Projected Impacts of Climate Change Climate Change in the

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Projected Impacts of Climate Change Climate Change in the Powered By Docstoc
					Climate Change
in the Pacific
Stepping Up Responses in the Face
of Rising Impacts
   1            Foreword

   2            Issues, Impacts, and Responses

   4            Projected Impacts of Climate Change

  12            ADB in Action

  14            Climate Change Solutions at the Regional and Country Levels
                    Regional Responses
                    Country-Specific Responses
                    Way Forward

For more information about the Pacific Climate Change Program, contact:

 Akm Mahfuzuddin Ahmed                                             Robert Dobias
 Climate Change Focal Point                                        Senior Adviser, Climate Change Program Coordination Unit
 Pacific Department                                                Regional and Sustainable Development Department                                        

Photo credits: 8-9, 25, Miquel Armengol; 30, 33, Luis Enrique Ascui; 24, Warwick Biggs; Front cover, Jahzeel Cruz;
32, Peter Forster; 6, 28, 29, Robert Guild; ii, 2, 4, 5, 11, 12–13, 14–15, 16–17, 19, 21–22, 27, Prof. John E. Hay; 20, Cher Havrilov;
31, Stefan Lins; 23, Gabrielle Elga Reyes; 7, 10, 26, Eric Sales

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian
Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. Accounts presented here are anecdotal
and do not represent comprehensive impacts of projects or programs.
ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of
their use.
By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using the term “country” in this
publication, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
ADB encourages printing or copying information exclusively for personal and noncommercial use with proper acknowledgment of
ADB. Users are restricted from reselling, redistributing, or creating derivative works for commercial purposes without the express,
written consent of ADB.
Note: In this publication, “$” refers to US dollars.

        he Pacific developing member countries          climate proofing and other adaptation measures
        of the Asian Development Bank (ADB)             in priority sectors and projects.
        face dire and immediate consequences—
        from sea-level rise and more frequent           This booklet identifies significant challenges
and stronger storms to the changing distribution        for the Pacific, but it also highlights how
of disease vectors—as a result of climate               partnerships and innovative forms of financing
change. These consequences are markedly                 and investment can help countries reduce their
disproportionate to their contribution to global        vulnerability to climate change and pursue a
greenhouse gas emissions and threaten to                more food and energy secure future. It describes
compromise their prosperity, stability, and security.   how ADB is supporting the efforts of member
                                                        countries to incorporate resilience building
In response, ADB’s Pacific Department has               measures in their development plans, and
been conducting regional adaptation projects            become better prepared to cope with extremes
since 2003. In 2009, ADB, in consultation with          and variability. It also highlights the potential of
the national governments and other regional             regional initiatives such as the Pilot Programme
stakeholders in the Pacific, prepared a Pacific         for Climate Resilience of the Climate Investment
Climate Change Implementation Plan, a                   Funds and the Pacific Islands Forum to coordinate
comprehensive adaptation and mitigation agenda          and finance climate responses.
in key sectors calling for the dramatic scaling up
of climate change adaptation efforts, coordinated       This booklet was produced by the Pacific
and harmonized responses by development                 Department with support from the Regional and
partners, and institutional capacity development.       Sustainable Development Department and the
                                                        Department of External Relations. I express my
ADB’s Pacific region has conducted a full               appreciation to our developing member country
assessment of its ongoing portfolio, and is the         partners in the Pacific, who are working closely
first of ADB’s five regions to develop a plan           with ADB to respond to climate change and
to “climate-proof” all vulnerable investment            development challenges.

projects. Needs for 2010–2012 are estimated at
$232 million, to provide both technical assistance      We will continue to strengthen these
for policy development, planning and capacity           partnerships and pursue policy and financial
building, and investment design; as well as             commitments needed to meet urgent
project grants and concessional lending for             development needs in the Pacific.                       1

Robert Wihtol
Director General
Pacific Department
                 Impacts, and
Climate Change
in the Pacific

                          he Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest       damage to infrastructure, water resources, and
                          geographical feature, covering a third of     human health, will result in significant economic
                          the earth’s surface. Spread across its vast   losses, and might cause large-scale migration,
         2                expanse is a diverse array of countries       both internally and across national boundaries.
                 with widely varying topographies, cultures, and
                 economies, but who all share the same critical         In consultation with the 14 Pacific developing
                 challenges and vulnerabilities. They face dire         member countries, ADB has developed the Pacific
                 and immediate consequences from the impacts            Climate Change Implementation Plan and a
                 of climate change—from sea-level rise and              supporting action program, the Pacific Climate
                 stronger storms to the changing distribution           Change Program (PCCP). Both programs are
                 of disease vectors—that are markedly                   geared toward improving development partner
                 disproportionate to their miniscule contributions      response and making funding readily accessible
                 to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.              for Pacific developing member countries to take
                 Their geographic isolation, small and scattered        measures to respond to climate change. ADB is
                 populations, fragile environments, and limited         one of the few donors in the region providing a
                 resources severely restrict their capacity to adapt    combination of technical assistance, grants, and
                 to climate change’s impacts. Climate change can        loans, and that acts as an implementing agency of
                 prevent Pacific developing member countries            the Global Environment Facility (GEF), which funds
                 from attaining their Millennium Development            activities that promote global environmental
                 Goals and poses a threat to peace, prosperity, and     benefits while strengthening local environmental
                 security. The adverse effects on food production       management. ADB also provides access to the
                 and land and marine resource use, as well as           Climate Investment Funds (CIF). A Pacific regional
program supported by ADB, is one of the first to      •	 expanding the use of clean and
be developed under the Pilot Program for Climate         renewable energy;
Resilience of the Strategic Climate Fund, which       •	 encouraging sustainable transport and
is one of two funds within the design of the CIF.        urban development;
ADB’s unique position allows it to analyze major      •	 promoting climate-resilient development,
problems at all levels, identify solutions based on      especially in the agriculture and water-
particular conditions of vital sectors, and package      dependent sectors;
the necessary technical and financial assistance.     •	 strengthening policies, governance, and
                                                         capacities; and
Consistent with ADB’s Strategy 2020 to                •	 managing land use and forests for
incorporate environmental sustainability in the          carbon sequestration.
fight against poverty, climate change efforts are
guided by five strategic priorities:

                                                                                                                                 Issues, Impacts, and Responses

                                                                                      •	 Aerial view of part of South Tarawa ,
                                                                                        the capital island of Kiribati
                 Projected Impacts of
Climate Change
in the Pacific


                    The countries of the Pacific are already
                    experiencing serious disruptive
                    changes consistent with the anticipated
                    consequences of global climate change.

                                                         •	 A home in Aitutaki, Cook Islands,
                                                           damaged during Cyclone Pat,
                                                           February 2010
Sea-Level Rise
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change            coastal communities wherein water quality and
(IPCC) has recently highlighted that the survival of     availability directly affects the people’s livelihoods.
Pacific countries is at extreme risk from sea-level
rise. More than 50% of the region’s population           However, in many other respects, both low and
live within 1.5 km of the shoreline and many             high islands are equally vulnerable to sea-level
islands are less than a few meters above sea level.      rise, due to the concentration of human activity
Thus, an increase of as little as half a meter, along    in coastal areas and the difficulty in relocating to
with increased storm surges, would completely            the interior of high islands. Population relocations
inundate many critical areas and threaten their          sparked by high sea levels are already a reality,
populations. In general, the impacts of sea-level        and with land in limited and dwindling supply,
rise differ between low (e.g., atoll) and high (e.g.,    the issue could quickly reach critical proportions
volcanic) islands. This is especially the case for       in many countries. The possibility of rising sea
saltwater contamination of both groundwater and          levels has already caused many people to consider
soils, generally making low islands much more            migrating, either to properties on higher ground,
vulnerable. Sea-level rise increases the possibilities   or to other islands or countries. This in turn may
of seawater intrusion into underground water             compound existing political and social stresses
aquifers, as already experienced by many                 already prevalent in the Pacific region.

