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					    Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service
    Comité de Coordination du Service Volontaire International
          CCIVS – UNESCO House – 1, rue Miollis – 75732 Paris Cedex 15 France
         Tel: (33) 1 45.68.49.36 – Fax: (33) 1 42.73.05.21 – E-mail: ccivs@unesco.org




 PARTICIPATION PROGRAMME 2004 – 2005



                   PROJECT 27271118 ONG




    THE IMPACT OF VOLUNTARY SERVICE
IN CONFLICT AND POST-CONFLICT SITUATIONS



                           FINAL REPORT
THE IMPACT OF VOLUNTARY SERVICE
 IN CONFLICT AND POST-CONFLICT
           SITUATIONS




  Report of a CCIVS workcamp/seminar

  Mashangwa and Isebania (S.W. Kenya)

           5-19 November 2004




             hosted by KVDA
  Kenya Voluntary Development Association
                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS




1- Executive summary......................................................................................................................3
   The workcamp..............................................................................................................................3
   The seminar. .................................................................................................................................3
   Objectives.....................................................................................................................................3
   Programme. ..................................................................................................................................3
   Proposals and recommendations. .................................................................................................4
2- Full Report ...................................................................................................................................5
   The workcamp..............................................................................................................................5
   The seminar. .................................................................................................................................5
   Objectives.....................................................................................................................................5
   Programme ...................................................................................................................................5
     Sunday 14 Nov. ........................................................................................................................6
     Monday 15 November..............................................................................................................7
     Tuesday 16 November ...........................................................................................................12
     Wednesday 17 November ......................................................................................................13
     Thursday 18 November..........................................................................................................16
Annex – List of Participants...........................................................................................................21
1- Executive summary

The workcamp.
The project was in a region of serious ethnic conflict. The work project was to dig foundations
and start building school classrooms and to learn about the conflict. The camp gave the
participants a very good case as background to the seminar


The seminar.
There were 33 participants (including resource persons) coming from Burundi, DRC, France,
Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Netherlands, Nigeria, Philippines, Serbia-Montenegro, Sierra Leone,
Uganda, UK, USA, Zambia and Zimbabwe, plus two trainers from the Nairobi Peace Initiative
(NPI).


Objectives.
1) To provide an overview of conflicts in Africa.
2) To show how volunteering can be effective in relation to conflicts
  - to give the participants in the workcamp a practical experience in volunteering in a conflict
     area and the opportunity to analyse it during the seminar
  - to share good practice
3) To encourage participants to be aware of other approaches, to express themselves as much as
   possible, to listen to other views, pick up ideas and create synergies among themselves.
4) To use the experience of the workcamp and seminar for future projects in conflict and post-
   conflict areas through the empowerment of the participants.


Programme.
The seminar aimed to be participative and open, with many occasions to break into small groups.
Sessions included the following:
 - motivations, expectations and fears of the participants
 - an exhibition of the work of all the organisations involved with short presentations
 - discussion about the workcamp, a description of the conflict and whether the camp had a
     positive impact on it
 - an overview of current or recent conflicts in Africa with inputs from participants from
     Burundi, DRC, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zimbabwe
 - introductions to the history of workcamps as a peace movement, to the conflicts in ex-
     Yugoslavia, Palestine/Israel and Northern Ireland
 - discussions to exchange good practice where organisations represented reported on the
     successes (and failures) of their work in relation to conflicts
 - a day with two visitors from the Nairobi Peace Initiative (NPI) dealing with the underlying
     causes of conflicts in Africa, with theories of conflict and how to understand and deal with
     conflict situations of all kinds
 -    the role of regional networks within CCIVS with inputs from EAWA, SAWC, UWAVWA,
      the Alliance and SEEYN
 -    the role of CCIVS itself as a framework for the networks
 -    an excursion in the direction of Lake Victoria (but the bus broke down again!)
 -    fund raising
 -    two sessions to develop practical proposals and recommendations
 -    final evaluation - very positive on the seminar, less so on the workcamp.


Proposals and recommendations.
     1) Training of trainers in peace building, conflict resolution and   conflict management
     (East Africa)
     2) Workcamps for peace in the Great Lakes Region
     (DRC, Burundi, Rwanda.)
     3) Establishing good practice in African workcamps.(East Africa)
     4) Projects to strengthen advocacy and representation in conflict
     and post-conflict areas (West Africa)
     5) Proposals to meet training needs - capacity building,
     fundraising, planning, management, sustainability. (international)
     6) A long term project in Trans-Mara (S.W.Kenya)
2- Full Report

The workcamp.

This took place at Mashangwa School from 5 to 12 November 2004.
The project was chosen because this is a region of serious conflict between the Kuria and the
Maasai; also between the Kuria and the government. It was KVDA's first venture into working in
an area of conflict. The project was to lay the foundations and start building classrooms for
Mashangwa School and at the same time to learn about the conflict. Some work on the building
project was missed due to the fact that the national school exams took place at the school over
three days, but the team made good use of this time by visiting Kuria community leaders and
government officials (in spite of occasional breakdowns of the KVDA bus). The volunteers
learned a lot about the conflict but unfortunately were not able to make contact on the Maasai
side. The camp gave the participants a very good case study as background to the seminar. It was
recommended that KVDA should continue to work in this area, ensuring that all sides were taken
into consideration.


The seminar.

The seminar was held at the Border Gate Hotel, Isebania from 13 to 19 November 2004. There
were 33 participants (including resource persons) coming from Burundi, DRC, Kenya, Lesotho,
Malawi, Netherlands, Nigeria, Philippines, Serbia-Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Spain, Uganda,
UK, USA, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Two trainers from the Nairobi Peace Initiative (NPI) were
present on 16 November.


