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					                                                     COUNTRY HEALTH INFORMATION PROFILE

AUSTRALIA                                                   WESTERN PACIFIC REGION HEALTH DATABANK, 2010 Revision


                               INDICATORS                                                                            DATA                                                            Year       Source

     Demographics                                                                 Total                                Male                                Female

1    Area (1 000 km2)                                                                     7692.02                                                                                     2008        1

     Estimated population ('000s)                                                                     a                                    a                                    a
2                                                                                     22 065.67                            10 987.13                               11 078.54         2009p        2

3    Annual population growth rate (%)                                                       2.12                                2.15                                    2.03        2008p        2

4    Percentage of population

      - 0–4 years                                                                            6.50                                6.70                                    6.30        2009p        2

      - 5–14 years                                                                          12.62                               13.00                                   12.24        2009p        2

      - 65 years and above                                                                  13.34                               12.21                                   14.45        2009p        2

5    Urban population (%)                                                                   88.90                                  …                                       …         2009est      3

6    Crude birth rate (per 1000 population)                                                 13.84                               14.29                                    13.4         2008        4

7    Crude death rate (per 1000 population)                                                  6.72                                6.90                                    6.54         2008        5

8    Rate of natural increase of population (% per annum)                                    0.74                                  …                                       …         2008p        2

9    Life expectancy (years)

      - at birth                                                                            81.40                               79.20                                   83.70       2006-08       5

      - Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) at age 60                                            18.90                               17.10                                   20.50         2003        6

10   Total fertility rate (women aged 15–49 years)                                           1.97                                  …                                       …          2008        4

     Socioeconomic indicators

     Adult literacy rate (%)                                                                          b                                    b                                    b
11                                                                                          86.60                               81.60                                   91.70         2006        7

     Per capita GDP at current market prices (US$)                                                    c
12                                                                                    39 659.60                                                                                     2008–09       8

13   Rate of growth of per capita GDP (%)                                                    6.00                                                                                   2008–09       8

14   Human development index                                                                 0.97                                                                                     2007        9

     Environmental indicators                                                     Total                                Urban                                   Rural

15   Health care waste generation (metric tons per year)                                       …                                   …                                       …

     Communicable and noncommunicable diseases                                Number of new cases                                              Number of deaths

16   Selected communicable diseases                                   Total                Male             Female             Total                Male               Female

      Hepatitis viral

      - Type A                                                          562                  278                284                    0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      - Type B                                                         7344   d,e
                                                                                            4018      e
                                                                                                               3237    e
                                                                                                                                   19                   11                  8        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      - Type C                                                        11491   e,f
                                                                                            7258      e
                                                                                                               4172    e
                                                                                                                                   85                   52                 33        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      - Type E                                                           35                   20                 15                    0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      - Unspecified                                                       0                       0               0                    3                   2                1        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Cholera                                                             4                       1               3                    0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Dengue/DHF                                                       1399   d,g
                                                                                             743      g
                                                                                                                655    g
                                                                                                                                       0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Encephalitis                                                       …                     …                  …                40                   13                 27        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Gonorrhoea                                                       8081   d
                                                                                            5422               2640                18                   11                  7        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Leprosy                                                             4                       2               2                    0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Malaria                                                           530   d,h
                                                                                             374      h
                                                                                                                155    h
                                                                                                                                       0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Plague                                                              0                       0               0                    0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Syphilis                                                         2660   d,i
                                                                                            2014      i
                                                                                                                634    i
                                                                                                                                       2                   0                2        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
      Typhoid fever                                                     116                   59                 57                    0                   0                0        C:2009p     10,11
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
17   Acute respiratory infections                                  ########          12 310 741           13 926 855            2778                  1240               1538       C:2003est    6, 12
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007
     - Among children under 5 years                                  844139               429926             414213                21                   16                  5       C:2003est    6,12
                                                                                                                                                                                     D:2007


22 |   COUNTRY HEALTH INFORMATION PROFILES
                                                                                                                                                                    AUSTRALIA

