Fortified Blended Foods Recipes - Facts and Practical Uses - PDF by AID

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									FoFoods
      Fortified Blended
            Foods

            Recipes



     Facts and Practical Uses
This publication has been prepared by:

      Strategy and Policy Division
       Technical Unit (Nutrition)

              July 2002
                                    CONTENTS




1. Background ........................................................................................... 1

2. Food Safety and Fortified Blended Foods ................................... 5

3. Storage of Fortified Blended Foods ............................................. 9

4. Preparation and Use of Fortified Blended Foods ..................... 10

5. Index of Suggested Recipes .......................................................... 15

6. Processing Instructions and Product Specifications .............. 46

7. Nutritional Composition of Corn-Soya Blend ............................ 50

8. Nutritional Composition of Wheat-Soya Blend ........................ 52

9. WFP Support for Production of Blended Food Equipment .... 54
1. Background

Introduction
Childhood malnutrition remains a major problem throughout the de-
veloping world and in emergencies. Malnutrition not only makes a
child more prone to illness and death, it may also have debilitating
mental and physical consequences that the child carries into adult-
hood.

One of the major factors contributing to child malnutrition is inap-
propriate feeding during the weaning period, i.e. the period from 6
months through 18-24 months, when a transition is made from a
diet exclusively of breast milk to a child’s partaking fully in the fam-
ily pot. During this period, special foods are required to supplement
and eventually replace breast milk. These foods (also called comple-
mentary foods) are often nutritionally inadequate, particularly lacking
in micronutrients,1 not easy to swallow or digest, and frequently con-
taminated. As a result, a child consuming them does not receive all
the nutrients required for adequate growth or development.

WFP and complementary foods
The World Food Programme’s general food aid commodities (cere-
als, pulses and edible oils) can be part of a nutritionally suitable
complement to breast milk. However, they are frequently in an inap-
propriate form for feeding older infants or young children and re-
quire extensive preparation and cooking time. Also, they need to be
combined with other ingredients (e.g. fresh fruits and vegetables)
to achieve sufficient levels of micronutrients.

To improve the value of food aid for older infants and young chil-
dren, WFP distributes processed complementary foods that are also
called fortified blended foods (FBFs). These are a mixture of cere-
als and other ingredients (e.g. soybeans, pulses, oilseeds, dried skim
milk, and possibly sugar and/or vegetable oil) that has been milled,
blended, pre-cooked by extrusion or roasting and fortified with a
pre-mix of vitamins and minerals.



1
    Vitamins and minerals.


                                                                      1
Why fortified blended foods?
WFP has selected fortified blended foods as complementary foods
for the food basket because they have various advantages over other
alternatives:
    • FBFs are good quality and comply with the ‘’Guidelines on
        Formulated Supplementary Foods for Older Infants and
        Young Children’’ of the Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO).
       •     FBFs contain adequate calories (400/100 g)2 and protein
             (15 g/100 g).3
       •     They are fortified with essential micronutrients (66 percent
             of the daily requirements of young children per 100 g). The
             fortification is extremely important since, in many situations,
             these micronutrients cannot be obtained from a normal diet.
       •     FBFs are pre-cooked and distributed as flour and therefore
             require only limited amounts of fuel for cooking.
       •     Their preparation does not require much time and is very
             easy.
       •     FBFs are easy for older infants and young children to swal-
             low and digest and therefore are safe.
       •     They can be produced relatively inexpensively. The price per
             kcal/protein content is almost that of cereal flours and thus
             low compared with other micronutrient-rich commodities in the
             WFP basket.4 The low cost of the foods maximizes coverage
             of the needy population and increases long-term sustainability.

What kind of fortified blended foods does WFP
distribute?
The bulk of the fortified blended foods distributed by WFP con-
sists of in-kind donations from the United States of America. These
comprise the original fortified blended foods, which were developed
in the United States of America, namely, corn-soya blend (CSB) and
wheat-soya blend (WSB). In addition to these donations, WFP’s op-
erations are further supported by purchases directly effected by the
Programme. These purchases are made in the United States of America
and Europe (e.g. WFP provided technical assistance to suppliers in the
Netherlands and Belgium). However, WFP has also helped to build
2
    On dry matter basis.
3
    Cereals and pulses combined provide complete protein.
4
    The prices of FBF and cereal flours are around US$300/ton and US$220/ton, respectively.


2
national production capacities in developing countries, in collabora-
tion with UNHCR and UNICEF. Local purchasing is being carried out
in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (with the blended food
Koryo-mix), El Salvador, Eritrea (DMK), Ethiopia (Famix), India
(Indiamix), Kenya (Unimix), Madagascar, Malawi (Lakuni Phala), Ne-
pal (Unilitho), Nicaragua, Senegal and Uganda (see also page 54). All
the FBFs distributed by WFP meet at least WFP product specifica-
tions (including nutritional composition requirements), and therefore
can be used interchangeably without a problem in field operations.
Efforts for further standardization are ongoing.

How much fortified blended food does
WFP distribute?
WFP’s experience using FBFs to prevent and treat malnutrition among
young children older than 6 months has been positive. As a result,
the use of fortified blended foods has been encouraged, and over the
last five years their distribution has doubled. Currently, WFP distrib-
utes approximately 160,000 mt of FBFs per year (55,000 mt purchased
and 104,000 mt in in-kind donations). With FBFs’ comparative advan-
tages, WFP’s policy is to continue to emphasize the importance of their
inclusion in the rations for young children. The Programme will en-
courage their inclusion also in the rations of other vulnerable groups,
such as expectant and nursing mothers, schoolchildren and the eld-
erly, and will continue to support local production capacities.

The FBF ration size per beneficiary depends on the type of pro-
gramme or beneficiary and the context. For populations totally de-
pendent on food aid, it is sometimes recommended that 40-60 g of
FBF be added to the general ration. In supplementary feeding pro-
grammes, the FBF ration size for children and expectant and nursing
mothers is around 100-150 g for dry rations and 200-250 g for take-
home rations. In school feeding programmes, an FBF drink (25-30 g)
or porridge (100-150 g) can be prepared and distributed. For more
information on FBF ration sizes, refer to WFP guidelines on nutri-
tion.5




5
    Supplementary Feeding for Mothers and Children, 1998; School Feeding Handbook,
    WFP/UNHCR, 2000; Guidelines for Estimating Food and Nutrition Needs in Emergencies,
    1997.