                                                                                                                   of Climate Change
                                                                                                                   Projected Impacts

•	 Part of the coastline of
  Savai’i, Samoa
                                  Extreme Weather Events
                                  There have been several well-documented                                 become even wetter, while unusually dry areas
                                  events that show the increase of extreme                                could become even drier. Heavier damages are
                                  weather events such as tropical storms/                                 expected from increased risks of coastal erosion
                                  cyclones, droughts, floods, and heat waves. In                          and flooding due to wave and storm surges.
                                  2004, Cyclone Heta caused storm waves to rise                           Flooding is likely to cause a loss of coastal and
                                  over the 30 meter cliffs in Niue, leaving one                           industrial infrastructure, (e.g., roads, settlements,
                                  person dead and many others homeless, and                               and marine installations) particularly in low-
                                  causing $150 million in damage. In early 2005,                          lying areas. Long dry periods will reduce water
                                  the Cook Islands experienced five cyclones                              supplies to critical levels and increase forest
                                  within a five-week period, four of which were                           fires. Drought caused by the El Niño effect in
                                  classified as Category 5. In the decades prior,                         the Pacific is a serious and increasingly regular
                                  the Cook Islands could expect a storm of this                           occurrence. Each El Niño event results in water
                                  magnitude approximately every 20 years. Many                            shortages and drought in Samoa, Fiji Islands,
                                  of these extreme weather events can be linked                           Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands,
                                  to the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation                             Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New
                                  (ENSO) pattern. Since the mid-1970s, there has                          Guinea, Samoa, and Tonga.1 Drought conditions
                                  been a tendency for more frequent El Niño                               can also significantly reduce the soil’s ability to
                                  episodes, without significant intervening La                            cope with sudden intense rainfall, exacerbating
                                  Niña events. Recent modelling studies indicate                          flooding and erosion. The increased severity
                                  more El Niño-like conditions as a result of global                      of extreme weather events alone may cause
                                  warming—with central and eastern equatorial                             many of the islands of the Pacific to become
                                  Pacific sea surface temperatures projected                              uninhabitable. Therefore, a strategy should be
                                  to warm more than the western equatorial                                formulated to anticipate and prevent major
                                  Pacific. Corresponding rainfall patterns, as well                       catastrophes related to extreme events, as well as
                                  as the area of tropic cyclone formation, have                           reduce the vulnerability to variability and longer-
                                  been shifting eastward. Wet areas are likely to                         term changes.
Climate Change

                                  1   Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Land Resources Division. 2010. Vulnerability of Pacific Island Countries.
in the Pacific



            •	 Doma Bridge, Solomon Islands
                                       •	 A Papuan woman fetching water
                                         from a stream

                                                                          of Climate Change
                                                                          Projected Impacts
Water Resources and                                                        7
Water Supply
Maintaining water resources and water supply
is very critical for Pacific countries, particularly
for countries with atolls where the human
population and natural ecosystems depend
on ground water lenses. The effects of climate
change have upset the ecological balance in
the region. Rates of change are likely to increase
in the future. In general, the future climate is
expected to become more El Niño-like, resulting
in more droughts in the southern Pacific
and more rain and consequent floods in the
equatorial Pacific. The consequences of drought
are aggravated by sea-level rise, notably for the
effects on groundwater supplies. Increased rates
of coastal erosion will reduce the size of the
freshwater lenses under atolls.
                 Coral Reefs and Fisheries
                 Coral reef ecosystems are vital to all Pacific         pollution as a result of poor management
                 countries. Reefs provide at least one quarter of       practices in catchments and coastal areas.
                 the fish catch in most developing countries, and       Further degradation of these resources will
                 feed over 1 billion people. In the Pacific, their      result in economic disruption and social flow-on
                 possible destruction or degradation poses a            effects for the coral triangle countries. Pacific
                 threat to every country. Coral reefs are also one      countries including the Fiji Islands, Vanuatu,
                 of the biggest tourism attractions in the region.      Palau, Samoa, and Cook Islands have shown
                 Increasing sea surface temperatures and rising         they can deliver tourist-led growth, all having
                 sea level, damage from tropical cyclones, and          sustained growth of 5% or more over the last five
                 decreases in growth rates due to the effects of        years in tourism arrivals. Tourism is almost half
                 higher carbon dioxide concentrations are very          of gross domestic product (GDP) in Cook Islands
                 likely to affect the health of coral reefs and other   and Palau, closer to 20% in Vanuatu and 10%-
                 marine ecosystems that sustain island fisheries.       15% in Samoa and Fiji Islands.2 Target revenue
                 The impacts will be exacerbated by increased           for the region from tourism is $2 billion every
                 turbidity, nutrient loading, and chemical              year by 2010—and if this is achieved, tourism

                 2   AusAID. 2008. Pacific Economic Survey.
Climate Change
in the Pacific

would be the single largest contributor to                               chemical run-off and increased turbidity will also
economic growth, in the region.3                                         have a detrimental effect on in-shore fisheries.
                                                                         There are likely to be increased costs for fishing
In 2007, the total value of fisheries and                                at sea, due to safety considerations and loss of
aquaculture production in the region was                                 days at sea from the increased incidence of bad
estimated to be over $2 billion.4 Many climate                           weather. Aquaculture is a developing industry
change issues will affect the productivity and                           in the Pacific region and has an important role
economic viability of fisheries, both in-shore and                       in diversifying trade, increasing capacity for
deep water. Alterations in ocean temperatures                            fisheries production, and contributing to rural
and currents due to increased ENSO-like                                  development. In 2007, the region’s production
conditions will affect migration and result in                           was worth $211 million.5 The industry is also
changes to the distribution and abundance of                             likely to face difficulties due to the effects of
tuna, a significant fish stock in the Pacific region.                    changing patterns of rainfall—e.g., increased
A decline in the health of reef ecosystems,                              sediment and rainwater flooding of some ponds,
damage to coastal infrastructure, erosion,                               and drought drying up others.

3   Oceania Sustainable Tourism Alliance. 2008. South Pacific Island Tourism: A carbon clean future.
4   ADB. 2009. Gillet, R. Fisheries in the Economies of the Pacific Island Countries and Territories. Manila.
5   Ponia, B. 2010. A review of aquaculture in the Pacific Islands 1998–2007. Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

                                                                                                                                                           of Climate Change
                                                                                                                                                           Projected Impacts

                                                                                                                      •	 Shark feeding in Yap, Federated
                                                                                                                        States of Micronesia
                 •	 A Papuan family preparing food

                                      Human Settlements and Health
                                      The majority of human settlements and critical                          such as malaria and dengue, will rise due to
                                      infrastructure in Pacific countries are located in                      increased flooding, and the areas susceptible to
                                      coastal areas. This includes hospitals, schools,                        communicable diseases will expand. There will
                                      churches, power plants and distribution systems,                        be changes in the distribution and frequency of
                                      fuel depots, telecommunication systems, disaster                        malaria, wherein areas with higher temperature
                                      coordination centers, hotels and other tourism                          will expand to higher altitudes, where people
                                      facilities, airports, wharves, and commercial                           who have not been exposed will be more
Climate Change

                                      structures. It is estimated that coastal flooding                       susceptible to the disease. Therefore, the health
in the Pacific