                                 INDICATORS                                                            DATA                                                        Year       Source

     Communicable and noncommunicable diseases                         Number of new cases                                     Number of deaths

                                                              Total             Male          Female           Total                Male           Female

     Diarrhoeal diseases                                                                                                   j                   j             j   C:2003est
18                                                         ########          7 867 069       9 590 029             88                   39             49                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
     - Among children under 5 years                          342264             158289         183975                  1                   1            0        C: 2003est    6,11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
19   Tuberculosis

      - All forms                                              1213                 …              …               52                   32             20         C:2008p      23,11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
      - New pulmonary tuberculosis (smear-positive)             299                 …              …               …                    …               …          2008         23

20   Cancers

      All cancers (malignant neoplasms only)                                                                                                                      C: 2006
                                                             104 592            59 058         45 534          39 323               22 248          17 075                     11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Breast                                                                                                                                                    C: 2006
                                                              12 716               102         12 614           2706                    26           2680                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Colon and rectum                                                                                                                                          C: 2006
                                                              13 591              7432           6159           4107                  2221           1886                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Cervix                                                                                                                                                    C: 2006
                                                                                                  715                                                 208                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Leukaemia                                                                                                                                                 C: 2006
                                                               2624               1513           1111           1469                   892            577                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Lip, oral cavity and pharynx                                                                                                                              C: 2006
                                                               2853               2029            824            676                   474            202                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Liver                                                                                                                                                     C: 2006
                                                               1159                833            326           1109                   717            392                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Oesophagus                                                                                                                                                C: 2006
                                                               1212                846            366           1098                   790            308                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Stomach                                                                                                                                                   C: 2006
                                                               1946               1277            669           1129                   704            425                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
      - Trachea, bronchus, and lung                                                                                                                               C: 2006
                                                               9563               6030           3533           7626                  4715           2911                      11,12
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
21   Circulatory

      All circulatory system diseases                             …                 …              …           46 626               22 070          24 556         2007         11

      - Acute myocardial infarction                               …                 …              …           11 341                 5856           5485          2007         11

      - Cerebrovascular diseases                                                                                                                                 C:2003est
                                                              19 627              9129         10 498          11 491                 4516           6975                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
      - Hypertension                                              …                 …              …            1627                   552           1075          2007         11

      - Ischaemic heart disease                                                                                                                                  C:2003est
                                                              38 675            24 651         14 024          22 729               12 119          10 610                     6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
      - Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart diseases                                                                                                             C:2003est
                                                               1925                635           1290            255                    88            167                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D: 2007
     Diabetes mellitus                                                                                                                                           C:2007-08
22                                                           818 000                …              …            3810                  1923           1887                     11, 13
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
     Mental disorders                                                  k                 k               k                                                       C:2003est
23                                                           494 618           308 668        185 950           5715                  2102           3613                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
24   Injuries

      All types                                                                                                                                                  C:2003est
                                                             309 026           183 853        125 173           7893                  5168           2725                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
      - Drowning                                                183                131             52            183                   131             52         D:2007        11

      - Homicide and violence                                          l                                                                                         C:2003est
                                                              16 986            13 356           3631            165                   105             60                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
      - Occupational injuries                                     …                 …              …               …                    …               …

      - Road traffic accidents                                         l                                                                                         C:2003est
                                                              41 151            29 429         11 723           1155                   859            296                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
      - Suicide                                                                                                                                                  C:2003est
                                                              24 385              9533          14852           1880                  1453            427                      6, 11
                                                                                                                                                                  D:2007
     Leading causes of mortality and morbidity                             Number of cases                        Rate per 100 000 population

25   Leading causes of morbidity (inpatient care)             Total             Male          Female           Total                Male           Female

          1. Care involving dialysis (Z49)                             m
                                                             990 787           589 790        400 997         4665.18              5585.21         3755.34        2007-08       14

          2. Other medical care (Z51)                                  m
                                                             311 537           143 231        168 306         1466.89              1356.37         1576.19        2007-08       14