                                                                                          3
Practical uses and preparation techniques for FBFs
Over the years, various countries have gained a wide experience with
FBFs and have developed various preparation methods. Given the ben-
efits of FBFs and the expected increase in their distribution, it was
thought useful if these experiences were shared with WFP staff, coun-
terparts and beneficiaries. It is hoped that this booklet will contrib-
ute to improving the utilization and acceptability of and appreciation
for FBFs, will facilitate the introduction of fortified blended foods
among new beneficiaries, and provide beneficiaries with possibilities
for increasing variation in their diets.

The recipes are simple and require little preparation time and the
addition of only a limited number of other foods. For each, the nu-
tritional value of the FBF used is maintained. Some of the recipes
indicate how they can be adapted to the requirements of different
regions, cultural habits and the foods available.

This collection of recipes is only a beginning. It is expected that new
recipes and experiences will be added over time. If you have recipes
to add, comments or questions, please contact the Nutrition Unit in
WFP Rome.




4
2.             Food Safety and
               Fortified Blended Foods

As with any other foods, contamination of fortified blended foods
can occur if care is not taken in their management and preparation.
Contamination of food can cause illness, rather than bringing nutri-
tional benefits.

Government authorities and WFP must ensure that fortified blended
foods are fit for human consumption — at the time of their purchase,
at their arrival and during their storage in warehouses in the benefi-
ciary country. However, the fact that a food is deemed fit for human
consumption does not necessarily mean that it will remain safe when
stored or prepared under inadequate conditions. Knowledge of the
minimal facilities necessary for safe storage and preparation are
needed.

Sources of food contamination are diverse (see also the diagram on
page 8). They include polluted water, flies, pests, domestic animals,
unclean utensils or pots, unclean food handlers (e.g. soiled hands),
dust and dirt. Raw foods themselves are frequently the source of
contaminants, as some may naturally harbour pathogens.

Improper cooking and storage can promote the survival and/or growth
of pathogens to levels that cause disease. Such practices include:

• preparation of food several hours prior to its consumption, com-
     bined with its storage at inadequate temperatures;
• insufficient cooking or re-heating of food;
• cross-contamination; and
• handling of food by people with poor personal hygiene (cooks may
     transfer pathogens they are carrying in or on their bodies to the
     food they are handling).


“The WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation” provides advice
on how to reduce the risk of food-borne diseases. WHO recommends
that these rules are adapted to different cultural settings.6 Bearing
6
    Adapted from “The WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation”, Health Surveillance and
    Management Procedures for Food-handling Personnel. Report of a WHO Consultation. World
    Health Organization, Geneva, 1989 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 785)].

                                                                                         5
in mind the difficult conditions under which WFP-assisted programmes
are implemented, the “simplified” list of rules below can be used as a
guide during field visits and for making posters for distribution in
health centres and at distribution points.


1. Are the FBFs thoroughly cooked?
Foods should be cooked thoroughly, until “piping” hot.


2. Are the cooked FBFs eaten immediately?
When cooked foods cool to room temperature, microbes begin to
proliferate. The longer the wait, the greater the risk.


3. Are the cooked FBFs carefully stored?
Microbes thrive in cooked food kept at ambient temperatures and
quickly proliferate to disease-causing levels. If food is prepared in
advance, it has to be kept hot until served.


4. Are the cooked FBFs reheated thoroughly?
Microbes may develop during storage (proper storage slows down
microbial growth but does not kill the organisms). Stored cooked
foods should be reheated until “piping” hot.


5. Are the locally produced foods safe?
Fresh fruits and vegetables may be contaminated with disease-caus-
ing organisms, especially when untreated wastewater is used for ir-
rigation or untreated nightsoil is used for fertilization.


6. Is contact between raw foods and cooked FBFs
   avoided?
Safely cooked food can become contaminated through even the slight-
est contact with raw food.


7. Do food handlers wash their hands?
The hands are one of the most important vehicles for the transfer
of disease-causing organisms (from faeces, animals, raw foods, skin
or other sites) to food. Food handlers should wash their hands thor-
oughly before preparing food and after every interruption.



6
8. Are kitchen surfaces and tools clean?
Foods are very easily contaminated. Food preparation premises and
tools, and any surface used for food preparation, should be abso-
lutely clean.


9. Are the foods protected from insects, rodents or
   other animals?
Animals frequently carry pathogenic micro-organisms. Foods should
be covered or stored in closed containers.


10.    Is safe water used?
Safe water is just as important for food preparation as it is for drink-
ing. Water should always be boiled before it is added to food.




                                                                      7
    Sources of contamination




8
3.              Storage of Fortified Blended
                Foods
Fortified blended foods need to be handled and transported with
care7 :

•      They should be bagged properly, i.e. during packaging as little air
       as possible should remain in the bags.

•      They should be stored in a well-ventilated, cool, dry place.

•      The storage place should be kept meticulously clean to prevent
       infestation by rodents and insects.

•      FBFs need to be stored off the ground and stacked on a pallet
       made of wooden planks or bamboo to prevent condensation. They
       should be stored away from walls and roofs.

•      There should be enough space left around the stacks for human
       passage, air circulation and inspection.

•      The foods should be rebagged or used immediately if their bags
       are cut or torn.

•      The principle of first-in, first-out should always be respected.

•      The shelf-life of most FBFs is at least 6 months after the date of
       production. FBFs from the United States Agency for International
       Development (USAID) and Europe have a shelf-life of at least 12
       months. If FBFs are stored beyond their date of expiry, loss of
       vitamins and minerals may occur. When there is doubt, the product
       should be sent for a quality check before its use.




7
    See also WFP Food Storage Manual.


                                                                          9
4.          Preparation and Use of Fortified
            Blended Foods
•    Infants should be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months.
     FBFs can be used as an acceptable food for complementary feed-
     ing (the addition of foods to the diet of a nursing child).

•    FBFs are pre-cooked but not instant products; they are designed
     to be cooked/fried or baked for 2-15 minutes to complete their
     digestibility (cooking will also render the water used safe). Do
     not give unprepared FBFs to children under 5 or to malnourished
     patients.

•    Ensure that the water used to prepare FBFs is of adequate qual-
     ity and is boiled before being mixed with the FBFs.

•    When mixing dry FBFs with water, be sure the pre-boiled water
     is cold, or lumps will form.

•    The cooking time for FBFs may vary from 2 to 15 minutes, de-
     pending on the kind of preparation required.

•    Stir FBFs continuously while they boil. Cook them until smooth.