                                      will potentially affect between 60,000 and                              sector strategy should be adjusted to reflect
                                      90,000 Pacific Island people, or 0.3% to 0.5% of the                    changes in climatic conditions, vector behaviors,
                                      projected population, by 2050.6 Therefore, any                          and disease patterns. Extreme weather events
                                      factors that impact coastal areas, such as extreme                      also lead to loss of life, injuries, and other health
                                      weather events, coastal erosion, and sea-level rise,                    impacts. Storms can damage and destroy health
      10                              would exact a very high human and economic toll.                        centers and related infrastructure, disrupting
                                      Given the costs for construction and maintenance,                       essential health services. With lower agricultural
                                      damage to infrastructure will heavily burden                            productivity due to climate change, food
                                      vulnerable economies.                                                   shortages may arise causing malnutrition rates
                                                                                                              to increase.7 Urban areas can expect more heat
                                      Temperature variations and extreme events                               waves. All of these trends will require adaptation
                                      strongly influence the epidemic potential of                            measures.8 Decreased agricultural production
                                      water and vector-borne diseases such as cholera,                        will have follow-on effects on diet, with more
                                      typhoid, malaria, and dengue. Rising temperatures                       reliance on imported, often less healthy, foods.
                                      and increased humidity create perfect conditions                        Income for families relying on agriculture for
                                      for pathogens to grow and spread, resulting in                          their livelihoods will suffer. Changes in rainfall
                                      increased incidence and prevalence of infectious                        patterns and saline intrusion also have a large
                                      diseases. The risks from water-borne diseases such                      impact on the supply of potable water for
                                      as cholera and typhoid, and vector-borne diseases                       drinking and cooking.

                                      6   IPCC. 2007. Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaption, and Vulnerability.
                                      7   FAO. 2008. Climate change and food security in Pacific Island Countries.
                                      8   Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme Fact Sheet.
  Agriculture and Food Supply
  Extreme weather events, irregular rainfall, and         containers, and some of the smaller islands have
  saltwater intrusion will all have significant           lost coconut palms to saline intrusion. Humid
  impacts on agriculture and the production               conditions will also favor increased incubation
  of food. Loss of land and saline intrusion due          of pests and diseases, and more rapid post-
  to inundation will reduce available land for            harvest deterioration of crops. Variability of
  agricultural production and impede crop                 rainfall will affect water supply, and increased
  growth. A multitude of cultivated plants such           demands for drought-resistant crops in drier
  as yams, taro and sweet potatoes, and other             areas, as well as the need for water tolerant
  crops such as bananas and watermelon are still          crops in wetter areas. Shifts in crop patterns
  part of people’s main staple diet. Reduction            will severely affect marginal farmers, and crop
  in agricultural productivity starts first with          failures and epidemics will expose people to
  less resilient crops and then ultimately affects        life-threatening conditions. Strategies will need
  coconuts. Some farmers have already been                to be developed to adapt to new environmental
  forced to grow their crops (e.g., taro) in raised tin   conditions and other factors.

                                                                                                              of Climate Change
                                                                                                              Projected Impacts

•	 A domestic garden in South
  Tarawa, Kiribati
                        in Action
                 ADB responds to climate change with 5 strategic priorities
                 Expanding the Use of Clean                                the hydropower resource of three provincial
                 and Renewable Energy                                      towns. A regional project to support the
                                                                           blending of indigenous biofuels with diesel
                 GHGs from energy use and generation represent             fuel is planned for the Republic of the Marshall
                 more than half of all Asia’s GHG emissions. The           Islands and Solomon Islands. In addition, ADB
                 foundation of ADB’s mitigation strategy is curbing        will implement a $10 million–$12 million
                 growth in energy demand by increasing energy              project co-financed by GEF to upscale demand-
                 efficiency and meeting energy needs through               side energy efficiency initiatives in the Cook
                 low-carbon options. Areas targeted for energy             Islands, Samoa, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Under the
                 efficiency are the commercial, industrial, and            Regional Technical Assistance for Strengthening
                 residential sectors, as well as at the municipal level.   the Capacity of Pacific Developing Member
Climate Change

                                                                           Countries to Respond to Climate Change,
in the Pacific

                 Significant clean energy initiatives are                  ADB will likewise support the up-scaling of
                 programmed for Pacific developing member                  renewable energy technology by assisting in
                 countries. ADB is financing hydropower                    the preparations for a range of clean energy
                 generation in Samoa, and Papua New Guinea                 projects and improving access to carbon finance
                 (PNG) is receiving a $40 million loan to develop          through the Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM), a market-based arrangement under the           investments to address congestion, safety, and
Kyoto Protocol that allows industrialized countries   local air quality issues. Opportunities in mobility
with GHG reduction commitments to purchase            planning and public transport investments,
carbon credits from developing countries.             where GHG emissions reductions can be built-in
                                                      to new investments, will be explored. Aviation
                                                      and ocean shipping will remain a prominent
Encouraging Sustainable Urban                         feature of transport sector development within
Development and Transport                             the region, while rail transport opportunities are
                                                      limited to the region’s larger countries such as Fiji
ADB’s support for sustainable urban infrastructure    Islands and PNG. Investment opportunities exist
promotes competitive and liveable cities with         in alternative and cleaner fuels, with possible use
reduced carbon footprints. Priorities are green       of compressed natural gas as a transport fuel in
space, energy-efficient buildings and water supply,   PNG and Timor-Leste and biofuel development
and reductions in GHG emissions from waste and        in Fiji Islands. ADB is encouraging urban
urban transport.                                      development in Fiji Islands and Tonga by assisting
                                                      in improving infrastructure services, maintenance,
ADB will support investments to reduce GHG            and management, while considering climate
emissions from transport, residential and             change adaptations. An ADB project in Samoa
commercial buildings, industry, and waste             is developing wastewater and drainage
management, with near-term emphasis on energy         infrastructure and management, to help cope
conservation and efficiency, and energy recovery      with climate change impacts such as floods.
from solid waste and wastewater treatment
facilities where clear co-benefits can be realized.
Significant benefits can be realized through          Promoting Climate-Resilient
expanded use of biomass digester-gasifier             Development
systems which can be deployed at household and
village scales. Energy conservation and efficiency    ADB provides policy and technical guidance to
measures in the urban sector can be implemented       address climate change and variability issues
through new financing mechanisms (e.g., clean         in agriculture, infrastructure, transport, health,
energy funds and energy service companies), and       water, and other sectors. The water sector
can be implemented via either energy sector or        initiatives are designed and planned to cope
urban infrastructure investments.                     with the impacts of climate change by reducing

                                                                                                                                   AdB in Action
                                                      water losses and applying integrated water
Transport projects comprise about a third of          resources management to improve the resilience
the regional program. Under its Sustainable           of communities and economies to climate
Transport Initiative, ADB is geared to realign its    change. In the region, considering its looming