Objectives.
1)To provide an overview of conflicts in Africa.
2)To show how volunteering can be effective in relation to conflicts
    - to give the participants in the workcamp a practical experience in volunteering in a
         conflict area and the opportunity to analyse it during the seminar
    - to share good practice
3)To encourage participants to be aware of other approaches, to express themselves as much as
possible, to listen to other views, pick up ideas and create synergies among themselves.
4)To use the experience of the workcamp and seminar for future projects in conflict and post-
conflict areas through the empowerment of the participants.


Programme

The seminar aimed to be participative and open, with many occasions to break into small groups.
Sunday 14 Nov.

Opening session: All the participants introduced themselves although the majority already knew
each other well from the workcamp.

Motivations, expectations and fears of the participants
The participants split into five “Spanish families” (Orlandez, Nandez, Randez, Hernandez and
Fernandez).

Motivations included: learning more about conflicts and how to deal with them, especially to
learn how voluntary service can be effective in conflict prevention and resolution; to network
with others interested in a culture of peace; to learn skills; to examine different development
models and strengthen collective initiatives; to see how conflicts can transform societies; to learn
about Africa, African conflicts and African organisations.

Expectations were that the group would learn a lot about conflicts in Africa and elsewhere; that
agreement could be reached on the role of volunteering and of youth in conflict areas including
new approaches and strategies and related to the needs of the countries concerned; that
experiences and best practices could be shared and new partnerships and an effective network
created; that some truly practical projects could be proposed through CCIVS as a platform; that a
good environment for the seminar would foster international and inter-cultural understanding and
that everyone would have fun.

Fears were that cultural differences (or even conflicts) might cause misunderstanding; that
translation would disturb the meeting; that the lack of experience of some participants might
reduce their effectiveness; that female participants might be marginalized; that time might be
badly managed and too short; that there would be too much talk and too little action and no
effective follow up e.g. that KVDA would do nothing further to help solve the Kuria-Maasai
conflict; that some regions would not be represented; that too much good food would cause
people to put on weight!

Exhibition and presentation of the work of all the organisations.
The following organisations present put up posters and photo displays which they had prepared
during the afternoon and made short presentations about their work:
     - Voluntary Workcamps Association of Nigeria (VWAN)
     - Zimbabwe Workcamps Association (ZWA)
     - Kenya Voluntary Workcamps Association (KVDA)
     - AYISE-MWAI (Malawi)
     - Citizens’ Disaster Response Center (Phillipines)
     - Uganda Volunteers for Peace (UVP-ICYE)
     - A.VO.CO.DE (DRC)
     - Association des Jeunes Volontaires pour une Cultura de Paix (Burundi)
     - Youth Association of Zambia (YAZ)
     - Uganda Voluntary Development Association (UVDA)
     - Pamoja International Voluntary Services (Kenya)
     - Uganda Pioneers Association (UPA)
    -   Lesotho Workcamps Association (LWA)
    -   South East Europe Youth Network (SEEYN)
    -   East African Workcamp Association Network (EAWA)
    -   Youth Technical Training Services (Kenya)

A poster on the Voluntary Workcamps Association of Sierra Leone (VWASL) when their
representatiive arrived the following day.




Monday 15 November

Introduction to the workcamp at Mashangwa.
Four groups discussed and reported under the following headings:

What happened at the camp.
  • 27 volunteers were present at the colourful opening ceremony on 5 November, of whom
      20 were from the other KVDA camp at Kemakoba. There were about 1,000 from the local
      Kuria community with lots of traditional dancing. No government official attended, a sign
      of the poor relations with the authorities.
  • The daily work was to make bricks and carry them to the site, to dig the foundations for
      new classrooms and to clean the school buildings.
  • The work was interrupted by the national school exams which were held at Mashangwa
      school over three days.
  • Contacts were made with the Kuria community and various community leaders and
      others, including elderly widows who had been evicted and raped during past conflicts,
      were visited during the days when the school exams made the normal work impossible.
      Visits were also made to government officials.
  • The camp was officially closed at another popular ceremony on Friday 12 November.
Description of the conflict in the area of the camp.
The conflict is mainly over land and there have been attacks from both sides, including much
cattle rustling, but there is also a cultural dimension, both groups being very set in their
traditions. The Maasai have more support from the government and the local Member of
Parliament is a Maasai. The government District Commissioner is very unsympathetic to the
Kuria. There is even some conflict between different Kuria clans. An indication of the
seriousness of the conflict is that a white Catholic priest was murdered in Nairobi, it is
suspected by agents of the previous government. Extra pressure on land comes from the Kisii
people who are short of farming land and some rich people who want to buy land.

Did the camp have a positive impact on the conflict?
Yes – it provided solidarity and international awareness to the Kuria community; it helped
unite the Kuria and to motivate them; they learned something about their rights; it could lead
to further KVDA involvement.
No – the community was not well prepared for the arrival of the volunteer team; a short
project could not break down the lack of trust between the communities; the community
expected too much of the camp; there was no contact with the Maasai.
Any future camp or LTV project should be very thoroughly prepared and involve people,
especially youth, from both sides in the conflict; security should be assured; it should involve
other NGOs and human rights bodies. More research needs to be done on the history and
detail of the conflict. Advocacy should be carried out at government level also.

Global overview of current or recent conflicts in Africa.

