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					Creativity in Advertising


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Table 2: Idea Ratings for the Four Sources
Creativity Ratings             Mean          S.D.
Winning Ads                    3.26          .49
Magazine Ads                   2.88          .55
Routine-Generated Ads   2.89          .48
Laymen-Generated Ads    2.22          .43

Originality Ratings            Mean          S.D.
Winning Ads                    3.33          .55
Magazine Ads                   2.85          .58
Routine-Generated Ads   2.89          .54
Laymen-Generated Ads    2.22          .46
Table 3: Idea Ratings Based on Template Utilization
Creativity Ratings       Mean        S.D.
Non-Template Ads           2.63      .62
Routine-Generated Ads      2.89      .48
Other Template-Based Ads   3.34      .35

Originality Ratings        Mean      S.D.
Non-Template Ads           2.66      .70
Routine-Generated Ads      2.89      .54
Other Template-Based Ads   3.28      .43
    Examples of Replacement computer produced ideas

·  Image of Apple Computer Terminal/ handing of Flowers
(for advertising Apple computers friendliness)

· Texture of Tennis Ball / Temple Mountain Mosque (for
advertising World Cup Tennis Tournament in Jerusalem).

· Shape of Plane/ Coo-coo in Coo-coo Clock (for advertising
the time accuracy of a flight company).

· Picture of Jeeps/ Speaking in Sign Language (for silent car
engine) shape of car/ bullet (for fast car).

    I                      II                                                             V                   VI
                                                 III                 IV
Pictorial              Extreme                                                       Interactive        Dimensionality
                                            Consequences          Competition
analogy                Situation                                                     experiment           Alteration

                                     Absurd            Extreme             Attribute in
            Replacement                                                                        Activation           parameter
                                   alternatives      consequences          competition

             Extreme                Extreme             Inverted            Worth in          Imaginary
             analogy                attribute        consequences          competition        experiment

                                    Extreme                                Uncommon
                                     worth                                    use                                        Division

                                                                                                                     Time leap


Number of Ad s





                             1           2           3           4         5          6          7
                 Pictorial       Consequence   Extreme        No      Competition Dimensionality Interactive
                  analogy                      situation   Creativity               alteration   experiment
Distribution of Templates by Ad Quality Group

                                                                          Highly     Contest   Non
                                                        evaluated       winning winning
                                                                           ads                   ads   ads

     Template                        Group 1     Group 2       Group 3
                                    (Study 1)   (Study 2)     (Study 2)

     Pictorial Analogy       (I)       68          40               2

     Replacement                       44          26               1

     Extreme analogy                   24          14               1

     Extreme Situation       (II)      24          17               1

     Absurd alternatives               7           3                0

     Extreme attribute                 10          11               0

     Extreme worth                     7           3                1
Consequences                (III)   37   24   0

Extreme consequences                17   19   0

Inverted extreme consequences       20   5    0

Competition                (IV)     19   24   2

Attribute in competition            5    19   1

Worth in competition                10   3    1

Uncommon use                        4    2    0

Interactive Experiment      (V)     11   3    0

Activation                          8    3    0

Imaginary experiment                3    0    0
Dimensionality alteration   19    15     0

New parameter connection     4     4     0

Multiplication               6     5     0

Division                     5     5     0

Time leap                    4     1     0

No creativity template      22    99    195

Total                       200   200   200
Mean Judgments: Experiment 3

                                   Extreme Situation Template (Anti-Dandruff Shampoo)

                    Creativity    Brand      Humor       Emotio      Annoyanc
                                 attitude                  n            e


No training         2.80         2.62(1)**   2.40        1.83        1.57

Free association    2.08         2.28        1.45        1.62        1.63

Template training   4.02(2)**    4.13(2)**   3.57(2)**   1.79        1.60
                                             Interactive Experiment Template (Diet)

                    Creativity    Brand         Humo        Emotio      Annoyanc
                                 attitude         r           n            e


No training         2.57(1)**    2.38(1)**     1.90        1.90         2.07(1)**

Free association    2.77         2.77          1.93        1.97         1.43

Template training   3.82(2)**    3.97(2)**     1.85        1.30(2)**    1.60
                                             Pictorial Analogy Template (Sneakers)

                    Creativity    Brand        Humor        Emotio       Annoyanc
                                 attitude                     n             e


No training         2.24(1)**    2.49(1)**     1.32(1)*    1.46         1.68(1)**