                                                                                                •	 Temporary shelter on an islet
                                                                                                  of Abaiang Atoll, Kiribati
                 impacts, climate change adaptation measures         stakeholders better understand climate science
                 have been comprehensively incorporated into         and good practices required to properly respond
                 projects and development plans. Transport           to country-specific needs.
                 projects in the Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste
                 are already incorporating adaptation measures       ADB will assist Pacific developing member
                 for future climate change into their planning and   countries to access carbon markets (e.g., CDM,
                 engineering designs, such as flooding and           ADB’s Asia Pacific Carbon Fund, ADB Future
                 erosion prevention.                                 Carbon Fund, and voluntary markets) and new
                                                                     climate investment funds to obtain the additional
                                                                     resources needed for implementing clean energy
                 Strengthening Policies,                             and other GHG mitigation projects. ADB will help
                 Governance, and Capacities                          create an investment environment conducive
                                                                     to private and commercial investment that can
                 Ensuring successful climate change programs         reduce GHG emissions in the region.
                 and projects also depends on acceptance and
                 administration at the national and sub-national
                 levels. ADB works to strengthen good governance     Managing Land Use and Forests
                 and policies in support of climate change           for Carbon Sequestration
                 mitigation and adaptation.
                                                                     Increases in extreme events are virtually certain
                 Capacity building is bolstered at many levels,      to affect the adaptation responses of forests
                 from assisting government ministries in crafting    on tropical islands, where regeneration is often
                 climate supportive policies to helping country      slow, in the short term. In view of their small area,
Climate Change
in the Pacific

forests on many islands can easily be decimated    provided a carbon sink, such that the region
by violent cyclones or storms. Improving forest    demonstrated negative net GHG emissions.
and agricultural land management are among         Reforestation of areas cleared by logging
the most cost-effective ways to reduce GHG         in PNG and the Solomon Islands represents
emissions. ADB is helping countries prepare for    potential opportunities for creation of carbon
and gain access to climate financing in exchange   sinks as well as reducing the adverse impacts
for improved management practices.                 of climate change. The Pacific Islands Forum
                                                   Secretariat estimates that about 1.9 million
Changing agriculture and forestry practices        tons/year CO2 equivalent in emissions
can help countries mitigate and adapt to           reductions can be achieved from small-scale
climate change. By providing integrated            forestry projects in Fiji Islands, PNG, and
technical assistance and lending, ADB helps        Tonga. ADB will consider engagement in the
countries maximize opportunities to secure         forestry sector on a limited basis and will
people’s livelihoods from climate impacts,         explore possibilities to obtain concessional
plus supplement incomes with new sources of        financing for Reducing Emissions from
revenue from carbon sequestration.                 Deforestation and Forest Degradation in
                                                   its developing member countries (REDD+).
Land use adjustments are an area where             Long-term reforestation activities, including
synergies between climate change mitigation        biomass energy plantations, can optimally
efforts and adaptation measures may often be       achieve reforestation, develop alternative
realized. A GHG emissions assessment prepared      energy and fuels, reduce GHG emissions, and
by the Pacific Islands Climate Change Assistance   realize sustainable land management despite
Programme demonstrated that forest growth          changes in climate.

                                                                                                                          AdB in Action

                                                                                    •	 Coastal scene on Upolu, the main
                                                                                       island of Samoa
                 at the Regional
                 and Country Levels
Climate Change
in the Pacific

                 Regional Responses

      16         In 2007, the Pacific island governments adopted       forest degradation and deforestation. Regional
                 an action plan to carry out the Pacific Islands       organizations such as the Secretariat of the
                 Framework for Action on Climate Change, in            Pacific Community (SPC), an intergovernmental
                 which national activities are complemented by         organization that provides technical and policy
                 regional programming. Development partners            advice and assistance to its Pacific island members,
                 have been providing advice and support for            the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment
                 adaptation and mitigation efforts for several         Programme, established by the governments and
                 years. In some Pacific countries, ADB has carried     administrations of the Pacific region to look after
                 out vulnerability assessments as components of        its environment, are also active in pushing for
                 technical assistance or grant projects, leading to    more efforts and coordination towards climate
                 such adaptation measures as climate-proofing          change action.
                 vital coastal areas and infrastructure and disaster
                 risk management. Other adaptation projects            Based on Strategy 2020, ADB’s Pacific Approach
                 include investigating improved agricultural           2010–2014 brings together the lessons from these
                 methods, crops, fisheries, and forest management.     experiences and views natural hazards, climate
                 Mitigation efforts are being directed at reducing     change, and deterioration of the environment as
                 fossil fuel use, improving energy efficiency,         key development challenges for Pacific countries.
                 developing renewable energy such as wind and          It lists inclusive and environmentally sustainable
                 solar power, and reducing GHG emissions from          growth as one of three pillars of its development
                                                                                             •	 Coastal scene on Upolu, the main
                                                                                                island of Samoa

                                                                                                                                   at the Regional and Country Levels
                                                                                                                                   Climate Change Solutions
agenda, with climate change adaptation and              and implementation of the climate-responsive
mitigation as drivers of economic development.          national development plans of Pacific DMCs.
ADB has continued supporting Pacific developing         The program will focus on “no-regrets” activities
member countries (DMCs )through a number of             for adaptation—activities that make sound
climate change initiatives, such as the preparation     environmental management sense and foster
of guidelines for climate proofing of infrastructure    wise resource use, thus reducing the risk of
projects and assessing the feasibility of catastrophe   natural disasters, and benefitting the countries
risk financing (jointly with the World Bank). ADB       with cost-effective measures even without taking                             17
is likewise working with regional agencies and          climate change into consideration. Supporting
selected governments on the economics of climate        activities will include policy and legal reforms so
change to provide a comprehensive analysis of           that climate adaptation is carried out effectively;
climate change impacts, and the economic costs          building capacity of concerned institutions,
and benefits of climate change adaptation and           including the private sector and civil society, to
mitigation initiatives.                                 improve their knowledge and skills in climate-
                                                        related matters; information, education, and
The Pacific Climate Change Program (PCCP)               communication campaigns directed at policy and
was developed under ADB’s Regional Capacity             decision makers, as well as the general public, to
Development Technical Assistance: Strengthening         ensure their involvement and to maximize the
the Capacity of Pacific Developing Member               benefits of climate change–related activities;
Countries to Respond to Climate Change.                 and publishing and disseminating knowledge
The main objective of PCCP is to ensure the             products, such as tools and methods for climate
continued economic growth of Pacific DMCs in            risk assessment.
the face of global climate change, by reducing
their vulnerability to its risks and impacts. It        Through the Pilot Program for Strengthening
will address climate change–related technical           Climate Resilience of Pacific DMCs, financed by
and financing needs and support the planning            the Climate Investment Funds, three country
                                                                                                       •	 Rock Islands, Palau

                 pilot projects (PNG, Samoa, and Tonga) and one       For the Pacific Islands Disaster Risk Reduction
                 regional pilot project will support mainstreaming    and Disaster Management Framework for Action,
                 of climate change adaptation in national             ADB is working with the World Bank to assess the
                 development plans.                                   feasibility of establishing a Pacific Catastrophe
                                                                      Risk Insurance Facility. The draft report of the
                 Through the Coral Triangle Initiative, ADB will      World Bank–ADB joint effort on feasibility of
                 support five Pacific DMCs (the Fiji Islands, PNG,    establishing the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Insurance
                 Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu)           Facility (Pacific Disaster Reserve Fund) is being
                 in strengthening their marine and coastal            prepared to be presented to and discussed
Climate Change

                 resources management activities, with one            with the countries in the region and concerned
in the Pacific

                 component emphasizing adaptation to climate          development partners. ADB is mainly responsible
                 change. The Coastal and Marine Resources             for setting up a database on the countries’
                 Management in the Coral Triangle of the              exposure to natural hazards, which will feed the
                 Pacific study will identify regional and national    modelling work on catastrophe risk insurance
                 climate change impacts on coastal and marine         prepared by the World Bank. ADB’s participation in
      18         resources, define options, and guide decisions       this project is through the Regional Partnerships
                 for sustainable coastal and marine resources         for Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster
                 management; review and assess national               Preparedness Technical Assistance which covers
                 policies, strategies, regulation, and laws to        eight countries (the Cook Islands, Fiji Islands,
                 major environmental issues and trends in the         PNG, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu,
                 subregion; engage and strengthen capacity            and Vanuatu). The study helps Pacific countries
                 awareness of multi-sector stakeholders for           to mitigate financial risks from the effects of
                 sustainable environmental management and             natural disasters, including those exacerbated
                 climate change; and identify the interaction         by climate change by improving the geophysical
                 of factors shaping common threats and                information system (GIS) that provides information
                 opportunities of the participating countries for     to decision makers on hazard exposure and risk
                 environmental protection and climate change          minimization. Specifically, the study supports the
                 adaptation. The resulting coordinated response       development of up to eight national databases,
                 will enhance the sustainability of Pacific coastal   and a consolidated regional database, that
                 and marine systems through strengthening the         include risk, hazard, and vulnerability data critical
                 management of coastal and marine resources           to the future development of a Pacific regional
                 at the local and national levels, thus preventing    catastrophe insurance scheme and vital to
                 environmental degradation and preparing for          informing governments regarding adaptation to
                 the challenges posed by climate change impacts.      natural catastrophes.
                                                                                                                   •	 Part of Muri Lagoon, Rarotonga,
                                                                                                                     Cook Islands

