Artist Painter Contract

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					The Late Middle Ages
And the Renaissance
           The Black Death
 loss of 1/3 of European population (mostly in
  cities)
 Causes: bubonic plague carried by fleas on
  Asian black rats; poor sanitation, overcrowded
  homes, poor health, poor hygiene, poor
  housing
 Results: Severe impact on European economy;
  in some areas workers enjoyed higher wages;
 Best of clergy died (staying behind to help the
  sick); Jews blamed; serfdom ended in many
  areas; first enclosure of fields in Britain
     Crisis in the Catholic Church
 Early Criticisms of the church
 Marsiglio de Padua: Defender of Peace – Church
  should be subordinate to the state Church should be
  governed by a council of laity and priests superior to
  pope.
 John Wyclif (1320-1384): church should only follow
  Scripture; English translation of Bible; his later
  followers were Lollards
 John Huss (1369-1415): ideas similar to Wyclif;
  nationalist party in Czech (Bohemia)
 Hussites: followers of Huss who staged large rebellions
  in 14th century.
     Crisis in the Catholic Church
 Babylonian Captivity (1305-1378): 7
  successive popes resided at Avignon, France.
  Damaged papal prestige (esp. in England &
  Germany); Rome’s economy damaged
 Great Schism (c. 1378-1417): Further conflict
  led to election of two popes—one in Rome,
  one in France; further hurt prestige of church.
 Conciliar Movement (1409-1418): Council of
  Pisa and Council of Constance, ended schism;
  failed as movement to put power in a church
  council; pope’s power still supreme
   Hundred Years’ War (1337-
            1453)
 Cause—English lays claim to large areas of
  French land.
 Three phases:
 Early English Victories: Crecy (1346) and
  Poitiers (1356)
 French reclaim territory and stalemate
 English victories: Agincourt (1415), French
  regain lands
  – Joan of Arc: led French army to victory at Orleans
    during crucial stage of the war
 Results: France kicks England out; creation of
  modern nation states begin (―New Monarchs‖).
  Innovations in war technology: longbow,
  cannon, infantry. Decimation of landed nobles.
     Northern Italian Economy

 Cities developed international trade: Genoa,
  Venice, Milan.
 popolo (middle class) took power in 13th
  century; republican gov’t short-lived
 signori (despots) or oligarchies (rule of
  merchant aristocracies) by 1300
 commenda: Contract between merchant and
  ―merchant-adventurer‖ who agreed to take
  goods to distant locations and return with the
  proceeds (for 1/3 of profits)
Italian City States, 1454
   Politics of Italian City-States

 Republic of Florence (Included Republic
  of Genoa) – Medici family
 Cosimo De’Medici (1389-1464): allied
  with other powerful families of Florence
  and became unofficial ruler of the republic
 Lorenzo the Magnificent             (1449-
  1492): lavish patron
  of the arts
    Politics of Italian City-States

 Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) –
  theocracy in Florence 1494-98; (predicted
  French invasion due to paganism and moral
  decay of Italian city-states); burned at the
  stake Charles VIII (1483-1498), French
  invasions of Italy; Italy became battleground
  for international ambitions
   Politics of Italian City-States