Free association    2.81         2.86          1.69        1.68         1.27

Template training   3.60(2)**    3.50(2)**     2.18(2)**   1.77         1.13
- Microscopic Drivers and Macroscopic Jams
MICRO - cars
INTER - go ahead/give way at intersections.
MACRO - traffic flow, jamming.
Microscopic Einsteins and Macroscopic Proofs?
MICRO - links, letters, geometrical elements.
INTER - simplexes, words, postulates, Alexander moves.
MACRO - global topology, statements, theorems.
Dramas - mathematical categories endowed with dynamics.
MICRO - categories
INTER - relations, composition laws
MACRO - (stories) dramas
Microscopic Concepts and Macroscopic Ideas.
MICRO - elementary concepts
INTER - archetypical structures and thought procedures
MACRO - creative ideas and archetypes
- Microscopic Seers and Macroscopic Sight.
MICRO - line elements, points in 2 Dimensions..
INTER - time and space data integration.
MACRO - 3 Dimensional global motion.

- Microscopic Picassos and Macroscopic Drawings.
MICRO - line curvature, speed, discrete mental events.
INTER - continuity, kinematics, breaks, (mind) changes.
MACRO - shapes , representational meaning.
- Microscopic Wealth and Macroscopic Power Laws.
MICRO - investors, shares
INTER - sell/buy orders
MACRO - market price (cycles, crushes, booms, stabilization by noise)
We are discerning 3 main complexity cases:

-In very simple cases the pattern of complexity is reducible (may be by
an iterative multiscale procedure) and the MCA's capturing this reducible
complexity are an efficient computational and conceptual tool.

-In the general case one has to put an exponential computational effort to
fully "understand" the structure of the system.

-In some cases the system contains certain macros which are "irreducibly
complex". Yet the interactions between these macros are tractable by
MCA or other algorithms. In these cases, MCA can help reduce the "less
complex" part of the dynamics leaving the "irreducible core" for a
separate treatment.

-Recognizing the "irreducibly complex" parts of a complex system
(rather than trying vainly to solve them by multiscale means) might be a
very important aspect both conceptually and computationally.
Irreducible Complexity and Multiscale Reductionism 206
Reducible vs. Irreducible Complexity211
Semiotics Sidenotes                    214
Is Discretization and Multiscale Intrinsic to Understanding?   214
Discretization as THE Creative Act 219
Other Template Dynamics Projects 222
Cabala Dynamics vs. Cognitive Development             223
Idea Explicitation and Expression        227
Emotions Dynamics                        227
Cabala Templates Research Directions 229
Reactions and Responses to the article Creative
Sparks appeared in Science of Sept 3 1999 245
No reappraisal of creativity is necessary245
Creative vs. Correct Ideas; Facts and Paradoxes    248
Understanding our own nature             250
Creativity - a subjective view           251
The Force of Natural Selection           253
Meme's the Word                          254
Templates are central to creativity      256
Human creativity as individual and non-reproducible process
              I. The Pictorial      II. The Extreme
              Analogy Template: The Situation Template: The
              Replacement Version   Absurd Alternative

Example       Examples and detailed formulation of the scheme               The commercial for locks showing an old lady scaring away
              underlying the replacement version of the pictorial analogy   burglars by barking at them (Suissa Miller Advertising
              template (composed of a symbols set, a product space and a    Company, U.S.A., 1993, Cannes contest award) conveys the
              linking operator) are presented in the Introduction in        message that a safe and peaceful evening can be achieved either
              elaborating the notion of creativity templates (see Figures   by buying a certain lock or by barking.

Description   Note description in the introduction.                         The idea of this version is to present a tongue in cheek
                                                                            suggestion to the viewer: "You don't have to buy our product.
                                                                            There are alternative options for achieving the same results,
                                                                            such as..." The alternative option is presented in a seemingly
                                                                            serious manner but, contrary to the declared position of the
                                                                            advertiser, the viewer will draw the conclusion that such an
                                                                            alternative is absurd and ridiculous.
                                                                            The following elements typically appear in this version:
                                                                                      1.An unexpected shift in the consumer’s frame of mind
                                                                                      into an imaginary status or into a different product
                                                                                      category (but unlikely, to a competitive brand).
                                                                                      2.The absurdity and extreme unrealism of the
                                                                                      alternative option are obvious and recognizable by the
                                                                                      consumer: Any attempt to make the alternative more
                                                                                      realistic would only weaken the claim of the ad.
The specific scheme of the lock commercial mentioned in the
text consists of two sets: A set of alternative options and a set
of situations. An alternative option is an object or an action (a
dog, in this case) which can be used to achieve the product’s
attribute (safety). The alternative option does not have to be
realistic although it is assumed that the target audience will be
familiar with it. A situation is a common use scenario of the
product in time and place (in our case a peaceful evening in
the home of an old lady). The linking operator links one
element from the situation space (the lady) with one element
in the alternative space (barking).
Specific Scheme   Note scheme in the introduction.