•    The thickness (and thus the energy density) of FBFs may be con-
     trolled, according to cultural preferences, depending on the amount
     of water added.

•    Liquid remaining in the pan after the cooking of FBFs should be
     consumed, as it contains vitamins and minerals.

•    To make a dough with FBFs, knead the flour with the desired
     quantity of water and set it aside for 10-15 minutes, until the
     dough has binding characteristics. FBFs produced with the ex-
     trusion process make slightly better dough than the those pro-
     duced with the roasting process.




10
•   To improve the taste (palatability) of the final product and to
    increase its nutritive value, add whatever local vegetables are
    available (washing them thoroughly beforehand).

•   If possible, cultivate small gardens and use the vegetables for
    nutrition and health education, as a complementary strategy for
    the use of FBFs.

•   In areas where fruits and vegetables are grown, they can be
    collected and dried and used with the FBFs to add nutritional
    value.

•   To ensure the variety, acceptability and use of FBFs, use
    knowledge of the community and establish and share recipes.




                                                                 11
12
                   RECIPE BOOKLET




WFP / P. Kashyap
14
5.                      Index of Suggested Recipes

Porridges or Gruels
Thin Porridge ............................................................................................................. 17
Thick Porridge .......................................................................................................... 18

Drinks/Soups
FBF Porridges with Fried Vegetables ............................................................... 19
Fortified Blended Food Drink (beverage) ....................................................... 20
Roasted Blended Food Drinks ............................................................................. 21
Soups ........................................................................................................................... 22

Simple breads/cakes
Unleavened Bread (chapati/roti, etc.) ............................................................. 24
Pancakes ..................................................................................................................... 26
Tortilla ........................................................................................................................ 27

Roasted products
FBF Roasted Dough ................................................................................................. 28
Burfi ............................................................................................................................. 30
Roasted Fortified Blended Food (sweet) ....................................................... 31

Cakes
Fortified Blended Food Cake (baked) .............................................................. 32
Fermented Steamed Cake .................................................................................... 33

Fritters
Fritters ....................................................................................................................... 34
Mathi ............................................................................................................................ 35
Samosas ...................................................................................................................... 36

Other preparations
Sweet Balls ............................................................................................................... 37
Steamed Rolls/Dumplings ..................................................................................... 38
Banana Leaf Rolls .................................................................................................... 39
Cookies ........................................................................................................................ 40
Couscous ..................................................................................................................... 41
Papadum ...................................................................................................................... 42
Badiyan ........................................................................................................................ 43
Vegetable Stew ....................................................................................................... 44
Tomato Sauce .......................................................................................................... 45




                                                                                                                                         15
16
Thin Porridge

Ingredients
1 part FBF
3 parts water
Sugar and salt to taste


Method of preparation
1.    Mix FBF with small
      quantity of hot or cold
      water.
2.    Stir the above mixture
      with remaining water
      and bring to a boil.
3.    Leave porridge to
      simmer for another 5 to
      10 minutes (stirring       WFP / A. Chicheri

      constantly).
4.    Serve hot.


Various foods can be added while making the thin porridge:
• oil, to increase the energy density and taste
• leafy or other vegetables (savoury)
• seasonal fruits
• any local grains (such as soft fresh corn) or groundnuts



  Local names
Atmit in Ethiopia      Phala in Malawi
Bouillie in Senegal    Shooro in Somalia/Ethiopia
Bubur in Indonesia     Thin porridge or Rab in India
Koko in Ghana          Umusururu in Burundi/United Republic of Tanzania




     Particularly suitable for older infants (6-12 months)



                                                                          17
Thick Porridge
Ingredients
2 parts water
1 part FBF

Method of preparation
1.    Boil water.                                                    WFP / P. Kashyap


2.    Add FBF and keep stirring to avoid lump formation.
3.    Keep over a flame for 5 to 10 minutes, or until the porridge
      becomes stiff.
4.    Serve hot, or allow to cool before serving.


The following foods can be added to increase the dish’s
variety:
•     sugar or salt
•     raw mangoes, tamarind or tomatoes
•     leafy or other vegetables and salt
•     seasonal fruits, and sugar if necessary
•     any local grains (like soft fresh corn) or groundnuts
•     mashed boiled sweet potato is added in the Democratic People’s
      Republic of Korea and heated in oil (sweet potato blended food
      porridge or Koguma Yongyang Juk).
•     yoghurt, tomato and carrot, to make vegetable yoghurt FBF por-
      ridge (Namsae Yoghurt Yongyang Juk).
The flour can also be fermented beforehand, which will change
the porridge’s flavour.
  Local names
Banku, Tuo Zafi or Kokonte (fermented) in Ghana
Besso in Ethiopia
Cereal Pap in the Gambia (with FBF)
Gunfo in Somalia
Juk in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Madida in the Sudan and Southern Sudan
Nsima in Malawi
Ubhugali in Burundi
Ugali in the United Republic of Tanzania




     Suitable for all age groups from 9-12 months onwards

18
FBF Porridges with Fried Vegetables

I Ingredients
1-2 potatoes, sliced
Oil
3-4 parts water
1 part FBF
1/4 part sugar
Salt
Sesame powder, sifted
Method of preparation              WFP / F. Lemmens

1.   Fry potato slices in oil.
2.   Add water and FBF to cooked potatoes
     and boil for 10 minutes.
3.   Add sugar, salt and sesame.
4.   Continue boiling for another 5 minutes.

  Local names
Potato FBF porridge
Kamja Yongyang Juk in the Democratic People’s
 Republic of Korea




II Ingredients
Thinly sliced ripe pumpkin (without skin)
Oil
1½ parts of water
Sesame powder
1 part FBF
Salt
Method of preparation
1.   Fry sliced pumpkin quickly in oil and then add water.
2.   Boil mixture until pumpkin is dissolved.
3.   Add sesame powder and FBF and boil for 10 minutes.
4.   Add salt if needed.


  Local names
Pumpkin FBF porridge
Hopak Yongyang Juk in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea




                                                                  19
Fortified Blended Food Drink




                                                  WFP / photolibrary
Ingredients
1 part FBF
7-8 parts hot water
A little less than 1/2 part sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)

Method of preparation
1.   Mix FBF with small quantity of hot or cold water.
2.   Stir FBF/water mixture into hot water and bring to a boil.
3.   Stir frequently for 2-3 minutes.
4.   Add sugar and salt while it cooks.
5.   Serve hot or cold.