          3. Rehabilitation (Z50)                                      m
                                                             195 580            85 367        110 213          920.90               808.41         1032.15        2007-08       14

          4. Other cataract (H26)                                      d,m
                                                             125 799            51 635         74 156          592.33               488.97          694.47        2007-08       14

          5. Pain in throat and chest (R07)                            d,m
                                                             115 684            59 450         56 232          544.71               562.98          526.61        2007-08       14

          6. Abdominal and pelvic pain (R10)                           m
                                                             111 036            37 311         73 725          522.82               353.33          690.44        2007-08       14

          7. Other malignant neoplasms of the skin (C44)               d,m
                                                              83 465            49 573         33 890          393.00               469.45          317.38        2007-08       14

          8. Angina pectoris (I20)                                     m
                                                              71 801            45 444         26 357          338.08               430.35          246.83        2007-08       14

          9. Embedded and impacted teeth (K01)                         d,m
                                                              71 470            29 097         42 323          336.52               275.54          396.36        2007-08       14

          10. Adjustment of implanted device (Z45)                     m
                                                              70 655            34 253         36 402          332.68               324.37          340.91        2007-08       14
                                                                                                              COUNTRY HEALTH INFORMATION PROFILES |                              23
AUSTRALIA

                               INDICATORS                                                                          DATA                                                    Year     Source

                                                                                     Number of deaths                        Rate per 100 000 population

26   Leading causes of mortality                                        Total              Male           Female          Total                Male          Female

        1. Ischaemic heart diseases (I20-I25)                                                                                         p
                                                                        23 665                 …              …           109.85                   …             …         2008       25

        2. Strokes (I60-I69)                                                                                                          p
                                                                        11 973                 …              …            55.58                   …             …         2008       25
        3. Dementia and Alzheimer disease (F01-F03,                      8171                  …              …            37.93      p
                                                                                                                                                   …             …         2008       25
        G30)
        4. Trachea and lung cancer (C33-C34)                                                                                          p
                                                                         7946                  …              …            36.89                   …             …         2008       25

        5. Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47)                                                                               p
                                                                         6255                  …              …            29.04                   …             …         2008       25

        6. Diabetes (E10-E14)                                                                                                         p
                                                                         4191                  …              …            19.45                   …             …         2008       25

        7. Colon and rectum cancer (C18-C21)                                                                                          p
                                                                         4120                  …              …            19.12                   …             …         2008       25
        8. Blood and lymph cancer (including leukaemia)                  3889                  …              …            18.05      p
                                                                                                                                                   …             …         2008       25
        (C81-C96)
        9. Heart failure (I50-I51)                                                                                                    p
                                                                         3360                  …              …            15.60                   …             …         2008       25
       10. Diseases of the kidney and urinary system                     3224                  …              …            14.97      p
                                                                                                                                                   …             …         2008       25
       (N00-N39)
     Maternal, child and infant diseases                                         Total                         Male                                 Female
     Percentage of women in the reproductive age group using                                                                                                          n
27                                                                                                                                                            65.00        2001       15
     modern contraceptive methods
      Percentage of pregnant women immunized with tetanus toxoid
28                                                                                                                                                               …
     (TT2)
     Percentage of pregnant women with anaemia                                                                                                                        o
29                                                                                                                                                             6.20        2005       16

30   Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births)                                          2.88                           3.20                               2.54        2008      4, 5

31   Percentage of newborn infants weighing less than 2500 g at birth                        6.20                           5.70                               6.70        2007       17

32   Immunization coverage for infants (%)

      - BCG                                                                                    …                              …                                  …

      - DTP3                                                                                          q
                                                                                            92.10                             …                                  …         2009       18

      - Hepatitis B III                                                                               q
                                                                                            91.60                             …                                  …         2009       18

      - MCV2                                                                                   …                              …                                  …

      - POL3                                                                                          q
                                                                                            92.00                             …                                  …         2009       18