Nigel Watt introduced a session at which six conflicts were described by participants from the
countries concerned:

1) Burundi. Dismas Hicintuka, invited as a resource person from the Scout Association of
   Burundi, outlined the origins of the conflict between Tutsis and Hutus which had its origin
   in Belgian colonial times when the Tutsi minority was favoured. Hutus had only a reduced
   political role after independence which led to various uprisings. A democratic election in
   1993 resulting in the election of a Hutu president was followed by his killing which
   unleashed a civil war which has continued until now, though peace negotiations have
   produced an agreement which is now being implemented.

2) Uganda. Agnes Jipinjini (UVP) reported on the conflict in the north of the country where
   the Lord’s Resistance Army, inspired by a prophetess, Alice Lakwena, led by Joseph Kony
   and based across the border in Sudan, has been attacking and forcibly recruiting children
   since 1986. It has no clear political position except a desire to overthrow President
   Museveni. Most of the population of the northern (Acholi) area has either fled to the towns
   or is in camps. Ceasefires have been declared and there is some some optimism, since
   support for the rebels from Sudan is no longer assured.

3) Sierra Leone. Victor Macarthy (VWASL) explained that the governments of Siaka Stevens
   and Joseph Momoh were very corrupt and there was discontent. Foday Sankoh, who
   became the rebel leader, had supported Charles Taylor, himself a rebel, to become
   President of Liberia, and was in turn supported by Taylor. The war was fuelled by selling
      diamonds and involved terrible cruelty. It continued even after the return of a democratic
      government under Tejan Kabbah. After the rebels entered Freetown, the capital, in 1999,
      UN and ECOWAS troops helped restore peace. It was never an ethnic conflict in Sierra
      Leone but the rebels just sought power.

  4) Democratic Republic of Congo. Dufina Tabu (ASVOCO) described briefly the history of
     conflict in this huge and complex country with 450 ethnic groups and enormous mineral
     wealth. Exploitation began during colonial times and continued during the long rule of
     President Mobutu. In 1996 Laurent Kabila, supported by Rwanda and Uganda, drove out
     Mobutu. In 1998 Kabila threw out his Rwandan advisers and was then attacked by Rwanda
     and Uganda plus a few Congolese supporters. Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia came in on
     the government side and saved it. A peace process has now led to the establishment of a
     rather fragile transitional government under Joseph Kabila, the son of the murdered
     president. The main motivation of most of those intervening – foreigners and Congolese -
     has been to acquire minerals.

  5) Nigeria. Kolawole Aganran (VWAN) explained the ethnic imbalance between north and
     south and how the Civil War had broken out in 1966 shortly after independence. He also
     described how local conflicts had arisen - between Christians and Muslims, sometimes
     due to the imposition of Sharia Law in some states; between political factions at election
     times; and over poor treatment of minorities e.g. in the oil producing region of the Niger
     Delta.

  6) Zimbabwe. Ratherford Mwaruta (ZWA) described how land had been taken by white
     settlers, leading to resistance as early as 1890. A second war (“chimurenga”) started in
     1966 against the illegal white settler regime, leading to independence under Robert
     Mugabe in 1980. When his power began to be threatened with the emergence of a strong
     opposition, the MDC, in 1997, Mugabe began his policy of taking over white farms.
     Tensions in Zimbabwe are between young and old, urban and rural and over a “selective”
     use of legal powers.

Nigel summed up the session, pointing out that lust for political power was usually the main
cause of these conflicts but that they were often fuelled by outsiders wanting minerals or, earlier,
wanting strategic support in the Cold War. Politicians made use of ethnicity, and the fact that
people were poor meant that they were easily recruited to join rebellions – or to join the army –
just to survive. The conflicts described were all major ones but it should be noted that there are
many small existing and potential conflicts in Africa – the Kuria/Maasai being one example.

Exchanges on good practice in voluntary service in conflict and post-conflict areas.

Nigel Watt made a short introduction to the history of workcamps as part of the peace movement,
showing how Pierre Ceresole, the founder of Service Civil International (SCI), had shown in
1920 how working together was the best way to create understanding; how other movements had
followed such as YAP (then Christian Movement for Peace) and later, after the Second World
War, many workcamp associations had grown up as well as UNESCO itself which created
CCIVS as the coordinating body in 1948.
Introduction to other conflicts.

Slobodan Zivkovic (SEEYN) introduced the conflicts in ex-Yugoslavia and the response of the
voluntary service movement. He explained how Croatia and Bosnia Herzegovina broke away
from Yugoslavia whose army was controlled by Serbia. Ethnic division was strongest in Bosnia
where the population was split between Muslims, Croats and Serbs. As the conflict ended,
voluntary service organizations from Western Europe began to get involved, attempting to bring
young people from the two sides together. He emphasised how important it was that the local
community was involved in all such programmes. He also insisted on the usefulness of
networking and on choosing realistic actions, often small self-help and confidence building
projects. Funding for volunteer activities in this part of Europe is fairly plentiful and this has
resulted in some competition between the different voluntary service networks to link with the
relatively fewer number of potential local partners.

Helmut Warmenhoven (CCIVS) told of his experiences in Palestine where he served as a
volunteer with the International Palestinian Youth League (IPYL). He said the actual work of
volunteers (with children, health projects etc.) was less important than actually being there, to
share and understand the suffering of the Palestinian people, to show them they are not forgotten
and to report back when they return home. A programme of M/LTVs supported by CCIVS,
UNESCO and EVS had been able to work there in spite of the tense situation. He said that
security for foreign volunteers, however, was good. Some IPYL volunteers had been able to
come abroad, though Israeli restrictions made this difficult.