Additional ingredients, such as vanilla, cinnamon, cacao, and ginger
can be added.

  Local names
Atole in Guatemala
Beverage/drink in Ethiopia
Camoca in Cape Verde
Horchata in Latin America
Nutritious drink in Nepal
Shurbad in Somalia
Soyatol in Nicaragua (uses as much sugar as CSB, which is actually not
  recommended)




           Suitable for children over 1 year.
 The drink is often used in school feeding programmes.

20
Roasted Blended Food Drinks

I Ingredients
1 part FBF
A little less than 1/2 part sugar
Oil
7-8 parts hot water
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)

Method of preparation
1.   Roast FBF and sugar for 5-10 minutes (with a little bit of oil,
     if available).
2.   Mix roasted mixture with small quantity of hot or cold water.
3.   Stir the FBF/water mixture into hot water and bring the
     mixture to boil.
4.   Stir frequently for 2-3 minutes.
5.   Serve hot or cold.
6.   Additional ingredients can be added.

  Local names
Camoca in Cape Verde




II Ingredients
1 part FBF


                                                                         WFP / P. Kashyap
Salt or sugar
Ghee
Method of preparation
1.   Roast FBF in ghee until it becomes light brown.
     (Ghee is not necessary. If unavailable, another oil can be used.)
2.   Remove from fire and add salt or sugar.
3.   Store in a dry jar.

Roasted blended food drinks can be stored for a week or two. They
can be consumed with soup, milk or water.

 Local names
Sattu in Nepal



                 Suitable for children over 1 year.

                                                                    21
Soups

I Ingredients
1 part FBF
6-8 parts water
20 ml oil
2 tomatoes, chopped
1 onion, chopped
1/2-1 tablespoon salt



Method of preparation
1.   Add the FBF to the water and mix well to prevent
     lump formation.
2.   Heat oil in a pan.
3.   Add chopped tomatoes, onions and salt. Mix well and cook
     for 5 minutes.
4.   Add the FBF/water mixture and boil for about 10 minutes over
     a very low flame.
5.   Stir continuously to prevent lump formation.
6.   Serve hot.

Green vegetables or other fresh/dried vegetables and beans can be
added to the soup. If available, meat or fish can be added.
Note: for small children, the meat should be minced and boneless.


  Local names
Aprapransa in Ghana (made with red palm nuts)
India Viejo masa de Cazuela con CSB in Guatemala
Soup in Cape Verde, India, Nicaragua and other countries




        Suitable for all ages from 6 months onwards


22
Soups

II Ingredients
Ghee/oil
Jwano (spices)
1 part FBF
Water
Salt, to taste


Method of preparation
1.   Heat ghee/oil in a deep pan.
2.   Add jwano and then the FBF.
3.   Fry mixture until it browns.
4.   Add four cups of water and stir constantly.
5.   Add salt and boil the mixture for 5 minutes.
6.   Serve hot.




                   WFP / G. Kinch




        Suitable for all ages from 6 months onwards


                                                      23
Unleavened Bread




                                                           WFP / P. Kashyap




Ingredients
4 parts FBF (preferably wheat based; maize does not bind well and
  must be patted into shape rather than rolled)
2 parts warm water (enough to make dough)
4 tablespoons oil, melted butter or another type of fat
2 teaspoons salt


Method of preparation
1.   Mix ingredients together into a dough and allow it to sit for
     15-20 minutes.
2.   Turn it onto a floured cloth or board and knead it thoroughly
     (unless kneaded well, with warm water, the dough will break
     easily).
3.   Form into small portions.
4.   Flatten portions by hand or roll with a rolling pin into round
     shapes.
5.   Bake on a hot dry griddle or fry in a skillet with oil or fat
     (if available).



24
Variations on preparation

•   Sweeten dough with sugar (for example, roti, prepared in Nepal,
    are mostly made with sugar added to the dough).
•   Add finely chopped green leafy vegetables or spices (red and
    green chillies, ginger, etc.) to the dough.
•   Cook in a tandoor (wood-fired cylindrical clay hearth, with a side
    hole near the bottom for air).
•   Instead of roasting, dough may be shallow fried or even deep
    fried.
•   Dough may also be steam cooked. To do this, boil water in an
    ordinary vessel with a white cloth fastened over the mouth of
    the vessel. Place the small, flattened pieces of dough on the cloth.
    Cover the vessel with another vessel. The pieces of dough will
    steam cook.


  Local names of similar products
Ayap/Pam Pam in Southern Sudan
Burr in Ethiopia, Somalia
Drabeel, Karapeech or Youkeh in Middle East/North Africa
Moofa in Somalia, Mogadishu (made in tandoor)
Naan in Bangladesh, India (made in tandoor), Pakistan
Paratha in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan (shallow fried with oil
   on both sides)
Poori in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan (deep fried)
Roti or Chapati in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Yemen
Savayat in Somalia (shallow fried)




             Suitable for all age groups over 1 year



                                                                              25
Pancakes

Ingredients
1 part FBF (preferably wheat based)
1 teaspoon salt (optional)
Sufficient warm water to make a batter


Method of preparation
1.     Mix FBF and salt. Add water (slowly, to prevent lump forma-
       tion) to make a batter of flowing consistency.
2.     Leave in the sun for one hour or near the heat of the fireplace.
3.     Oil skillet and place on the fire.
4.     Pour flour mixture (batter) onto hot skillet, spreading it thinly
       and evenly.
5.     When pancake begins to cook, loosen the edges from skillet.
6.     Turn pancake and brown other side.


Variations on preparation
•      Add sugar to the batter.
•      Add chopped leafy vegetables to the batter.
•      After pouring the batter onto the skillet, cover the skillet with
       a lid to allow steaming and cook the pancake on one side at a
       time.



     Local names
Enjira in Ethiopia
Kamja Jijim in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (includes grated potato
 and 1/2 part sugar)
Kisera in the Sudan
Koguma Jijim in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (batter of maize-
  based FBF includes boiled sweet potato and 1 part wheat flour)
Lahoh in Somalia
Uttapam or pooda in India




               Suitable for all age groups over 1 year

26
Tortilla




                                                        WFP / L. Dematteis




Ingredients
4 parts FBF (preferably maize based)
1 1/2 parts water
1/2 tablespoon oil
2 teaspoons salt


Method of preparation
1.   Mix ingredients together into a dough.
2.   Divide the dough into 20-30-g pieces.
3.   Allow the pieces to sit for 10-15 minutes.
4.   Roll and press pieces into disks of 12-15 cm in diameter.
     Thickness of disks may vary from 0.2 to 0.5 cm.
5.   Bake on a hot griddle or dry plate.
6.   When tortilla puffs up, turn it and bake for 15-20 minutes.




