Concept Attainment - PowerPoint

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					  PEI Follow-Up
    Sessions

Elementary Teachers
               Agenda

 Questions/concerns
 Review    Concept Attainment
 Sharing
 Three Step Interview connected
  to Concept Attainment
 Home
               Last Session
   We played with Framing Questions -- an
    instructional skill -- we also played with
    Place Mat, Numbered Heads, Round
    Robin, One Stray Rest Stay,
    Brainstorming, Concept Attainment, Fish
    Bone Diagrams, Bloom’s Taxonomy,
    Inductive and Deductive Thinking
     Concept
    Attainment

Jerome Bruner’s Inductive
    thinking strategy
How many of you have
 experienced Concept
Attainment or applied it
   in the classroom?
All of you have experienced it,
   the process is what your
 parents used when you were
  young … to ‘teach’ you all
those ‘concepts’ like dog and
           truck etc.
    Have you played this game?

   I am going on a trip and I can take a carrot
    but I cannot take a can; I can take a beet
    but I cannot take a bottle …
       QuickTime™ and a
   TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are neede d to see this picture.
       QuickTime™ and a
   TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are neede d to see this picture.
       QuickTime™ and a
   TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are neede d to see this picture.
       QuickTime™ and a
   TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r
are need ed to see this picture.
       QuickTime™ and a
   TIFF (LZW) decompressor
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Side A   Side B
Testers
       QuickTime™ and a
   TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r
are neede d to see this picture.
What level of thinking and what type of
thinking does Concept Attainment demand?
• Level of thinking: Analysis
• Type of thinking: Inductive
• We see this with this objective: The students will
  demonstrate they understand the difference
  between weather and climate.
• Can you sense the relationship between
  Concept Attainment and Venn Diagrams?
Climate, Weather and Concept Attainment

• The high temperature today will be 14 degrees
• Over the last decade the ice-cap has been
  receding.
• Yesterday we had a tornado.
• Each year the monsoons come in the spring.
• I have never seen it snow like that before.
• We have four seasons every year: spring,
  summer, winter, and fall.
Open and Closed-Ended ?’s
• What is your name?
• Please explain how photosynthesis
  works?
• What are the parts of a bunsen burner?
• Why do you think Tuck did not drink the
  water?
Inductive thinking refers to

                    Classifying --
                 understanding how
                  things in a group
                        are the
                 same…pushes the
                   analysis level of
                       thinking
Deductive thinking refers to

                Finding an answer
                  … the scientific
                   method is an
                example, we form
                 a hypothesis and
                    then find an
                      answer.
           What is a concept?
• Anything that has a label
• …and has a definition
• …and two or more examples that fit into that
  definition that have the same attributes that
  differentiate them from those things that don’t

• NOTE: that means most proper nouns are not
  examples of concepts. (E.G., What do all the
  David’s or Mary’s have in common that
  differentiate them from the Bob’s or Helen’s?)
                Question

• Can you name one thing that is not
 an example of a concept?

• …say eyebrow or wheelbarrow or love or
 democracy or infinity or photosynthesis or
 transportation or spaceship or addition or
 factor or realism or history or teddy bear or
 line or shape or triangle or media or …
     Three Phases of Concept
            Attainment
• PHASE I: Share the focus statement and
  the data set

• Phase II: Share their hypotheses and their
  thinking

• Phase III: Application of the learning
    Three Types of Concepts

• Conjunctive - with common
  attributes -- common juncture
• Dysjunctive - without common
  attributes
• Relational - meaning comes out
  of the context for comparison
    Conjunctive and Not Conjunctive

•   Chair          •   Rough
•   Car            •   Smooth
•   Nose           •   Smart
•   Book           •   Long
•   Planet         •   Love
•   Cloud          •   Democracy
•   Triangle       •   Symbolism
•   Rainbow        •   Motivation
       Relational and Not Relational

•   Rough             •   Planet
•   Smooth            •   Could
•   Smart             •   Triangle
•   Long              •   Rainbow
•   Steep             •   Love
•   Rich              •   Democracy
•   Warm              •   Symbolism
•   Opposite          •   Motivation
     Dysjunctive and Not Dysjunctive

•   Symbolism              •   Planet
•   Democracy              •   Could
•   Effective              •   Triangle
•   Motivating             •   Rainbow
•   Love (tricky)
                           •   Computer
                           •   Home run (in baseball)
•   ‘Strike’ in baseball
                           •   Sweet
•   Beautiful              •   Opaque
•   Technology
         Focus on civil rights

