other cities or villages.

2. In the case of people-to-people exchange, it is advisable
for villagers to provide room and board for the guests in
their homes.    This will help you and your guests build
friendship more easily.

[Reference to related contents]
Getting assistance from the outside      page
  5) Feedback at National Level – Korea

The government is a crucial partner.
It was the government that contributed the most in Korea’s
Saemaul Movement. But different countries have different
situations. Therefore, Korea’s case presented here should be
taken as one of many examples.

The Korean government supported the movement in terms of:
1. creation of a favorable environment
2. provision of supplies and funds
3. provision of manpower, such as government officials
4. provision of technology, information and education
5. legal and institutional support
① Creation a favorable environment by the government in

 The government employed the movement as an important policy.
1.   In Korea, the Saemaul Movement was part of the national
economic development plan.

2. The President spent a substantial amount of time talking
about the movement in his New Year’s addresses.

3. Whenever visiting local villages, high-ranking government
officials including the President received briefings on the
progress of the movement and encouraged the villagers to make
more efforts.

 Let people know the importance of the movement to which
the government attaches.
1. In 1972, the government set up the Saemaul Movement
Central Council, consisting of Vice Minister-level officials
in the Ministries of Agriculture and Forestry, Home Affairs,
Construction, Trade and Industry, Education, and Health.   By
doing so, the government let people know that the movement
would be supported by all government bodies.

2. In every monthly briefing session on economic trends,
presided over by the President and attended by Ministers, a
Saemaul leader gave a speech on success cases of the movement.

3. Every year the Best Village of the Year was selected and
commended by the President, Prime Minister, and Home Affairs

 The government carries out the public relations campaign
at the national level.
1. The government had renowned journalists, artists and
religious leaders to continuously visit villages where the
movement was carried out, and get them to print the writings
on their experiences and make movies on the villages.

2.   Various Saemaul Movement-related contests were held, such
as slogan, poster, painting contests.            The prize-winning
works   were   used   as   public   relations   materials   for   the

3. The cases of Saemaul Movement leaders and the writings of
villagers were collected and published all over the nation.
② Provision supplies and funds by the government in Korea.

 Principles in providing supplies and funds
1. Provision without discrimination against region, race and
The supplies and funds were provided according to the plan
presented by the village, and villagers’ enthusiasm and

2. Provision on the premise that the villagers do their part
in the supply of goods, money and labor.
The government only provided supplies and funds that cannot
be provided by the villagers themselves.

3. Provision according to the result of the project
In the first year of the movement, the same amount of cement
and reinforcing bars were supplied to all villages.       But from
the second year, villages with better results received more.

4. Provision of supplies and funds to villages in urgent need
as soon as possible
The government provided supplies and funds to villages in
urgent need without consideration of the project result.

 The project plan was evaluated according to the following
1. Degree to which supplies, funds and labor can be provided
by the villagers
2.   Capability    (experiences,   technology   learned   by   the
villagers, cooperative experiences)
3. Local situation
4. Past experience in carrying out Saemaul projects
 Effectiveness of the policy of provision according to the
1.   Villages were classified into three groups--basic, self-
help and self-reliant, and received government assistance

2.      Villages were classified according to the following
- Does the village have a leader?
- Does the village have a cooperative system?
- How much funds did the village raise on its own?

3. The policy of provision according to the result was
implemented to improve efficiency of government support and
to encourage competition among villages.

4. As a result, competition began to take place among
villages to better implement the movement project.          By 1979,
the ‚basic‛ villages were 0%, ‚self-help‛ ones 3%, and
‚self-reliant‛ ones 97%.

5. In the process, villagers realized that they can make
their     villages   better,   and   internalized   the   cooperative

 The government presented model projects for each group of
1.   The government presented model projects suitable for each
group of villages--basic, self-help, self-reliant groups.

2. This was to prevent waste of supplies and labor and
achieve long-term prosperity.

3. Model projects were as follows:
[Basic Village]
-   Situation: Basic living environment improvement project
not completed, old-fashioned way of thinking
-   Model     projects:   Improving    basic     living      environment;
maintaining roads in the village, the access road to the
village, and the streams in the village; setting up the joint
labor team; raising the village fund; and encouraging people
to deposit money in the bank

[Self-Help Village]
- Situation: Basic living environment improvement project not
completed, changes in the way of thinking, strong will to
carry out the project
- Model Projects: Employing people in public works projects;
providing electricity, tap water, and health and welfare
facilities; building irrigation ditches; maintaining small
rivers      between   villages;     setting     up     the    cooperative
production system

[Self-Reliant Villages]
- Situation: Basic living environment improvement project
completed, making efforts to increase income
- Model Projects: Implementing profitable projects, changing
farming methods and structure, carrying out forestation,
developing      industrial   products,        improving      agricultural
productivity, adopting technology, building public welfare
facilities,     purchasing    and     using     farm      machines,   and
implementing cooperative production projects

 The government presented a long-term, step-by-step plan.
The government presented a step-by-step plan to villages so
that they can make consistent efforts to achieve the long-
term goal.

