Project report on HR in BATA

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					                     A Project Report

                            in
     The best possible employee education, executive
  training and management development programs for
       BATA INDIA LTD. that shall improve job
      performance and help individuals to progress
    towards actualization of their potential capacities.

                        Developed For



                B A T A I N D I A L T D.
                  ( Batanagar Unit, Kolkata )

                        Submitted On
                        28 / 09 / 2007




                              By
             Chandan Chakraborty
            Student of MBA ( III rd Semester )
 Gyan Ganga Institute of Technology and Sciences ( GGITS )
Under Rani Durgawati University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK               1
                           Founder
                             of the

               Bata Shoe Organisation




           M r. T o m a s B a t a
                    ( 1876 – 1932 )

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK   2
       A Message from Mr. Tomas Bata

            We are not afraid of the future. Millions
of human beings know nothing of footgear of any
kind whatever and very few of the rest is well shod.
This best shows us how little we have accomplished so
far, and what an immense task lies before the
shoemakers of the whole world.


            Tomas Bata started life as a poor boy but
he did not dream of making millions, he seems, rather
to be obsessed with the idea of helping his country
and his people. In the young Bata there quickly ripens
the wish and the determination to achieve something.
He is a shoemaker - a practical man, but with a power
of imagination amounting to genius.


          Thomas has visions of colossal factories,
with the most modern machinery, installed in airy
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK           3
workshops, and a system of the most modern factory-
hygiene. In those workshops, people freed from slavery
and squalor are working for the realization of his
great social ideal : the shoeing of millions.


           Tomas Bata remained true to his dreams
of " Good and cheap shoes, even for the very poorest,
and high wages for all who worked for him ".

                      He coined the motto
            “Our customers are our masters ".




                        Long Service Medallion




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK           4
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK   5
                                  Preface
                 Bata India Ltd. Is the organisation that has been ruling
the world of shoe manufacturing in India for more than 75 years now and
it‟s largest plant is situated in Batanagar, 24 Parganas (s) West Bengal, on
the banks of the river Ganges. With manpower of nearly 2400, the unit is
producing quality foot wares hugely in demand all over the world. It has
one of the oldest but excellent systems of day to day operations and
record keeping including production, planning, purchase, costing, salary,
personal audit etc. It also has been instrumental in starting its own chain
of retail stores which has crossed 3000 in number. Over the year it has
become a household home with millions of customers loyal to it‟s brands.
It‟s motto, “ Challenge …… Skill …… Commitment …… Teamwork ” is
yielding great results even in this era of fervent socio economic changes
that are taking place globally.

                 My object here was to study the existing training and
development facilities in Bata India Ltd. And if necessary to develop a
program that shall enhance the potential of its employees and executives.
This program should be in accordance with the actual situation related to
the morals, ethics, beliefs and practices of the land. It should go a long
way in improving the production, quality, organisational climate,
technological know-how and above all individual personal growth.



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                               6
                        Acknowledgement
               I hereby acknowledge the overwhelming help and support
of the personnel department of BATA INDIA LIMITED and specially
Assistant Manager ( Personnel ), Mr. Debabrata Sanyal whose heartiest
co-operation was the major source of inspiration and motivation behind
the completion of this project. I shall also be thankful to other
departmental heads, some of whom are listed below:

All India Senior Vice-President         : Mr. A. H. M. Ehsanuzzaman
Senior Manager (Leather)                : Mr. Shubham Kanti Mondal
Manager (Rubber)                        : Mr. Amar Nandi
Manager (Engineering)                : Mr. Samarjeet Ghosh
Manager ( R& D)                         : Mr. Supriya Kanji
General Manager (Purchase)           : Mr. Atish Chandra Chatterjee
Manager (Commercial)                 : Mr. Sudip Dutta
Manager (Payroll & Accounts)         : Mr. Prabhat Kumar Sur
Senior Manager (Accounts)           :     Mr. Animesh Mukherjee
Manager (Accounts)                   : Mr. Anjan Kumar Chatterjee
Manager (Assembly Rubber)            :    Mr. Dilip Kumar Nandi
Asst. Manager (Admin. & Welfare)     : Mr. Manoj Kumar Sarkar
Asst. Manager (Procurement Leather) :     Mr. Kuharan Mukhopadhyay
Officer (SBU Leather)                : Mr. Kartick Chandra Routh


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                           7
                Each and every employee whom I met during this project,
greeted me with open arms and tried to help me out with whatever he
can, and I am grateful to all of them.
                At last but not the least, I would like to take this
opportunity to thank Dr. Anil Kumar Dhagat, Director, M.B.A. department,
Gyan Ganga Institute of Technology and Sciences ( GGITS ) Jabalpur, for
providing us with the opportunity of doing this project. My sincere
gratitude to my family and friends, who have extended their helping hand
from time to time, specially in adverse situations when I needed it the
most and all those who have directly or indirectly helped the cause of
successfully completing this project.




Dated :

                                           CHANDAN CHAKRABORTY



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                            8
                       Declaration

               I Chandan Chakraborty, student of M.B.A. ( 3rd
semester ), Gyan Ganga Institute of Technology and Sciences,
Jabalpur (M.P.) , do hereby declare that this project has been done
as a partial fulfillment of the award of post graduate degree in
business administration, under Rani Durgawati University, Jabalpur
( M.P.) for the year 2007 -08.


               I declare that this project is entirely based upon my
personal findings, analysis, judgements and is thus an original piece
of work, which has not been published before in its present form
any where in India or abroad. The data upon which this project is
based is secondary data collected from various record books of the
organisation, whose preciseness is expected, not guaranteed.



Dated :

                                          CHANDAN CHAKRABORTY

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                         9
                            Index
1}   Introduction                            11

2}   The Existing System                     29

3}   The Outlook                             36

4}   Suggestions                             49

5}   Why training fails ?                    52

6}   Organisation’s training objectives      54

7}   The Training Program                    55

8}   Absenteeism in Bata India Ltd.          78

9}   Research Methodology                    92

10} Data and Graphs                          95

11} Case studies and Experiences in B.I.L.   105

12} Bibliography                             114



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK      10
INTRODUCTION
The Organisation:
                          Bata India Limited
                   Bata India is the largest company for the Bata Shoe
Organisation in terms of sales pairs and the second largest in terms of
revenues. With 1250 stores across the country, it also has the widest retail
network within the BSO. By the time Bata had come to India in 1931, it was
                                      already recognized as a leading shoe brand.
                                      It‟s manufacturing and marketing operations
                                      heralded the rise and the development of a
                                      modern footwear industry in India. Before
                                      Bata, footwear was produced primarily in the
                                      handicrafts and small enterprise segments.
                                      Bata, over the decades, used the „current
                                      knowledge' from its international experience
                                      to create adaptive and innovative baseline
                                      standards for the shoe businesses in India.

                                                            Incorporated as Bata Shoe
Company Private Limited in 1931, the company was set up initially as a small
operation in Konnagar (near Calcutta) in 1932. In January 1934, the foundation

  " I've missed over 9,000 shots in my career. I've lost almost 300 games. 26 times I've
  been trusted to take the game winning shot...and missed. I've failed over and over
  and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed! "

                                                                        - Michael Jordan

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                11
stone for the first building of Bata's operation - now called the Bata. In the
years that followed, the overall site was doubled in area. This township is
popularly known as Batanagar. It was also the first manufacturing facility in the
Indian shoe industry to receive the ISO : 9001 certification.

                   The Company went public in 1973, when it changed its name
to Bata India Limited. Today, Bata India has established itself as one of Asia's
largest footwear retailer. It has cornered
around 35 % market share in the organized
sector (and approx. 8.5 % of the total
footwear market) Almost 98 % of the
company's revenue is from the domestic
market while the rest is from exports. The
company currently sells over 45 million pairs
of shoes every year and has an annual sales
turnover of more than Rs. 8000 million
(USD 178 million).

                   Over the years, Bata India
has established a leadership position in the footwear industry and is easily the
most trusted name in branded footwear. Its retail network of 1250 stores gives
it a reach/ coverage that no other footwear company can match. The stores are
present in good locations and can be found in all the metros and towns.

 " The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort, but
 where he stands at times of challenge and controversy "

                                                                - Martin Luther King Jr.


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              12
                   In terms of products, the company has now built a good,
market-oriented collection that is in line with fashion trends and offers a good
quality to price ratio. Its product range now encompasses classic shoes such as
Ambassador for Men and comfort shoes such as Comfit for ladies, as well as a
more trendy collection for ladies in the Marie Claire range and a sporty fashion
collection for young adults in the North Star range. Bata's smart looking new
stores supported by a range of better quality products are aimed at offering a
superior shopping experience to its customers. And the new face of Bata India
is now visible to the industry as well as its customers. Today, backed by a
brand perception of experience, the company is working towards positioning
itself as a vibrant and contemporary young brand. It has significantly
transformed its retail formats to become more lifestyle-oriented, which has
helped change consumer perceptions to a large extent.


The 6 Principles :
   We provide quality for value.
   We constantly improve in what we do.
   Our strength is people.
   We are partners in progress with the communities in which we deal.
   We build respect and loyalty through service.
   We practice “ A Step Ahead ” management.


  " It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try
  another.   But above all, try something. "

                                                                       - Franklin D. Roosevelt


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                     13
Bata is Divided into 6 regions:
                              1.      Europe
                              2.      North America
                              3.      Africa
                              4.      Pacific
                              5.      Latin America
                              6.      India

Bata operates in more than 70 countries worldwide with,

                                     3000 retail outlets of it‟s own
                                     Producing 10,00,000 pair of shoes per day
                                     Over 50,000 employees speaking 100 languages




        BATA Headquarters,Toronto, Canada



 " You may deceive all the people part of the time and part of the people all the time, but
 not all the people all the time. "

                                                                         - Abraham Lincoln


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                14
Purpose:
   To serve the whole BATA family of companies round the world.
   To have the right shoe, at the right place, at the right time, at the right
     price

Mission:
                       With footwear manufacturing and marketing as it‟s core
business to achieve success and become the biggest and most skillful multiple
retailing and distributing organisation with a dynamic, flexible and market
responsive approach to present and future opportunities for profitable growth.

                 Success will be measured by the Customers, employees,
shareholders, suppliers and community.


Brands :
                            Hush Puppies
                            Dr. Scholls
                            North Star
                            Power
                            Marie Claire
                            Bubble Gummers


Signature Collections :
                            Ambassador
                            Comfit
                            Wind



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                     15
The New Projects :

                   While some mega-projects are still awaiting approval, Calcutta
Riverside and a few others have got the nod from the West Bengal
government, the project to develop the 262-acre Batanagar estate into a
modern township, with a nine-hole golf course, high-end apartments, villas,
condominiums, a hotel, mall, IT park, hospital and school.

                   To cost Rs.1,200 cr, Calcutta Riverside is perhaps the most
high profile project under Section-14(z) of the West Bengal land reforms
amendment bill passed in August 2005, which envisages that sick or closed
industries, which require investment to become functional again, may sell of
their unused land, if part of their sale proceeds is used to restructure the units
or for the labour's welfare. Riverbank Holdings Private Limited, the 50-50 joint
venture between Bata India Limited and Calcutta Metropolitan Group Limited
(an alliance between Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority and United
Credit Bellani group), had a master-plan ready combining commercial re-use of
land with socio-economic development of the areas in the Batanagar estate.

                   It‟s an equitable deal for the workers. The 1,097 families
living on the estate now are to be rehabilitated in new housing, with a built
space of 6,40,000 square feet.



 " To live is to choose. But to choose well, you must know who you are and what you
 stand for, where you want to go and why you want to get there."

                                                                         - Kofi Annan


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                               16
                    Further, the terms of Riverbank Holdings lay down that within
30 days after the end of each calendar year, it must contribute a sum of Rs.
35,00,000 for the benefit of the employees of BIL employed in the Batanagar
factory. The existing Bata girls, boys and primary school will be upgraded and a
separate school on 6.65 acre and a 300-bed hospital will be built. The 1.2
km riverfront will also be developed with recreation facilities for residents and
visitors. Post completion, Calcutta Riverside will give employment to 30,570
people. No wonder the project was cleared as part of the state's social
infrastructure development programme.




                                         BATA’s Worldwide Network




  "The great successful men of the world have used their imagination…they think ahead
  and create their mental picture in all its details, filling in here, adding a little there,
  altering this a bit and that a bit, but steadily building - steadily building."
                                                                               - Robert Collier


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                         17
       Various departments operant in Bata India Ltd.
Personnel department :
                  Personnel department is the heart of the organisation and is
one of the most important portfolios, dealing with matters directly or indirectly
related to its human resource, that is it‟s manpower. It acts as a connecting
bridge between the employees, trade unions and other external entities and the
management. Personal department plays a vital role in interconnecting various
departments to enable smooth operation of the organisation.
                  In Bata India Ltd., the Personnel department maintains
individual personnel audit records in its “ kartotek ” and uses it for important
decision makings related to the transfer, promotion, separation, performance-
appraisal, welfare schemes, services and benefits, labour relations, grievance
handling etc. It is also responsible for the recruitment and selection of “ the
right people for the right job ”.

Accounts Department :
                  The accounts and payroll department is one of the busiest
department of the organisation, as it has to maintain each and every
transactional records in the book of accounts on a regular basis, based on
commonly used double entry system. The income statements, profit & loss a/c
and balance sheet are prepared on a quarterly basis for the management as
well as shareholders to analyze the developments. As Bata India Ltd. Batanagar
plant is not a selling unit the profit earned by it is accrued profit not actual

 " One needs to be slow to form convictions, but once formed they must be defended
 against the heaviest odds. "

                                                                    - Mahatma Gandhi

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              18
profit. Accrued profit is acquired when production is completed below the
estimated production limits and it is in loss when production surpasses this
limit. The extent of transactions through this department can be expressed
through these facts:
   Bata India Ltd. ( Batanagar plant ) pays property-tax to the Maheshtala
     municipality in the volume of nearly Rs. 5,00,000 per month.
   Electricity charges for 24 hours 3 phase connection comes somewhere in
     the vicinity of Rs. 60,00,000 per month.
   Bonus paid to the employees once in every season (6 months) amounts
     upto Rs. 1,20,00,000.
                  The payroll section is in charge of preparing the fortnightly as
well as monthly pay slips for its different types of employees ( such as fixed,
essential, hourly fixed, special hourly fixed, accord ) payment is made by
calculating many factors along with their basic pay, some of these factors are
DA, Night allowance, Bonus, Production incentive, House rent, Provident fund,
insurance, medical cover etc. the pay structure of Bata India Ltd. is very well
structured in relation to contemporary manufacturing units, in the state of West
Bengal.


Product Development Department :
                  The actual job of the product development department starts
with collecting the information from the marketing department about the

  " Do not be desirous of having things done quickly. Do not look at small advantages.
  Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking at
  small advantages
                                                                            -   Confucius


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                             19
design or pattern expected to be in demand in the near future. Accordingly
designs are prepared for all types footwears along with the material to be used
in a particular article. This department is more concerned with providing
comfort to its customers rather than style. Sizes of the shoe to be
manufactured are pre-decided region wise e.g.:

-   For eastern region sizes between 5 to 11 (gents)
-   For southern region size is 7 onwards gents) and 4 to 5 general sizes for
    ladies products.
                      This department consists of a separate CAD / CAM section,
where designs are prepared and cut by a computerized cutting machine. The
software used for this purpose “ Crispin Cad Suite ” prepares two-dimensional
view of designs. These designs along with the material are tested in the
Research & Development laboratories before reaching the production
department.

Production Planning & Control Department :
                      Production planning and control section of management which
delivers the estimate for the production of particular style during a specific
period, so that they may serve the best possible service to the customer
without unwanted late in delivery or unwanted dumping of the produced goods.