When performing the diagonal analysis on “The Story of the
Lost Princess.” 18 diagonal links were found. Two examples are
presented in Table 2. Our assumption was that diagonal links
indicate key-events in the story and in order to check if the
events associated with these 18 diagonal links were to be
considered important events, we went through 21 authors who
commentated “The Story of the Lost Princess.” We looked at
the 29 events they referred to and ranked them according to the
number of writers referring to them. When comparing the events
pointed by the diagonal links, we found that they matched quite
fully the top part of the list: The .rst event that was not pointed by
a diagonal link was number 14 in the ranked list and only one of
these events matched a low-ranked event (number 22). The
detailed analysis of this study will be published elsewhere. For
the purpose of this paper it is enough that appearance of a
diagonal link indicates a crucially signi.cant point in the story.
This story is clearly a parallel to Rabbi Nachman’s “The story of
The Lost Princess” although they are not identical. S. Pitrushka
claims that neither of the two stories is the source of the other but
they both share a common source in the Polish story “A Diverting
Story about the Virtuous Princess Banialuce from an Eastern
Land” by Hieronim Morsztyn (died in 1655). Although Rabbi
Nachman did not know the Polish language, Pitrushka quotes the
Polish historian A. Brinker who proved that “Princess Banialuce”
was translated to the Ukrainian language. Finding a parallel story
was indeed intriguing in light of the fact that Rabbi Nachman did
refer to the relations between his stories and other folk tales.
Rabbi Nachman’s tales were edited by his main disciple Rabbi
Nathan Sternhartz of Nemirow.
In his .rst introduction Rabbi Nathan tells14: “Before [the Rebbe
(Hassidic sage)] began telling the .rst story in this book, he
declared, “Many hidden meanings and lofty concepts are
contained in the stories the world tell. These stories, however, are
de.cient: They contain many omissions. They are also confused,
and people do not tell them in the correct order . . .”.” The Rebbe
spoke about this. Then he began to tell the story on the following
page. He said, “I told this story while on a journey . . . .” In
contemporary words, Rabbi Nachman claims that folk tales need
to be upgraded and is moving to give an example how he does it.
Therefore it was especially interesting to perform a diagonal
analysis on “The Raven.”16
In the analysis, we found 12 diagonal links in “The Raven.”
Further examination showed that out of the 18 diagonal links of
“The Lost Princess” only nine were present in “The Raven.” In
eight out of the nine missing appearances, the event itself was
present in “The Raven” but its description lacked the diagonal link.
On the other hand, in all three diagonal links that appeared in
“The Raven” and did not appear in “The Lost Princess,” the event
itself was not part of the story. Two of these are placed in the last
part of the story, the part that Rabbi Nachman did not tell. When
calculating the density of diagonal links’ appearances according to
the number of words, we found that in “The Raven” there were 12
diagonal links in 1652 words, which is a density of 0.7%. In “The
Lost Princess” there were 18 diagonal links in 1312 words, which
is a density of 1.4%.
              III. The Consequences IV. The Competition
              Template: The         Template: The
              Extreme Consequences Uncommon Use Version

Example       A commercial for car loudspeakers showing a bridge on the        A commercial for jeans showing a couple in a broken-down car
              verge of collapse when the loudspeakers of the car parked        being towed by a pair of jeans tied to the rescuing car.
              on it are turned on at high volume. The message is that the
              music can be played so loud that even the sturdy
              foundations of the bridge are threatened by its impact
              (BBD, Los Angeles, 1994, Cleo award winner).