Nigel Watt reported briefly on how voluntary workcamps, mostly for teenagers, had played a role
in relation to the Northern Ireland conflict. Various SCI branches took mixed groups of teenagers
from the two traditions (“Catholic” and “Protestant” but really ethnic) from the segregated
neighbourhoods outside the province to work, have fun and learn to know those whom they saw
as enemies back home.
Group work to exchange ideas of good practice.

   1) What volunteering actions has your organization undertaken in conflict or post-conflict
       areas?
   Activities included workcamps, training of volunteers, empowerment of youth and of
   communities, workshops and non-formal training e.g. on human rights, mobilization of
   different local NGOs, networking, creating contact e.g. between refugees and the local
   community, youth exchanges (e.g. rural-urban, international), resettlement projects, relief
   efforts, lobbying, advocacy through the media, monitoring of elections, cultural and sporting
   activities.

   2) What was the impact of this work? What challenges, successes, failures?
   Attention was drawn to the existence and nature of certain conflicts; a common understanding
   was created of the position of the conflicting parties; voluntary action gained some reputation
   for peace work; respect for minorities or groups suffering discrimination e.g. project in
   Burundi hosted by Batwa Pygmies; solidarity for those affected by conflict e.g. CCIVS
   project painting secondary school in Liberia; displaced persons have been integrated; cultural,
   ethnic and religious diversities became better understood; some indirect impact on politics
   and on decision makers; if the needs of the community can be met through voluntary activity,
   chances of conflict are reduced. It was noted that the effect of voluntary activity is inevitably
   very slow and that therefore long term projects (or a series of short term ones in the same
   area) were likely to have more impact.
   Challenges included opposition, indifference or manipulation on the part of governments
   and/or local elites; funding problems and poverty among the conflicting populations; physical
   problems of access, transport, accommodation etc. for volunteers; emotional and
   psychological problems of volunteers in a tough area; the difficulty of mobilizing youth and
   resources; the sheer size of the problems and of unfair structures compared with available
   resources of the voluntary organizations.

   3) Suggestions for future action.
    - study and research in the conflict area to define needs and target group before starting to
       plan a project
    - careful identification of local, national or international partners
    - dialogue at community level including cultural exchange
    - awareness raising and educational projects, e.g. on human rights, among conflicting
       parties and the population in general
    - try to work with and to influence governments and local authorities
    - build coalitions of youth movements and local NGOs etc.
    - go step by step, not too fast and be conscious of our own lack of certain skills. Our
       members are clear on their values but less expert when it comes to changing structures.
    - longer term lobbying and advocacy for structural change and to promote new thinking
       among civil society organizations
    - CCIVS to ensure space and time is given to support peace initiatives
Tuesday 16 November

 Input from the Nairobi Peace Initiative (NPI)

 Introduction. Florence Mpaayei introduced the NPI, which had been founded as a discussion
 group in 1984 and was now involved in capacity building of actors in peace building –
 sensitizing them and helping provide new skills; research and documentation – sharing
 information and experience and providing back up to peace processes e.g. Somalia, Sudan,
 Rwanda, Burundi; networking with NGOs, churches and other institutions; lobbying and
 advocacy at all levels; educating funding bodies. They have worked in Trans-Mara in
 partnership with the National Council of Churches of Kenya.

 Overview of the underlying causes of conflict in Africa.
 Peter Maruga (NPI) gave a very entertaining talk about the underlying causes of conflicts in
 Africa starting with the Atlantic Slave Trade, the Berlin Conference of 1884, colonization,
 neo-colonialism, the competition for Africa during the Cold War, the IMF and its structural
 adjustment policy, privatization, land hunger, globalised markets, the continuing “colonial
 mentality” and the quest for “good governance” through initiatives such as NEPAD.
 Tools of analysis of conflict.
 Florence and Peter conducted a training session to show various tools for analysing conflict
 and for dealing with it. These are all included in the annex to this report. The image of a tree
 was evoked, with roots invisible above ground (representing influence, power, identity,
 perception, emotional impact). These less visible but often critical aspects need to be engaged
 in order to respond to the conflict. The three P’s must also not be forgotten (people, problem,
 process); as well as to understand the difference between primary and secondary parties to a
 conflict. Methods and examples of conflict mapping were given and six discussion groups
 then worked on mapping a case study on where to site a clinic in an area with two hostile
 factions (see www.npi-africa.org)
 Slobodan Zivkovic then presented a case study of the history of the Bosnia Herzegovina
 conflict, showing that some cases, such as this one, were just too complex for a normal
 mapping exercise.
 In the afternoon they raised issues of inter-personal conflict e.g. traditional ideas versus “cool”
 youth within a family showing a method of classifying conflict styles – competing/forcing,
 collaborating/cooperating, compromising, accommodating, avoiding.
 Peter explained the time dimension in peace building – different responses are needed
 according to the length of the intervention. (2-6 months = emergency action; 1-2 years = short
 range planning; 5-10 years = longer term thinking; 20+ years = generational vision).
 Finally, Florence presented the five operating principles pf peace building – comprehensive,
 interdependence, infrastructure, strategic and sustainable (see www.npi-africa.org).
 Advice that was shared during the course of the day was the need to respect human dignity; to
 realize that building relationships is not a marginal activity but the key to sustainable peace
 building; to listen to other voices; to be aware that a conflict looks very different according to
 each actor’s experience and position; to look through “gender spectacles (women have often
 been sidelined and should have a major role in reconstruction and reconciliation.)