                      The sales department sends the estimate for the volume of
the goods that is likely to sell, on the basis of statistical method, market


    " Often the difference between a successful person and a failure is not one has better
    abilities or ideas, but the courage that one has to bet on one's ideas, to take a
    calculated risk and to act. "                                         - Maxwel Maltz


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                20
research, previous years performance and promotion of selling effort they
actual did. And accordingly volume of goods is projected for the production
department and costing department then the costing and production
department plan for the procurement of all the necessary materials,
machineries, grinderies etc. and their capacities of production in terms of
manpower they are having. Other functions of this department are:

 This department also prepares the records the volume of product in the
     production stream daily. This is called workshop production balance sheet.

 Prepares the plan sheet for the different articles that has to be sent to either
     the whole-seller or retailer article wise or the number of pairs of specific size
     so that the box of packing completes their capacity. This is called production
     invoice for whole sales and retails i.e. distribution of order plan wise.


Manufacturing Department :
Batanagar plant is one of the biggest manufacturing units in the state. It is a
well equipped with the best machines and safety equipments, most of them
imported from Korea and other countries. Some of the newly installed machines
are capable of producing high quality footwear round the clock. This
department is further divided into the:
1.    The leather factory ( producing leather shoes )
2.    The rubber factory ( producing rubber and canvas shoes, rubber chappals )


     " Desire is the key to motivation, but it's the determination and commitment to an
     unrelenting pursuit of your goal - a commitment to excellence - that will enable you to
     attain the success you seek”

                                                                            - Mario Andretti

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                  21
both within the Batanagar plant itself. Skilled employees known as rink
conveyor (leather) and sandal conveyor (rubber) carry out the production
through a chain of operations. Some of the operations involved in shoe
manufacturing are last-preparation, upper-insole, Jaro-molding, preforming,
force-last etc.. A constant quality check during the production process reduces
the number of defective pairs getting to the shops.

6 Stages in production:


-   Manipulation        (leather & other material cut and bundled)
-   Prefabrication      (stamping, punching, skiving, gimping, embossing)
-   Sewing              (components stitched together)
-   Assembly            (upper & lower components brought together)
-   Warehousing         (shoes checked, inspected, sorted, stored, shipped)
-   Retail stores       (receive goods, check for accuracy damage, promote)


Research and Development Department :
The research and development department is responsible for validating the
products and designs prepared for production. Various mechanical properties
related to the materials to be used for the upper and sole of the footwears are
thoroughly checked using electronic machines these include Tensile testing,
flexural testing etc. designs are checked for its durability. Suggestions to
improve the overall quality of the finished products are sent back to the product
development department.




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                    22
An overview of the company history :

1894 – The T. & A. Bata, T. & A. Bata Shoe Company (T. & A. Bata) registered in
         Zlin, Austria-Hungary by Tomas, Anna and Antonín Bata

1895 – First business crises, Tomas takes over company's control, Antonín leaves for
         the army, Anna gets married

1897 – The ”Baťovka”, the first fabric shoe, introduced and with it production
         mechanization, first machine from Germany

1900 – First factory building constructed

1904 – Tomas first journey to the USA

1905 – 2,200 pairs per day produced by 250 employees, in two shifts, sales
         department founded

1906 – Second factory building constructed, first of the "new type"

1908 – Antonín dies, Tomas takes full company's control

1909 – First export sales, first sales agencies in Germany, the Balkans and the
         Middle East; 3,400 pairs per day produced

1911 – Tomas second journey to the USA

1914 – World War I breaks out, large orders by the Austro-Hungarian army for
         military shoes

1917 – World War I large scale orders contributed to company's exponential growth;
         2 million pairs per year sold, 10,000 produced daily by 5,000 employees,
         advanced production equipment imported from Germany; "Bata community"
         around factory with shops, housing, schools and hospitals

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                       23
1918 – Second crises of the company, massive losses, non-paid deliveries for the
         state (Austria-Hungary, the newly founded Czechoslovakia doesn't recognize
         the debt); production down to 1,700 pairs daily

1919 – Tomas' third journey to the USA, getting acquainted with Henry Ford's mass
         production

1922 – Currencies devalued due to World War I, consumer purchasing power at an
         all time low, Bata cuts shoe prices by 50% to attract customers and to
         expand into 160 company shops throughout Czechoslovakia

1923 – Employee profit & loss sharing introduced

1925 – The “Bata system” organizes operations in autonomous workshops; the "Bata
         School of Work" founded, education and practical training to future Bata
         managers; 563 company shops throughout Czechoslovakia

1927 – Assembly line production introduced

1929 – Customs tariffs introduced in the world, Bata builds factories in Switzerland
         (Mohlin), Germany (Ottmuth), England (Tilbury), France (Hellocourt),
         Yugoslavia (Borovo), Poland (Chelmek), Holland (Best), the USA (Bel Camp)
         and India (Batanagar); the "House of Bata's service" opens in Prague,
         replacing older premises

1930 – 100,000 pairs produced daily; five-day, 40 hours week introduced

1931 – Bata a.s. founded, replacing the former "T. a A. Bata"; by the early

        1930s, Bata becomes the world‟s leading footwear exporter

1932 – After Tomas Bata‟s plane crash his half-brother Jan Antonín Bata becomes
         head of the company; at this time the company continues the diversification


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                       24
         into the production of tires, aircraft, bicycles, machineries; the "House of
         Bata's service" opens in Brno


1939 – Bata operates 63 companies in various industries with footwear remaining
         the core business with 60 million pairs sold per year in over 30 countries;
         the Bata family leaves to the USA after Nazi occupation of the rest of
         Czechoslovakia; Jan Antonín Bata " subdues " to the plans of Nazis to save
         the business, on the other hand supports the exile government of Edward
         Benes and the Czechoslovak armed forces in Britain, he saves a large
         number of countrymen, including Jews by using the Bata worldwide network


1942 – Tomas J. Bata (Thomas J. Bata) starts to operate from Batawa, near
         Toronto, Canada. Instead of leading the Canadian subsidiary



1945 – All Bata companies in Eastern Europe "nationalized" by communist or pro-
         communist governments, the company starts rebuilding itself from the
         remaining entities outside Eastern Europe;

1946 - Two decades of litigation ensue – members of the Bata family begin to sue
         one another over ownership of the international subsidiaries of Bata. In
         spite of conflicting decisions has never been fully resolved

1947 - Jan Antonín Bata accused by the Czechoslovak communists of various
       "crimes" and sentenced to 15 years of hard labor in absentia and all of his
         properties in Czechoslovakia are confiscated.



1960s – Company‟s headquarters relocated to Toronto by Thomas J. Bata, further
         expansions through new factories in local markets

1970s – Pvt. Labels created: Bubble gummers, Power, Marie Claire, & North Star
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                        25
1980s – Bata develops retailing: Bata city stores, large format stores and sport
         concept stores

1989 – Thomas J. Bata visits Czechoslovakia to check and negotiate on the
         restitution possibilities, sets up his team to do the work, later on buys some
         of the leftovers of the former company from the state and founds Bata a.s.,
         now as Czech retail subsidiary

1990s – Bata enters the high-price segment: Bata Premium collection.

1995 – Partnerships in Eastern Europe, Bata stores in Russia, Poland, Croatia, and
         Slovenia

1999 – Bata concentrates on design, marketing and distribution, manufacturing
         moves to low-cost countries and subsidiaries

2001 – Thomas G. Bata, Tomas' grandson becomes the Group‟s chairman,
         restructures the business into regional " 4 meaningful business units "

2002 – Bata Shoe innovation Centres for shoe development introduced worldwide

2004 – In China, Bata procurement centre in Guangzhou opens, distribution

        partnership for the opening of Bata retail stores established

2006 – A township construction began to modernize the Batanagar factory complex
         (near Kolkata, to be completed by 2011, with 2500 housing for employees,
         a hospital, a school, an IT park, a hotel and residential flats along the
         riverside); Branded Business Division founded to consolidate all the branded
         business activities

2007 - Communist Verdict Against Jan A. Bata Overturned. The City Court in Prague,
         Czech Republic has re-opened a 60-year-old case in which an international
         businessman and Czech nationalist was falsely accused of collaboration with
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            26
      the Nazis. Jan Antonín Bata, brother of the world famous shoemaker Tomas
      Bata, was sentenced in absentia in 1947 for collaboration with the Nazis by
      the National Court in Prague. Thomas J. Bata, 91, nephew of Jan Bata,
      testified on Monday in court to achieve the cancellation of the verdict
      against his uncle. He said that he believed that justice would win.

      For the last decade his descendants, led by the sprightly 92-year-old
      Thomas J. Bata, son of the company's founder, have fought to clear his
      name. They say far from being a collaborator, Jan Antonin Bata financed the
      Czechoslovak government-in-exile to the tune of a quarter of million dollars
      in secret donations or roughly four-million of today's US dollars. A former
      Jewish employee also testified that Jan Bata had helped her and up to 80
      Jewish families escape from Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia. All of these facts,
      say his family, were ignored by the court in 1947. They say the post-war
      Czechoslovak state, buckling under Communist pressure, was primarily
      interested in seizing the Bata Empire and its assets.




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                      27
                                   ORGANISATIONAL CHART


                                                     Managing Director




                                                  Deputy Managing Director




                                     Executive Director          Exports and Commercial




Vice President           Sr. Vice President             Sr. Vice President          General Manager           Vice President

 Faridabad                    Patna                       Batanagar                 Makamahghat               Bangalore &

                                                                                                              Bata Shatak




   Vice President                Vice President

Product development              Commercial




Senior Manager       Senior Manager        Senior Manager          Senior Manager       Senior Manager      Senior Manager

  Moulds &             Purchase          Quality assurance           Training &           Research &           Tannery

  Equipment                                                          Development          Development




Senior Manager      Senior Manager       Senior Manager         Senior Manager      General Manager      General Manager

   Service           Personnel                Costing           Procurement            SBU (R)              SBU (L)



                                                                                    Senior Manager

                                                                                    Manipulation




Source : Quality manual 2006, B.I.L. Batanagar

 CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                              28
                     THE EXISTING SYSTEM

                 The existing training and development program in Bata India
Ltd. Comprises of specifically designed courses segregated as under:

                 1) Technical Courses
                 2) Concept Oriented Courses
                 3) Functional Courses
                 4) Management Courses
                 5) Industrial Relations Courses
                 6) Presentation Courses

                   A more detailed structure has been given below. It should
however be noted that these were developed individually at various times and
places.
                 A ) Technical Courses :
                         1. Materials for shoe making
                         2. Plastics for shoe making
                         3. Leather selection and grading
                         4. Manipulant‟s Course
                         5. Tanner‟s Course
                         6. Basic drawing and technical steps
                         7. Product development

                 B ) Concept Oriented Courses :
                         1. Work-Study appreciation
                         2. Work measurement


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                 29
                    3. Work Simplification
                    4. Effective Presentation
                    5. Balham Technique
                    6. Costing and Cost control

             C ) Functional Courses :
                    1. Purchasing Management
                    2. Maintenance Management
                    3. Accounting system
                    4. Quality control
                    5. Production planning

             D ) Management Courses :
                    1. MANDEVCO ( Managerial Development Course )
                    2. COVOSOC ( Connaisses Votre Societe )
                    3. AMA ( Part - I )
                    4. AMA ( Part - II )

             E ) Industrial Relations Courses :
                    1. Human relations
                    2. Industrial safety
                    3. Interflow management
                    4. Effective Communication
                    5. Safety hygiene and First aid
                    6. Floor administration



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                       30
                 F ) Presentation Courses :
                           1. Post course presentation
                           2. SEMPROF ( Professional seminar)

                 Apart from these the operation has a set of 73 operations
required in various stages of the shoe manufacturing process. Every accord
employee directly involved in machine operations or other related jobs has to
master a minimum of 6 skills to be eligible for working in Bata India Ltd. A
separate Training and Allocation department ( TAC ) is responsible for providing
these basic – skills training. It should however be noted that mostly this
training is given when the employee joins the organisation. The list of skill-sets
has been listed below :


 1.   Last preparation       26. Strap lacing            53.    Thread cut
 2.   Upper insole           27. Thong selt               54.   Hammering
      preparation            28. Derby lacing             55.   Trimming
 3.   Sole preparation       29. Pre-forming              56.   Scouring
 4.   Insole preparation     30. Force last               57.   Bott skiving
 5.   Counter putt           31. Strap last               58.   Vert scouring
 6.   Counter tight          32. Repairing last           59.   Clamping
 7.   Toe puff putt          33. Lamp & Transt            60.   Brushing
 8.   Cement upper           34. Sest press               61.   Edge colouring
 9.   Cement insole          35. Removing staple          62.   Edge sett
 10. Cement lining           36. Wrinkle chasing          63.   Fillering
 11. Cement pocket           37. Unit moulding            64.   Upper polish
 12. Cement strap            38. Toe marking              65.   Sole polish


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                        31
 13. Cement toe-tip            39. Roughning                66.   Spray
 14. Cement bottom             40. Sole putting             67.   Filler putt
     / sole                    41. Air pressing             68.   Foam past
 15. Cement sole               42. Hydraulic press          69.   Sacks putting
 16. Rand roll Cement          43. To go press              70.   Lacing shoes
 17. Counter nail              44. Apply MEK                71.   Repairing F
 18. Thumbing                  45. Shank putting            72.   Packing
 19. Astra pull                46. Cleaning                 73.   Supplying
 20. Schon F part              47. Unlasting
 21. Hand last                 48. Rand laying
 22. Heel last                 49. Rand cut join
 23. Schon B part              50. Beating
 24. Knotting                  51. Fimac stitch
 25. Last putt                 52. Sole stitch



                  Training and Allocation department ( TAC ) judges the
potential and capabilities of every employee and assigns a rating to each of
them. It‟s indicated by colours against their names in skills register. This is
done during their induction training in the organisation.

                  Yellow   :    50 % to 65 %

                  Pink     :    65 % to 85 %

                  Brown    :    85 % to 95 %

                  Orange : 95 % and above


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                         32
MANDEVCO ( Managerial Development Course )
                 Duration : 12 weeks

                 Objectives :
                 1. To equip selected members of the senior / middle
management team with hand on techniques of professional managerial
behavior.
                 2. To reinforce the knowledge of the product, the respective
work areas and key function aspects of the company.
                 3.     To promote interface and team building attributes.

                 Modules : 12 nos.

1)   Rubber factory
2)   Leather factory
3)   Tannery
4)   Materials
5)   Management of human resources
                  i)    Communication
                  ii)   Leadership skills
                  iii) Need hierarchy
                  iv) Motivation
                  v)    Change
                  vi) Perception
                  vii) Ethics
6)   General awareness
7)   Accounts
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                      33
8)    Production planning
9)    Sales
10)   Designing and Drawing
11)   Costing
12)   Purchasing

Module Co-ordinator: Each module under a senior manager as trainer

Methods:

              Practical work in departments

           Practical shoe making workshops
           Chalk-talks
           Group discussions
           Idea tanking
           Case studies
           Exercises
           Store visits

Criterion for the assessment of trainees :
              Written tests – 20 marks
              Practical – 20 marks
              Concept – 10 marks
              Participation – 10 marks
              Leadership skills – 10 marks
              Attitude – 10 marks
              Team spirit – 10 marks
              Reliability – 10 marks

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                              34
                   A confidential report with remarks is prepared by the Module -
Co-ordinator on each of the participants.


COVOSOC ( Connaisses Votre Societe )
                   Duration: 2 hours in a week for 14 consecutive weeks

                   Objectives: Same as MANDEVCO

                   Modules: 14 nos.

1. World of BATA ( Know your Organisation )
2. Tannery
3. Leather SBU
4. Rubber SBU
5. Services
6. Product development
7. Costing and efficiency
8. Moulds and equipments
9. Finance and accounts
10.   Personnel and welfare
11.   Administration
12.   Safety and Environment
13.   Purchasing
14.   Procurement

                   Methods:
                                Lectures
                                 Exercises
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                    35
                                 The Outlook
                 To motivate employees to learn, one must first realize the fact
that they already know a great deal and some of them have been successful to
date in various organisational positions. There can be many reasons for them to
be hesitant from learning more material, such as fear of the unknown or not
being successful in learning new material in the past. To deal with such
problems the training should be :


 Relevant
 Of value
 Confident of being successful ( Win – Win situation )
 Long lasting effect
 Trainee involvement
 Interesting

                 Another concern while developing a training program should
be that it has to cater to individual differences. The diversity in individual
human nature and characteristics is natural and is thus bound to affect a
training group. Here are some suggestions of minimizing this effect,

 1} Identify individual learning strengths and problems.
 2} Align learning objectives to organisational goals.
 3} Clearly define training objectives.
 4} Involve active participation of the trainee.
 5} Use systematic logically connected sequencing of learning activities,
     moving from lower to higher levels.
 6} Use a combination of many training methods.

