The Late Middle Ages And the Renaissance The Black Death loss of 1/3 of European population (mostly in cities) Causes: bubonic plague carried by fleas on Asian black rats; poor sanitation, overcrowded homes, poor health, poor hygiene, poor housing Results: Severe impact on European economy; in some areas workers enjoyed higher wages; Best of clergy died (staying behind to help the sick); Jews blamed; serfdom ended in many areas; first enclosure of fields in Britain Crisis in the Catholic Church Early Criticisms of the church Marsiglio de Padua: Defender of Peace – Church should be subordinate to the state Church should be governed by a council of laity and priests superior to pope. John Wyclif (1320-1384): church should only follow Scripture; English translation of Bible; his later followers were Lollards John Huss (1369-1415): ideas similar to Wyclif; nationalist party in Czech (Bohemia) Hussites: followers of Huss who staged large rebellions in 14th century. Crisis in the Catholic Church Babylonian Captivity (1305-1378): 7 successive popes resided at Avignon, France. Damaged papal prestige (esp. in England & Germany); Rome’s economy damaged Great Schism (c. 1378-1417): Further conflict led to election of two popes—one in Rome, one in France; further hurt prestige of church. Conciliar Movement (1409-1418): Council of Pisa and Council of Constance, ended schism; failed as movement to put power in a church council; pope’s power still supreme Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453) Cause—English lays claim to large areas of French land. Three phases: Early English Victories: Crecy (1346) and Poitiers (1356) French reclaim territory and stalemate English victories: Agincourt (1415), French regain lands – Joan of Arc: led French army to victory at Orleans during crucial stage of the war Results: France kicks England out; creation of modern nation states begin (―New Monarchs‖). Innovations in war technology: longbow, cannon, infantry. Decimation of landed nobles. Northern Italian Economy Cities developed international trade: Genoa, Venice, Milan. popolo (middle class) took power in 13th century; republican gov’t short-lived signori (despots) or oligarchies (rule of merchant aristocracies) by 1300 commenda: Contract between merchant and ―merchant-adventurer‖ who agreed to take goods to distant locations and return with the proceeds (for 1/3 of profits) Italian City States, 1454 Politics of Italian City-States Republic of Florence (Included Republic of Genoa) – Medici family Cosimo De’Medici (1389-1464): allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449- 1492): lavish patron of the arts Politics of Italian City-States Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) – theocracy in Florence 1494-98; (predicted French invasion due to paganism and moral decay of Italian city-states); burned at the stake Charles VIII (1483-1498), French invasions of Italy; Italy became battleground for international ambitions Politics of Italian City-States Duchy of Milan -- Sforza family (Caterina Sforza (1463-1509), great art patron) Rome, the Papal States – papacy (―Renaissance popes‖) Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Venice, Venetian Republic Isabella d’Este (1474-1539): most famous Renaissance female ruler (ruled Mantua) condottieri: leaders of private armies hired by cities for military purposes Humanism Humanism -- Revival of antiquity (Greece and Rome) in literature Individualism/ secularism: “man is the measure of all things” virtú: the quality of being a great man in whatever noble pursuit Education: (emphasis on Latin and Greek) Humanism Petrarch—(1304-1374) “Dark Ages” metaphor; ―father of humanism‖ and 1st modern writer, literature no longer subordinate to religion Dante – Divine Comedy Boccacio – Decameron: aimed to impart wisdom of human character and behavior. Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) Oration on the Dignity of Man; Platonic academy Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) – The Book of the Courtier Humanism Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) – wrote history of Florence; division of historical periods; narrative form; civic humanist; first to use term ―humanism‖ Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457)—On the False Donation of Constantine (1444); study of Latin Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) -- The Prince (1513) – Cesare Borgia New Artistic Styles Look to Roman and Greek influences. Use of realistic perspective in depicting scenes. Portrait painting becomes popular. Depiction of Renaissance ideals. New dignity of the individual Early Renaissance Florence the leader in Renaissance art esp. in quattrocento (1400s) Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) – architect of cathedrals (il duomo in Florence) Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), architect of cathedrals. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) -- sculptor: bronze doors for Florentine baptistry Donatello (1386-1466 – sculptor: David (in bronze) Masaccio (1401-1428) painter: nude human figures Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516) – Portrait of a Condottiere Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1574) – goldsmith and sculptor Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) Considered to be the Father of the Italian Renaissance Broke with linear style of Middle Ages. First to us chiaroscuro. Reputed to be a shrewd and witty character. Praised by the poet Dante. Giotto - The Mourning of Christ Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510) Spent almost his entire life in Florence. Only significant journey was to Rome to work on Sistine Chapel. Died in obscurity and his fame was not reestablished until the 19th century. Botticelli-Primavera Botticelli- Birth of Venus High Renaissance ―High Renaissance‖ centered in Rome (1500-1527) – cinquecento (1500s) Most worldly of Renaissance popes – Alexander VI (1492- 1503); Julius II (1503-1513); and Leo X (1513-1521), funded great art projects Characteristics: classical balance, harmony, restraint Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 1519) Painter, sculptor, architect and engineer. Often left work unfinished. Conducted extensive scientific studies. Invented the armored tank and designed aircraft. Da Vinci – The Last Supper Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475-1564) Sculptor, painter, architect, and poet. Tormented genius who was rarely satisfied with his talents. In painting and sculpture his work focused mainly on the nude human form. Michelangelo – La Pieta Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) Child prodigy in the world of art. Patronized by the popes and named Papal Architect in 1514. Died of fever at age 37. Raphael – Three Graces Raphael – School of Athens Printing Press (c. 1456) Johann Gutenberg – spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe. By 1480, 380 printing presses in Europe (1000 by 1500) Christian Humanism Attempted to find a balance between religious and secular concerns Rejected the ―otherworldliness‖ of the Middle Ages. Emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society. Christian Humanist Writers Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus of Rotterdam) (1466-1536) – In Praise of Folly; most famous intellectual of his times, criticized the church: ―Erasmus lay the egg that Luther hatched‖ Thomas More (1478-1536) – Utopia – creates ideal society on an island; but to achieve harmony and order people have to sacrifice individual rights Christian Humanist Writers Jacques Lefevre d’Etables (1454-1536): leading French humanist; produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a single authoritative Bible. Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436- 1517): reformed Spanish clergy and church, Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition Northern Renaissance Arts Low Countries (Dutch Republic, Flanders and parts of Germany, etc) produced especially important artists. Jan and Hubert Van Eyck – First successful use of oil painting – Worked mainly in Ghent, Belgium. Peter Brueghel (1520-1569) Focused on lives of ordinary people. Painted great landscapes Also worked on religious subjects Completed most of his work in Antwerp and Brussels Peter Brueghel – Peasant Wedding Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) German – foremost northern Renaissance artist Famous for woodcuts and engravings. Paintings include a number of self protraits Albrecht Durer – The Last Supper Hans Holbein the Younger (1497- 1543) Son of Gothic artist. German painter who studied in Italy Painted portraits of Erasmus, Thomas More, King Henry VIII, his wives, and Mary Tudor Hans Holbein – The Ambassadors Domenikos El Greco (1541-1614): painter: mannerism Painter in Spain (of Greek nationality) Famous for unique style known as mannerism. Subjects depict religious mysticism of the period in Spain El Greco – Death of Duke of Orgaz Vernacular Writers France – Francois Rabelais’ (1494-1553) Gargantua and Pantagruel – Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Essays relativist in religion and morality Vernacular Writers England – Edmund Spenser (1552 – 1599) composed romantic epic Faerie Queen – Christopher Marlowe (1564 – 1593) skilled playwright and poet – William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) poet and playwright. Wrote plays that best exemplfied the varieties of human experience. – Ben Jonson (1572 – 1673) poet and dramatist who created plays in the Greek style. Vernacular Writers Spain – Miguel de Cervantes (1547 – 1615) Wrote Don Quixote. Regarded as one of the great novels of the period. – Felix Lope de Vega (1562-1635) wrote in every major literary style. Created over 1500 plays, of which 500 survive.