Wednesday 17 November

 Regional networks.
 Gianni Orsini explained the importance that CCIVS attaches to the development of regional
 networks to coordinate and develop voluntary service activities including peace building.
 Representatives of the networks present described the scope and structure of their networks:

 Southern Africa Workcamps Cooperation (by Ratherford Mwaruta - ZWA).
 Members: Chair - QPC South Africa, Vice Chair - AYISE-MWAI Malawi, Secretary – BWA
 Botswana (previously ZWA Zimababwe), Treasurer – AJUDE Mozambique; also SWCA
 Swaziland, LWA Lesotho, ZAVCODA and YAZ Zambia. A secretariat is being established at
 the Southern African Development Community HQ in Botswana.
 Challenges: no government support, turnover of members, weakness of some members, no
 office, cost of transport, poor communication.
What can be achieved: sharing of resources, skills and knowledge, networking,, regional
fundraising and contacts (e.g. a new exchange with Canada has been organised), influence
over policy in the region, capacity building of members
Plans: Participation fees to be waived for member countries; more staff training; establishment
of permanent secretariat; more regional exchanges; incorporation of Namibia and Angola. All
members are encouraged to join CCIVS and the solidarity fund.

Eastern Africa Workcamps Association (by Sam Waddimba)
Members: Uganda – UPA, UVDA, UVP, MVU, Casedev, NVIDA; Kenya – KVDA, YTS
Kenya, PIVS, YTTS, Amakono; Tanzania – TAYEN, YPC; Sudan – NESSA. Aims to include
DRC, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia. There is an executive committee elected at a GA
every three years and a permanent secretariat in Kampala. The main financial support has been
from MS Denmark. Goal: Promoting regional cooperation.
Mission: Working for a peaceful region through voluntary work.
Challenges: suspicions and fears among members as cooperation is a new concept for some;
an unequal membership.
Achievements: A growing membership, increased exchanges and a number of training
activities organized. There has been a sharing of good practice, identification if common needs
and solutions, exchange of information (some members never knew each other before) and
stronger representation e.g. a meeting was held with the East African Community.

Union of West African Voluntary Workcamp Associations (UWAVWA / UACVAO) (by
Kolawole Aganran)
Members: In theory associations in Nigeria, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso,
Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal etc. No meeting since 1997 at which VWAN Nigeria became
President, ASTOVOCT Togo Secretary and Benin Treasurer. The structure dates from 1970s
and was well established but has become moribund due to lack of resources, changes in
leadership of some members, internal conflicts and the French-English division in the region.

South Eastern Europe Youth Network (SEEYN) (by Slobodan Zivkovic).
Members: 21 youth and volunteer organisations in 6 countries, Serbia Montenegro, Bosnia
Herzegovina, Croatia, Bulgaria, Albania and Macedonia. There is a separate secretariat and
the network is mainly funded by DANIDA through MS Denmark. There is an executive
committee elected at an annual assembly, with individual members responsible for strategic
development, fundraising, relations with different international partners etc.
Services: capacity building, promotion, access to other networks and platforms, access to new
funding, long and medium term volunteer exchange, workcamps. New members who have not
organized workcamps are given seed funding. A measure of success is that in 2000 only 2
organisations ran workcamps but now it is 15 with a total of 30 camps each year in the region.

Alliance of European Voluntary Service Organisations (by Helen Bartlett).
Members: 39 organisations in 25 countries, mostly in Europe. Those outside Europe have
associate membership.
Activity: founded as a small group of European CCIVS members in 1973, the Alliance is a
major coordinating body for the exchange of volunteers through workcamps (in 2003 16,000
volunteers in 1,100 workcamps). Its main work is on this technical level but it is involved in
training, staff development etc. The Alliance has no secretariat but relies on members to carry
out the various functions.
Challenges: some members lack commitment; also the Alliance has become very big and
unwieldy.

A discussion on whether a wider African coordination was possible or desirable ensued. Most
felt that the sub regional structures were too weak for it to be realistic to dream of a Pan-
African structure, which had been the aim of the late Cephas Munanairi (“Mr.Africa”), the
founder of KVDA. It was agreed that, for a start, there should be more exchanges of
volunteers, circulation of publications and address lists and other links through meetings,
seminars etc.




CCIVS as a framework for networking.
Gianni Orsini outlined how, when CCIVS started in 1948, it was a coordinating body for
European workcamps at a time of post-war reconstruction. Over the years regional groupings
developed within it, including those listed above; also its international members (SCI, YAP,
ICYE) had their own internal coordination structure. Recently, CCIVS policy has been to try
to develop regional structures everywhere and in this context a successful regional structure,
NVDA, has been established in Asia. An attempt to create a Mediterranean Platform has been
less successful.
  Even where these structures exist, there is always a problem of communication. The four Vice
  Presidents, representing four regions, are supposed to have this function but they are hampered
  by lack of resources. There is also in some cases a problem of defining the boundaries of the
  regions e.g. is Iraq in the Mediterranean or in Asia?
  In discussion, Kolawole Aganran urged CCIVS to have the role of organizing concrete
  activities in regions as a way of bringing organisations together. Some felt that the CCIVS
  executive should have direct representatives from sub regions. Gianni summed up by saying
  that CCIVS should be seen as a platform to build a policy agenda and that as a structure, with
  its regional sub-structures, it was a tool for achieving its aims e.g. valid work in conflict and
  post-conflict areas, peace promotion, true development.

  Mid-term evaluation.
  A short evaluation session was held in order to get feedback on which to plan the final day of
  the seminar. Comments on the seminar so far were very positive – wide representation, a good
  participative approach involving all the participants, good facilitation of discussions, a really
  warm and friendly atmosphere, good food and accommodation, nice hot water. Criticisms
  included the lack of gender balance (only 6 women present), lack of participation from North
  Africa, not much in the way of literature, no media coverage (a reporter came the following
  day!), an unwillingness to organise evening social activities.