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                     36
7} Use training material that provides a picture which is closer to real life.
8} Allow trainees to share experiences within themselves.
9} Provide a constant feedback through self-assessment.
10} Special care to be provided to senior supervisors and managers, in
    accordance with their learning capacity.



                                          Story
                           The best possible situation


                               There was this manager of a firm, who during
 one of his visits to his production unit, was told by his personal assistant
 that, his coat was torn from behind. Seeing no respite from this
 frustrating situation he coolly answered, “ Don‟t worry, everyone here
 knows me, who I am ”.
                               After a few days, the same manager went to a
 meeting with foreign delegates and guess what, much to everyone‟s
 surprise; he was again spotted wearing a torn coat. When told about it,
 he nervelessly replied, “ Don‟t worry, nobody knows me here, who I am ”.
 This is on of the finest example, of how to make best possible use of the
 situation on hand. One should try to make every situation work or make it
 better.



 " Success is liking yourself, liking what you do, and liking how you do it. "

                                                                           - Maya Angelou


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                               37
                  Apart from these, there are some other considerations for
which answers have to be sought while designing an optimum training
program. They are:

 How should the training material be developed ?

 What training methods to be used ?

 How much should the training cost ?

 How much time to allot for the training ?

 How many trainees to be trained at one time ?

 Whether training to be on company time ?

 Whether training to be voluntary or mandatory ?

 Whether training to be located on or off site ?

 How to select the trainee group ?

 How to select the trainer and support staff ?

 How to evaluate the training program ?

… etc….etc….etc….


                  Let‟s now analyze these, one by one and try to figure out the
best possible answers.



  " An expert is a man who has stopped thinking he knows "
                                                             - Frank Lloyd Wright



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                       38
1. TRAINING MATERIALS:

                   It is easier for the trainee to understand and remember
training material in the form of text ( either in hard or soft copy ) and can be
retained for longer duration for future references. They can be made more
meaningful by,

 Material should provide a bird‟s eye-view of the overall picture on the
   program‟s objectives and expectations.
 The material should accompany a variety of similar examples from real life
   and day-to-day operations, possibly related to organisational functions,
   which makes them more acceptable.
 The material should be split up into meaningful chunks, i.e. chapters and
   articles rather than presenting it all at once.
 The material should carry terms and concepts that are already familiar to the
   trainees.
 The material should be organized logically, from simpler to relatively difficult
   chapters.
 The material should contain tests and exercises for the trainee‟s self
   evaluation.
 As many visual, pictorial aids should be used as possible to argument
  “ theoretical ” material.



   "An entrepreneur is a person who doesn't understand what an obstacle is"
                                                                      - Diksha Keswani



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            39
2. TRAINING METHODS :

The basic objective of choosing a particular method ahead of others is it‟s
ability to meet the training objectives. Initially, methods are evaluated on the
basis of their outcomes. For example, there are methods that imparts,

Knowledge                        Declarative which gives factual information
                                 Procedural tells us how and when to apply facts
                                 Strategic used for planning and monitoring


Skills                           Ability to carry out specific technical operations

                                 Interpersonal skills


Attitude                         Beliefs, opinions, motivation, perception etc.


Another possible classification of the training methods can be,
 Cognitive methods, which provides verbal or written information, concepts,
   rules etc.
 Behavioral methods, which stimulate learning through behavior and practice.




   " Where you are headed is more important than how fast you are going. Rather than
   always focusing on what's urgent, learn to focus on what is really important "

                                                                         - Stephen Covey


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              40
                      Although no training method is sufficient in itself to provide
every possible skills and knowledge, a combination of many methods are
multifaceted in scope and each is suitable for a particular situation. Thus, all
the methods has to be tested for their KSA ( Knowledge, Skills and Attitude )
and those yielding maximum “ Yes ” shall be selected.


3. TRAINING COSTS:
                      Training costs or costs incurred to the organisation for
conducting the training program is measured to be used in analyzing, whether
the training cost worth it? Two approaches for doing so are:

1. Cost – Benefit evaluation: It compares monetary costs of training to non-
   monetary benefits.
2. Cost – Effectiveness evaluation: It compares monetary costs of training
   to accrued financial benefits.

                      To find out how much does the training cost, the upper -
management has to look into,

 Trainer‟s preparation cost and time cost i.e. the cost in actual money spent
   on preparing the modules and the time spent on them.
 Training facility rental i.e. if training is scheduled to be carried out outside
   the factory premises, the rent to be paid for the venue and furniture,
   electricity etc.

   " The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past
   them into the impossible "
                                                                           - Arthur C Clarke


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                   41
 Training material i.e. the amount of money consumed in preparation of the
  training material, modules that shall be distributed to the trainees and
  retained by them after the training ends.
 Refreshments i.e. food and drinks supplied to the trainees during the
  training period.
 Participant compensation cost i.e. the cost of total man-hours lost due to
  unavailability of trainees at workplace.
 Evaluation material cost and time cost i.e. the cost of material and time
  spent on the evaluation of the trainer, trainee and the training process.


4. TRAINING DURATION AND SCHEDULE:

                    The duration of a training program varies with the skill to be
acquired, the complexity of the subject, trainee‟s aptitude and ability to
understand. The medium and aid used for training also affects the duration.
Generally, what‟s followed round the world is that for larger training durations,
schedule must be relaxed and vice-versa. A training period v/s schedule chart
has been shown below:

        Total                 Schedule               Breaks       Actual      Total hours
  training period                                             training days
       1 day                  3 Sessions               2             1            7
                     ( 2 hours - 2 & 3 hours - 1 )
      2 days                  3 Sessions               2           2              14
                     ( 2 hours - 2 & 3 hours - 1 )
      3 days                  2 Sessions               1           3              18
                           ( 3 hours each )
      5 days                  2 Sessions               1           5              30
                           ( 3 hours each )
     2 weeks                  1 Session                ~           12             48
                           ( 4 hours each )


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            42
     1 month                  1 Session              ~             26               52
                           ( 2 hours each )
     3 months                 1 Session              ~             40              120
                      ( 3 hours each - alternate
                                days )
     6 months                 1 Session              ~             80              160
                      ( 2 hours each - alternate
                                days )
      1 year                  1 Session              ~             50              200
                       ( 4 hours each - once a
                                week )

Note: This table has been designed keeping in view the human physical and
psychological stress limits. Longer sessions tend to reduce the absorption and
retention powers of the trainee that hampers the very basic criterion of
fulfillment of training objectives. However, according to the factors stated
above, training schedules can be tailor-made.


5. TRAINEE POPULATION:

                    The trainee batch size depends upon the training method
applied. For example, Lectures and Demonstrations can accommodate more
participants at a time than Sensitivity laboratory training, Group discussion etc.
Other factors like availability of space, organisation‟s ability to spare employees
for training purpose i.e. participant‟s compensation, trainer‟s capability to pay
equal attention to trainees etc..

                    Generally, it is believed that keeping in view all these facts at

   " Believe you can do it. Believing something can be done puts your mind to work for
   you & helps you find ways to do it "

                                                                        - George Shinn


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              43
a time and for the program consisting of more than one module, The trainee
batch shall not ideally exceed 30. It is also preferable that the trainees do not
belong to the same department or to actual workgroups, in order to avoid any
form of cartel or groupism.


6. TRAINING SITE:
                       This decision of assigning a location and venue for a particular
training program depends upon a number of factors such as,

1) Training requirements and objectives
2) Training budget
3) Trainer‟s availability
4) Availability of resources etc..

                       Modern trainers believe that the location of training, either
within the factory premises or outside the factory does not affect the quality of
training as does the training environment. Attractive locations can be used to
motivate trainees to attend the program but has a tendency to dilute the
discipline part.


7. TRAINING ENVIRONMENT:

                       To create a learner friendly environment for most type of
training programs the following factors should be kept in mind,

   " Everyone has talent. What is rare is the courage to follow that talent to the dark
   place it leads. "

                                                                              - Erica Jong


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                   44
1. The hall should be large enough to accommodate the trainees and training
   staff along with their accessories including computer, OHP with screen etc..
2. It‟s always better if the hall is square rather than rectangular.
3. It‟s nice if the room is windowless, in order to avoid possible distractions.
4. The walls should be painted in plain light colour without decorations.
5. The halls should be well illuminated with adjustable lights.
6. The hall should be sound proof and echo proof.
7. The temperature inside the hall should be pleasing.

                  The ideal furniture setup or sitting arrangements for most
type of training programs has been shown here,




                                  Trainer table




                          Trainee table

                                   Trainee Chairs




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                       45
8. TRAINER:
                   An effective trainer should posses the following set of
knowledge, skills and attitude.

                       About the Subject matter
                       About the Organisation
                       About the training objectives
Knowledge              About the adult learning process
                       About the Training methods
                       About the use of modern technology
                       About individual trainee‟s                 Desire for immediate
                                                                 application of knowledge
                                                                 Need for logic, evidence
                                                                  Resistance to change
                                                                 Attention span
                                                                  Expectation level
                                                                 Motivation level
                                                                 Absorption level
                                                                 Retention level
                                                                 Topical interests

                       Interpersonal skills
Skills                 Verbal / Non verbal communication
                       Organisation skills

  " Don't get so busy making a living, that you forget to make a life ".

                                                                           - Anonymous


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                               46
                             Commitment
                             Helpful
                             Understanding
Attitude                     Calm
                             Confidence
                             Self efficacy
                             Commanding

                        Some other important points to consider are:
 1) The trainer should wear what the trainee‟s wear ( formal or informal )
 2) The trainer should use the language that everybody present there can
       understand properly.


 9. TRAINING EVALUATION :

                        Whenever evaluation of any training program is conducted it‟s
 either,
 i)       Process evaluation, which examines how training was designed,
          developed and carried out.
 ii)      Outcome evaluation, which determines how well training accomplished
          it‟s objectives.

                        Evaluation must always be based on the following principles:
 1) Evaluation must be done by a specialist.
 2) It must be a continuous process.

       " To conquer without risk is to triumph without glory "

                                                                            - El Cid


  CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                       47
3) It must be specific on it‟s observations.
4) It must be based on objective methods and standards.
5) It must consider realistic time frames for target.
6) It must also appraise the trainer.

                     Outcomes from a training program are basically a combination
of the following 4 categories:
1) Reaction of the trainees
2) Permanent change incurred in the behavior of trainees
3) Learning of skills by the trainees
4) Fulfillment of training objectives.




   “ If you leave the smallest corner of your head vacant for a moment, other people's
   opinions will rush in from all quarters. "

                                                                       - George Bernard



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              48
                               SUGGESTIONS
                   The already existing training structures and modules are
tested and successful in imparting the technical and conceptual knowledge and
skills in Bata India Limited. It has been found to be an excellent, detailed
design promising solution to employee‟s technical problems. However a few
suggestions has been made based on a few studies and research conducted by
me in the Batanagar unit. These are only applicable to the existing system of
training given to the accord employees. A separate training program for the
clerical, supervisory and managerial staff has been designed hereby to go along
with the in-factory courses.

1) For accord employees, the technological and conceptual developments in
  shoe making industries round the world should be provided from time to
  time.

2) A separate module on safety and hygiene should be given to them and short
  term training provided for the same.

3) Along with technical skills, conceptual knowledge related to the subject
  should be incorporated in the training.

4) Organisation should reward any employee if he masters, double the
  mandatory skills ( 6 ).

5) As the employees operate in Conveyer system, they need to work in groups,
  thus the following modules taken from the training program designed for the

  A certain amount of opposition is a great help to a man. Kites rise against, not with
  the wind "

                                                                              - John Neal


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                   49
clerical, supervisory and managerial staff can be modified according to their
level of knowledge and understanding. This could be provided to them in a
small 1 – day package.

    1. Building blocks game
    2. Guess work
    3. I want to be _________
6) Exercises such as story completion can be given to them where every
participant sitting in a chain, adds a line to an incomplete story until it ends.
This can make them more aware of working in groups to achieve a common
objective.

7) More importantly, senior managers need to give pep talks to the employees
   once in 3 months, just to try and motivate them to achieve something
   more, for themselves as well as for the organisation.

                    For supervisors and managers, who are above the age of 45,
special care has to be taken while designing a training program for them, as
they tend to learn better when,

    1.       Working to address a current, real-world problem,

    2.       They are highly vest in solving the current problem,

    3.       They actually apply new materials and information,

    4.       Exchange ongoing feedback around their experiences,

    5.       From experience, rather than from extensive note taking and
             memorization,


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                    50
  6.       Pre-reading material must be sent to them ahead of time,

  7.       Trainer plays the role of a facilitator and counselor, rather than an
           instructor or a coach,

  8.       Trainer has flexibility, spontaneity, empathy and compassion,

  9.       Use the Ask, Pause, Call (APC) method while questioning,

  10.      Training has proper technical as well as emotional support.




       " Doing the best at this moment puts you in the best place for the next moment. "
                                                                       - Oprah Winfrey



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              51
                  WHY TRAINING FAILS ?
                  The following factors have been regarded as the main reasons
for failure of training programs. These shall be considered before planning the
implementation of programs to ensure a better success rate.


1)     The benefits of training are not clear to the top management.

2)     The management hardly rewards trainees for participating in training

       programs.

3)     Without proper scheduling of training programs, production gets

       derailed during that period.

4)     Psychological skills or soft skills training are often neglected.

5)     Training objectives are often imprecise.

6)     Training is given on techniques and machines not used in trainee‟s

       organisation.

7)     Implementation of training in actual job situation is faulty.

8)     Training methods employed does not affect every trainee to the desired

       level.

9)     Opportunities to practice after training are not provided.

10)    Training environment conclusive to learning are often unavailable.

11)    Training is not planned according to trainee‟s past experiences and

       background.

12)    Active participation of trainees in any training program is often found

       wanting.

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                     52
13)    Constructive feedback from trainer as well as trainees is not taken.

14)    The learning caused by the training is often short lived.

15)    Expectation of progress of trainees is often set to unrealistic levels.

16)    Behavioral change in a trainee, caused by a training program does not

       always convert to organisational progress.

17)    Short term refresher courses in the organization are often neglected

       which results in the trainee‟s loss of learning.




  “ Opportunity is missed by most because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work "

                                                                          - Thomas Alva



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                               53
      ORGANISATION’S TRAINING OBJECTIVES

1.    Maintain dominant market share through producing high quality
      products in large volume within stringent cost parameters.
2.    To change “ Survival of the fittest ” mentality to “ Collective survival ”.
      where together we shall make a difference.
3.    To help them identify that personal development should contribute
      effectively to organisational development.
4.    To develop the urge of taking responsibilities without being assigned
      for.
5.    To develop creativeness and innovativeness in their thought process.
6.    To identify the psychological needs and aspirations of colleagues and
      subordinates.
7.    To be motivated to thrive for more and ability to motivate others.
8.    To provide active leadership to the work groups.
9.    To communicate properly i.e. listen, read, write and speak effectively.
10.   To have better observation, retention and persuasion power.
11.   To have better knowledge of decision making alternatives & skills to
      use.
12.   To be able to set priorities through time management.
13.   To be able to control stress related problems.
14.   To be confident at grievance handling / conflict resolution.
15.   To be able to move ahead from “ failures ” and “ Successes ”.




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                    54
                     THE TRAINING PROGRAM
Introduction
    A] To start with :
                1)   Need to change
               2)     Ice breaker
               3)     Break your habit
               4)     Communication effectiveness test
               5)     Have you seen it ?