                                                                      27
FBF Roasted Dough
Ingredients
2 parts FBF
3/4 part sugar
1 1/2 part warm water
     (pre-boiled)


Method of preparation
1.   Warm a pan on a fire
     and add FBF.
2.   Roast over slow fire
     until brown, continuing
     to stir it to prevent it
     from burning.
3.   Add sugar and mix
     well.
4.   In separate pot, boil
     water.
5.   Slowly add boiling
     water to FBF, stirring
     constantly. The quan-
     tity of water added
     can be varied depend-
     ing on preferred
     consistency (thick and
     sticky or more fluid).
6.   Stir for another 2 to 3
     minutes, remove from
     the fire and serve.



                                   WFP/ M. Lama

 Local names
Haluwa in Nepal (roasted in oil)
Halwa in India




28
Other preparation (which can be stored)


Ingredients
2 parts FBF
3/4 part molasses



Method of preparation
1.   Roast FBF on slow fire until brown, continuing to stir it to pre-
     vent it from burning.
2.   In a separate pan, heat molasses until sticky.
3.   Add molasses to roasted FBF.
4.   Mix thoroughly, bind the mixture tightly and shape it into a ball,
     the size of a lemon.
5.   Can be stored for about two weeks.


  Local names
Kasar in Nepal




            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year




                                                                    29
Burfi




 WFP / P. Kashyap



Ingredients
2 parts FBF
3/4 part sugar
1 1/2 part warm water (pre-boiled)


Method of preparation
1.   Roast FBF over slow fire, stirring it continuously to prevent it
     from burning.
2.   Add sugar and mix well. Remove from fire.
3.   To the roasted FBF add the water, but slowly, to prevent lump
     formation.
4.   Place mixture over slow flame until the water is entirely absorbed
     by the roasted flour.
5.   Pour the entire mixture onto a flat plate or the lid of a pan.
6.   Spread the mixture out evenly. If necessary, pat it with fingers
     that have been dipped in cold water (to prevent mixture from
     sticking to fingers).
7.   When cool and firm, take a knife and cut into small pieces and
     serve.


 Local names
Burfi in India and Nepal




30
Roasted Fortified Blended Food (sweet)




                                                                  WFP / P. Kashyap




Ingredients
2 parts FBF
3/4 parts sugar/molasses



Method of preparation
1.   Warm pan over fire.
2.   Add FBF and roast over a slow fire, stirring it continuously to
     prevent it from burning.
3.   Add sugar or molasses and mix well.
4.   Remove from fire. Serve cooled.
If they are available, the roasting may be done with ghee or oil, which
makes the product even more delicious and calorie dense.

  Local names
Camoca in Cape Verde
Ikawa or Akawa in Burundi/United Republic of Tanzania (sugar is
  added afterwards)
Kasar in Nepal
Panjiri or Kasar in India


               Suitable for children over 3 years

                                                                              31
Fortified Blended Food Cake (baked)

Ingredients
2 parts FBF
1 part sugar
20 g or 1 large tablespoon oil
1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
Pinch of salt
3 parts water (enough to make a batter of flowing consistency)


Method of preparation
1.   Mix FBF with sugar, oil and salt. Mix in warm water until batter
     is of flowing consistency.
2.   Allow to stand for up to 30 minutes in a warm place (near the
     fire or in a sunny spot).
3.   In a pan, heat sugar over a fire, allowing it to caramelize.
4.   Spread caramelized sugar evenly at the base of the pan and pour
     batter over sugar.
5.   Bake in traditional way over a moderate flame for approximately
     45 minutes.
6.   Cool before serving.


Additional ingredients
•    ripe bananas
•    leafy or other vegetables with salt
•    any local seasonal fresh or dried fruits

  Local names
Cake in India, Nepal, Somalia
Chikondamoyo in Malawi
Kabalagala in the United Republic of Tanzania
Ofam in Ghana
Vidia in Burundi




                                                            WFP / E. Espaillat



            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year


32
Fermented Steamed Cake




                                                          WFP / P. Kashyap



Ingredients
1 part FBF
2/3 parts yoghurt or sour buttermilk
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon cumin seed



Method of preparation
1.   Prepare a thick batter of FBF and yoghurt or sour buttermilk.
2.   Add salt and cumin seed and mix well.
3.   Cover and set aside overnight, or for 4-5 hours, in a warm place
     for fermentation.
4.   After fermentation, stir batter well and pour into a flat pan.
     Steam cook it for 20 minutes.
5.   Let it cool and then remove from pan.
6.   Cut in small pieces and serve.

  Local names
Kaman or Dhokla in India




                                                                      33
Fritters

Ingredients
1 part FBF
1 teaspoon salt
2/3 parts water
Fat or oil for frying


Method of preparation
1.   Mix FBF with salt. Add
     water to make dough.
2.   Heat the fat or oil in a
     frying pan.
3.   Drop small balls of
     dough into the heated
     oil.
4.   Fry 2 or 3 minutes until
     balls are golden brown.
5.   Remove from fat and
     drain.
6.   Serve hot.
                                                                 WFP / Mani Lama




Variations on preparation
•    Add finely chopped vegetables, such as onions, potatoes and
     green leafy vegetables, and flavours and spices.
•    Add sugar to make beignets (doughnuts).

  Local names
Beignets in Senegal (sweet)
Pakoda in India (savoury)
Tortas de CSB in Guatemala (with finely chopped fried vegetables added)




34
Mathi




                                                   WFP / Jim Holmes



Ingredients
1 part oil
3 parts FBF
1 part water
Oil for frying
Salt, to taste


Method of preparation
1.   Cut oil/shortening into flour thoroughly.
2.   Add water and knead mixture into hard dough.
3.   Let sit for 10-15 minutes.
4.   Roll 50 g of dough into rounds of 6-7 mm.
5.   Prick rounds with a fork so that they do not puff during
     frying.
6.   Fry to light brown color.
7.   Remove from fat and drain.
8.   Serve.