                                                                                     Number of cases                                      Number of deaths

33   Maternal causes                                                    Total              Male           Female          Total                Male          Female

      - Abortion                                                                                              …                                                   1        2007       11

      - Eclampsia                                                                                             …                                                   0        2007       11

      - Haemorrhage                                                                                           …                                                   1        2007       11

      - Obstructed labour                                                                                     …                                                   0        2007       11

      - Sepsis                                                                                                …                                                   0        2007       11

34   Selected diseases under the WHO-EPI

      - Congenital rubella syndrome                                         0                     0            0                  0                   0           0       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Diphtheria                                                          0                     0            0                  0                   0           0       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Measles                                                           105                 66              39                  0                   0           0       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Mumps                                                             165                 99              66                  1                   1           0       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Neonatal tetanus                                                    0                     0            0                  0                   0           0       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Pertussis (whooping cough)                                      29 656   d
                                                                                           12 803         16 813                  0                   0           0       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Poliomyelitis                                                       0                     0            0              12                      4           8       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Rubella                                                            26                 16              10                  0                   0           0       C:2009p    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
      - Total Tetanus                                                       3                     2            1                  1                   1           0       C:2009P    10,11
                                                                                                                                                                          D:2007
     Health facilities

35 Facilities with HIV testing and counseling services                                                                                                           …




24 |   COUNTRY HEALTH INFORMATION PROFILES
                                                                                                                                                                                                           AUSTRALIA

                                  INDICATORS                                                                                                  DATA                                                        Year      Source

     Health facilities                                                                                         Number                                             Number of beds

36   Health infrastructure

      Public health facilities       - General hospitals                                                                                737                                            54 338             2008-09     19

                                     - Specialized hospitals                                                                                      r                                                   r
                                                                                                                                             19                                           2140            2008-09     19

                                     - District/first-level referral hospitals                                                               …                                                    …

                                     - Primary health care centres                                                                           …                                                    …

      Private health facilities      - Hospitals                                                                                        561                                            27 466             2008-09     19

                                     - Outpatient clinics                                                                                    …                                                    …

     Health care financing

37   Total health expenditure

      - amount (in million US$)                                                                                                                                                                       t
                                                                                                                                                                                     91 342.02            2008est     20

      - total expenditure on health as % of GDP                                                                                                                                            8.80           2008est     20

      - per capita total expenditure on health (in US$)                                                                                                                               4301.00             2008est     20

     Government expenditure on health

      - amount (in million US$)                                                                                                                                                                       t
                                                                                                                                                                                     62 077.31            2008est     20
      - general government expenditure on health as % of total expenditure
                                                                                                                                                                                        68.00             2008est     20
     on health
      - general government expenditure on health as % of total general
                                                                                                                                                                                        17.60             2008est     20
     government expenditure
     External source of government health expenditure
      - external resources for health as % of general government
                                                                                                                                                                                           0.00           2008est     20
     expenditure on health
     Private health expenditure

      - private expenditure on health as % of total expenditure on health                                                                                                               32.00             2008est     20
      - out-of-pocket expenditure on health as % of total expenditure on                                                                                                                17.56             2008est     20
     health
      Exchange rate in US$ of local currency is: 1 US$ =                                                                                                                                              t
                                                                                                                                                                                           1.19           2008est     20

     Health insurance coverage as % of total population                                                                                                                                               u
38                                                                                                                                                                                     100.00              2009       21

                         INDICATORS                                                                                                  DATA                                                                 Year      Source
                                                                                                                  Female




                                                                                                                                                                                        Private
                                                                                                                                                                        Public
                                                                                                                                     Urban




                                                                                                                                                      Rural
                                                                            Total