  Excursion.
  The team set off in the KVDA bus to visit the historical site of Thimlich Ohinga and the shores
  of Lake Victoria, but unfortunately the bus broke down on a pleasant hillside just above a
  flowing river. The participants spent a relaxed afternoon in the sun and returned to Isebania in
  various shared taxis and a hired matatu (minibus).


Thursday 18 November

Preparation of practical proposals for work related to conflict and post-conflict areas..
The day was devoted to working groups who drew up plans for projects. These are listed below.
A plenary session on fundraising took place mid-morning.

Fund raising.
Nigel Watt spoke about the problems of fundraising, often seen as the biggest problem for the
development of voluntary service. He recalled the difficulty he himself had in trying to raise
funds for CCIVS. One grant only had been sourced after several months' work. Also, few
countries apart from the UK and USA have many grant giving trusts. Also, donors' "fashions"
changed from time to time: AIDS, environment and peace were current interests.

A major problem was that voluntary workcamps were not well known and could be seen by
donors as fun holidays for the educated minority. Serious advocacy was necessary to convince
people of the value of voluntary service as effective leadership and skills training for youth, as a
serious contribution to national, international and Pan-African integration as well as providing
solidarity and help to grass roots development.
The best solution was for workcamp associations to be self-sustainable. It was dangerous to be
too dependent on outside donors and definitely not on one major donor only. It was also
unhealthy to be totally dependent on fees from incoming “northern” volunteers. Members’
subscriptions were low and hard to collect.

Some of the organisations present were invited to describe their successes and problems in
funding their activities:
   • KVDA with 4,000 members, has a good income from incoming workcampers and
       M/LTVs. A small government subsidy, income generating activities such as T-shirts and
       Christmas Cards, educational tours offered to foreign volunteers after their camps, good
       support from older members.
   • Zimbabwe Workcamps Association has built up a strong long-term relationship with
       German funding sources which started when a German who had taken part in a workcamp
       in 1995 returned home and linked ZWA with Action Human World. This has led to close
       relations with the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung and the German Embassy. ZWA has also
       obtained a farm not far from Harare which provides some income; it also runs training in
       IT for members and paying non-members. They also plan to open two kindergartens.
       They have a hostel which occasionally brings in a little money.
   • Lesotho Workcamps Association had a very strong relationship with German Agro
       Action (DWH) but this ended rather suddenly (perhaps due to poor accountability). While
       this funding continued, LWA constructed a hostel in a prime position in Maseru, the
       capital, and this still provides a regular income. This is supplemented by sales of T-shirts,
       brooches, traditional clothes etc.
   • Uganda Pioneers’ Association has survived for ten years on grants from MS Denmark,
       some income in the past from their farm and from their cultural troupe. MS funding will
       be phased out in 2007.
   • Youth Association of Zambia has received funding from GTZ and the German Volunteer
       Service (DED); also by providing consultancy services on youth policy and other issues.
   • CDRC has been able to appeal to donor agencies but also raises funds in the Philippines
       through campaigns, appeals to church-based organisations etc.
   • Scouts Association of Burundi earns money by hiring out its hall for meetings, weddings
       etc. and hiring out its vehicles.
   • AJVCP (Burundi) runs two small restaurants which bring in some income.

Helmut quoted an example of an organization, Offre Joie in Lebanon, where families contributed
in kind, food, drink, accommodation. Nigel summarized to advise that no association should
become too dependent on one large donor; that it was wise to build up a long term relationship
with donors so that they remained convinced of the value of your work; that we should all
promote the value and mission of voluntary service to our potential benefactors; that we should
develop revenue earning projects so as to become as self-sufficient as possible. It was also
dangerous to be totally dependent on “northern” volunteers’ fees. Possible sympathetic donors
include traditional ones like MS, GVS (DED) and GTZ, ActionAid, VSO, foreign embassies
which often have small projects’ funds. UN agencies such as UNICEF, FAO, UNDP and
UNHCR were occasionally able to help, sometimes by providing materials or transport rather
than funds. Nigel also mentioned two small trusts of which he was a trustee, one supporting only
educational projects in Commonwealth countries, the other supporting very small grass roots
projects; also the possibility of obtaining cheap refurbished computers from Computer Aid.




Proposals and recommendations.

1) Training of trainers in peace building, conflict resolution and conflict management.
♦ Objective: to equip volunteers with skills for working in conflict and post-conflict areas
♦ Activity: training seminar in collaboration with Nairobi Peace Initiative (10 days) in Kenya.
   Workcamps (3 weeks) in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, DRC, Sudan. Evaluation (1
   week) in Uganda. Participation by leaders and active members of w/c organisations plus if
   possible from other parts of the world.
♦ Timetable: meeting with NPI 25/11/04; proposal submitted by 31/12/04; prep team meeting
   May/June 2005; project implementation August/Sept 2005; follow up meeting Nov 2005 with
   planning for future activities involving participants from conflict areas
♦ Responsibilities: KVDA to follow up with NPI and host training. EAWA to coordinate and to
   organise evaluation. National orgs to host workcamps.
♦ Funding: budget estimated at 24,000 Euros. Possibility of funding through NPI's funders.