          Suitable for all age groups over 6 months


                                                                      35
Samosas




WFP / P. Kashyap



Ingredients
Vegetable/condiments that are available
4 parts FBF
Salt, to taste
Oil, for frying
1 1/2-2 parts water
1 part oil/fat


Method of preparation
1.  Boil vegetables.
2.  Mix FBF, salt and oil.
3.  Add water and knead mixture into hard dough.
4.  Cover dough with wet cloth and let rest for 15 minutes.
5.  Divide dough into 40 g pieces and roll the pieces into round
    shapes.
6. Cut shapes into semi-circles.
7. Place spoonfuls of boiled vegetables in the middle of semi-
    circles of dough.
8. Fold the edges of the dough up (i.e. into a triangular shape) and
    seal the edges.
9. Fry the samosas in oil to a golden colour.
10. Remove from fat and drain.
11. Serve.

             Suitable for all age groups over 6 months
36
Sweet Balls




                                                            WFP / P. Kashyap




Ingredients
2 parts FBF
1 part sugar
1/3 part warm water (pre-boiled)



Method of preparation
1.   Roast FBF in a dry pan until its colour changes to light brown.
     Stir well to prevent it from burning.
2.   Add sugar and mix well.
3.   Remove from fire.
4.   Sprinkle the water on the flour and mix well.
5.   While mixture is still warm, roll small parts by hand into firm
     round balls.
6.   Set aside and serve when cooled.




           Suitable for all age groups over 1 year
                                                                   37
Steamed Rolls/Dumplings

Ingredients
1 part FBF
1 medium onion (optional)
1/2 part water (enough to make a stiff dough)
1 teaspoon salt


Method of preparation
1.   Mix FBF with salt. Add water to make dough.
2.   Form dough into small balls or rolls, and set aside.
3.   Bring a pot of water to boil. Drop the rolls/balls into the boiling
     water.
4.   Allow to cook and serve hot.


Variations on preparation
•    Set dough aside for 2-3 days to ferment. Wrap fermented dough
     in corn husks. Place in boiling water and cook untill done. (This
     version is known as Kinke in Ghana.)
•    Add yeast to the dough and ferment for 30 minutes. Cut fer-
     mented dough into small pieces and sheeted. Place filling on pieces
     of dough and fold up edges. Steam for about 6 minutes (Chinese
     dumpling).

  Local names
Chinese dumplings in China
Gatte in India
Kinke in Ghana (when fermented flour is used)




38     WFP / Jim Holmes
Banana Leaf Rolls

Ingredients
1 part water (sufficient to make a dough)
2 parts FBF
Banana leaves
Water for boiling


Method of preparation                        WFP / P. Kashyap


1.   Add water to FBF to make dough.
2.   Form dough into small balls and shape into circles or ovals, as
     desired.
3.   Split fresh green banana leaf in half at the central rib.
4.   Place dough in centre of leaf piece and fold leaf over dough. Tie
     with banana fibre.
5.   Place twigs in the bottom of a pot. Add water to twig level.
6.   Place the banana leaf rolls onto the twigs.
7.   Cover pot and bring water to a boil, steaming rolls for about 30
     minutes.
8.   Remove banana leaf and serve cooked dough when cooled.


Variations on preparation
•    Sweeten with sugar or fruit pulp.
•    Add vegetables.
•    Instead of steaming the filled banana leaves, roast them directly
     on charcoal. When cooked, the dough will spread to the sides of
     the banana leaf and will be easily removed.

  Local names
Abodo in Ghana (when roasted)
Edibienkyewom in Ghana (when steamed)
Loe in the United Republic of Tanzania
Mkate in Malawi




            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year



                                                                   39
Cookies




WFP / Bangladesh


Ingredients
3/4 part oil
3/4 part sugar
2 parts FBF
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon vanilla essence (optional)

                                                        WFP / Bangladesh


Method of preparation
1.    Mix oil and sugar in a large bowl.
2.    Add rest of ingredients and mix well into dough.
3.    Drop dough from teaspoon onto a greased baking pan.
4.    Bake using traditional methods at moderate heat for about 15
      minutes until the cookies are cooked on the inside and lightly
      brown on the outside.


  Local names
Gallestas de CSB in Guatemala (with water added)
Incaparina biscuits in Nicaragua (with water added)


            Suitable for all age groups over 6 months


40
Couscous

Ingredients
1 part FBF
Water
1 teaspoon salt


Method of preparation                                              WFP / P. Kashyap
1.   Mix FBF with salt.
2    Add small amounts of water, cutting it into FSB until
     the texture is fine and granular.
3.   Place mixture in a pan with a sieve at the bottom or
     fine holes at its base.
3.   Steam the mixture.                                            WFP / photolibrary

4.   Dry and serve hot.



Variations on preparation
•    Add finely chopped vegetables to the FBF/salt mixture before
     steaming it. This will increase the nutritional value of the prod-
     uct and also provide a variation in the taste.
•    Add sugar to the mixture before steaming it, in order to make a
     sweet couscous.
•    Add sugar and groundnut paste. Before serving, mix with milk, if
     available. (This variation is called Muraake in Senegal.)

  Local names
Couscous in Niger, North Africa, Senegal
Upma in India




            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year



                                                                    41
Papadum

Ingredients
2 parts FBF
1 teaspoon salt
Baking powder
Red chilli powder and
cumin seeds to taste
1 part warm water (pre-boiled)


Method of preparation
1.   Mix together FBF, salt,
     baking powder, chilli
     powder and cumin seeds.
     Add water to make stiff
     dough.
2.   Form into small balls and
     flatten with a rolling pin.
3.   Dry the papadums in the
     shade.
4.   Roast before serving.
                                                              WFP / F. Pagetti




The taste can be modified with the addition of garlic or black pepper.
Papadums can be made in large quantity and stored for later use.


  Local names
Papad or Papdi in India
Papadums in Latin America




            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year


42
Badiyan

Ingredients
2 parts FBF
1 teaspoon salt
Red chilli powder and cumin seeds, to taste
1 1/2 parts water


Method of preparation
1.   Mix together FBF, salt, chilli powder and cumin seed. Add
     water to make a thick batter.
2.   With fingers and thumb roll dough into small balls and place on
     a clean polythene sheet.
3.   Leave to dry in the shade.
4.   Store the balls for later use. Serve in gravy or soups, or boil in
     water and eat.

The taste can be modified with the addition of garlic or a variety of
spices, such black pepper. The dough can be made in large quantities
and stored a long time for later use.