Country-Specific Responses

Cook Islands
In 2005, the Cook Islands saw five tropical                          in support of the government’s pro-poor
cyclones over a period of five weeks, four of which                  objectives. A plan for strengthening the country’s
were Category 5. The islands were devastated,                        infrastructure governance framework and

                                                                                                                                                        at the Regional and Country Levels
with widespread damage to infrastructure and                         capacity development of implementing agencies
property costing more than $5 million.9                              was prepared, as well as a detailed project
                                                                     proposal for priority funding by development

                                                                                                                                                        Climate Change Solutions
Opportunities for adaptation include the                             partners and the government. The study uses
establishment of a climate risk-informed decision                    a risk-based approach to incorporate climate
support system in the GIS context. Educational                       proofing in project design. It recommends
curricula at all levels should also be strengthened                  cost-effective interventions and consulted
to include disaster risk reduction and climate                       stakeholders extensively throughout project
change adaptation. Climate change concerns                           design and development.
should be incorporated into policies and
legislations in disaster risk management, such as                    ADB’s Protecting Island Biodiversity and Traditional
building standards, land use and management,                         Culture in Pacific Island Communities Through
water resources, transport, energy, agriculture,                     Community-based Climate Risk Assessment and
marine resources and fisheries, public health, and                   Management project incorporates community-                                           19
infrastructure development. Guidelines should                        based impact and adaptation strategies within
be developed to integrate climate change into                        four vulnerable communities on Aitutaki and
sectoral and sustainable development plans                           Rarotonga in the Cook Islands. The project aims to
such as the Tourism Master Plan and Tourism                          develop replicable community-based adaptation
Environmental Policy.                                                risk management tools to minimize risks to critical
                                                                     infrastructure and service sectors, and help
The vulnerability of the Cook Islands to extreme                     climate-proof vulnerable community investments.
climate events has a significant impact upon
the country’s physical infrastructure. Technical                     Extreme weather events, such as the cyclones of
assistance support provided under ADB’s                              2005, have damaged and continue to threaten
Infrastructure Development Project examines                          critical infrastructure such as seaports. The Avatiu
the potential to promote environmentally sound                       Port Development Project will rehabilitate and
development of infrastructure for power, water                       expand the capacity of Avatiu port while taking
supply, sanitation, solid waste, and transport                       climate change impacts into account.

9   SPC Land Resources Division. 2010. Vulnerability of Pacific Island Countries.
                 Fiji Islands
                 In 2009, the western side of the Fiji Islands, which                  a key challenge facing the power sector in the
                 normally gets less than 25 cm of rain a month,                        Fiji Islands. Given the sharp fluctuations in fuel
                 was overwhelmed by more than 45 cm of rain in                         prices on the world markets, the Fiji Islands needs
                 a day. Most of the low lying areas in the country                     to diversify its generation sources and promote
                 were underwater for days, with flood levels of up                     clean and renewable energy. To withstand the
                 to 3–5 meters in some places. Agriculture and                         projected increase in extreme climate events,
                 infrastructure were the hardest hit with losses of                    proposed projects need to be made more resilient
                 more than F$100 million.                                              to present and future risks related to climate
                                                                                       change and variability.
                 In 2003, Cyclone Ami caused severe flooding
                 leading to losses in key development sectors                          ADB’s Emergency Flood Recovery Project aims to
                 such as housing, education, health, agriculture,                      reduce economic losses and social disruption from
                 tourism, sugar, business, infrastructure,                             extreme weather in the future. The target outcome
                 telecommunications, and power supply with an                          will be the restoration of economic and social
                 estimated cost of damage at F$104.4 million. Over                     activities in affected areas to pre-disaster levels.
                 70% of this damage was to the public sector. The                      Project outputs include rehabilitation and climate
                 cyclone also caused 14 deaths.11                                      proofing of road infrastructure, agricultural drainage
                                                                                       schemes, and water supply intake structures.
                 Sustainable agriculture production systems
                 should be developed, such as the Agricultural                         The Road Master Plan and Investment Program
                 Diversification Scheme, which includes research                       aims to rehabilitate and upgrade roads, replace
                 on more flexible farming systems based on climate                     bridges, advocate road safety civil works and
                 risks analysis and on plant varieties that are tolerant               a road safety action plan, establish a Fiji Roads
                 to droughts, floods, and high salinity. Coastal                       Authority, increase private sector participation in
                 protection options, both community-based and                          road maintenance, train staff, and pursue capacity
                 engineering schemes, should include mangrove                          development in road maintenance functions.
                 and reef protection and rehabilitation, education,
                 public awareness, and legislative measures.                           The Suva–Nausori Water Supply and Sewerage
                 The country’s disease control program can see                         Project is contributing to better living standards
Climate Change

                 improvements in quarantine measures, public                           in the Suva–Nausori Region, particularly for the
in the Pacific

                 awareness, and preventative exposure measures.                        urban poor. Outcomes from the project include
                 An integrated water resources management to                           increased delivery of safe water supply and
                 include aspects of climate change (e.g., droughts                     sewerage services in the Suva–Nausori area
                 and floods) needs to be established.                                  through physical and institutional improvements,
                                                                                       and enhanced sustainability of water supply and
      20         Ensuring that generation, transmission, and                           sewerage services throughout the Fiji Islands
                 distribution capacity can meet electricity demand is                  through institutional reforms.

                 11   SPC Land Resources Division. 2010. Vulnerability of Pacific Island Countries.

                                                                                                                 •	 Island off the west coast of Viti
                                                                                                                    Levu, Fiji Islands
•	 Beach in Kiribati

                                                                                                       at the Regional and Country Levels
                                                                                                       Climate Change Solutions
 Kiribati                                                                                                21