2) Workcamps for peace in the Great Lakes Region (GLR) - DRC, Burundi, Rwanda.
♦ Objective: peace between neighbouring ethnic groups.
♦ Activities: communal workcamps for peace promotion in the GLR, with a first project in
   DRC; seminars on conflict resolution including sensitisation on human rights.
♦ Timetable: first workcamp in DRC August 2005.
♦ Responsibilities: ASVOCO and COVODA in DRC, AJVCP and Top Emergency in Burundi,
   partner in Rwanda to be identified.
♦ Funding: budget to be finalised. Appeals for funding to INGOs and UN agencies working in
   the GLR.

Another group made general proposals for similar workcamps in other conflict areas e.g.
Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone.
3) Establishing good practice in African workcamps.
♦ Objective: to support the process of peace and reconciliation in the GLR and Greater Horn
   regions including southern Sudan and Somalia.
♦ Activity: to include workshops on conflict resolution in regular workcamp programmes in
   order to make them true tools of reconciliation and conflict resolution. The initial project is to
   include such a workshop at KVDA's project at Kakuma Refugee Camp.
♦ Timetable: 3 week camp during July/August 2005.
♦ Responsibilities: KVDA plus trainers and international volunteers.
♦ Funding: the only extra cost would be for the trainer(s).

4) Projects to strengthen advocacy and representation in conflict and post-conflict areas.
♦ Objectives: to foster unity between conflicting groups, to overcome emotions to allow for
   reconciliation, to promote justice and awareness.
♦ Activities: contact all parties concerned in a conflict ( elders, chiefs, youth, police, churches,
   mosques); collect tools and documents for advocacy; organise a workshop for the sharing of
   good practice; organise a workcamp in a neutral place.
♦ Timetable: programme of 3-6 months in response to particular conflicts e.g. Cote d'Ivoire.
♦ Responsibilities: CCIVS Vice president for Africa, UWAVWA, VWAN and other West
   African organisations.
♦ Funding: budget estimated at US$ 6,000 to be raised.

5) Proposals to meet training needs (capacity building, fundraising, planning, management,
    sustainability)
♦ Objective: enhance and provide appropriate training in capacity building, fundraising, project
    management and the sustainability of volunteer organisations.
♦ Activities:
(a) Capacity building training - IT skills for easy info sharing; training to improve quality and
     effectiveness of camp management; management of volunteers to mobilise and motivate
     them and to prepare them for conflict management; resource management to maximaise and
     optimise limited resources.
(b) Training in fundraising - drawing up proposals; management of finances and material;
     fundraising campaigns.
(c) Management planning - training in organisational development and strategic planning.
(d) Sustainability - to ensure continuity in the implementation of projects through income
     generating projects, intensive marketing and publicity (e.g. internet), offering consultancy
     services, levying subscriptions.
♦ Timetable: a 3 year programme of activity according to the needs and applicability of the
    training to each organisation.
♦ Responsibilities: individual organisations, regional and sub-regional networks.
♦ Funding: national and international donor agencies, private sector, local initiatives, partners.

6) Long term project in Trans-Mara, S.W.Kenya
♦ Objective: to create deeper understanding between the Kuria and Maasai communities; to
    serve as a pilot project for long term interventions in conflict areas in other parts of the world.
♦ Activities:
(a) Contact community leaders and government officials.
(b)    Recruit a team of 6 L/MTVs to include a Mukuria, a Maasai and at least 2 women.
(c)    Train the team plus 14 local surveyors in participatory appraisal (PRA).
(d)    Set up a base plus transport (bicycles).
(e)    Develop the project based on the community. Possibilities include workcamps in both
       communities; training in crafts, IT, carpentry, dressmaking, marketing etc.; setting up a
       cooperative sunflower seed production project; community theatre; education (English,
       library); sports activities; incorporate (mainstream) AIDS and environmental protection.
(f)    Advocacy - initially to lobby for local schools, health services etc. Later to lobby on rights
       issues, treading carefully.
♦     Timetable: programme to start in 2005 when basic funding has been found. The first
      volunteers to stay for a minimum of 6 months. The programme could continue for several
      years.
♦     Responsibilities: This would be a KVDA project with one board member responsible for
      liaison. A local advisory committee including government, KVDA, community leaders,
      churches). Volunteer recruitment would be through KVDA, EAWA and CCIVS members.
♦     Funding: a basic budget of 6,500 Euros plus at least 4,050 Euros for project equipment,
      depending on what is decided. Funding would come from the fees of L/MTVs (KVDA's
      normal programme), INGOs, embassies, donations of computers, books etc from overseas.




Final evaluation.
Participants’ opinions of the seminar remained overwhelmingly positive – people appreciated the
whole idea of the seminar, the freedom to express themselves freely, the value of the conflict
management training given by NPI, the potential the meeting gave for future networking, the
hotel and the food. The breakdown of the bus on the excursion was taken lightly – indeed, some
expected it after earlier breakdowns during the workcamp. The workcamp was considered to be a
positive experience in spite of some problems, such as the fact that three days’ work was lost due
to the state exams and the fact that only one side in the conflict was contacted. It was agreed by
all that further work needed to be done by KVDA and its partners in this conflict zone.