    B] Phase – I :
               1)     Attention – Retention
               2)     Building blocks game
               3)     What can he say ?
               4)     On the other side of the table

    C] Phase – II :
               1)     The solitary judge
               2)     Parliament
               3)     Give me the options
               4)     Guess work

    D] Phase – III :
              1)     I want to be _______
               2)     It‟s an emergency
               3)     It‟s the only time you have got
               4)     Never say “ No ”

    E] In the end :
               1)     Let‟s discuss
               2)     Grid management
               3)     Know your boss

Conclusion


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                  55
Introduction:

                    To begin this training program, the training objectives should
be communicated to the participants along with the schedule. It should also be
made clear, that there shall be no exams on these modules. The trainer shall
introduce himself to the trainee‟s in brief and ask them what they feel about
the program and what are their expectations from him, as well as from the
program.
                    The support staff shall distribute the acknowledgement form
to the participants and get them duly filled and signed. The acknowledgement
form would contain terms like,
                    1) I will not talk during lectures until asked to.
                    2) I will refrain myself from influencing other participants.
                    3) I will not ask for frequent breaks.
                    4) I will ask questions whenever required, only to the trainer.
                    5) I will not eat, drink or smoke during training.
                    6) I vow to maintain discipline in the class.
                    7) I will take success and failure in the true spirit.
                    8) I will seriously participate in all the exercises given to me.


                            This would help participants to feel the seriousness and
importance of this program. Trainer needs to brief everyone on the fact that he
is not a teacher. Knowledge is a free gift available for everyone and he is just a

   “ Man is so made that when anything fires his soul, impossibilities vanish ".

                                                                    - Jean De La Fontaine



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                               56
medium to transfer this to all the trainees. A little bit of humour to start with,
would be wonderful to settle the nerves. Although he needs them to believe
that he is not a strict disciplinarian, but won‟t tolerate any nuisance either. The
trainer should spend a few initial minutes discussing general topics like news
headlines, weather of the day etc. before starting the actual program.


A1] The need to change:
                  We live in a world that is changing every moment. The only
permanent thing in this world is change. We might not see or feel this change
in a shorter span of time but it becomes evident in the longer run. All the
interdependent factors are changing with respect to one another. It‟s either
developing or is degrading. Even if something ( say A ) is constant and
everything else is developing, then also relatively A is degrading. Thus, in this
world of ours, there is no alternative but to develop or perish.
                  Permanent change in one‟s behavior is known as learning.
Learning has no limit, as can be seen in the following story:
                  One fine morning, a gentleman sitting on a crowded table of
a restaurant ordered a raw egg. He challenged that if anyone could make the
egg balance on the table with its tip downwards; he shall give that person Rs.
500 cash. Everyone present there tried their luck, but in vain. The tip was so
pointed that it would fall down and break each time. Finally, when nobody was
left to try, the gentleman who floated this bet hit the tip of an egg gently
against the table, so that a small crater appeared, in place of the pointed tip.
The egg stood straight over the table.
                  Everyone watching him shouted, “ Oh, we also could have



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                      57
done it this way. It was so easy ”. The gentleman replied,“ Everyone can do it,
but once they are told, how to ”.
                     A simple act such as this also needs to be taught by experts.
Thus we see that there is always a scope for all of us to learn, to change for
the betterment of ourselves as well as the society as a whole.
                     Exercise: Each participant needs to specify 3 such events in
their lives, where they feel that they learned something. This small segment
has been designed to prepare the participant‟s mentally to possible learning
opportunities during the program.


A2] Ice-breaker:

                     This is the perfect way to start any training program.
Although, time consuming it is designed to have fun and at the same time
generate energy that will transfer to the rest of the training. In this segment,
participants are allowed to move freely from one table to another and during
the allotted time ( say 10 min. ) every participants needs to interview 3 others
on questions like,
                     Q1) Their name?
                     Q2) Their family?
                     Q3) What type of work they do?
                     Q4) How long they are in the present job profile?
                     Q5) Their hobbies? etc..


   " The first and worst of all frauds is to cheat one's self "

                                                                  - Phillip James Bailey


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                             58
                    Once the interviews are complete, each trainee introduces
one of their interviewed person to the group. Apart from releasing the tension,
this also tests the listening and communication skills of the participants. The
whole process needs to be speedy and the trainer shouldn‟t allow the exercise
to slowdown at any point of time.


A3] Break your habit:

                    Continuing with lighter modules, this segment specifies on the
fact that habits, no matter good or bad, hampers the adaptability of an
individual and proves a hindrance in learning newer behaviors. Thus, in order to
keep your doors open for newer experiences in the organisation, one needs to
be ready and prepared for breaking their habits of doing things. One example
of how many habits affect the ability of individuals would be demonstrated
here.
                    The support staff should be ready with the following
accessories a paper, a pen, a stopwatch, an apron, a wristwatch and a belt. 3
volunteers from amongst the trainees should be asked to come forward. One
by one, each of them would be required to complete the following tasks,
                    a) Wear the apron,
                    b) Wear the wristwatch,
                    c) Write his name on the piece of paper.


   " In the long run, we shape our lives, and we shape ourselves. The process never
   ends, until we die. And the choices we make, are ultimately our own responsibility "

                                                                     - Eleanor Roosevelt


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                               59
                         Their timings are noted. After all 3 have completed these
tasks their timings are disclosed. Again they are told to perform the same tasks
but in different ways,
                    a) Wear the apron from his wrong side,
                    b) Wear the wristwatch on his wrong hand,
                    c) Write his name on the piece of paper backwards.
                       ( Example : Abhishek -------- Kehsihba )
                    After all 3 have completed, their timings are disclosed. They
are requested to share their experience with the group on how they felt the
effect of this change of doing things and how they suggest, to minimize this
effect.


A4] Communication effectiveness test:

                    This consists of an exercise to demonstrate the lack of
communication skills in individuals and the volume of distortion it causes to any
information. It stresses the need for effective listening, reading, writing and
speaking in an organisational environment.
                    A participant is asked to come forward to the dais and handed
a piece of paper with some complex information in it. He has to read it, go to
another table and write the same on another piece of paper. The second
participant then comes forward. He will again read that information written by
the first participant, go to another table and write it again on another piece of


   " You will never change your life until you change something you do daily. "

                                                                         - Mike Murdock


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                             60
paper. Similarly one by one every trainee comes forward and repeats the same
process. When the final participant has done his part, the trainer, in front of the
gathering, reads the initial and final papers loudly. The trainer, specifying which
types of information were communicated properly and which were faltered
with, analyzes the distortions caused.
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:
   1. Content                     (what type of things are communicated)
   2. Source                      (by whom)
   3. Form                          (in which form)
   4. Channel                     (through which medium)
   5. Destination/Receiver          (to whom)
   6. Purpose/Pragmatic aspect (with what kind of results)

                  The same exercise is repeated with another group, this time
the difference being that instead of writing the information; it should be passed
on orally to the next participant. Obviously, arrangements have to be made so
that others cannot overhear the conversation. For these exercises to be more
effective the minimum number of participants should not be less than 15. An
example of the information to be written on the sheet of paper and given to the
participants has been given here,
                  “ GENOMAC, An Austrian pvt. Ltd. Company producing and
exporting coolants used in nuclear reactors round the world has cut down it‟s
workforce by 40%. 42% of the employees would retire within the next 18
months. 18 weeks after that, the company proposes to shut down it‟s 8
branches out of 12 and shift it‟s head office to London ” .
                  This exercise should be followed by a lecture on “ Effective
Communication ”, it‟s types, Specifying the use and needs of each of them,
Barriers to communication and how to avoid them, etc..

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                      61
A5] Have you seen it ?

                   This is basically a module to test individual‟s observation
power and to point out the importance of having a sound power of observation.
There are many things in our day-to-day life that we actually see, but do not
register in our memory. These are things that we believe are not important in
the present context but can indirectly relate itself with our existence. This
segment has to be conducted through a questionnaire which every participant
should answer on there own. The questions are related to things we see on a
daily basis, like some examples given here.
        1)      How many buttons are there in your shirt?
        2)      Did the watchman standing at the gate has a moustache?
        3)      How many stairs are there reaching your cabin or office room?
        4)      How many entry gates are there in the front side of your factory?
        5)      How many flower vessels are there outside the General
                manager‟s chamber?
        6)      How many pictures are there on the walls of the seminar hall?
        7)      What is the colour of the walls in the director‟s chamber? etc..

                   A short debate can be organized on, “ Arjuna, in Mahabharata
saw only the bird‟s eye while shooting his target, others saw more. Arjuna‟s
concentration    was    more     but    others    got    more     information       on    the
circumstances”. Which one is more important and why?


  " If you want things to be different, perhaps the answer is to become different
  yourself "

                                                              -   Norman Vincent Peale


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                  62
B1] Attention – Retention:
                    Attention means the ability to concentrate on a particular
subject for longer time periods. As to figures, human mind processes
information at the rate equivalent to 400 – 500 words a minute while reading
or speaking capability ranges between 125 – 200 words per minute.

                    Generally, attention begins to dip after 15 – 20 minutes and
can fluctuate dramatically. To address this concern, the following steps should
be taken:
                    a) Trainee‟s need to practice by talking throughout about the
                        work, while doing a task.
                    b) Use the method of symbolic coding which shall raise the
                        involvement level.
                    c) Meditate at least 15 minutes per day, just before going to
                        sleep, by recollecting the events of the whole day step by
                        step and with details.
                    Retention means the ability to recall information after longer
durations. The various ways to do this are:
                    1) Activation of memory from time to time.
                    2) Symbolic coding of information.
                    3) Behavioral reproduction.
                    4) Hypothetical situation rehearsal.

In order to retain a specific skill, the steps involved are:


   " To live a creative life, we must lose our fear of being wrong. "
                                                                    - Joseph Chilton Pearce


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                 63
                 1) Create effective support network
                 2) Reduce emotional reactions
                 3) Diagnose support skills
                 4) Choose a skill to retain
                 5) Identify likely circumstances for relapse
                 6) Peer support
                 7) Plan to apply skills back on the job

                 Another effective way of checking one‟s ability to retain
information is by giving them parts of the same story every day before training
starts and at the last day of training when the whole story is complete,
participants will have to reproduce the whole story once again in writing. This
module should be put forward in the form of lecture and demonstrations.


B2] Building blocks game:

                 This game has been designed specifically involving
role-plays, in order to develop a better understanding between
employees in various diversified, conflicting roles within the
organisation. This enables to judge each others perspective and
thought process involved. This also signifies the importance of
collective decision-making. Each group of 4 participants forms a
department. They need to select a role they want to play, out of
              i. The manager,
              ii. The supervisor,
             iii. The employee,
             iv. The analyst.

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                   64
                  With 30 solid wooden cubes ( 4 cms. X 4 cms. ), the trio of
manager, supervisor and employee need to put forward their achievement
targets individually ( first manager, then supervisor and lastly employee ) of the
task, which is to balance the maximum number of cubes, one over the other
with closed eyes. The 3 then discuss and fix a common target, which everyone
thinks and believes they can achieve at the maximum. The employee is
blindfolded and made to sit in the center with the manager and supervisor on
either side. They can assist the employees on the task, without touching either
the employee‟s hands or the cubes. The analyst gives them the prefixed
allotted time along with noting down his observations on targets ( individually
as well as collective ) and actual achievements. Performance details of every
department is compared with their respective targets & reasons discussed for
their “ success ” or “ failures ”, by the analysts in front of the trainees.


B3] What can he say?
                  This is another role-play exercise, which is again based on
understanding the perspective of the person you are dealing with. This has
been basically designed to enhance one‟s capabilities to facilitate group
dynamics by understanding individual differences. It helps tremendously in
conflict resolution and increasing persuasion power of trainees.
                  In this module, participants are divided into groups of 4 or 6.
Each group is again divided into 2 subgroups having 2 or 3 participants. The
group have to choose from the following list, which role they would like to
perform,
                  (1)    Manager – Union representative
                  (2)    Manager – Supervisor

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                        65
                  (3)   Manager – Employee
                  (4)   Supervisor – Employee
                  (5)   Senior employee - Fresher employee
                  A topic of discussion is decided ( from organisational context )
and communicated to the group. Persons representing a particular role are
briefed upon the other‟s role and vice-versa. Both the subgroups are expected
to prepare a character description list of their role as well as the opposite role.
The subgroups are then allowed to meet and put forward their cases and
viewpoints on the given topic for discussion. Finally the trainer judges how
much were the groups able, to guess each other‟s views. One participant from
each group will discuss their experience with the gathering.


B4] On the other side of the table:

                  This is another segment dealing with role reversal where the
stress has been laid upon the agreeableness factor in an individual, which
affects his position in a team. Some are of the view that this is a trait that
comes naturally into the behavior of any person, from birth. Others believe in
the theory that this is a skill and can be developed through systematic
counseling and practice.
                  In organisational context, agreeableness plays a vital role in
decision-making process. In group meetings, generally a large number of ideas
and suggestions are floated and debated over. Consensus can only be achieved
when everybody is prepared to accept better ideas, others than their‟s. The
other factor that goes with this is persuasion power of individuals that forms
the core of any decision making process. In this exercise participants are made


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                      66
to carry forward various contradicting ideas ( most of which are not true ) in a
team meet. Participants are expected to open chit with ideas written on them,
which they have to accept without further questions and elaborate them. They
have now have to present this idea as effectively as they can in strong,
influencing manner, to the rest of the participants. Even cross-questioning is
allowed, so that the extent, to which the trainees can adapt to different points
of views, is tested. The Trainer will judge, which group succeeded the most in
influencing their colleagues sitting on the other side of the table.


C1] The solitary judge:

                    Here, the in-basket training technique has been applied in
order to develop decision-making skills based on procedural and strategic
knowledge. These skills are primarily cognitive rather than behavioral. This
exercise provides trainees with 2 files each, one containing the cases that are
to be solved within a limited time period, while the other containing written
information and requests such as memos, messages, records, reports etc..
                    Each participant receives a different but interrelated set of
information. Trainees have to interact with one another to gather all the
necessary data and information from other counterpart‟s file, to solve his cases.
But, one thing has to be kept in mind that prescribed organisational procedure
for transfer of data from one table to another has to be strictly followed.
Generally Case studies are given to the participants to respond to. They are


   " Its better to be defeated on principle than to win on lies. "
                                                                     - Arthur Calwell


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                           67
also entitled to ask for additional information for effectively completing the
exercise.
                    After completion, a discussion with the trainer follows in which
trainees describe the rationale for his decisions. Alternative ideas are also
welcomed from participants on each other‟s decisions. The process of work
done is also evaluated.


C2] Parliament :

                    This is just like a debate or elocution competition but the
systematic procedure involved in it makes it more interesting and develops a
lot of soft skills. The most important part of this game is the presentation skills.
This is the unification process of a variety of views, some of which might be
even contradicting. Generally, very new and exiting ideas emerge from within
the participants, which add a new dimension to the whole training process.
                    Say, for a group of 30 participants, 10 topics, generally
related to organisational problems or general business related problems are
given to them on a black board. Voting, by raising of hands is done for each
topic, one by one where the participants are expected to support the one they
can relate to in a better way. The 8 most voted topics are listed again for the
second round voting. The most voted 6 topics are listed for the final voting and
then 4 are selected. The final group is based on who supported these 4 topics.


   " Happiness depends more on the inward disposition of mind than on outward
   circumstances.
                                                                     - Benjamin



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                           68
                  Each one is named after some famous political parties,
celebrities, etc.. The game begins where each group has to nominate 3
candidates, who shall represent the party and present their point of view, on
why they support their topic. In the first round of presentation, one
representative from each group gets a chance to impress others and voting is
done after that to see whether someone wants to shift to another party. Round
2 and 3 also has the same format.
                  Finally, an attempt is made to have 51 % of the trainees,
supporting a single topic. If a consensus is achieved upon, the winner is
obvious; else a “ Hung Assembly ” is declared.