1. Preliminary Stage (environment improvement stage)
2. Cooperative Work Training Stage
: Making the village mountain more beautiful; paving the
access road to the village; repairing the bank of the river;
building a storage place for compost; dredging the creek;
repairing the tube well; cleaning up the village; repairing
and maintaining the sewer, public well, and public place for
doing laundry; preventing damages from disease and harmful

3. Foundation Stage (stage of foundation for cooperation)
: Erosion control, forestation, fertilizers, improving the
production     and   distribution     system,   acquiring    public

4. Profitable Project Stage

5. Welfare Project Stage
:   Providing electricity and phone lines; building clinics;
providing health check-up and dental care services; family
planning;     improving   diets;    providing   day-care    centers;
constructing a public kitchen for the farming season

5. Improving the distribution system

6. Attracting factories to the village

7. Stage in which grain policy, policy of fertilizer supply
and demand, large-scale civil engineering and construction
projects, fuel-energy policy, and consumer price policy are
③ Comprehensive government support system by the government
in Korea.

 We set up Saemaul Councils across the nation.
1. Village Level: The Council consisted of the village
leaders and the village organization members.
2. Town Level: The Council consisted of village-level council
members and   the county organization members.
3. County and Province Level: The Council was organized in
the same way the town-level council was set up.
4.   Central Level: The Central Saemaul Council was set up.
The Council was composed of vice minister-level government

 We selected projects that will receive government support
this way:
1. Village Level
- Drawing up a plan (the village leader)
- Approval of the plan at a village meeting
- Submission of the plan for approval to the head of the

2. Town Level
- The head of the town evaluated the plan considering various
factors—financial   condition,   capability,   local   situation,
past experiences of the village.
- After revision, the final draft was submitted to the head
of the county.

3. County Level
- The head of the county evaluated the plan.
- Whether to provide assistance was decided after performing
a feasibility check.
- An official in charge of the assistance was appointed.
4. Province and Central Government: Presenting guidelines
- Criteria on primary project selection, funds distribution,
special project selection, and model village selection

 We provided guidance and support this way: (county-level
1. Officials in charge of the village: Visited the village
10-30 times a month.
- Found out the situation of the village.
- Encouraged villagers to make more efforts.
- Reported to higher officials the difficulty that villagers
have in carrying out the project.

2. Head of the county – Visited the villages and encouraged
people to work harder

3. Technology adviser: Visited the villages once a month and
worked with the villagers when necessary.

 The evaluation was done this way:
1. Criteria
- Was the basic project completed?
- How much was the project completed?
- Was the project up to the standard?
- How high is the technology level of the villagers?
- How well do the villagers cooperate?

2. Evaluation at different levels
- Town County  Province Central government
- Province Level: Evaluated through reports of the on-the-
spot inspection
- Central Government Level: Evaluated by dispatching an
additional evaluation team
3. Evaluation result
- Villages with poor results: Categorized as a village that
needs a special supervision
- Villages with good results: Received a level-upgrade
- Villages with excellent results: Received citations from
the President, Prime Minister, and Home Affairs Minister

 The government officials pledged to:
1. Find out problems that cannot be solved by the villagers
and provide assistance
2. Learn from the villagers before providing guidance
3. Present vision to boost the villagers’ morale
④ Intensive information and technology education – Saemaul
Training Center.

 Korea has a central training system.
1. The government established the Training Center for Saemaul
Leaders in 1972, a year after the launch of the Saemaul

2. The center was a place where information and technology
needed for the movement were educated.

3. The center was a place where experiences and cases of the
movement were shared.

4. The center was a place where Saemaul Movement leaders were

5.   The center was a place where high-ranking officials and
Saemaul leaders meet and discuss the future of the movement.

 The people who received training was:
1. Saemaul leaders
2. heads of village organizations
3. Prospective Saemaul Movement trainers
4. High-ranking government officials

 The facilities and staff of the center were:
1. Facilities
- Auditorium
- lodgings and cafeterias for staff, trainers, and trainees
- A lot of small and medium-sized classrooms (with audio-
visual equipment)
- A lot of small and medium-sized meeting rooms
- technology labs
- library
- sports and leisure facilities

2. Staff
- operating staff of the program who received required
- teaching staff with master’s and doctoral degrees in
agriculture, business administration, science, technology,
and sociology.

 The main contents of the program are as follows:
1. Lecture and practice on farming-related technology
2. Lecture and discussion on villagers’ movement
3. case reports
4. small-group discussions

 The features of the training program was:
1. The basic training period was 4-7 days.
During the period, the trainees developed a sense of unity by
learning and living together.

2. Not only training but also opportunities of small-group
discussions were provided.
By   participating    in   small-group      discussions,    trainees
internalized what they have learned.

3. The importance of case reports was emphasized.
The trainees had an opportunity to report their successful
project     cases.   Because   they   had   to   overcome   numerous
obstacles in carrying out the project, their stories deeply
moved the audience.    During the process, the Saemaul leaders
renewed their determination to make their project a success.
4.    Each class consisted of both high-ranking officials and
Saemaul leaders.
Because of this, the Saemaul leaders were able to communicate
to the government officials about their problems, situations
of their villages, and their opinions regarding policies.      In
the   process,   they   felt   pride.   Also,   the   high-ranking
officials had a rare opportunity to directly listen to the
voice of the Saemaul leaders and became even more confident
about the necessity and possibility of the movement,

To top