                                                                                              Male




39   Human resources for health


                                                                                       v                 v                     v
     Physicians                      - Number                             62 800             40 800              22 000                      …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v                 v                     v
                                     - Ratio per 1000 population             2.93              1.90                 1.03                     …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v                 v                     v
     Dentists                        - Number                             14 500             10 600                3900                      …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v                 v                     v
                                     - Ratio per 1000 population             0.68              0.49                 0.18                     …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v
     Pharmacists                     - Number                             17 821              8543                9 278                      …                …                  …                …        2010       24
                                                                                       v
                                     - Ratio per 1000 population             0.81              0.39                 0.42                     …                …                  …                …        2010       24
                                                                                       v,s               v,s                   v,s
     Nurses                          - Number                            188 300             13 900             174 400                      …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v,s               v,s                   v,s
                                     - Ratio per 1000 population             8.79              0.65                 8.14                     …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v                 v                     v
     Midwives                        - Number                             13 000                     0           13 000                      …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v                 v                     v
                                     - Ratio per 1000 population             0.61              0.00                 0.61                     …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v,w               v,w                   v,w
     Paramedical staff               - Number                             96 800             40 500              56 300                      …                …                  …                …       2009p       22
                                                                                       v,w               v,w                   v,w
                                     - Ratio per 1000 population             4.52              1.89                 2.63                     …                …                  …                …       2009p       22

     Community health workers        - Number                                     …              …                         …                 …                …                  …                …

                                     - Ratio per 1000 population                  …              …                         …                 …                …                  …                …

40                                   Physicians                             2139               926                 1213                      …                …                  …                …        2008       27
     Annual number of
                                     Dentists                                    349           162                    187                    …                …                  …                …        2008       28
     graduates
                                     Pharmacists                            1649                 …                         …                 …                …                  …                …        2008       29


                                                                                                                                                      COUNTRY HEALTH INFORMATION PROFILES |                            25
AUSTRALIA

                              INDICATORS                                                                                    DATA                                                       Year      Source




                                                                                                   Female




                                                                                                                                                                         Private
                                                                                                                                                    Public
                                                                                                                    Urban




                                                                                                                                        Rural
                                                                        Total




                                                                                    Male
40   Annual number of               Nurses                              8786        1134            7652                    …                   …            …                     …    2008       28
     graduates
                                    Midwives                              642          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …    2008       29

                                    Paramedical staff                       …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

                                    Community health workers                …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

41   Workforce losses/              Physicians                              …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …
     Attrition
                                    Dentists                                …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

                                    Pharmacists                             …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

                                    Nurses                                  …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

                                    Midwives                                …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

                                    Paramedical staff                       …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

                                    Community health workers                …          …                    …               …                   …            …                     …

                              INDICATORS                                                                                    DATA                                                       Year      Source

     Health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)                                    Total                                Male                         Female

42   Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age                                             …                                   …                                  …

43   Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)                                                    4.10                                 4.60                              3.60        2008       5

44   Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births)                                                4.92                                 5.50                              4.30        2008      4, 5

     Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles                                                x
45                                                                                                  93.80                                       …                                  …    2009       18

46   Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births)                                              8.40                                                                              2003-05     30

47   Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel                                              …
       - Percentage of deliveries at home by skilled health personnel (as % of                              …
     total deliveries)
       - Percentage of deliveries in health facilities (as % of total deliveries)                   99.20                                                                               2007       17

48   Contraceptive prevalence rate                                                                          …                                   …                         65.00         2001       15

49   Adolescent birth rate                                                                           4.10                                                                               2007       17

50   Antenatal care coverage        - At least one visit                                            99.60                                                                               2001       31

                                    - At least four visits                                                  …

51   Unmet need for family planning                                                                         …                                   …                                  …

52   HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years                                               <0.08                                <0.15                            <0.02         2008       32

     Estimated HIV prevalence in adults                                                                         y
53                                                                                                   0.08                                 0.15                              0.02        2008       32

     Percentage of people with advanced HIV infection receiving ART                                             z
54                                                                                                  61.00                                       …                                  …   2008est     32

     Malaria incidence rate per 100 000 population                                                              h
55                                                                                                      NR                                  NR                                NR       2009P       10