C3] Give me the options:

                  This section is for option hunting in real life situational
problems. The foremost thing in such situations is to decide whether we can do
anything in the given circumstances or it‟s out of our hands. Next step involves
looking for possible options and then to evaluate each of them in a virtual
environment resembling the actual one. Finally, the best option is selected and
implemented upon. Feedback is taken on the result and the decision is
evaluated. But, many individuals have the problem of unavailability of options,
while taking decisions and thus they become one-dimensional. They cannot
create or innovate newer ideas, as their thought process is limited only to usual
ways.

  " Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experience of trial
  and suffering can the soul be strengthened, ambition inspired, and success achieved "
                                                                         - Helen Keller


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                             69
                 To look into this problem the existence of this problem, the
following exercise has been designed. Each participant is provided with a list of
problems for which he has to suggest 5 options (minimum) for solving each of
them. He also has to select the best option out of them and write the logic of
doing so. Question papers are interchanged amongst participants and a list of
suggested options is prepared and debated upon.


C4] Guess work :
                 This module is a visual illusion test, which provides an in-
depth measure of an individual‟s perception of things and events. Here, every
participant is made to sit in a dark room with visual images on a screen in front
of him. These images create sort of illusions that provide multiple descriptions.
The participants are expected to see the multifaceted images and note down
their characteristics. The outlook of the trainees to analyze these images is
evaluated by the trainer. Individual‟s knowledge, prejudices, bias, likes and
dislikes are reflected in his answers. A sample of such an illusion has been
given below. Please refer to the cd supplied along with this project report, to
get more samples.


                                       A
                                  BIRD
                                IN THE
                             THE BUSH
CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                    70
                   Most participants when asked to read this would say, “ A bird
in the bush ” whereas actually it says, “ A bird in the the bush ”.


D1] I want to be _______ :

                   This is a self-evaluation technique where participants analyze
themselves with respect to their ideal and feel the urge to acquire the missing
knowledge, skills and attitudes. In organisational context, self-development is a
vital component in any training program and is supposed to be the best method
of incurring permanent behavioral changes.

                   Participants in groups of 4 need to suggest names of
individuals from within the factory or department whom they consider as their
ideal and select the best out of them by discussion. The positive characteristics
of that person are listed. Each participant then individually figures out the
difference, while relating those characteristics with his own. They are directed
to write down the ways by which they can also acquire those KSAs.


D2] It’s an emergency:

                   This is an adaptation from the virtual reality technique, where
trainees are put in artificial, 3-dimensional environment that stimulates
situation. The trainee interacts with these situations to accomplish goals. This


   " The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort, but
   where he stands at times of challenge and controversy "
                                                               - Martin Luther King Jr


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            71
teaching method is much more realistic to actual work environment and
trainees can actually feel the real pressure of the given situation. Scope of
learning increases tremendously, in such methods.
                  Here, trainees are taken to the factory unit where machines
and other production logistics are kept. Every group of 4 trainees is sent to
such different units, where they encounter major problems, close to real life
and an emergency is declared. In such a situation, the trainees have to take
appropriate measures with the available resources in very less time. This
exercise is usually carried under the supervision of a senior manager of that
unit, as they can create a virtual reality within the unit with their experience.
Some problems to be considered for such programs are,
                  (1)    Machine breakdown,
                  (2)    Accidents,
                  (3)    Lockouts,
                  (4)    Power-grid failure,
                  (5)    Huge order in less time,
                  (6)    Overflow of stocks, etc..


D3] It’s the only time you have got :

                  This is a course on time management where participants are
taught how to effectively manage the only time they have got in their hands. It
stresses over the need to try to prioritize their jobs, so as to effectively

   " The man who removes a mountain begins by carrying away small stones "
                                                                   - William Faulkner




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                          72
complete their assignments in time. Here, the participants are required to list
down their assignments to be completed within the next week. It shall include
their organisational, social as well as personal works. Then, those assignments
are to be classified according to the following features,
          (a)    Urgent and Important
          (b)    Urgent but Not Important
          (c)    Not Urgent but Important
          (d)    Not Urgent and Not Important

                       Important           Not Important


                                I                II         Urgent




                               III               IV         Not Urgent




D4] Never say “ No ” :

                    This is a behavioral approach that is used on a daily basis in
every organisation. Requests are made to managers whom they accept or
reject based on their merit. We should try to make every situation better for
the organisational point of concern. Thus while accepting any request we

   " Every noble work is at first impossible "

                                                                - Thomas Carlyle


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                      73
should make it clear that under what situation it has been accepted and the
organisation‟s expectations from him in return. While rejecting an offer, He
should again state the detailed circumstances for the decision and say, “ Sorry
for now, let‟s try to give it another chance, sometime later. ” This is to avoid
saying “ No ” or any negative sentences, which can at times, prove fatal and
damage the morale of employees, beyond repair.


E1] Let’s discuss :
                   This uses the brain storming method to find out the needs of
employees in the organisation and to find methods to take them towards a
sense of fulfillment and self-actualization as far as their work goes. To start this
segment, a lecture is given on the Maslow‟s need hierarchy, with detailed
examples of every level specifically. Every participant is made to sit in a single
table where through seminars and creative discussions, they have to decide
which need level do they belong to and the same for their subordinates also in
general.
                   Everyone is expected to suggest on how they can take their
subordinates to the next need level in the Maslow‟s hierarchy. The trainer here
needs to coordinate the discussions, in order to give it a proper direction. He
needs to be aware that the participants understand human behavior which is
directed towards the fulfillment of aspirations, needs, drives, wants, etc.. So
they have to find answers for, why the employee‟s behave in a particular way?
and what motivates them ?

   " Knowledge of what is possible is the beginning of happiness "
                                                                     - George Santayana



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              74
                   Lastly trainees need to specify the factors, which according to
them would satisfy the employees in general and what are the factors that are
not motivators as such, but absence of which, leaves the employees
dissatisfied. They should then rank these in order of preference.


E2] Grid management:

                   Developed by R. Blake and J. Mounton, the grid shows the
two - dimensions of management ie. Concern for production and Concern for
people.
              9
                           ( 1,9 )                ( 9,9 )
                                                                    Concern for people
              5                        ( 5,5 )


                           ( 1,1 )                ( 9,1 )
              1


                    1                      5                    9
                              Concern for production

                   Infact the above chart is divided into 9 X 9 ie. 81 squares. The
participants are needed to assess in which block their organisation currently
belongs to and where they would ideally like it to be. This affects the leadership
style of managers and helps them to acquire a balanced approach that shall in

  " Honest differences are often a healthy sign of progress "
                                                                      - Mahatma Gandhi


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            75
the long run help the organisation to achieve cent percent achievement
oriented and participative leaders.


E3] Know your boss :

                   The last segment of this program is an assignment to be
given to the trainees, which they are required to complete within the next
week, after completion of the training. This deals with the manager‟s or
employee‟s psychological barrier restricting them to interact with seniors and
know them better as individuals. If you know the person you are dealing with,
it becomes easier to cooperate and move ahead together towards realization of
the organisational objectives.
                   Here, all the participants have to prepare some questionnaires
regarding social and organisational issues of concern and interview his
immediate boss to get his views on them. He should also report on the training
program and it‟s benefits to him and seek his advice on implementing them in
the job situation. This talk should be one on one and preferably in an informal
environment.




  " There are two kinds of people, those who do the work & those who take the credit.
  Try to be in the first group, there is less competition there. "
                                                                       - Indira Gandhi


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            76
Conclusion :
                   After completion of this training process, the trainees should
fill feedback forms on the trainer and training program. Certificates should be
distributed thereafter and volunteers from amongst the trainees to be
requested to say a few words on the training program.

                   This training program is basically concerned with those
methods that develop the soft skills of the trainees in a more participative
manner. These behavioral techniques are expected to stimulate learning
through practice. It minimizes the individual differences in adapting to changes
in their behavior and is thus sure to affect the morale and working standards of
the participants. Along with the existing training programs of Bata India Ltd.,
this program shall go a long way in preparing managers and staffs to face the
ever-evolving challenges of the 21st century. I strongly believe in the contents
of this training program and the process of imparting training and hope it
succeeds in the Batanagar plant. I wish this organisation all the best.




  " If you are going to achieve excellence in big things, you develop the habit in little
  matters. Excellence is not an exception, it is a prevailing attitude "

                                                                              - Colin Powell



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                     77
                 Problem of Absenteeism in Bata India Ltd.
                   Apart from our regular project work in Bata India Ltd,
Batanagar plant, we were fortunate enough to get an opportunity to work on
the problem of absenteeism which hampering the rat of growth of the
organisation to a great deal. It has been observed that the phenomenon of
absenteeism does not exist only in Indian industries but it is a universal fact,
the only difference is in terms of magnitude. Reports show that some
engineering base industries in West Bengal suffer from absenteeism in the
vicinity of 10.1 % - 17.3 %, which is slightly on the higher side, in the all
India perspective.
                   Random absenteeism data collected by me from a few
departments of the rubber factory ( 321 – 327 ) show a trend of employees in
access of 9 % being absent from work place. The actual figures in the whole
Batanagar unit might be more alarming.

                   If we add 1 % of the employees coming late ( more than 10
minutes ) from scheduled start and 2 % of employees taking one - hour
emergency leave, to the absenteeism figure of 9 % the total man - hours lost,
per day stands approximately at 1,900 hrs, out of 20,400 hrs that is 9.3 %.
It should be noted that the figures given here are not accurate but only
approximate indications.



  " If you are going to achieve excellence in big things, you develop the habit in little
  matters. Excellence is not an exception, it is a prevailing attitude "

                                                                           - Colin Powell


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                             78
                              Week - 1                                                     Week - 2
                                  Working days          5                                       Working days         5
Dept Absentee   Total staff      Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     19          51                   255          7.45        321     21          66              330           6.36
322     6           47                   235          2.55        322     25          47              235           10.64
323     12          52                   260          4.62        323     22          52              260           8.46
324     14          47                   235          5.96        324     22          47              235           9.36
325     0           46                   230          0.00        325     0           46              230           0.00
326     22          47                   235          9.36        326     29          47              235           12.34
327     16          72                   360          4.44        327     43          72              360           11.94


                              Week - 3                                                     Week - 4
                                  Working days          5                                       Working days         4
Dept Absentee   Total staff      Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     26          51                   255          10.20       321     35          51              204           17.16
322     9           47                   235          3.83        322     14          47              188           7.45
323     5           52                   260          1.92        323     29          52              208           13.94
324     18          47                   235          7.66        324     16          47              188           8.51
325     0           46                   230          0.00        325     0           46              184           0.00
326     15          47                   235          6.38        326     24          47              188           12.77
327     30          72                   360          8.33        327     33          46              184           17.93


                              Week - 5                                                     Week - 6
                                  Working days          4                                       Working days         5
Dept Absentee   Total staff      Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     18          51                   204          8.82        321     37          51              255           14.51
322     20          47                   188          10.64       322     34          47              235           14.47
323     9           52                   208          4.33        323     36          52              260           13.85
324     15          47                   188          7.98        324     34          47              235           14.47
325     0           46                   184          0.00        325     0           46              230           0.00
326     23          47                   188          12.23       326     40          47              235           17.02
327     18          46                   184          9.78        327     38          46              230           16.52


                              Week - 7                                                     Week - 8
                                  Working days          5                                       Working days         5
Dept Absentee   Total staff      Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     31          51                   255          12.16       321     16          51              255           6.27
322     24          47                   235          10.21       322     17          47              235           7.23
323     24          52                   260          9.23        323     16          52              260           6.15
324     16          47                   235          6.81        324     18          47              235           7.66
325     0           46                   230          0.00        325     37          46              230           16.09
326     29          47                   235          12.34       326     28          47              235           11.91
327     39          49                   245          15.92       327     21          49              245           8.57




 " From what we get, we can make a living; what we give, however, makes a life "
                                                                                                            - Arthur Ashe


      CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                      79
                              Week - 9                                                     Week - 10
                                  Working days          5                                       Working days         5
Dept Absentee   Total staff      Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     20           51                   255          7.84       321     17          51               255         6.67
322     19           47                   235          8.09       322     5           47               235         2.13
323     21           52                   260          8.08       323     11          52               260         4.23
324     23           47                   235          9.79       324     31          47               235         13.19
325     38           46                   230         16.52       325     39          46               230         16.96
326     25           47                   235         10.64       326     20          47               235         8.51
327     27           49                   245         11.02       327     16          49               245         6.53


                              Week - 11                                                    Week - 12
                                  Working days          5                                       Working days         5
Dept Absentee   Total staff      Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     62           71                   355         17.46       321     17          71               355         4.79
322     62           47                   235         26.38       322     13          47               235         5.53
323     58           52                   260         22.31       323     27          52               260         10.38
324     47           47                   235         20.00       324     17          47               235         7.23
325     56           46                   230         24.35       325     30          46               230         13.04
326     45           47                   235         19.15       326     23          47               235         9.79
327     75           49                   245         30.61       327     18          49               245         7.35


                              Week - 13                                                    Week - 14
                                 Working days           5                                       Working days        5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days    % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     18          71                355             5.07        321     18          71               355         5.07
322     18          47                235             7.66        322     14          47               235         5.96
323     21          52                260             8.08        323     19          52               260         7.31
324     18          47                235             7.66        324     19          47               235         8.09
325     27          46                230             11.74       325     29          46               230         12.61
326     24          47                235             10.21       326     28          47               235         11.91
327     25          64                320             7.81        327     39          66               330         11.82


                              Week - 15                                                    Week - 16
                                 Working days           5                                       Working days        5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days    % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     21          71                355             5.92        321     19          71               355         5.35
322     19          47                235             8.09        322     12          47               235         5.11
323     17          52                260             6.54        323     22          52               260         8.46
324     14          47                235             5.96        324     20          47               235         8.51
325     34          46                230             14.78       325     28          46               230         12.17
326     16          47                235             6.81        326     15          47               235         6.38
327     38          66                330             11.52       327     45          70               350         12.86




 “ There's no such thing as Perfection. But, in striving for it, we can achieve excellence "
                                                                                                    - Vince Lombardi

      CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                     80
                              Week - 17                                                   Week - 18
                                 Working days          4                                           Working days        5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff       Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     16          71                284            5.63        321     26          71                 355           7.32
322     15          47                188            7.98        322     31          47                 235           13.19
323     11          52                208            5.29        323     32          52                 260           12.31
324     18          47                188            9.57        324     24          47                 235           10.21
325     32          46                184            17.39       325     43          46                 230           18.70
326     18          47                188            9.57        326     30          47                 235           12.77
327     16          70                280            5.71        327     28          70                 350           8.00


                              Week - 19                                                   Week - 20
                                 Working days          5                                           Working days        5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff       Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     35          71                355            9.86        321     14          49                 245           5.71
322     18          47                235            7.66        322     7           47                 235           2.98
323     23          52                260            8.85        323     16          52                 260           6.15
324     13          47                235            5.53        324     15          47                 235           6.38
325     28          46                230            12.17       325     13          46                 230           5.65
326     18          47                235            7.66        326     39          47                 235           16.60
327     33          49                245            13.47       327     35          70                 350           10.00


                              Week - 21                                                   Week - 22
                                 Working days          5                                           Working days        0
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff       Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     10          49                245            4.08        321
322     5           47                235            2.13        322
323     8           52                260            3.08        323
324     9           47                235            3.83        324                           A    C   P   L
325     22          46                230            9.57        325
326     21          47                235            8.94        326
327     24          49                245            9.80        327


                              Week - 23                                                   Week - 24
                                 Working days          5                                           Working days        5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff       Total Man-days % Absenteeism
321     41          62                310            13.23       321     27          62                 310           8.71
322     56          47                235            23.83       322     35          47                 235           14.89
323     49          52                260            18.85       323     27          52                 260           10.38
324     65          47                235            27.66       324     32          47                 235           13.62
325     38          46                230            16.52       325     35          46                 230           15.22
326     53          47                235            22.55       326     58          47                 235           24.68
327     80          49                245            32.65       327     48          49                 245           19.59