1. In South Africa policy prohibited blacks from
  living in areas designated as ‘white only’ areas.
2. In Canada, the First Nation People were denied
  access to most ‘classy’ cafes.
3. In Germany, during WW Two, Jews were
  required by law to have travel passes in order
  to move about their community
4. In North America, it is not unusual to have all
  white juries hear the case of a non-white
  person.
            civil rights continued
5. In Canada, during WW II, legislation was passed that
   sent Japanese Canadians to special camps. They had
   to leave behind virtually all their possessions. German
   and Italian Canadians did not have to move to those
   camps.
6. In some states in the United States, if a black killed a
   white person they were always found guilty. If a white
   killed a black, they were always found innocent.
7. In the United States, blacks were obliged by law to sit at
   the back of the bus.
8. In England, three people were killed by a bomb planted
   by the IRA
               civil rights testers
A. In North America, immigrant children were teased on
     the playground
B.   As set out in legislation, in some states, and
     countries, women are not allowed to terminate a
     pregnancy.
C.   In Canada, women did not have the right to vote.
D.   In Malaysia, if your hair was longer than a certain
     length (as shown by pictures in the banks) you would
     not be served until everyone else in the bank was
     served.
E.   In Canada, we have created laws that support men
     and women being paid the same wage if they do the
     same job.
 Data Set: Ways of Convincing
• The purpose of the test is to measure what
  you know; cheating defeats the purpose of
  the test. You should not cheat.
• Honesty is the best policy. Therefore
  you should not cheat.
• Let’s get a kitten for Granny. Pets help
  lower blood pressure in older people.
• Everyone in the family has gone to
  college; you must go to college.
    Data Set: Ways of Convincing
• Studies show that people manage money better
    as adults when they have had allowances as
    children. I should get an allowance.
•   If you loved me you would give me an
    allowance.
•   There are fewer fatal accidents since the speed
    limit was reduced. The speed limit should stay
    reduced.
•   The kitten has been abandoned. It’ll starve if
    we don’t bring it inside.
     Data Set: Ways of Convincing
• Butter is high in cholesterol. As a cardiac patient,
    you shouldn’t use it.
•   You have a moral obligation to take this staff
    development course on AIDS. If you don’t,
    parents will think you are irresponsible. You
    should take this course.
•   College graduates have a higher average lifetime
    income than non-graduates. You should go to
    college if you want to earn more.
•   How can you eat meat? That is so sickening!
    Yuck, would you eat your pet? You should be a
    vegetarian.
       Ways to Convince: Testers

• I’m voting for Joe Smith, he is so good
    looking and he seems like he would treat
    people with respect.
•   Do unto others as you would have them do
    unto you.
•   Buckle up for safety.
•   Buckle up, it is the law.
•   Buckle up, I’m not taking care of you if you
    get injured.
       Ways to Convince: Testers

• Life insurance will provide your family with
    support if you die.
•   Coke is it.
•   You Deserve a Break! (McDonalds)
•   Be true to yourself.
•   I’m voting for Jessica; she has integrity
    and has worked as a city counselor
    effectively for eight years.
     What the ODD’s have in
           common…
• They involve reasoning -- it deals with
 principles and criteria of validity; it is
 analytic, deductive.

• So with a partner, group the EVEN
 examples and the TESTERS that are
 EVEN into other ways of convincing
 others.
     Categories for Convincing

• Ethos - ethics, morality (Black & Blue Hat)
• Pathos - emotions feelings (Red Hat)
• Logos - logic facts (White Hat)

Comment: In a debate, you employ one or
 more of these to argue pro or con an
 issue.
      Two Types of Concepts
                  Blumer, 1954

• Definitive (like conjunctive in Bruner’s)
   Means we have clarity - no confusion
    (chair, truck)
• Sensitizing (like relational and dysjunctive
  in Bruner’s)
   Means we have a lack of clarity and we work
    at getting increasing clarity but usually never
    really get absolute clarity (justice, love)
  Two Ways to Present the Data Set

• Focused Gambling -- present one YES
 and one NO example at a time

• Simultaneous Scanning -- the students
 see all the data set at once

• Note: the more print, the more likely you
 show one at a time -- especially for
 younger kids.
         Concept Attainment:
            Focused Gambling
•   Angry             Trembling
•   Excited           Clenching fists
•   Happy             Laughing
•   Confused          Yelling
•   Annoyed           Daydreaming
•   Embarrassed       Talking out
     Testers (focused gambling)