 Duchy of Milan -- Sforza family (Caterina
  Sforza (1463-1509), great art patron)
 Rome, the Papal States – papacy
  (―Renaissance popes‖)
 Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Venice,
  Venetian Republic
 Isabella d’Este (1474-1539): most famous
  Renaissance female ruler (ruled Mantua)
 condottieri: leaders of private armies hired by
  cities for military purposes
              Humanism
 Humanism -- Revival of antiquity (Greece
  and Rome) in literature
 Individualism/ secularism: “man is the
  measure of all things”
 virtú: the quality of being a great man in
  whatever noble pursuit
 Education: (emphasis on Latin and Greek)
               Humanism
 Petrarch—(1304-1374) “Dark Ages”
  metaphor; ―father of humanism‖ and
  1st modern writer, literature no longer
  subordinate to religion
 Dante – Divine Comedy
 Boccacio – Decameron: aimed to impart
  wisdom of human character and behavior.
 Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) Oration on
  the Dignity of Man; Platonic academy
 Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) – The
  Book of the Courtier
               Humanism
 Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) – wrote
  history of Florence; division of historical
  periods; narrative form; civic humanist;
  first to use term ―humanism‖
 Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457)—On the
  False Donation of
 Constantine (1444); study of Latin
 Niccolo Machiavelli
  (1469-1527) -- The Prince
  (1513) – Cesare Borgia
          New Artistic Styles
 Look to Roman and
  Greek influences.
 Use of realistic
  perspective in depicting
  scenes.
 Portrait painting
  becomes popular.
 Depiction of
  Renaissance ideals.
 New dignity of the
  individual
          Early Renaissance
 Florence the leader in Renaissance art esp. in
  quattrocento (1400s)
 Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) – architect of
  cathedrals (il duomo in Florence)
 Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), architect of
  cathedrals.
 Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) -- sculptor: bronze
  doors for Florentine baptistry
 Donatello (1386-1466 – sculptor: David (in bronze)
 Masaccio (1401-1428) painter: nude human figures
 Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516) – Portrait of a
  Condottiere
 Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1574) – goldsmith and
  sculptor
Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337)
  Considered to be the
   Father of the Italian
   Renaissance
  Broke with linear
   style of Middle Ages.
  First to us
   chiaroscuro.
  Reputed to be a
   shrewd and witty
   character.
  Praised by the poet
   Dante.
Giotto - The Mourning of Christ
Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510)
 Spent almost his
  entire life in
  Florence.
 Only significant
  journey was to
  Rome to work on
  Sistine Chapel.
 Died in obscurity
  and his fame was
  not reestablished
  until the 19th
  century.
Botticelli-Primavera
Botticelli- Birth of Venus
      High Renaissance
 ―High Renaissance‖ centered in
  Rome (1500-1527) – cinquecento
  (1500s)
 Most worldly of Renaissance
  popes – Alexander VI (1492-
  1503); Julius II (1503-1513); and
  Leo X (1513-1521), funded great
  art projects
 Characteristics: classical balance,
  harmony, restraint
   Leonardo da Vinci (1452-
                 1519)
 Painter, sculptor,
  architect and
  engineer.
 Often left work
  unfinished.
 Conducted
  extensive
  scientific studies.
 Invented the
  armored tank and
  designed aircraft.
Da Vinci – The Last Supper
      Michelangelo Buonarotti
           (1475-1564)
 Sculptor, painter,
  architect, and poet.
 Tormented genius
  who was rarely
  satisfied with his
  talents.
 In painting and
  sculpture his work
  focused mainly on
  the nude human
  form.
Michelangelo – La Pieta
Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel
   Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520)
 Child prodigy in
  the world of art.
 Patronized by the
  popes and named
  Papal Architect in
  1514.
 Died of fever at
  age 37.
Raphael – Three Graces
Raphael – School of Athens
     Printing Press (c. 1456)
 Johann Gutenberg – spread of
  humanistic literature to rest of Europe.
 By 1480, 380 printing presses in Europe
  (1000 by 1500)
   Christian Humanism
 Attempted to find a balance between
  religious and secular concerns
 Rejected the ―otherworldliness‖ of
  the Middle Ages.
 Emphasis on early church writings
  for answers to improve society.
    Christian Humanist Writers
 Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus of
  Rotterdam) (1466-1536) – In Praise of
  Folly; most famous intellectual of his
  times, criticized the church: ―Erasmus lay
  the egg that Luther hatched‖
 Thomas More (1478-1536) – Utopia –
  creates ideal society on an island; but to
  achieve harmony and order people have
  to sacrifice individual rights
    Christian Humanist Writers
 Jacques Lefevre d’Etables (1454-1536):
  leading French humanist; produced 5
  versions of the Psalms that challenged a
  single authoritative Bible.
 Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436-
  1517): reformed Spanish clergy and church,
  Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition
    Northern Renaissance Arts
 Low Countries (Dutch
  Republic, Flanders and
  parts of Germany, etc)
  produced especially
  important artists.
 Jan and Hubert Van Eyck
   – First successful use of
     oil painting
   – Worked mainly in
     Ghent, Belgium.
Peter Brueghel (1520-1569)
 Focused on lives of ordinary
  people.
 Painted great landscapes
 Also worked on religious
  subjects
 Completed most of his work in
  Antwerp and Brussels
Peter Brueghel – Peasant Wedding
    Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
 German – foremost
  northern Renaissance
  artist
 Famous for woodcuts
  and engravings.
 Paintings include a
  number of self protraits
Albrecht Durer – The Last Supper
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-
             1543)
                 Son of Gothic artist.
                 German painter
                  who studied in Italy
                 Painted portraits of
                  Erasmus, Thomas
                  More, King Henry
                  VIII, his wives, and
                  Mary Tudor
Hans Holbein – The
  Ambassadors
 Domenikos El Greco (1541-1614):
      painter: mannerism
 Painter in Spain (of
  Greek nationality)
 Famous for unique style
  known as mannerism.
 Subjects depict
  religious mysticism of
  the period in Spain
El Greco – Death of Duke of Orgaz
       Vernacular Writers
 France
  – Francois Rabelais’ (1494-1553)
    Gargantua and Pantagruel
  – Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
    Essays relativist in religion and
    morality
            Vernacular Writers
 England
  – Edmund Spenser (1552 – 1599) composed romantic
    epic Faerie Queen
  – Christopher Marlowe (1564 – 1593) skilled playwright
    and poet
  – William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) poet and
    playwright. Wrote plays that best exemplfied the
    varieties of human experience.
  – Ben Jonson (1572 – 1673) poet and dramatist who
    created plays in the Greek style.
           Vernacular Writers
 Spain
  – Miguel de Cervantes (1547 – 1615) Wrote Don
    Quixote. Regarded as one of the great novels
    of the period.
  – Felix Lope de Vega (1562-1635) wrote in every
    major literary style. Created over 1500 plays, of
    which 500 survive.

				
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