   " The man who removes a mountain begins by carrying away small stones. "
                                                                                                        - William Faulkner


      CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                        81
                              Week - 25                                                    Week - 26
                                 Working days          5                                       Working days           5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321     22          49               245             8.98        321     26          49             245             10.61
322     31          47               235             13.19       322     21          47             235             8.94
323     13          52               260             5.00        323     15          52             260             5.77
324     26          47               235             11.06       324     14          47             235             5.96
325     23          46               230             10.00       325     27          46             230             11.74
326     38          47               235             16.17       326     32          47             235             13.62
327     31          66               330             9.39        327     26          66             330             7.88


                              Week - 27                                                    Week - 28
                                 Working days          5                                       Working days           5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321     31          46               230             13.48       321     28          49             245             11.43
322     19          47               235             8.09        322     21          47             235             8.94
323     22          52               260             8.46        323     18          52             260             6.92
324     20          47               235             8.51        324     22          47             235             9.36
325     32          46               230             13.91       325     27          46             230             11.74
326     17          47               235             7.23        326     14          47             235             5.96
327     24          46               230             10.43       327     31          46             230             13.48


                              Week - 29                                                    Week - 30
                                 Working days          5                                       Working days           5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321     9           71               355             2.54        321     17          49             245             6.94
322     17          43               215             7.91        322     13          47             235             5.53
323     16          52               260             6.15        323     6           52             260             2.31
324     11          47               235             4.68        324     5           47             235             2.13
325     25          46               230             10.87       325     23          46             230             10.00
326     16          47               235             6.81        326     22          47             235             9.36
327     26          46               230             11.30       327     22          49             245             8.98


                              Week - 31                                                    Week - 32
                                 Working days          5                                       Working days           5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff   Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321     20          49               245             8.16        321     16          49             245             6.53
322     14          47               235             5.96        322     35          47             235             14.89
323     28          52               260             10.77       323     30          52             260             11.54
324     12          47               235             5.11        324     16          47             235             6.81
325     27          46               230             11.74       325     36          46             230             15.65
326     21          47               235             8.94        326     36          47             235             15.32
327     23          49               245             9.39        327     26          45             225             11.56




 " Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal "
                                                                                                          - Henry Ford



      CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                        82
                              Week - 33                                                    Week - 34
                                 Working days          4                                         Working days            5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff    Total Man-days     % Absenteeism
321     29          51               204             14.22       321     15          46                  230            6.52
322     36          47               188             19.15       322     40          47                  235           17.02
323     24          52               208             11.54       323     19          52                  260            7.31
324     21          47               188             11.17       324     12          47                  235            5.11
325     33          43               172             19.19       325     37          46                  230           16.09
326     27          47               188             14.36       326     30          47                  235           12.77
327     35          51               204             17.16       327     40          40                  200           20.00


                              Week - 35                                                    Week - 36
                                 Working days          5                                         Working days            5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee   Total staff    Total Man-days     % Absenteeism
321     13          46               230             5.65        321     15          51                  255            5.88
322     16          47               235             6.81        322     0           47                  235            0.00
323     10          52               260             3.85        323     7           52                  260            2.69
324     8           47               235             3.40        324     4           47                  235            1.70
325     16          46               230             6.96        325     0           46                  230            0.00
326     5           47               235             2.13        326     8           47                  235            3.40
327     5           49               245             2.04        327     7           49                  245            2.86


                              Week - 37                                                        Week - 38
                                 Working days          5                                            Working days          5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism    Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days          % Absenteeism
321     18          46               230             7.83         321     35          71                 355            9.86
322     0           47               235             0.00         322        0        47                 235            0.00
323     4           52               260             1.54         323     16          52                 260            6.15
324     6           47               235             2.55         324     17          47                 235            7.23
325     0           46               230             0.00         325        0        46                 230            0.00
326     7           47               235             2.98         326     23          44                 220            10.45
327     14          55               275             5.09         327     11          44                 220            5.00


                              Week - 39                                                        Week - 40
                                 Working days          4                                            Working days          0
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days   % Absenteeism    Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days          % Absenteeism
321     16          71               284             5.63         321
322     0           47               188             0.00         322
323     7           52               208             3.37         323
324     6           47               188             3.19         324                           A    C    P    L
325     0           46               184             0.00         325
326     16          47               188             8.51         326
327     6           44               176             3.41         327




 " When you are not practicing, remember, someone somewhere is practicing, and when you
 meet him he will win "                                                                                        - Ed Macauley


      CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                           83
                              Week - 41                                                   Week - 42
                                   Working days         0                                    Working days          5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days    % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321                                                               321     27         71          355             7.61
322                                                               322      0         47          235             0.00
323                                                               323     18         52          260             6.92
324                            A    C   P     L                   324     42         47          235             17.87
325                                                               325      0         46          230             0.00
326                                                               326     25         47          235             10.64
327                                                               327     25         47          235             10.64


                              Week - 43                                                   Week - 44
                                   Working days         5                                    Working days          5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days    % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321     68          71                  355           19.15       321     21         66          330             6.36
322     0           47                  235           0.00        322      0         47          235             0.00
323     34          52                  260           13.08       323     15         52          260             5.77
324     73          47                  235           31.06       324     28         47          235             11.91
325     0           46                  230           0.00        325      0         46          230             0.00
326     61          47                  235           25.96       326     18         47          235             7.66
327     63          47                  235           26.81       327     32         47          235             13.62


                              Week - 45                                                   Week - 46
                                   Working days         5                                    Working days          5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days    % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321     21          71                  355           5.92        321     15         71          355             4.23
322     0           47                  235           0.00        322      0         47          235             0.00
323     11          52                  260           4.23        323      5         52          260             1.92
324     22          47                  235           9.36        324     13         47          235             5.53
325     0           46                  230           0.00        325      0         46          230             0.00
326     20          47                  235           8.51        326     23         47          235             9.79
327     20          47                  235           8.51        327     11         48          240             4.58


                              Week - 47                                                   Week - 48
                                   Working days         5                                    Working days          5
Dept Absentee   Total staff     Total Man-days    % Absenteeism   Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days   % Absenteeism
321     17          46                  230           7.39        321     23         71          355             6.48
322     0           47                  235           0.00        322      0         47          235             0.00
323     13          52                  260           5.00        323     11         52          260             4.23
324     12          47                  235           5.11        324     22         43          215             10.23
325     0           46                  230           0.00        325      0         46          230             0.00
326     31          47                  235           13.19       326     27         43          215             12.56
327     24          48                  240           10.00       327     24         47          235             10.21




       " A cynic is a man who knows the price of everything but the value of nothing. "
                                                                                                      - Oscar Wilde


      CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                    84
                        Week - 49                                                           Week - 50
                            Working days             5                                        Working days            4
Dept Absentee Total staff   Total Man-days     % Absenteeism      Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days      % Absenteeism
321      17        66            330               5.15            321      85       71           284               29.93
322         0      47            235               0.00            322       0       47           188               0.00
323      23        52            260               8.85            323      71       52           208               34.13
324      16        47            235               6.81            324      58       47           188               30.85
325         0      46            230               0.00            325       0       46           184               0.00
326      26        47            235               11.06           326      71       47           188               37.77
327      16        46            230               6.96            327      66       46           184               35.87


                        Week - 51                                                           Week - 52
                            Working days             5                                        Working days            5
Dept Absentee Total staff   Total Man-days     % Absenteeism      Dept Absentee Total staff Total Man-days      % Absenteeism
321      11        66            330               3.33            321      12       66           330               3.64
322         0      47            235               0.00            322       0       47           235               0.00
323      18        52            260               6.92            323      21       52           260               8.08
324      12        47            235               5.11            324      19       47           235               8.09
325         0      46            230               0.00            325       0       46           230               0.00
326      16        47            235               6.81            326      17       43           215               7.91
327      10        46            230               4.35            327      11       46           230               4.78



                                  Absenteeism data Summary 2006 ( Dept 321 to 327 )

                                                            Departments
      Weeks
                     321               322                323         324             325               326           327

        1            7.45              2.55              4.62         5.96            0.00               9.36         4.44
        2            6.36              10.64             8.46         9.36            0.00              12.34        11.94
        3           10.20              3.83              1.92         7.66            0.00               6.38         8.33
        4           17.16              7.45              13.94        8.51            0.00              12.77        17.93
        5            8.82              10.64             4.33         7.98            0.00              12.23         9.78
        6           14.51              14.47             13.85       14.47            0.00              17.02        16.52
        7           12.16              10.21             9.23         6.81            0.00              12.34        15.92
        8            6.27              7.23              6.15         7.66           16.09              11.91         8.57
        9            7.84              8.09              8.08         9.79           16.52              10.64        11.02
       10            6.67              2.13              4.23        13.19           16.96               8.51         6.53
       11           17.46              26.38             22.31       20.00           24.35              19.15        30.61
       12            4.79              5.53              10.38        7.23           13.04               9.79         7.35
       13            5.07              7.66              8.08         7.66           11.74              10.21         7.81
       14            5.07              5.96              7.31         8.09           12.61              11.91        11.82
       15            5.92              8.09              6.54         5.96           14.78               6.81        11.52
       16            5.35              5.11              8.46         8.51           12.17               6.38        12.86
       17            5.63              7.98              5.29         9.57           17.39               9.57         5.71
       18            7.32              13.19             12.31       10.21           18.70              12.77         8.00
       19            9.86              7.66              8.85         5.53           12.17               7.66        13.47
       20            5.71              2.98              6.15         6.38            5.65              16.60        10.00
       21            4.08              2.13              3.08         3.83            9.57               8.94         9.80
       22             A                                   C                            P                               L

      CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                                        85
23                     13.23           23.83        18.85     27.66       16.52    22.55     32.65
24                      8.71           14.89        10.38     13.62       15.22    24.68     19.59
25                      8.98           13.19        5.00      11.06       10.00    16.17      9.39
26                     10.61           8.94         5.77       5.96       11.74    13.62      7.88
27                     13.48           8.09         8.46       8.51       13.91     7.23     10.43
28                     11.43           8.94         6.92       9.36       11.74     5.96     13.48
29                      2.54           7.91         6.15       4.68       10.87     6.81     11.30
30                      6.94           5.53         2.31       2.13       10.00     9.36      8.98
31                      8.16           5.96         10.77      5.11       11.74     8.94      9.39
32                      6.53           14.89        11.54      6.81       15.65    15.32     11.56
33                     14.22           19.15        11.54     11.17       19.19    14.36     17.16
34                      6.52           17.02        7.31       5.11       16.09    12.77     20.00
35                      5.65           6.81         3.85       3.40        6.96     2.13      2.04
36                      5.88           0.00         2.69       1.70        0.00     3.40      2.86
37                      7.83           0.00         1.54       2.55        0.00     2.98      5.09
38                      9.86           0.00         6.15       7.23        0.00    10.45      5.00
39                      5.63           0.00         3.37       3.19        0.00     8.51      3.41
40                       A                           C                      P                  L
41                       A                           C                      P                  L
42                      7.61           0.00         6.92      17.87        0.00    10.64     10.64
43                     19.15           0.00         13.08     31.06        0.00    25.96     26.81
44                      6.36           0.00         5.77      11.91        0.00     7.66     13.62
45                      5.92           0.00         4.23       9.36        0.00     8.51      8.51
46                      4.23           0.00         1.92       5.53        0.00     9.79      4.58
47                      7.39           0.00         5.00       5.11        0.00    13.19     10.00
48                      6.48           0.00         4.23      10.23        0.00    12.56     10.21
49                      5.15           0.00         8.85       6.81        0.00    11.06      6.96
50                     29.93           0.00         34.13     30.85        0.00    37.77     35.87
51                      3.33           0.00         6.92       5.11        0.00     6.81      4.35
52                      3.64           0.00         8.08       8.09        0.00     7.91      4.78




                                                Absenteeism Dept. - 321

                       35.00
       % Absenteeism




                       30.00
                       25.00
                       20.00
                       15.00
                       10.00
                        5.00
                        0.00
                               1   4    7     10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
                                                             Weeks




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                      86
                                                      Absenteeism Dept. - 322

                        30.00
        % Absenteeism
                        25.00
                        20.00
                        15.00
                        10.00
                         5.00
                         0.00
                                    1       4   7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
                                                                    Weeks



                                                       Absenteeism Dept. - 323

                        40.00
        % Absenteeism




                        30.00

                        20.00

                        10.00

                         0.00
                                1       4       7   10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
                                                                    Weeks



                                                       Absenteeism Dept. - 324

                        35.00
        % Absenteeism




                        30.00
                        25.00
                        20.00
                        15.00
                        10.00
                         5.00
                         0.00
                                1       4       7   10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
                                                                    Weeks




 " We may have to fight a battle more than once to win it. "
                                                                                    - Margaret Thatcher

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                             87
                                               Absenteeism Dept. - 325

                        30.00
        % Absenteeism   25.00
                        20.00
                        15.00
                        10.00
                         5.00
                         0.00
                                1   4   7   10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
                                                            Weeks



                                               Absenteeism Dept. - 326

                        40.00
        % Absenteeism




                        30.00
                        20.00
                        10.00
                         0.00
                                1   4   7   10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
                                                            Weeks



                                               Absenteeism Dept. - 327

                        40.00
        % Absenteeism




                        30.00
                        20.00
                        10.00

                         0.00
                                1   4   7   10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
                                                            Weeks




 " Fantasy is a necessary ingredient in living, it's a way of looking at life through the
 wrong end of a telescope, which enables you to laugh at life's realities. "
                                                                               - Pinkey Dangi


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                     88
                   In-depth analysis of department wise absenteeism data and
graphs suggests hidden information and their reasons, which can be of utmost
importance in organisational planning and decision-making. Clearly evident
suggestions include:


1. All departments show an increase or decrease in absenteeism in the same
  time periods. It can be thus be said that the factors leading to absenteeism
  affect most people and most departments equally. Thus, individual problems
  go out of the picture.
2. Absenteeism tends to be higher up to alarming levels (above 20%) 3 to 4
  times in a year. In 2006, all departments showed a steep rise in absenteeism
  during 11th week, 23rd week, 43rd week, and 50th week.
3. It should be specially noted that weeks following holidays (ACPL) showed
  high rate of absenteeism. This suggests that the role of religious ceremonies
  and employees going to their hometowns is significant in determining the
  causes of absenteeism.
4. It should be specifically noted that in 2006, weeks no. 21st, 29th, 35th, 44th,
  and 51st showed tremendous decline in absenteeism (less than 5%) in all the
  departments. The interesting fact here is that the difference between these
  lowest tips is more or less equal (in the vicinity of 6 to 7 weeks).

                   Here we have tried to find out a few possible reasons for the
employee‟s practice or habit of staying away from his scheduled work:


  " The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past
  them into the impossible "

                                                                          - Arthur C Clarke

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                  89
  1. Maladjustment with colleagues coming from different religions and tastes
     speaking different languages belonging to different socio economic
     status.
  2. Social and religious ceremonies.
  3. Sickness, accidents and maternity.
  4. For those staying far from their homes, frequent visits to their village are
     a major cause of absenteeism.
  5. Industrial fatigue.
  6. Working conditions, heat, moisture, noise, vibrations, dust, fumes,
     overcrowding etc.
  7. Inadequacy to meet the performance standards.
  8. Indebtedness.
  9. Alcoholism.
 10. Lack of commitment towards industrial growth.
 11. Over identification with family affairs.
 12. Dissatisfied with the status, importance or authority and responsibility
     involved in his job.

                    Specifically the problem of absenteeism in Bata India Ltd,
Batanagar plant is a mere combination of all these factors. Out of these points
2, 3, 6, 8, 10 seem to be more effective and deeper causes for high rate of
absenteeism than the others. A few remedies or measures for control of
absenteeism have also been listed below:


  " The past is like a river flowing out of sight; the future is an ocean filled with
  opportunity and delight "
                                                                            - Anna Hoxie

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                    90
 1. A well defined recruitment procedure that stresses on the employee‟s
    adaptability or the ability to change.
 2. Study the level of motivation of workers and push them to thrive for
    more.
 3. Improved communication within various levels of organisation and prompt
    redressal of grievances.
 4. Education programs for personal developments of individual employees.
 5. Spread awareness of employee‟s rights and obligations.
 6. Trained the employees in group dynamics along with interpersonal skills.
 7. Take measures to improve employee‟s loyalty and devotion towards his
    work and work place.
 8. Regularity in attendance can be transformed in to monetary rewards and
    other pecuniary inducements.
 9. Provision for ever-developing working conditions.