 Local names
Badiyan or Mangodi in India


            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year




                                                WFP / J. Gamboa
                                                                    43
Vegetable Stew




                                                       WFP / C. Shirley




Ingredients
2 carrots, diced
2 potatoes, diced
2 glasses of water
4 tablespoons FBF
2 tablespoons oil
1 small onion, chopped
1 small tomato, chopped
Pinch of salt


Method of preparation
1.   Boil diced carrots and potatoes.
2.   Remove cooked vegetables from water, saving the water.
3.   Boil FBF in vegetable water for 10 minutes. Set aside.
4.   Fry onion and tomato in oil.
5.   Add cooked vegetables and boiled FBF to pan, add salt and
     cook for another 5 minutes.


 Local names
Guiso de vegetales in Guatemala
Namsae Pokum in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (with carrot and
 minari as the vegetables and a little sugar added)



            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year

44
Tomato Sauce

Ingredients
4 medium tomatoes, chopped
2 medium onions, chopped
1 pepper, chopped
2 tablespoons of oil
1 cup of water
2 cups FBF
Pinch of salt


Method of preparation
2.   Fry vegetables in oil.
3.   Dissolve FBF in water. Add FBF/water mixture to vegetables
     and simmer for 10 minutes.
4.   Blend mixture and serve as a sauce.


 Local names
Salsa de tomate con harina enriquecida in Guatemala




            Suitable for all age groups over 1 year




                                                      WFP / C. Sattleberger




                                                                              45
6.              Processing Instructions and
                Product Specifications

I         FBF Processing Instructions

Fortified blended food should be manufactured from fresh ingredi-
ents of good quality and free from foreign materials, substances
hazardous to health, excessive moisture, insect damage and fungal
contamination. The ingredients should comply with all relevant na-
tional food laws and standards, and must be stored under dry, well
ventilated and hygienic conditions. Only safe insecticides may be
used for the ingredients’ storage.

The production process should be in accordance with the “Code of
Hygienic Practice for Foods for Infants and Children” and “Code of
Sound Manufacturing Practices” of the Codex Alimentarius.

Fortified blended food is a mixture of the following ingredients:
  • cereals such as maize, sorghum, millet, wheat or a combination,
      providing carbohydrates and protein;
  • pulses (chickpeas) or soybeans, as an additional source of pro-
      tein;
  • oilseeds (groundnuts, hulled sunflower seeds, sesame) or
      soybean or stabilized vegetable oil, as an additional source of
      oil;
  • vitamin/mineral supplements
  • sugar, if required (up to 10 percent); replacing an equivalent
      amount of cereal.

Although other ingredients and combinations are possible, FBFs are
manufactured according to the following general recipe:

          whole maize1 :             80 percent by weight
          whole soybeans2:           20 percent by weight
          vitamin/mineral premix:    (as specified below)



1
    Maize need not be husked.
2
    Soybeans need not be hulled.



46
FBFs should be manufactured using one of the following methods:

     Extrusion. Cereals and pulses/oilseeds/soybeans are mixed in
     the correct amount, gritted and pre-cooked through extrusion
     (at a temperature not exceeding 160°C/320°F). The extruded
     product is immediately cooled to ambient temperature and milled
     into a fine flour. The flour is homogeneously mixed with the
     vitamin/mineral supplement and (if applicable) sugar and/or oil.

     Roasting/Milling. Cereals and pulses/oilseeds/soybeans are
     roasted separately at a temperature not exceeding 180°C/
     350°F (recommended: cereals 10 minutes at 140°C; pulses/
     oilseeds/soybeans 15 minutes at 170°C). The roasted products
     are immediately cooled to ambient temperature, mixed in the
     correct amount and milled into a fine flour. The flour is then
     homogeneously mixed with the vitamin/mineral supplement and
     (if applicable) sugar and/or oil.


Micronutrient fortification

   FBFs should be fortified to the extent that to each metric ton
   of finished product, 1 kg Unimix vitamin pre-mix and 3 kg Unimix
   mineral pre-mix are added.
   These pre-mixes must be obtained from qualified suppliers such
   as ROCHE, BASF, or their local authorized dealers. Proof of pur-
   chase of pre-mixes must be presented upon request.

       Micronutrient per 100 g finished product
       Vitamin A   1664         I.U.
       Thiamine        0.128 mg
       Riboflavin      0.448 mg
       Niacin          4.8      mg
       Folate         60        mcg
       Vitamin C      48        mg
       Vitamin B12     1.2      mcg
       Iron++          8        mg as Ferrous Fumarate
       Calcium++     100        mg as Calcium Carbonate
       Zinc++          5        mg as Zinc Sulphate




                                                                  47
II     FBF Product Specifications

1.   Except when specified otherwise in the contract, FBFs should
     comply with the “Guidelines on Formulated Supplementary Foods
     for Older Infants and Young Children” of the Codex Alimentarius
     (Ed. July 1991).

2.   FBFs are suitable as dietary supplements for older infants and
     young children, as well as for other vulnerable groups. They can
     be served as porridge or gruel or as extenders to other foods.

3.   FBFs should meet the following requirements:

Sensory qualities. They should have a pleasant smell and pleasing
taste that young children would enjoy.

Shelf-life. They should retain the above qualities for at least 6
months from their date of manufacture when stored dry at ambient
temperatures prevalent in the beneficiary country.

Flour characteristics. FBF flour should have a uniform, fine tex-
ture, with the following particle distribution: 95 percent must pass
through a 600-micrometer sieve; 100 percent must pass through a
1,000-micrometer sieve.

Dispersion. FBFs should not lump or ball when mixed with water of
ambient temperature.

Preparation and cooking time. They should be ready for consump-
tion by older infants as a thick gruel with the addition of 3 parts
water of ambient temperature to 1 part FBF (parts by weight), when
brought to a boil for five minutes.

Moisture and crude fibre. They should contain a moisture content
not exceeding 10 percent and a fibre content (based on dry product)
not exceeding 5 percent.

Nutritional value. They should contain not less than the following
nutritional value per 100 g dry product: 400 kcal; 15 percent protein
(Nx6.25); 6 percent fat; vitamin/mineral supplement according 1:6.




48
Energy density. When prepared as gruel, they should contain not less
than 100 kcal/100 ml.

Safety. They should:
• be free from objectionable matter;
• not contain any substances originating from micro-organisms, or
   any other poisonous or deleterious substances such as
   anti-nutritional factors, heavy metals or pesticide residues, in
   amounts that may represent a hazard to health;
• have a permitted level of aflatoxin of 20 ppb;
• have an urease index between 0.05 and 0.2 pH units;
• not exceed the following level of microbiological contamination
   (maximum/gram finished product):
           - Mesophilic aerobic bacteria:       100,000
           - Coliforms:                         100
           - Salmonellae (per 25-g sample):     0

4.   The variation of the final product with respect to moisture, fi-
     bre, protein, fat and micronutrient content should not exceed
     plus or minus 5 percent of the original value using standard ana-
     lytical techniques; products not meeting this requirement are
     liable for rejection.