 ADB is supporting a Climate Change Adaptation       international development and the World Bank
 Project for the country that proposes integrating   Group. The partnership strategy also addresses
 climate change adaptation into national             the climate change challenges the atoll nation
 planning and institutional capacity, such as        faces. ADB will seek to provide grant financing
 the management of coastal structures, land          to support climate change adaptation and
 use and agricultural practices. ADB and the         as a matter of course will climate proof all
 Government of Kiribati have agreed to a five-       infrastructure provided.
 year strategic partnership aimed at improving
 water and sanitation needs and public               Capacity building (such as survivability, self-
 financial management, boosting private sector       reliance, and skills development) should
 development, and providing funding to alleviate     be ramped-up in consideration of possible
 the impacts of climate change. The Country          migration. Marine and freshwater resources
 Partnership Strategy, 2010–2014 is aligned with     and supply systems should be managed based
 the Kiribati Development Plan, 2008–2011,           on climate risk assessments. Information on
 and was developed in close coordination with        climate change vulnerability and responses must
 Kiribati’s development partners, in particular      be generated for inclusion in sectoral project
 the Australian and New Zealand agencies for         preparation documents.
                                     Republic of the Marshall Islands
                                     The Republic of the Marshall Islands lie in         such as for building regulations and other
                                     open ocean with an average height above sea         development projects, need to be developed.
                                     level of 2 meters and the highest elevation at      The local government must mainstream climate
                                     only 6 meters. With further sea-level rise, the     change risks reduction into their development
                                     Marshallese would become among the first of         planning and budgeting. Climate risk information
                                     many environmental refugees. For these reasons,     must factor into building design and materials
                                     the government of the Republic of the Marshall      while considering traditional styles.
                                     Islands has participated actively in negotiations
                                     for the United Nations Framework Convention on      The Country Operations Business Plan
                                     Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its protocols, and      2009– 2011 prioritizes technical assistance
                                     continues to do so.                                 and policy advice to increase public sector
                                                                                         productivity with emphasis on basic social
                                     ADB is recommending the strengthening of            services and poverty reduction; adapt to global
                                     environmental and natural resources policies,       climate change; and enhance the environment
                                     legislation and regulations, and establishment      for private sector investment, job creation,
                                     of enabling environment for climate change          and growth.
                                     mainstreaming through strategic planning
                                     and budgeting. There must be harmonization          ADB’s Improved Energy Supply for Poor
                                     and strengthening of traditional and modern         Households Project aims to improve livelihoods
                                     methods for coastal protection and erosion          through sustainable electricity. The targeted
                                     control and infrastructure design, factoring        outcomes include increased access to power
                                     in climate change. Early warning systems for        and income generation opportunities for the
                                     disaster and climate change risks reduction         poor from sustainable power supplies. The
                                     (floods and droughts) should be enhanced.           project supports the use of coconut oil/diesel
                                     Policies and procedures for land use planning,      blends in generators.
Climate Change
in the Pacific


            •	 Arno atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands
                                                                                                                •	 Yap, Federated States of Micronesia

                                                                                                                                                         at the Regional and Country Levels
                                                                                                                                                         Climate Change Solutions
Federated States of Micronesia
Several islands of the Federated States of                            ADB’s Omnibus Infrastructure Development
Micronesia (FSM) have declared major                                  Project includes a power rehabilitation
emergencies due to food and water shortages in                        component on the state island capital of
the wake of the El Niño phenomenon. Rivers dried                      Chuuk. Electricity is needed to pump water to
up and wells were dangerously low with increasing                     consumers, for government operations, and                                            23
levels of salinity leaving many schools and public                    for hospitals and schools. Thus, rehabilitating
facilities without adequate water supplies.10                         the power sector will also facilitate the
                                                                      rehabilitation of the water sector, leading to
Adapting to climate change impacts should                             greater efficiency throughout.
see the development of an upper watershed
protection program component integrated with                          Along with the Cook Islands, FSM was selected
community-based coral reef protection and coastal                     for the Climate Change Adaptation Project for
zone management programs. Community water                             the Pacific (CLIMAP), which demonstrated the
systems on atolls and in other insular coastal and                    mainstreaming of Climate Change Adaptation
rural areas can also be improved by identifying                       through Integrated Risk Reduction at the
and constructing additional sources of potable                        national development planning, sector, and
freshwater such as small-scale, low-technology,                       project levels.
low-maintenance and low-cost solar desalination
systems and roof rainwater catchments.

10   SPC Land Resources Division. 2010. Vulnerability of Pacific Island Countries.
                                    Tropical cyclones normally bypass Nauru, however         biodiversity should be promoted. Strategic
                                    rainfall is cyclic and periodic droughts are a serious   and sectoral planning and budgeting must
                                    problem, with one year having a recorded rainfall        include climate change adaptation for capacity
                                    of only 280 mm. Assisted by the European Union           building. ADB is also supporting the Nauru
                                    Renewable Energy Program, Nauru is presently             Port Development Project. As the country
                                    developing a national energy policy in which it          does not have a protected port, the project is
                                    hopes to increase the share of renewable energy          key to addressing binding constraints to the
                                    in its energy mix by 10% by year 2020.                   country’s economic development. ADB has
                                                                                             provided initial assistance to assess options for
                                    Programs to control population and urban growth,         port construction. Other donors have made use
                                    as part of urban planning and management,                of this work in considering financial assistance
                                    should be established. Environmental education,          for Nauru. Evaluation of the country’s facilities
                                    institutions, and legislation need strengthening.        shows the surrounding land area and coastal
                                    Environmental consideration, including climate           roadway to be affected by severe erosion, with
                                    risk assessment, should be mainstreamed                  sea-level rise further affecting serviceability and
                                    into development projects. The sustainable               causing damage, thus necessitating thorough
                                    use of marine resources and conservation of              climate proofing.
Climate Change
in the Pacific


             •	 Cantilever ship loader, Nauru
                                                                                         •	 Jellyfish Lake, Rock Islands, Palau

                                                                                                                                  at the Regional and Country Levels
                                                                                                                                  Climate Change Solutions
The government of Palau is generally committed       Climate Change Action Plan. This will
to climate change adaptation principles              improve Palau’s overall sustainability and
and activities, yet there exists a gap in the        climate resilience in the marine environment;
understanding of the anticipated impacts of          water supply and sanitation; tourism; and                                      25
climate change extremes and variability on overall   agriculture. Climate risk management, and
economic development, livelihood security, food      adaptation policies and measures will be
security, and infrastructure resilience.             mainstreamed to support sustainable water
                                                     resources, eco-friendly tourism investment,
To build capacity, climate change adaptation must    and facilitate sustainable subsistence
be included in strategic and sectoral planning       agricultural production.
and budgeting. Mangroves and wetlands must
be protected, with conservation and reserve          The Babeldaob Water Supply Project seeks
areas set up. A comprehensive land use plan must     to provide a more reliable supply of treated
be established within watersheds and riparian        water to communities in Babeldaob and Koror,
buffer zones. A drought early warning system and     and to enable the expansion of the Koror-Airai
response should also be initiated.                   water supply network to Aimeliik. The ensuing
                                                     project will consider climate change adaptation
To support ADB’s broader climate adaptation          measures related to sustained availability of
efforts across the Pacific region, and as part of    raw water. The Sanitation Sector Development
Palau’s country partnership strategy, ADB is         Project also aims to improve the environment
collaborating with the government to develop         by eliminating sewerage overflows from the
a cluster of activities to implement the Palau       dilapidated sewerage collection network.
                                   Papua New Guinea
                                   Droughts have caused damage not only to                               ADB has shown strong support for PNG’s
                                   subsistence farming but also the production                           transport sector through the Bridges
                                   of cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. Most                          Replacement Project, Civil Aviation
                                   significantly for the national economy, some                          Development Investment Program,
                                   mines have had to close as the level of water has                     Community Water Transport Project, and Sea
                                   dropped in the rivers on which they depend for                        Transport Development Investment Program.
                                   supplies and transport.12                                             The Road Upgrading and Maintenance
                                                                                                         Program will establish a road system in the
                                   In line with capacity building, climate change                        Highlands region that will enable optimal use
                                   adaptation needs to be included in the govern-                        of its natural, mineral, and human resources,
                                   ment’s strategic planning and budgeting. Support                      and promote the development of the
                                   for the health sector must be enhanced with                           agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and tourism
                                   emphasis on climate change–related issues,                            sectors on a sustainable basis. Climate change
                                   preventive health care through disease control,                       impacts will be considered in the program,
                                   improved medical and quarantine services,                             particularly due to possible higher rainfall that
                                   and developing an epidemic preparedness and                           prompts adaptation of roadside drainage.
                                   response system and public awareness program.
                                   A strategic coastal and water management system                       Under the Power Sector Development
                                   must be established and integrated into policy,                       Project, ADB is also financing investments
                                   planning, and budgeting. Alternative water sources                    that may include hydropower facilities, and
                                   such as rainfall catchment devices and other water                    the enhancement and rehabilitation of the
                                   harvesting techniques should also be developed.                       power grid.