     Malaria death rate per 100 000 population                                                                  h
56                                                                                                      NR                                  NR                                NR       2009P       10
   Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective                                               h
57                                                                                                      NR                                  NR                                NR       2009P       10
   malaria prevention measures
     Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective                                             h
58                                                                                                      NR                                  NR                                NR       2009P       10
     malaria treatment measures
59   Tuberculosis prevalence rate per 100 000 population                                             5.00                                       …                                  …    2008       23

60   Tuberculosis death rate per 100 000 population                                                  0.00                                       …                                  …    2008       23
   Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected under directly
61                                                                                                  89.00                                       …                                  …    2008       23
   observed treatment short-course (DOTS)
    Proportion of tuberculosis cases cured under directly observed
62                                                                                                  85.00                                       …                                  …    2007       23
   treatment short-course (DOTS)
                                                                                           Total                                Urban                            Rural

63 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water                                       100.00                               100.00                           100.00         2008       26
   source
64 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility                                  100.00                               100.00                           100.00         2008       26
   Proportion of population with access to affordable essential
65                                                                                                          …                                   …                                  …
   drugs on a sustainable basis



26 |   COUNTRY HEALTH INFORMATION PROFILES
                                                                                                                                                                                     AUSTRALIA

Notes:
 … Data not available
 P    Provisional
 est Estimate
NR Not relevant
 a    Estimated figure includes Other Territories comprising Jervis Bay Territory, Christmas Island and the Cocos (keeling) Islands
 b    Data for 15-year-old schoolchildren. Literacy defined as Levels 2-5 using OECD PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) standards
 c    Revised figure refers to current prices based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) from <http://www.oecd.org/std/ppp> (accessed 19 May 2010)
 d    Number includes records where sex was unknown/not reported
 e    Includes both newly acquired cases less than 24 months and where period of infection is unknown
 f    Figure includes records where sex was unknown/not reported and may be an underestimate as Queensland did not report Hepatitis C (incident) in 2008
 g    Includes imported and locally acquired cases
 h    Not endemic, absence of local transmission
  i   Includes infectious syphilis, and syphilis where duration is > 2yrs or unknown duration, excludes congenital syphilis
  j   Includes deaths due to Intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09)
 k    Includes substance use disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety amd depression, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, eating disorders, dementia, ADHD and autism
  l   Total does not always equal the sum of its components due to incidence estimation process
 m    Data refer to episodes of admitted patient care (separations). Separations can be overnight or same-day
 n    Percentage of women aged 18-49 (or their partners) reporting using contraceptive methods (including hysterectomy, tubal ligation and partner vasectomy)
 o    Estimate based on South Australia
 p    Computed by Information, Evidence and Research Unit of the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific
 q    At 12–15 months
 r    Number refers to psychiatric hospitals
 s    Registered nurses
 t    Based on OECD Health Data monetary exchange rates.
 u    Under the Medicare Scheme introduced in 1984, all residents began eligible for free in-patient care and obtain a universal rebate on the cost of ambulatory medical services
 v    These data are subject to sampling error and may not directly correspond to other Australian labour force data