Description   The idea of this version is to present an extreme                The idea of this template is to emphasize a product attribute by
              consequence of an emphasized product attribute. The              applying it to solve a problem in a context totally different to its
              absurdity of the consequence, even though presented in a         intended use. The following elements typically appear in this
              serious manner, is eminently obvious to the viewer.              version:
              Therefore, even a negative result (the collapse of a bridge)              1.A problematic scenario or issue.
              is conceptualized as an indication of the quality of the                  2.Ambiguity as to the product to be the subject of the
              product. The following elements usually appear in this                    ad when the problem or dilemma is presented.
                       1.Consequences based on a true fact: The extreme
                       situation is created by taking a key attribute of the
                       product to the extreme (e.g., the sound emitted by
                       the loudspeakers causes objects -- even a sturdy
                       bridge -- to vibrate).
                       2.The absurdity and extreme unrealism of the
                       consequences are obvious and recognizable by the
Formul   The specific scheme of the                The specific scheme of the jeans
ation    loudspeaker commercial consists of        commercial consists of two sets: a set of
         two sets: a set of situations and a set   situations and a set of problems. The
                                                   problem suspends the natural flow of events
         of consequences. A consequence is a
                                                   in the situation. The situation in our
         phenomenon, action or behavior            example is a couple driving a car. The
         which results from the product            problem is the breakdown of the car. The
         attribute appearing in the message.       viewer expects to see “how it is going to
         The consequence has to appear             continue from here”. The problem will be
         familiar and not unreasonable to the      solved by using the product; it is therefore
         target audience (e.g. vibrations). It     important to invent the problem by thinking
         does not have to be absurd or             “backwards” so that the product attribute
                                                   contained in the message will provide its
         extreme. The linking operator acts on
                                                   solution. The link is the use of the product
         the product and a selected item in the    as a solution by exploiting the attribute (the
         consequences set by taking the            strength of the jeans).
         consequence to an extreme.
              V. The Interactive Experiment Template: The                  VI. The Dimensionality Alteration Template: The
              Activation Version                                           Time Leap Version

Example       An example of the activation version is an ad containing a   A commercial for life insurance showing a wife arguing with
              large black patch. When the viewer performs the action       her husband for canceling his life insurance. The whole scene
              suggested in the ad, he/she would become aware of the        takes place after he dies, and portrays the wife communicating
              necessity of an anti-dandruff shampoo (DDB, Needham          with her late husband in the setting of a seance (a Cannes award
              San-Paulo, 1995).                                            winner in 1993).

Description   The consumer is required to perform a task or experiment     The idea of this template is to present an ordinary situation (in
              in order to receive the message conveyed by the ad. The      this example, an argument about whether to continue investing
              message is contained in the compelling result. Most of the   in the product). The entertaining effect is achieved by shifting
              ads in this category convey a message emphasizing a need     the scenario to the past or the future.
              or a problem that can be resolved if the product is used.
              The following elements typically appear in the activation
                        1.An experiment requiring physical action.
                        2.The experiment is executable on the spot.
              The experiment's results highlight a general need rather
              than a unique quality of the specific brand.
Formul The specific scheme of the anti-dandruff       The specific scheme of the life
ation  shampoo ad consists of two different           insurance ad consists of two sets: a set
          sets: the senses set and the experiment     of episodes introducing the message
          set. The relevant senses set is drawn from
                                                      claim (e.g. EP2 - a wife arguing with
          the list of the five senses. The experiment
                                                      her husband) and a times set (past,
          set consists of test scenarios to ascertain
          need for the product. The linking           future). First, the episode space is
          operator requirement is that the            selected (e.g. wife, husband). Then an
          experiment represented in the experiment operator links an element from the
          space will be performed physically by       time set and an element drawn from
          interacting with the media (newspaper,      the episode space (e.g. the husband’s
          radio etc.).                                life status is transferred into the
                                                      future). Note that the invented
                                                      situation in the different time frame
                                                      has to be relevant to the product and
                                                      its attributes and, therefore, in this
                                                      case, the future is more appropriate.
 Nike - Air          ?                   Protection

                                          Sy mbols set:
Product space
                                    Fireman-sheet Air-bag
  Sneaker       a sneaker-shaped fireman-sheet
Figure 2a: Specific scheme underlying the French Open Tennis
Championship ad

           T ennis                                       Locat ion -
        t ournament               ?                       France

                                                        Symbols set:
       Product space                            Louvre     Eiffel T ower
                          a croissant-shaped ball
      Figure 2b: General scheme
      underlying the replacement version
      of the pictorial analogy template

   P roduct                 ?                       Message

                                                   Sy mbols set
Product space
                                           Sy mbol 1 Symbol 2 Sy mbol 3
                Matching by a linking operator