                 Above all, the employees should be communicated that it is
 the religion of insects and animals to procure, eat and reproduce. If we are
 born as human being, it is our moral responsibility to do more.




 " Being happy doesn't mean everything's perfect. It means that you have decided to
 see beyond the imperfections "
                                                                       - Frank Kaiser


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                           91
                    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
                    Research refers to, the systematized approach to gain new
knowledge, concerning generalization and formulation of a theory. Research
work carried out for this project is basically what is known as library research,
which includes analysis of historical records and documents, statistical
compilations and manipulations. This is a scientific method of solving the
research problem as it,

    Is committed only to objective considerations.
    Presumes neutrality and aims at nothing but making only adequate and
      correct statements about population objects.
    Results into probabilistic predictions.
    Realize on factual empirical evidence.

                           RESEARCH PROBLEM
                    The objective of this particular research work, by collecting
data (secondary in nature) related to performance achievements, by various
departments is to relate them with another variable, i.e. time. It can then be
utilized to draw the learning curve, which shall again be analyzed with respect
to the effect of appraisals or training programs on them.


                             RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design appropriate for this particular research problem involves
the following considerations: -

" Motivation determines what you do, attitude determines how well you do it. ”
                                                                                 - Anon


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                             92
  Means of obtaining the information:- Bata India Ltd, (Batanagar
    plant), where this research work was based, has a unique system of
    maintaining production details in their record book “ Saldo ” and re-
    entered to the salary controlling statements in order to calculate the
    production incentives. All data were to be collected from these
    documents.
  Time available for obtaining the information:- The sampling design
    as described below made it possible to extract adequate data in the
    stipulated time period of 2 weeks.

                             SAMPLING DESIGN
                 The items under consideration in this field of enquiry or the
 universe (also known as population) stretched over the production details of
 7 departments, 274 employees and 33 months ( 143 weeks ). The volume
 of data required the use of a sampling design, which must result in a truly
 representative sample, must result in a small sampling error and systematic
 bias can be controlled in a better way. The most practical way of sampling in
 this specific case is the systematic cluster sampling, where groups of 6
 consecutive months were considered as the sample. The sample size
 happened to be 50.35 % of the total population.

                            DATA COLLECTION
                 The relevant data were collected from the Salary Controlling
 Statement ( Volume - 3B ) of the respective weeks listed below, all data

 There are two kinds of failures: Those who thought and never did, and those who did
 and never thought. "
                                                                   - Laurence Peter

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                          93
 belonged to the general shift. The payroll department‟s record room
 provided the said documents. Data were also collected from the Saldo,
 provided by the rubber factory. Data were collected for the durations of:
    I. October 2004 to March 2005 ( 6 months )
   II. January 2006 to June 2006 ( 6 months )
  III. January 2007 to June 2007 ( 6 months )
                               ( Total - 18 months )


           MANIPULATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
                 Weekly data obtained for the research purpose, was
 converted into a monthly average, so as to reduce the amount of data for
 analysis purpose. The weeks containing less than 5 working days were
 extrapolated to a 5 working days per week standard. The monthly average
 basically constituted of the first 4 weeks of that particular month. The
 external factors effecting production, were considered to be stable during
 the period in question or diversity (if any) being negligible.
                 Individual department‟s ability to cope up with changing
 production targets, periodical appraisals and training / development
 programs is to be determined by comparing these data with other events,
 informations and factual evidences.

     Please refer to the segment “ Data and Graphs ” for further information.


 " A great attitude does much more than turn on the lights in our worlds; it seems to
 magically connect us to all sorts of serendipitous opportunities that were somehow
 absent before we changed. "
                                                                     - Earl Nightingale

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                               94
  Data and Graphs :
2004    Dept : 321    Dept : 322    Dept : 323    Dept : 324    Dept : 325    Dept : 326    Dept : 327
             %             %             %             %             %             %             %
Weeks   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement



 41        128           136                         148                         145           122

 42        110           112                         133                         120

 43

 44

 45        122           110           130           132                         140           122

 46        100           100           110           101                         110           105

 47        134           125           120           136           125                         125

 48        121           125           138           146           127                         127

 49        112           117           120           144                         131           125

 50        121           115           116           125                         121           113

 51                      117           124           143                         136           118

 52        130           112           125                                       130           127




2005    Dept : 321    Dept : 322    Dept : 323    Dept : 324    Dept : 325    Dept : 326    Dept : 327
             %             %             %             %             %             %             %
Weeks   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement



  1        115           105           117           135                         120           128

  2        129           127           135                                       145           133

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                         95
 3

 4

 5     125      120      126      145     145   100

 6     130      115      134      134     140   123

 7     150               134      140     140   135

 8     125      108      124      133     140   121


 9     126      115      134      141     147   135

 10    124      127      140      150     147   147

 11    136      125      143      150     140   147

 12    160      122      129      150     143   142

 19    132      134      134      150     150   150

 20    160      134      134      150     147   142

 21    150      113      106      134     120   119


 22

 23    150      128      128      150     140


 24    150      127      123      150     140




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK         96
2006    Dept : 321    Dept : 322    Dept : 323    Dept : 324    Dept : 325   Dept : 326    Dept : 327
                                                                     %
             %             %             %             %        Achievemen        %             %
Weeks   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement        t       Achievement   Achievement


 1         160           130           140           137                        140           144

 2         172           123           125           130                        140           170

 3         172           144           134           139                        147           160

 4         111           115           107           110                        116           101

 5         120           107           117           118                        118           104

 6         172           137           145           148                        147           134

 7         171           139           123           150                        141           140

 8         180           134           134           148          134           150           150

 9         175           123           120           147          128           150           150

 10        185           140           134           142          134           150           150

 11        180           121            96           136          123           145

 12        190           126           110           140          136           150           140

 13        195           117           121           112                        140           120

 14        190           120           112           123          116           134           129

 15        170           116           125           130          109           147           188

 16        180           132           143           150          122           144           200

 17        135           119           100           120           91           101           160

 18        150           114           120           140          120           134           200



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                        97
 19        180           134            134            147           137          150          200

 20        150           134            134            140           140          134          190

 21        118           115            115            134           120          134          160

 22

 23        135           128            134            134                        125          190

 24        170           124            128            142                        134          205



2007    Dept : 321    Dept : 322    Dept : 323    Dept : 324    Dept : 325    Dept : 326    Dept : 327
             %             %             %             %             %             %             %
Weeks   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement   Achievement


 1         170                         155           150                         150           154

 2         200                         150           147                         150           155

 3         190           110           150           140                         147           150

 4         148           100           118           108                         101           120

 5         101                          90            93                         141            90

 6         180                         147           150                         150           204

 7         195                         150           150                         155           215

 8         193                         152           154                         147           215

 9         182                         152           150                         150           215

 10        127                         147           150                         154           177

 11        172                         143           150                         122           170

 12        155                         150           147                         150           155

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                         98
13      195                  130         195               150        158

14      161                  166         177               150        166

15      130                  139         147               147        143

16      152                  166         163               179        169

17      136                  130         149               141        140

18      143                  120         108               140        140

19      155                  117         134               134        140

20      180                  134         142               147        113

21      160                  120         118               134        106

22

23      165                  126                           127        115

24      175                  136         134               147        134




               There are two prisoners shackled to the wall of a deep dark
 dungeon. Spread-eagled, they are securely lashed by manacles and
 chains and actually hanging suspended, side by side, a few feet above
 the damp floor of the dungeon. There is only one small window high
 above their heads, maybe thirty or forty feet up. They are immobile and
 alone, pinned inexorably to the wall.
               One prisoner turns to the other and whispers, “ Here‟s my
 plan ! ”


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                99
                 Monthly Performance Summary ( Oct 2004 to Jun 2007 )



                                            Departments

 Month     321          322         323          324         325         326      327

 Oct-04   119.00       124.00         -        140.50         -         132.50   121.66

 Nov-04   119.25       115.00      124.50      128.75      126.00       125.00   119.75

 Dec-04   121.00       115.25      121.25      137.33         -         129.56   120.75

 Jan-05   122.00       116.00      126.00      135.00         -         132.50   130.50

 Feb-05   132.50       114.33      129.50      138.00         -         141.25   119.75

 Mar-05   136.50       122.30      136.50      147.75         -         144.25   142.75

 May-05   146.00       134.00      134.00      150.00         -         148.50   146.00

 Jun-05   150.00       122.00      119.00      144.66         -         133.33   119.00

 Jan-06   153.75       128.00      126.50      129.00         -         135.75   143.75

 Feb-06   160.75       129.25      129.75      141.00      134.00       139.00   132.00

 Mar-06   182.50       127.50      115.00      141.25      130.25       148.75   146.66

 Apr-06   183.75       121.25      125.25      128.75      115.66       141.25   159.00

 May-06   153.75       125.18      122.00      136.75      122.00       129.75   187.50

 Jun-06   141.00       122.33      125.66      136.66      120.00       131.00   185.00

 Jan-07   177.00       100.50      143.25      136.00         -         137.16   144.75

 Feb-07   167.25         -         134.75      136.83         -         148.25   181.00

 Mar-07   159.00          -        148.00      149.25         -         144.00   179.00

 Apr-07   159.50         -         150.25      170.50         -         156.50   159.00

 May-07   153.50         -         125.25      133.00         -         140.50   133.25

 Jun-07   166.66         -         127.33      126.00         -         136.00   118.33




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                          100
                                                               % Performance                                                          % Performance                                                                 % Performance

                                                   O                                                                      O                                                                      O
                                                                                                                            ct                                                                     ct




                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             100.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      150.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               200.00




                                                                                                                                        0.00
                                                                                                                                       20.00
                                                                                                                                       40.00
                                                                                                                                       60.00
                                                                                                                                       80.00
                                                                                                                                      100.00
                                                                                                                                      120.00
                                                                                                                                      140.00
                                                                                                                                      160.00
                                                     ct




                                                                 0.00
                                                                20.00
                                                                40.00
                                                                60.00
                                                                80.00
                                                               100.00
                                                               120.00
                                                               140.00
                                                               160.00
                                                       -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                 4                                                                      4
                                                   D 4                                                                    D                                                                      D
                                                    ec                                                                     ec                                                                     ec
                                                        -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                  4                                                                      4
                                                   Fe 4                                                                   Fe                                                                     Fe
                                                      b-                                                                     b-                                                                     b-
                                                         0                                                                      05                                                                     05
                                                   Ap 5                                                                   Ap                                                                     Ap
                                                      r-0                                                                    r-0                                                                    r-0
                                                                                                                                 5                                                                      5
                                                   Ju 5                                                                   Ju                                                                     Ju
                                                      n-                                                                    n-                                                                     n-
                                                         0                                                                      0                                                                      0
                                                   Au 5                                                                   Au 5                                                                   Au 5
                                                      g-                                                                     g-                                                                     g-
                                                         0                                                                      05                                                                     05
                                                   O 5                                                                    O                                                                      O
                                                     ct                                                                     ct                                                                     ct
                                                       -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                 5                                                                      5
                                                   D 5                                                                    D                                                                      D
                                                    ec                                                                     ec                                                                     ec
                                                        -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                  5                                                                      5
                                                   Fe 5                                                                   Fe                                                                     Fe
                                                      b-                                                                     b-                                                                     b-
                                                         0                                                                      06                                                                     06
                                                   Ap 6                                                                   Ap                                                                     Ap
                                                      r-0                                                                    r-0                                                                    r-0
                                                                                                                                 6                                                                      6
                                                                                                                                                                                        Months




                                                                                                                 Months
                                                           6




                                          Months
                                                   Ju                                                                     Ju                                                                     Ju




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK
                                                      n-                                                                    n-                                                                     n-
                                                         0                                                                      0                                                                      0
                                                   Au 6                                                                   Au 6                                                                   Au 6
                                                      g-                                                                     g-                                                                     g-
                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                      Monthly Performance Dept. - 322




                                                                                                                                06                                                                     06
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Monthly Performance Dept. - 321




                                                                               Monthly Performance Dept. - 323
                                                   O 6                                                                    O                                                                      O
                                                     ct                                                                     ct                                                                     ct
                                                       -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                   D 6                                                                           6                                                                      6
                                                    ec                                                                    D                                                                      D
                                                                                                                           ec                                                                     ec
                                                        -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                   Fe 6                                                                           6                                                                      6
                                                                                                                          Fe                                                                     Fe
                                                      b-                                                                     b-                                                                     b-
                                                         0                                                                      07                                                                     07
                                                   Ap 7                                                                   Ap                                                                     Ap
                                                      r-0                                                                    r-0                                                                    r-0
                                                           7                                                                     7                                                                      7
                                                   Ju                                                                     Ju                                                                     Ju
                                                      n-                                                                    n-                                                                     n-
                                                         07                                                                     07                                                                     07




101
                                                               % Performance                                                          % Performance                                                          % Performance

                                                   O                                                                      O                                                                      O
                                                                                                                            ct                                                                     ct




                                                                                                                                        0.00
                                                                                                                                       20.00
                                                                                                                                       40.00
                                                                                                                                       60.00
                                                                                                                                       80.00
                                                                                                                                      100.00
                                                                                                                                      120.00
                                                                                                                                      140.00
                                                                                                                                      160.00
                                                     ct
                                                                                                                                                                                                             100.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                             120.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                             140.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                             160.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                             180.00




                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                              20.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                              40.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                              60.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                              80.00




                                                                 0.00
                                                                20.00
                                                                40.00
                                                                60.00
                                                                80.00
                                                               100.00
                                                               120.00
                                                               140.00
                                                               160.00
                                                               180.00
                                                       -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                 4                                                                      4
                                                   D 4                                                                    D                                                                      D
                                                    ec                                                                     ec                                                                     ec
                                                        -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                  4                                                                      4
                                                   Fe 4                                                                   Fe                                                                     Fe
                                                      b-                                                                     b-                                                                     b-
                                                         0                                                                      05                                                                     05
                                                   Ap 5                                                                   Ap                                                                     Ap
                                                      r-0                                                                    r-0                                                                    r-0
                                                                                                                                 5                                                                      5
                                                   Ju 5                                                                   Ju                                                                     Ju
                                                      n-                                                                    n-                                                                     n-
                                                         0                                                                      0                                                                      0
                                                   Au 5                                                                   Au 5                                                                   Au 5
                                                      g-                                                                     g-                                                                     g-
                                                         0                                                                      05                                                                     05
                                                   O 5                                                                    O                                                                      O
                                                     ct                                                                     ct                                                                     ct
                                                       -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                   D 5                                                                           5                                                                      5
                                                                                                                          D                                                                      D
                                                    ec                                                                     ec                                                                     ec
                                                        -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                  5                                                                      5
                                                   Fe 5                                                                   Fe                                                                     Fe
                                                      b-                                                                     b-                                                                     b-
                                                         0                                                                      06                                                                     06
                                                   Ap 6                                                                   Ap                                                                     Ap
                                                      r-0                                                                    r-0                                                                    r-0
                                                                                                                                 6                                                                      6




                                                                                                                 Months
                                                                                                                                                                                        Months




                                                           6




                                          Months
                                                   Ju                                                                     Ju                                                                     Ju




CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK
                                                      n-                                                                    n-                                                                     n-
                                                         0                                                                      0                                                                      0
                                                   Au 6                                                                   Au 6                                                                   Au 6
                                                      g-                                                                     g-                                                                     g-
                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                      Monthly Performance Dept. - 325




                                                                                                                                06                                                                     06
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Monthly Performance Dept. - 324