                                          III Packaging

                                          The product should be packed
                                          in new, laminated woven
                                          polypropylene outerbags (mini-
                                          mum weight 80 g) with
                                          polyethylene innerbags (mini-
                                          mum thickness 75 micron or 300
                                          gauge) of 25-kg contents. The
                                          innerbags should be heat
                                          sealed, the outerbags double
                                          stitched.

                                          The markings required on the
                                          outerbags will be vary from
                                          country to country.
                     WFP / South Africa




                                                                     49
7.          Nutritional Composition of
            Corn-soya Blend (CSB)
Contains:      69.7%          processed, gelatinized, cornmeal
               22.0%          defatted, toasted, soy flour
                2.7%          mineral pre-mix
                0.1%          vitamin, antioxidant pre-mix
                5.5%          refined, deodorized, stabilized soy oil


Nutritive value per 100 g of CSB
Food energy (kcal)                380
Proteins (g)                       18
Carbohydrates (g)                  60
Fat (g)                             6

Vitamins:
Vitamin A (I.U.)                 1700
Vitamin D (I.U.)                  200
Vitamin E (I.U.)                     8
Thiamin (mg)                       0.7
Riboflavin (mg)                    0.5
Niacin (mg)                          8
Vitamin B6 (mg)                    0.7
Vitamin B12 (mcg)                    4
Pantothenic acid (mg)                3
Folacin (mg)                       0.2
Ascorbic acid (mg)                 40

Minerals:
Calcium (mg)                      800
Phosphorous (mg)                  600
Magnesium (mg)                    100
Iron (mg)                          18
Zinc (mg)                           3
Sodium (mg)                       300
Potassium (mg)                    700
Iodine (mcg)                       50




Protein Evaluation
PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio)                                  WFP / T. Geenen
CSB                  Milk (casein)
2.3                     2.5




50
Essential Amino Acid Evaluation*
                           CSB                FAO/WHO
                                              Suggested level**
Isoleucine                    42                   40
Leucine                       98                   70
Lysine                        45                   55
Methionine+ Cystine           26                   35
Phenylalanine+ Tyrosine       78                   60
Threonine                     37                   40
Tryptophan                     8                    10
Valine                        46                   50

* Expressed as milligrams of amino acid per gram of protein.

** From: ”Energy and Protein Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc
Expert Committee”, Rome 1973.


Reference: North American Millers Association, 600 Maryland Avenue. SW, Suite 305W,
Washington, D.C. 20024-2520.




                                                                     WFP / A. Chicheri




                                                                                   51
8.          Nutritional Composition of
            Wheat-soya Blend (WSB)
Contains:          73.1%    precooked wheat
                   20.0%    soy flour
                    2.9%    vitamin and mineral pre-mix
                    4.0%    stabilized salad oil

Nutritive value per 100 g of WSB
Food energy (kcal)                 360
Proteins (g)                        20
Carbohydrates (g)                   60
Fat (g)                              6

Vitamins:
Vitamin A (I.U.)                1 658
Vitamin D (I.U.)                  200
Vitamin E (I.U.)                   9.6
Thiamin (mg)                      1.49
Riboflavin (mg)                  0.59
Niacin (mg)                         9.1
Vitamin B 6 (mg)                 0.52
Vitamin B 12 (mcg)                   4
Pantothenic acid (mg)              3.7
Folacin (mg)                     0.33
Ascorbic acid (mg)                  40

Minerals:
Calcium (mg)                     749
Phosphorous (mg)                 562
Magnesium (mg)                   202
Iron (mg)                        20.8
Zinc (mg)                         4.6
Sodium (mg)                      296
Potassium (mg)                   624
Iodine (mcg)                      50


Essential Amino Acid Evaluation*
                          WSB             FAO/WHO
                                          Suggested level**
Isoleucine                 48                  40
Leucine                    81                  70
Lysine                     53                  55
Methionine + Cystine       44                  35
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine   91                  60
Threonine                  38                  40
Tryptophan                 17                  10
Valine                     55                  50



52
Protein Evaluation
PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio)
WSB                    Milk (casein)
2.4                    2.5


* Expressed as milligrams of amino acid per gram of protein.

** From: ”Energy and Protein Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc
Expert Committee”, Rome 1973.

Reference: North American Millers Association, 600 Maryland Avenue. SW, Suite 305W,
Washington, D.C. 20024-2520.




                                                                WFP / A. Chicheri




                                                                                    53
9.        WFP Support for Production of
          Blended Food Equipment
Low-cost fortified blended foods were originally developed in the
United States of America during the 1960s. Initially milk powder
was used as the complementary source of protein. For economic rea-
sons, soybeans are now used. Corn-soya blend and wheat-soya blend
are the best known examples of fortified blended foods. The bulk
of the fortified blended foods distributed by WFP are in-kind do-
nations consisting of these products (about 100,000 mt out of a
total of 160,000 mt).




                                                      WFP / photolibrary




Recently, in other industrialized countries (Belgium, Denmark, the
Netherlands) manufacturing capacity for low-cost fortified blended
foods has been developed, with WFP providing technical guidance.


54
Furthermore, in the last decade, WFP, together with UNHCR and
UNICEF, gave technical and/or financial assistance to potential FBF
suppliers in developing countries in order to establish a competitive,
quality and cost-effective FBF production capacity. The assistance
varied from technical advice on processing methods to pre-financ-
ing of appropriate production equipment.

Currently, WFP is purchasing low-cost FBFs, including Unilito in
Nepal, Unimix in Kenya, and Indiamix in India.

In cooperation with private equipment manufacturers, WFP has de-
veloped sets of blended food processing equipment suited for par-
ticular conditions in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Nica-
ragua and Senegal. The producers in Malawi, Nepal and Senegal were
assisted financially to purchase roasting equipment.

The Indiamix support model is a good example of the private sector
receiving technical/financial support to establish viable, competi-
tive FBF capacity.

For further information on equipment and technical advice, please
contact the Nutrition Unit.




                                                                   55
Notes:




56
Notes:




         57
Notes:




58

								
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