Final closing speeches were made and votes of thanks given by Ireri Kawe, Chairman of KVDA,
and Gianni Orsini, President of CCIVS.
Annex - LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

Kolawole Aganran - Voluntary Workcamps Assoc of Nigeria (VWAN)
P.O.Box 2189, Marina, Lagos, NIGERIA
vwoan@yahoo.com / kolagaran@yahoo.com         ++ 234 1817 1168 / 8037128307

Vivek Anathan - VIS
635, N 5th Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19123, USA
viveka@juno.com

Helen Bartlett - Concordia UK
Heversham House, 20-22 Boundary Road, Hove BN3 4ET, UK
info@concordia-iye.org.uk                    ++ 44 1273 422218

Geoffrey Bunyoli - Kenya Voluntary Development Association (KVDA)
P.O.Box 48902 -00100 Nairobi, KENYA
jabuma1@yahoo.com                              ++ 254 720 467274

Steve Davies - International Voluntary Service (IVS - SCI GB)
Old Hall, East Bergholt, Colchester CO7 6TQ, UK
ivs@ivsgbsouth.demon.co.uk                         ++ 44 1206 298215

Frank Dimba - Uganda Pioneers Association (UPA)
P.O.Box 25973, Kampala, UGANDA
franklinedam@hotmail.com                        ++256 77993791 / UPA 77450999

Dismas Hicintuka - Scouts Association / Top Emergency
B.P.550, Bujumbura, BURUNDI
dhicintuka@yahoo.fr                              ++ 257 845339

Dufina Tabu Mwenebatende – Association des Volontaires du Congo (AS.VO.CO),
B.P.3378, Goma, DRC via Gisenyi / B.P. 514, Gisenyi, Rwanda
asvocodufina@yahoo.fr                            ++ 243 9774 0039

Anyuru Agnes Jipinjini - Uganda Volunteers for Peace (UVP)
P.O.Box 1131, Kampala, UGANDA
eldadagnes@yahoo.com                              ++ 256 71 748219

Elizabeth (Liz) Hoka - KVDA
P.O.Box 42942-00100, Nairobi, KENYA
lizziehoka@yahoo.com                              ++ 254 720 492664

Ranganai Kawazya - Zimbabwe Workcamps Association (ZWA)
P.O.Box CY2039, Causeway, Harare, ZIMBABWE
rkawazya@yahoo.com
Taratisio Ireri Kawe - KVDA Chairman
P.O.Box 11281-00400, Nairobi, KENYA
sumakawe@yahoo.com                             ++ 254 722 861091

Victor Macarthy - Voluntary Workcamps Association of Sierra Leone (VWASL)
P.O.Box 1205, Freetown, SIERRA LEONE
akprac@yahoo.com                                ++ 232 76 612097 / 696469

Lydia Mahase - Lesotho Workcamps Association (LWA)
P.O.Box 12798, Maseru, LESOTHO
masithak@yahoo.co.uk

John Magesi - KVDA
P.O.Box 48902, Nairobi, KENYA
++ 254 735 207856

George Makukha – Youth Technical Training Services (YTTS)
P.O.Box 477, Bungoma, KENYA
++ 254 735 616708

Thomas Maswi - KVDA
P.O.Box 48902, Nairobi, KENYA
++ 254 735 377634

Christopher Misuku - AYISE - MWAI
P.O.Box 90588, Bangwe, Blantyre 9, MALAWI
ayise@malawi.net / misukuchris@yahoo.com       ++ 265 1 655079 / 265 8 837734

Innocent Mujinya - AVOCODE RDC
Goma, DRC
innocent_mudjinya@yahoo.co.uk                  ++ 243 81 056 4474

Isaac Oneka Munanairi - KVDA Director
P.O.Box 48902, GPO, Nairobi, KENYA
kvdakenya@yahoo.com / munanairika@hotmail.com        ++ 254 20 225379 / 721 650357

Evans Musonda - Youth Association of Zambia (YAZ)
P.O.Box 31852, Eureka Ho., Freedom Way, Lusaka, ZAMBIA
yazinfor@yahoo.com                             ++ 260 9775 9444 / 9782 2014

Ratherford Mwaruta - ZWA
P.O.Box CY 2039, Causeway, Harare, ZIMBABWE
zimcamps@ecoweb.co.zw                      ++ 263 4 723111 / 795066

Phocas Ndimubandi - AJVCP Burundi
jeunesvolontaires2003@yahoo.fr / phocas2001@yahoo.fr ++ 257 952722 / 210569
Simon Ng'anga - KVDA
P.O.Box 6355, Nairobi, KENYA
simonsimz@yahoo.com                             ++ 254 723 250263

Kenneth Ochieng - Pamoja International Voluntary Service
P.O.Box 58093- 00200, City Square, Nairobi, KENYA
pamoja@mail2world.com                            ++ 254 722 592655 / 20 788287

Gianni Orsini - CCIVS President
CCIVS, 1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, FRANCE
go@pangea.org

Julie Passi - CDRC Philippines
P.O.Box 2893, CPO, Quezon City, PHILIPPINES
cdrc@I-manila.com.ph                        ++ 632 9299822

Isaac Sekaiba - Uganda Voluntary Development Association (UVDA)
P.O.Box 22253, Kampala, UGANDA
uvda69@hotmail.com / hmcwus@yahoo.com           ++ 256 77 643070

Beth Lexie Wandia - KVDA
P.O.Box 594, Buruburu, Nairobi, KENYA
bethlexie@yahoo.com                             ++ 254 722 638507

Helmut Warmenhoven - CCIVS
1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, FRANCE
hwarmenhoven@gmx.net                            ++ 33 1 4568 4936

Samuel Waddimba - East African Workcamps Association Network (EAWA)
P.O.Box 29074, Kampala, UGANDA
easternnet@yahoo.com / waddimbasam@yahoo.co.uk     ++ 256 71 840999

Nigel Watt - CCIVS / Youth Action for Peace UK
16, Overhill Road, London SE22 0PH, UK
nigeljohn_watt@yahoo.co.uk                     ++ 44 20 8693 6426

Slobodan Zivkovic - South East Europe Youth Network (SEEYN)
seeyn@seeyn,org / www.seeyn.org

				
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