                                   12   SPC Land Resources Division. 2010. Vulnerability of Pacific Island Countries.
Climate Change
in the Pacific


            •	 Papuans catching fish
Elevated sea temperatures have killed over 90%      codes to increase resilience to climate change
of the living corals of American Samoa from the     impacts, integrating risk management as a
intertidal zone to a depth of 10 meters, with       component of policies, plans, programs, and
fishing catches declining drastically in the wake   projects, and strategic planning and budgeting
of the coral death. Samoa is on the edge of major   processes that include climate change concerns.
tuna migrations and fishing success can oscillate
from extreme success to failure depending on        ADB’s Power Sector Expansion Project will help
ocean temperature regimes.                          provide sustainable and reliable electricity
                                                    services to all consumers in Samoa. The
The Government of Samoa held its first National     clean energy component focuses mainly on
Climate Change Summit in 2009, which was used       conservation of energy among consumers but
as an opportunity to update stakeholders on         also supports renewable energy. ADB is also
climate change developments and highlighted         financing the relocation of key transmission
some of the most visible impacts of climate         lines underground, to increase resilience of
change in water shortages, rapid coastal erosion,   power infrastructure.
and agriculture and food security as well as in
public health risks, forest and biodiversity, and   The Water Supply, Sanitation and Drainage
other disciplines and sectors. Samoa’s Second       Project will improve and rehabilitate existing
National Communication (SNC) Report to the          drainage and rivers to reduce flooding.
UNFCCC Project was also launched then.              Sanitation will be improved through a
                                                    combination of a pressure sewerage scheme to
Recommended adaptation efforts include              service key urban areas, and improved on-site

                                                                                                                              at the Regional and Country Levels
establishing alternative water supply and storage   sanitation and sanitation management for other
programs; research and implementation on            areas, particularly low-lying flood-prone land.
alternative crops and early warning systems

                                                                                                                              Climate Change Solutions
for food security; and the development of a         The Afulilo Environmental Enhancement
Sustainable Tourism Plan through a Tourism          Project will help increase the energy output
Environmental Policy, including training for        from the Afulilo Hydropower Project, which
operators and tourism management. Zoning and        will contribute to reducing Samoa’s growing
urban planning must see a revision of building      exposure to fuel price increases.


                                                                                              •	 Blow holes, Savai’i, Samoa
                                  Solomon Islands
                                  Through the UNDP, the Solomon Islands has
                                  become the first country in the Pacific region, and
                                  one of four countries in the world, to qualify for
                                  the Adaptation Fund, a special international fund
                                  for projects that help nations gear up for climate-
                                  related changes. A total of $5 million have been
                                  approved in support of the project “Enhancing
                                  resilience of communities to the adverse effects of
                                  climate change in agriculture and food security”
                                  which includes an initiative to help build nurseries
                                  and germ plasma centers for crop varieties that
                                  thrive through changing climatic conditions and
                                  food storage units with durability for periods of
                                  extreme weather.

                                  Agricultural practices (e.g., diversification, and soil
                                  and water conservation) and use of technology
                                  must be improved to better respond to climate
                                  change. Mangrove and coral reefs protection
                                  programs need to be established as well. Water
                                  management, supply, distribution, and storage
                                  need improvement. Climate proofing has to be
                                  mainstreamed into project designs, and climate
                                  change concerns into developmental planning
                                  and implementation. Comprehensive health
                                  policies and disease and pest controls need to
                                  be established, and medical and health services
                                  improved. Climate disaster risks should be
                                  mapped to facilitate decision making, such as
Climate Change

                                  selective installation of flood control infrastructure
in the Pacific

                                  and resettlement options.

                                  ADB’s efforts include building capacities through
                                  the Strengthening of the Ministry of Infrastructure
                                  Development Project, and transport initiatives
      28                          such as Supporting Rural Transport Infrastructure
                                  Development and the Transport Infrastructure
                                  Project. A good example of a climate-proofed
                                  project in the Pacific is the Solomon Islands
                                  Second Road Improvement Project. It applies
                                  climate adaptation features such as watercourse
                                  crossings designed to accept higher floods and
                                  river debris loads, strengthened protection of
                                  roads, river training works, side slopes designed
                                  to prevent erosion, and rerouting of coastal roads
                                  exposed to waves and inundation.

            •	 Simbo Bridge, Solomon Islands
The government of Timor-Leste, independent
only since 2002, has already ratified the

                                                                               at the Regional and Country Levels
Conventions on Climate Change, Desertification
and Biodiversity and the Kyoto Protocol. A
national reforestation campaign to curb the

                                                                               Climate Change Solutions
impacts of climate change, such as erosion
and flooding, was also launched as part of the
government’s Dili City of Peace program. The
campaign also aims to educate the public and
raise awareness of the need to protect the

ADB’s Roads and Cross Border Infrastructure
Project will help build capacity to manage
current climate variability and ongoing and
longer-term climate change. Moreover,                                            29
adaptation options with other important
benefits, such as erosion control, will be
emphasized as a way of reducing the risk of
inappropriate investments. The Timor-Leste
Road Network Development Sector Project has
incorporated adaptation features for future
climate change into its subproject planning
and engineering designs from inception.
ADB conducted an integrated impact and
vulnerability assessment to identify adaptation
options, plus both engineering and land
management options; and included adaptation
measures as part of the environmental
management plan. The models developed
from these efforts may then be replicated
for further projects.

                                                  •	 Hera Wharf, Timor-Leste
                 The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)         ADB’s Integrated Urban Development Sector
                 Land Resources Division and the SPC/German             Project will provide an efficient and well-
                 Technical Cooperation Programme on Adaptation          maintained primary road network, all-weather
                 to Climate Change in the Pacific Island Region         roads to low-income and low-lying residential
                 have supported a survey of the ‘Eua forest to          areas, as well as well-maintained and functional
                 establish baseline information on current land         drainage systems, effective trunk drainage
                 use in the forest. The field survey information will   systems, and groundwater quality monitoring
                 contribute to the development of a land use plan       wells to assess the impacts of septic tanks on
                 that aims to ensure the sustainable management         aquifers. This project will facilitate improved
                 of ‘Eua’s forests and the promotion of sustainable     urban planning and management capacity as
                 agricultural and land management practices. With       well as infrastructure maintenance programs,
                 projections of increased frequency of extreme          and will consider climate change adaptation
                 events such as increased rainfall and higher           during its execution. ADB is also supporting a
                 temperatures, the impacts of current land use          Renewable Energy Project and Energy Road
                 practices in the ‘Eua forests will be aggravated in    Map for the country.
                 the face of climate change, especially since most
                 of the forest grows on easily erodable soils.
Climate Change
in the Pacific


                                                                                               •	 Flood prone area in Popua
                                                                                                  Village, in the outskirts of
                                                                                                  Nuku’alofa, Tonga
Severe drought had forced the government to                           Society and the Canada Fund, and the technical
purchase a very expensive desalination plant                          support of the Netherlands-based Red Cross/
from Japan which costs A$30,000 per month to                          Red Crescent Centre on Climate Change and
run given its intensive use of costly and carbon-                     Disaster Preparedness. ADB recommends
intensive diesel fuel.13                                              improving the country’s financial management
                                                                      by including planning and budgeting for climate
The state of Tuvalu has made a strong statement                       change adaptation. Agriculture practices, water
by committing to a carbon neutral economy, with                       conservation, and coastal protections need to
all its energy to come from renewable sources, by                     be enhanced for resilience to climate change
2020. The government hopes to use wind and solar                      impacts. Public education and awareness on
power to generate electricity and is counting on                      climate change impacts and adaptation should
international financial and institutional support                     be promoted. Research on the islands’ carrying
to attain this goal. In 2005, the Tuvalu Red Cross                    capacities, monitoring, and observation needs to
Society took part in a pilot project on climate                       be advanced. Human capital development must
change, in conjunction with the International                         be ramped up to prepare Tuvalu for a rather
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent                              uncertain future in the light of climate change.
Societies’ Pacific delegation, the first in the Pacific               Long-term programs on climate change in
to address the issue. The project benefited from                      primary education and preventative health care
the financial support of the Japanese Red Cross                       should be established.