                                                                               Monthly Performance Dept. - 326
                                                   O 6                                                                    O                                                                      O
                                                     ct                                                                     ct                                                                     ct
                                                       -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                   D 6                                                                           6                                                               D 6
                                                    ec                                                                    D                                                                       ec
                                                                                                                           ec
                                                        -0                                                                     -0                                                                     -0
                                                                                                                                  6                                                                      6
                                                   Fe 6                                                                   Fe                                                                     Fe
                                                      b-                                                                     b-                                                                     b-
                                                         0                                                                      07                                                                     07
                                                   Ap 7                                                                   Ap                                                                     Ap
                                                      r-0                                                                    r-0                                                                    r-0
                                                           7                                                                     7                                                                      7
                                                   Ju                                                                     Ju                                                                     Ju
                                                      n-                                                                    n-                                                                     n-
                                                         07                                                                     07                                                                     07




102
                                       Monthly Performance Dept. - 327

                       200.00
       % Performance
                       150.00

                       100.00

                        50.00

                         0.00
                                05




                                06




                                07
                                  4




                                  5




                                  6
                                05




                                06
                          Au 5




                          Au 6




                                07
                                 4




                                 5




                                 6
                                 5




                                 6




                                 7
                               -0




                               -0




                               -0
                                0




                                0
                              -0




                              -0




                              -0
                             r-0




                             r-0




                             r-0
                             g-




                             g-
                             b-




                             b-




                             b-
                            n-




                            n-




                            n-
                           ec




                           ec




                           ec
                            ct




                            ct




                            ct
                          Ap




                          Ap




                          Ap
                          Fe




                          Fe




                          Fe
                          Ju




                          Ju




                          Ju
                         O




                          O




                          O
                          D




                          D




                          D
                                                        Months



                                These graphs shown here with percentage performance on
one axes and time duration ( in months ) on another is also known as the “
Learning Curve ” as it represents the effect of learning through training
programs or by sheer experience on the performance (productivity) of
individuals, groups, departments and even organizations. Analysis of the
following graphs suggests that:

  1. Departments fail to stick to their performance standards due to many
     external factors such as absenteeism, frequent change in articles to be
     produced etc.
  2. Frequent ups and downs in the curve are visible which indicates variable
     levels of efforts from the employees.
  3. Pointed peaks and V‟s means that increase in level of performance or
     decreased are short-lived. This indicates the involvement of a sense of
     self-satisfaction at times and motivation from failure.
  4. Unstable productivity levels tend to indicate the absence of training and
     motivation programs, which constantly tries to improve performance of its
     employees.

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                          103
 5. Curves of all the departments show a more or less similar trend, more
    efficient   production   scheduling   is   possible   when    approximate
    improvement or decrease in department‟s performance is predictable.


                 STORY OF A BUTTERFLY WHO NEVER WAS

                   A man found a cocoon of a butterfly. One day a small
 opening appeared. He sat and watched the butterfly for several hours as
 it struggled to force its body through that little hole. Then it seemed to
 stop making any progress. It appeared as if it had gotten as far as it
 could, and it could go no further. So the man decided to help the
 butterfly. He took a pair of scissors and snipped off the remaining bit of
 the cocoon.
                   The butterfly then emerged easily. But it had a swollen
 body and small, shriveled wings.
                   The man continued to watch the butterfly because he
 expected that, at any moment, the wings would enlarge and expand to
 be able to support the body, which would contract in time. Neither
 happened! In fact, the butterfly spent the rest of its life crawling around
 with a swollen body and shriveled wings. It never was able to fly.
                        What the man, in his kindness and haste, did not
 understand was that the restricting cocoon and the struggle required for
 the butterfly to get through the tiny opening were God's way of forcing
 fluid from the body of the butterfly into its wings so that it would be
 ready for flight once it achieved its freedom from the cocoon.



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                  104
CASE STUDIES AND EXPERIENCES IN B.I.L.

    1. Case of Absenteeism :

                  Mr. NRS ( actual name not disclosed ) is an “accord”
employee of BATA INDIA LTD. Batanagar. He is directly involved in the shoe
manufacturing conveyor. He was known to be a regular absentee, but at the
same time a multi-skilled worker with lots of experience. The organisation‟s
personnel department looked at the possible options to solve this problem.
During the first half of 2007, NRS surpassed his casual and medical leaves
available by more than 125 (days), as per organisation‟s SOR (Standing Orders
and Rules, as in agreement with Bata Mazdoor Union). Show-Cause notices
were issued under section 15(h), requiring him to explain in writing, the
reasons for his continuous absence from work.
                   NRS replied within the stipulated time along with a Medical
Certificate proving his illness. An in depth scrutiny of the Medical Certificate
proved that the documents were fake under the provision of 19(A) of the SOR.
The guilty can be terminated from his present job. However the management
decided to give him one last chance to mend his ways (and not to lose a skilled
employee) and handed him three days suspension without pay. The personnel
manager planned the process to regularize his unauthorized absence and
fraudulent means by creating an atmosphere where NRS should fully recognize



  " Success does not consist in never making blunders, but in never making the same
  one a second time. "
                                                                        - Josh Billings


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            105
what is expected of him in the future.
                    He    was    scolded     by    one     manager      and     was
comforted by another as was planned before to make him aware of this last
golden opportunity, provided to him. As of date NRS is still an employee in
BATA INDIA LTD. And his problem has relatively minimized to a great deal. This
incidence proves that human resource planning is not only to follow the
rulebook but also to invent complimentary ways to solve such type of problems
in long run interest of the organisation.


2. Case of Misconduct :

A permanent line cutter of a production department in BATA INDIA LTD,
Batanagar plant, Mr. SKR (actual identity not disclosed) was involved in a
particular job for sometime. He was trailing behind his colleagues working in
the same conveyor, hampering the rate of production, and thus was allotted a
new job by his immediate boss (Asst. officer) Mr. DKB (actual identity not
disclosed for obvious reasons). Unable to mentally adapt to this decision to shift
him to another job, Mr. SKR started abusing his superior Mr. DKB and also
attempted to physically assault him. He also threatened to cause him harm
outside the factory.
                    The case was reported to the personnel department the very
same day and a show cause notice issued to the defaulter Mr. SKR, to be
answered within 48 hours as per clauses D and K under section 21 (a) of the

   " It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without
   accepting it "
                                                                       - Aristotle


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                       106
standing orders and rules (SOR) of Bata India Ltd. and clause 14 of the model
standing orders applicable to all industrial establishments of India. The said
employee pleaded guilty and was ashamed of his act and promised not to
repeat the same. The serious nature of the offence demanded disciplinary
action but considering it as his first minor offence was let of with a warning and
written undertaking.
                     This case is another fine example that the organisation
provides ample opportunity to rectify their improper acts and every opportunity
provided to him to put forward his version of the unwanted event. Thus the
disciplinary policy is preventive, corrective, reformative rather than punitive.
Although, one important information missing here is that whether the Asst.
officer Mr. DKB was advised to “ forgive and forget ”, which would have been
the perfect way to conclude this natural justice?



3. Case of Termination :
   (Rise of Absenteeism to an abnormal level)

Mr. PKM (actual identity not revealed) was an employee of Bata India Ltd.
Batanagar plant for more than 19 years. He was terminated for prolonged
unauthorized absence in 1993, but reinstated in 1995 through a special request
by the Bata Mazdoor Union ( B.M.U. ). This opportunity provided to him by the
organisation was not fully utilized as his unauthorized, unexplained, avoidable


  " Some succeed as they are destined to, but most succeed because they are
  determined to. "
                                                                  - Anonymous


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                     107
& willful absence from work continued there after. According to his leave and
absence card 2004 and 2005 :

                                 LEAVE AND ABSENCE CARD – 2004
  S No.
                From             To         C/L       Ordinary leave       Sick Leave

    1         1/1/2004        20/01/2004     --             5                  15
    2         9/2/2004         7/4/2004      --             62                 --
    3        23/04/2004       30/04/2004     --             8                  --
    4         12/5/2004       25/06/2004     --             40                 --
    5        28/07/2004        3/8/2004      --             6                  --
    6        31/08/2004       29/09/2004     --             30                 --

    7         1/11/2004       31/12/2004     --             61                 --



                                 LEAVE AND ABSENCE CARD – 2005
  S No.

                From             To         C/L       Ordinary leave       Sick Leave

    1         1/1/2005        18/05/2005     --            123                 15

    2        30/05/2005       23/09/2005     --            116                 --

    3        25/10/2005       26/10/2005     2              --                 --

    4         7/11/2005       31/12/2005     --             41                 --



                   Mr. PKM once again remained absent without notice from
7/11/2005 to 17/3/2006 and was issued registered show cause notices under
clause 15(h) of the Standing Order and Rules (SOR). He was asked to report
within 2 weeks, his case was forwarded to the chief medical officer (C.M.O.),


  " We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, therefore, is not an act but a habit "

                                                                             - Aristotle


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                 108
who declared him fit to join his duties, but he did not. Further, show causes
were not replied. Finally the management decided to terminate him with effect
from 14/04/2006.
                  This highlights the peculiar and abnormal magnitude of
absenteeism prevailing in Indian industries. Thus, the importance of taking
such decisions in the longer interest of the organisation becomes absolutely
necessary at times. In order to send a clear message to the employees that
organisation‟s tolerance has a limit. As such serious problems regarding
absenteeism involves heavy expenses, including overhead costs of reserves as
well as of the idle equipments.


My Experiences :

                  Bata India Ltd, Batanagar plant was the first instance our
career where the practical applications of managerial functions in an
organisation were displayed before us. We got ample exposure to the versatility
of the manager‟s role as a figurehead meeting the routine, obligatory, social &
legal duties, as a leader, maintaining, developing and motivating the human
resources, as a disseminator distributing selected information to others outside
the unit, as an entrepreneur developing the unit, to take advantage of existing
opportunities and anticipated threats, as a resource-allocator integrating the
activities and resources utilization, as a negotiator, bridging the gap between


  " Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter "

                                                               - Martin Luther King Jr.



CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                             109
the management and employee unions and as a spokes person to us,
distributing selected information and conveying the appropriate image of the
unit.
                    Asst. Manager (Personnel) who guided me throughout this
project was instrumental in providing opportunities to directly get involved in
the day to day functioning of the department. He said “ books make a
manager, but practical experiences make them successful ”. I worked on
absenteeism, late-coming, early-going, union demands on major organisational
issues etc. where the manager acts as disturbance handler and has to take
many aggressive, unwanted decisions at times along with initiating some
creating ideas, keeping in view the long term interest of the organisation.
                    I was invited at one of Bata India Ltd. retirement / farewell
party, to get me acquainted with the organisational culture and management‟s
perspective towards its human resources. In a simply organized program in the
seminar hall of the personnel department, the organisation bid adieu to three of
its employees after a long and dedicated service period in the vicinity of 30-35
years. A soul touching speech was given by one of their long-time colleague,
which touched the soul of everyone present on the occasion. He said,” This is
not only to recognize their contribution over the years, but also to learn from
their experiences ”. Mementos and gifts were given to the departing employees
and refreshments served to the gathering. The event was significant in
specifying the importance of a formal and planned separation of employees
from the organisation.


   " If people never did silly things, nothing intelligent would ever get done. "
                                                                     - Ludwig Wittgenstein


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                                110
                   I cherish the time spend in the leather factory, actually seeing
for the very first time, the step by step evolution of the various discrete parts
transformed into the final product, a shoe. Every shoe has to pass through
many hands, machines setup as a chain known as Rink conveyors. Experienced
hands along with creative brains have elevated shoe manufacturing up to the
level of art. It‟s for sure now, that I shall value, each and every shoe that I am
going to buy in the future. The finished goods after passing the quality checks
are tagged with quality – symbols which Bata people call the ornament of the
shoes. They are then packed and travel hundreds and thousands of miles to
reach your feet.
                   Another experience worth sharing is visiting the Batanagar
estate. Stretching over 303 acres on the banks of the river Ganges, the area is
18 kilometers from Kolkata. Developed during the 1930‟s under the British
colonial powers it has it‟s own ferry-ghat, cinema-hall, sports-stadium, market,
hospital, residential colonies, community halls, auditorium, schools, children-
parks etc..
                   This self-sufficient estate is well connected with public
conveyance facilities to nearby towns. Maintenance of such a huge fixed asset
infrastructure for providing every possible facility to its employees is worth
appreciating & admittingly rarer these days. Just as a fact, Batanagar once
owned a Territorial Army for security purposes, which adds a sense of nostalgia
to the name of “ Batanagar ”.


   " All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What
   we think we become. "

                                                                              - Buddha


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                              111
                           STORY : The Window
                Two men, both seriously ill, occupied the same hospital
room. One man was allowed to sit up in his bed for an hour a day to drain
the fluids from his lungs. His bed was next to the room's only window. The
other   man    had    to   spend    all    his   time   flat   on   his   back.
 The men talked for hours on end. They spoke of their families, their homes,
their jobs, their involvement in the military service, where they had been on
vacation. And every afternoon when the man in the bed next to the window
could sit up, he would pass the time by describing to his roommate all the
 things he could see outside the window.
                The man in the other bed would live for those one-hour
periods where his world would be broadened and enlivened by all the
activity and color of the outside world. The window overlooked a park with a
lovely lake, the man had said. Ducks and swans played on the water while
children sailed their model boats. Lovers walked arm in arm amid flowers of
every color of the rainbow. Grand old trees graced the landscape, and a fine
view of the city skyline could be seen in the distance. As the man by the
window described all this in exquisite detail, the man on the other side of
the room would close his eyes and imagine the picturesque scene.
                 One warm afternoon the man by the window described a
parade passing by. Although the other man could not hear the band, he
could see it in his mind's eye as the gentleman by the window portrayed it
with descriptive words. Unexpectedly, an alien thought entered his head:
Why should he have all the pleasure of seeing everything while I never get
to see anything? It didn't seem fair. As the thought fermented, the man felt


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                    112
ashamed at first. But as the days passed and he missed seeing more sights,
his envy eroded into resentment and soon turned him sour. He began to
brood and found himself unable to sleep. He should be by that window and
 that thought now controlled his life.
                      Late one night, as he lay staring at the ceiling, the man
by the window began to cough. He was choking on the fluid in his lungs.
The other man watched in the dimly lit room as the struggling man by the
window groped for the button to call for help. Listening from across the
room, he never moved, never pushed his own button, which would have
brought the nurse running. In less than five minutes, the coughing and
choking stopped, along with the sound of breathing. Now, there was only
silence deathly silence.
                    The following morning, the day nurse arrived to bring
water for their baths. When she found the lifeless body of the man by the
window, she was saddened and called the hospital attendant to take it
away--no words, no fuss. As soon as it seemed appropriate, the man asked
if he could be moved next to the window. The nurse was happy to make the
switch    and      after   he   was     comfortable,      she     left    him    alone.
                    Slowly, painfully, he propped himself up on one elbow to
take his first look. Finally, he would have the joy of seeing it all himself. He
strained to slowly turn to look out the window beside the bed. It faced a
blank wall.

 " No one can read your mind, so what they see, hear & feel from you is what they will
 know you for. "
                                                                         - Anonymous


CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                            113
                         Bibliography

                            Books :

                               1. Kothari C.R., Research methodology
                                  methods and techniques, New age
                                  international publishers, New Delhi, 2007.
                               2. Mamoria C.B., Gankar S.V., Personnel
    management text and cases, Himalaya publishing house, Mumbai, 2001.
 3. Blanchard P.N.,Thacker J.W., Effective training systems strategies and
    practices, Pearson education, Delhi. 2007.
 4. Sikula A.F., Personnel administration and human resource management,
    John Wiley and sons, New York, 1976.



                                 Websites :

                                    1. www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bata_
                                      Shoes
                                    2. www.ggits.org
                                    3. www.google.org
 4. www.rdunijbpin.org
 5. www.bata.com
 6. www.bata.org
 7. www.bata.in

CHALLENGE ……SKILL……COMMITMENT……TEAMWORK                                  114

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: This is a project done by an mba student describing the training and development practice followed in BATA india Pvt ltd