 w    Includes dieticians, imaging specialists, occupational health workers, chiropracters, complementary health workers, physiothrapists, podiatrists, speech therapists, anaesthetists and paramedics
 x    At 24-27 months (age calculated at 31 December 2009)
 y    Based on all persons living with HIV (rather than just adults)
 z    The estimate is for all people living with diagnosed HIV infection rather than for people with advanced HIV infection.
Sources:
 1    Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2009. Year Book Australia 2008. Cat. No. 1301.0. Canberra: ABS.
 2    ABS 2010. Australian Demographic Statistics, September Quarter 2009. Cat. No. 3101.0. Canberra: ABS.
 3    Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision and World Urbanization
      Prospects: The 2009 Revision, http://esa.un.org/wup2009/unup/, Monday, September 13, 2010; 2:14:19 AM.
 4    ABS 2009. Births Australia 2008. Cat. No. 3301.0. Canberra: ABS.
 5    ABS 2009. Deaths Australia 2008. Cat. No. 3302.0. Canberra: ABS.
 6    Begg S, Vos T, Barker B, Stevenson C, Stanley L & Lopez A 2007. The burden of disease and injury in Australia 2003. AIHW Cat. No. PHE 82. Canberra: AIHW.
 7    Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) PISA 2006 volume 1 analysis: science competencies for tomorrow's world. Available from:
      <http://www.oecd.org/document/2/0,3343,en_32252351_32236191_39718850_1_1_1_1,00.html> (Accessed 6 May 2010).
 8    ABS 2009. Australian system of national accounts, 2008–09. Cat. No. 5204.0. Canberra: ABS.
 9    Human Development Report 2009: Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development. United National Development Programme.
      [http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2009/]
 10 Department of Health and Ageing, Surveillance Branch, Office of Health Protection. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Available from:
      <http://www.health.gov.au/nndssdata > (Accessed 20 May 2010)
 11 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). National Mortality Database.
 12 AIHW 2009. ACIM (Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality) Books. AIHW: Canberra.
 13 ABS 2009. 2007–08 National Health Survey: summary of results. Cat. no. 4364.0. ABS: Canberra.
 14 AIHW 2009. Australian hospital statistics 2007–08. Health Services Series no. 33. Cat. no. HSE 71. Canberra: AIHW.
 15 ABS. National Health Survey Australia 2001.Cat. No. 4364.0. Canberra: ABS, and unpublished.
 16 Chan A, Scott J, Nguyen A.M, Sage L 2006. Pregnancy outcome in South Australia 2005. Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Unit, South Australian Department of Health.
 17 Laws PJ & Hilder L 2009. Australia's mothers and babies 2007. Cat. No. PER 48. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
 18 Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) statistics as of 31 March 2010. Available from:
      <http://www.medicareaustralia.gov.au/provider/patients/acir/statistics.jsp> (Accessed 7 May 2010).
 19 Australian hospital statistics 2008-09, Published 17 June 2010, AIHW. Available from http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/title/11173 accessed on 13 September 2010.
 20 World Health Organization (WHO). National health accounts series. Available from: <http://www.who.int/nha/country/aus.pdf> (Accessed 11 May 2010).
 21 Medicare Australia 2010. About Medicare Australia: what we do. Available from: <www.medicareaustralia.gov.au/about/whatwedo/medicare.jsp> (Accessed 10 May 2010).
 22 ABS 2009. Labour Force, Australia, detailed, quarterly, February 2009. Cat. No. 6291.0.55.003, Table E08. Canberra: ABS.
 23 WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, data received from technical units
 24 ABS 2010. Labour Force, Australia, detailed, quarterly, February 2010. Cat. No. 6291.0.55.003, Table E08. Canberra: ABS.
 25 Causes of Death 2008. Cat. No. 3303.0. Australia Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Available from
      http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/E8510D1C8DC1AE1CCA2576F600139288/$File/33030_2008.pdf accessed on 13 September 2010.
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AUSTRALIA

Sources:
 26 Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2010 Update. World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply
      and Sanitation (JMP). UNICEF, New York and WHO, Geneva, 2010. [http://www.wssinfo.org/en/welcome.html]
 27 Commonwealth of Australia 2010. Medical Training Review Panel 13th Report.
 28 Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Award course completions 2007: selected higher education statistics. Available from:
     <http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/higher_education/publications_resources> (Accessed 10 May 2010).
 29 Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations 2010. Unpublished data: award course completions in selected fields of education, 2008.
 30 Sullivan EA, Hall B & King JF (eds) 2008. Maternal deaths in Australia 2003–2005. Cat. No. PER 42. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit (NPSU).
 31 Ford J, Nassar N, Sullivan EA, Chambers G & Lancaster P 2003. Reproductive health indicators Australia 2002. AIHW Cat. No. PER 20. Canberra: AIHW NPSU.
 32 National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research (NCHECR) 2009. HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: Annual Surveillance Report 2009.
     Sydney: NCHECR.




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