                                                                                                                                   at the Regional and Country Levels
13   SPC Land Resources Division. 2010. Vulnerability of Pacific Island Countries.

                                                                                                                                   Climate Change Solutions

•	 Funafuti beach, Tuvalu
                                    In 2004, Cyclone Ivy affected 50,000 people, and                      Opportunities to reduce reliance on natural
                                    damaged 90% of water resources, 70% of roads,                         resources, and coastal/marine resources
                                    60% of health infrastructure, 112 schools, and                        should be identified. Critical infrastructure
                                    over 80% of food crops, estimated at a total cost                     must be relocated to areas of low vulnerability,
                                    of $12 million.14                                                     and climate proofing incorporated into
                                                                                                          infrastructure design and specifications.
                                    Three pilot sites in Pele Island (North Efate),
                                    Teouma community (South Efate), and                                   For ADB’s Port Vila Urban Development Project,
                                    Hasevaia community (South Santo) have been                            road repairs will be carried out in Port Vila and
                                    selected to implement community-level                                 Luganville, along with other components such
                                    climate change adaptation measures under                              as structural repairs to the capital’s main wharf;
                                    the SPC/GTZ Regional Programme on                                     development of Luganville’s water supply and
                                    Adaptation to Climate Change in the Pacific                           drainage facilities; improvement of the Erakor
                                    Island Region. The activities are included in                         causeway bridge; and protection of the lagoon
                                    Vanuatu’s National Adaptation Programme for                           environment. The project will improve living
                                    Action, and include introducing climate-resistant                     conditions and public health in two main
                                    crops, breeding extreme weather-adapted                               urban centers of Vanuatu; mitigate adverse
                                    livestock, developing community land-use plans,                       effects of urban growth on the environment;
                                    trialling new agroforestry and soil stabilization                     and promote economic growth by enhancing
                                    methods, and undertaking innovative climate                           conditions conducive to tourism and trade.
                                    adaptation education programs. Also under                             Climate change adaptation will be considered
                                    way is the development of climate change                              in infrastructure development.
                                    awareness materials.                                                  ADB is also supporting projects involving
                                                                                                          drainage and sanitation investment, and
                                    ADB notes that the range of Vanuatu’s                                 renewable energy.
                                    agricultural products may be expanded through
                                    selection of plant varieties better suited to                         The Developing a Rural Urban Transport
                                    predicted future climates. Capacities should be                       Linkage Road Map Project will identify
                                    built particularly on science-based knowledge,                        investment opportunities in rural feeder and
Climate Change

                                    public awareness, and removing barriers to micro                      provincial roads to complete gaps in the
in the Pacific

                                    financing. Upon assessing climate change risks,                       network, particularly in areas with tourism
                                    sustainable tourism may be further developed.                         and agricultural production potential.

                                    14   SPC Land Resources Division. 2010. Vulnerability of Pacific Island Countries.
      32                                 view=article&id=535&Itemid=306

            •	 Port Vila, Vanuatu
  Way Forward
  In the highly vulnerable and already hard-hit         have been possible to date. Opportunities for
  Pacific region, responses to the impacts of           ADB to enhance climate resilience in the Pacific
  climate change will be more effective through         countries range from developing research and
  a concerted and coordinated response, based           knowledge materials, promoting awareness
  on a comprehensive understanding of the               and education, strengthening governance and
  countries’ needs and capacities. The Pacific          economic management, improving water and
  island governments view climate change as             natural resource management, mainstreaming
  a priority issue, but need clear objectives in        disaster risk management and climate-proofing
  addressing its impacts. ADB’s position allows it      infrastructure, to supporting the development
  to analyze the complex problems at all levels,        and sustainability of key industries such as
  identify appropriate solutions based on the           agriculture, fisheries, and tourism.
  varied geographic, social, and environmental
  conditions, and to mobilize technical and             To support its commitment to climate change
  financial assistance to implement solutions           action in its Pacific developing member countries,
  in a holistic manner. ADB has already begun           ADB plans to significantly increase its investment
  to mainstream climate change activities into          resources toward environment and climate change
  its operations and will continue to identify          by 2020. ADB acknowledges that continued
  and implement appropriate solutions-based             poverty reduction will not be possible without
  interventions. ADB will focus on those areas          proactive efforts to address environmental
  where its comparative advantage can best be           sustainability, including mitigating the causes of
  employed, and maintain and expand its role            global warming and helping the most vulnerable
  in donor coordination and mobilization of             citizens adapt to the already unavoidable impacts
  co-financing. The analyses of climate-related         of climate change. The climate change agenda
  activities, donor assistance, and opportunities for   has become one of the defining challenges that
  effective adaptation and mitigation investments       ADB—and the entire development community—
  provide a foundation for more effective donor         must face in achieving further progress in poverty
  coordination and co-financing initiatives than        reduction in the Pacific and beyond.

                                                                                                             way Forward

•	 School children walking
  through the main street of
  Popua Village, in the outskirts
  of Nuku’alofa,Tonga
Climate Change in the Pacific: Stepping Up Responses in the Face of Rising Impacts

Spread across the Pacific Ocean’s vast expanse is a diverse array of countries with widely varying
topographies, cultures, and economies, but who all share the same critical challenges and vulnerabilities.
They face dire and immediate consequences from the impacts of climate change—from sea-level rise and
stronger storms to the changing distribution of disease vectors—that are markedly disproportionate to
their miniscule contributions to global greenhouse gas emissions. Their geographic isolation, small and
scattered populations, fragile environments, and limited resources severely restrict their capacity to adapt to
climate change’s impacts. The Pacific island governments view climate change as a priority issue, but need
clear objectives in addressing its impacts. ADB’s position allows it to analyze the complex problems at all
levels, identify appropriate solutions based on the varied geographic, social, and environmental conditions,
and mobilize technical and financial assistance to implement solutions in a holistic manner. ADB’s support
advances the climate change programs of its developing member countries and regional initiatives, moving
with partners to integrate responses while continuing to work toward reducing poverty.

About the Asian Development Bank

ADB’s vision is an Asia and Pacific region free of poverty. Its mission is to help its developing member
countries substantially reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people. Despite the region’s
many successes, it remains home to two-thirds of the world’s poor: 1.8 billion people who live on less
than $2 a day, with 903 million struggling on less than $1.25 a day. ADB is committed to reducing poverty
through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration.
    Based in Manila, ADB is owned by 67 members, including 48 from the region. Its main instruments for
helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees, grants,
and technical assistance.

Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City
1550 Metro Manila, Philippines
Publication Stock No. ARM102724                                                              Printed in the Philippines

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Description: Projected Impacts of Climate Change Climate Change in the