•   Hiding
•   Nail biting
•   Afraid
•   Relaxed
•   Relaxing
•   Upset stomach
•   Confident
          Concept Attainment:
           Simultaneous Scanning
•   Precious junk        •   Valuable jewelry
•   Gregarious hermit    •   Old man
•   Dangerous friend     •   Quickly ran
•   Slowly raced         •   Beautiful butterfly
•   Openly camouflaged   •   Closed door
•   Eternal instant      •   Dangerous thoughts
•   Naïve wisdom         •   Exquisite joy
     Testers (simultaneous scanning)
• Boy that dog is pretty ugly.
• Joyful tears ran down the mother’s face as her
    daughter returned home from school.
•   The man bought one kilo of jumbo shrimp
•   Take the down escalator to the washroom.
•   As the verdict was read she silently yelled, why,
    why, why.
•   Now that is an example of military intelligence.
      Dichotomous Non Dichotmous

  A          B            A          B
Nouns       Verbs         Triangles   All other shapes
Biotic      Abiotic       Cars        Trains, Buses etc
                          Democracy Other forms
Addition    Subtraction
                          SolidsLiquids & Gases
Simile      Metaphor
                          Translucent Opaque & Transp.
Socialism   Capitalism
                          Teasing     Others forms of B
Abstract    Realism       Chemical    Other types of
2D          3D            Change      Change
Why use Concept Attainment?
       Knowledge as Design

·   What is the structure of the concept?
·   What are model cases of the concept?
·   What is the purpose of the concept?
·   What is the value of the concept?

                 …David Perkins
                 Screwdrivers
· What is the structure of the concept?
  · Handle, shaft, end that sticks into screws
· What are model cases of the concept?
  · Phillips, Flat Head, Robertson
· What is the purpose of the concept?
  · Put in screws
· What is the value of the concept?
  · Mechanical advantage
             Question
• How do wait time, framing
  questions, think/pair/share, concept
  attainment, safety, accountability,
  active participation, Bloom’s
  Taxonomy, Brain Research, etc.,
  work together?
    Questioning Factors
•   Complexity of Thinking
•   Academic Engaged Time
•   Use of Wait Time
•   Responding to Student Responses
•   Knowledge of Results
•   Shifting from Covert to Overt
•   Fear of Failure
•   Public vs Private Failure
•   Distribution of Responses
•   Accountability and Level of Concern
          Q uic kT ime™ and a
    T IF F ( LZW) dec omp resso r
ar e need ed t o s ee t his pict ure.
Instruction …classified
• Instructional concepts
• Instructional concepts that are skills
• Instructional concepts that are tactics
• Instructional concepts that are
  strategies
• Instructional concepts that are
  instructional organizers
    Concept Attainment
                           • Skills
• Concepts (only)          • Framing questions
•   Safe                   • Applying wait time
•   Accountable            • Suspending judgment
•   Novelty                • Discussing the purpose of
                             the lesson
•   Authentic
                           • Responding to a ‘no’
•   Motivation               response
•   Active Participation
Concept Attainment
• Organizers                • Others
•   Multiple Intelligence   •   Fish Bone Diagram
•   Gender                  •   Word Web
                            •   Enthusiasm
•   Ethnicity
                            •   TRIBES
•   Culture
                            •   PWIM
•   Brain
                            •   Community Circle
•   Child Development       •   Lesson Design
•   Learning Difficulties   •   Cooperative Learning
•   At Risk Environment     •   Critical Thinking
Concept Attainment
• Tactics               • Strategies
•   Think Pair Share    • Concept Attainment
•   Brainstorming       • 5 Basic Elements
•   Venn Diagram        • Mind Mapping
•   Flow Chart
                        • Concept Mapping
•   Round Robin
                        • Jigsaw
•   3 Step Interview
•   PMI
                        • Academic
                          Controversy
•   Six Thinking Hats
                        • Group Investigation
                        • Reading Recovery
Levels of Use of an Innovation
•   Non-use
•   Orientation (searching out information)
•   Preparation
•   Mechanical (the implementation dip)
•   Routine (where student benefit starts)
•   Refined
•   Integrative
•   Refocus (search for new idea)
CBAM (Concerns Based Adoption Model)
• Levels of Use   • Levels of Concern
•   Non-User      •   No Concerns
•   Orientation   •   Awareness
•   Preparation   •   Information
•   Mechanical    •   Personal
•   Routine       •   Impact on Students
•   Refined       •   Collaborative
•   Integrative
 Parts of Speech can you see a
  problem with the data set?
 Dog             Run
 Car             Fly
 Butterfly       Brush
 Window          Go
 Teeth           Eat
 Dirt            Close
 Water           Rock
 Book            Slide
       Parts of speech data set
              reworked:
 He ran over to his grandmother’s house.
 The bird flew into the nest.

 She rode her bike with her friends.

 The book was easy to read.

 I think the slide in the park is broken.
        Does this data set work?
        Capital Cities in Canada

•   Victoria        •   Vancouver
•   Edmonton        •   Calgary
•   Regina          •   Saskatoon
•   Winnipeg        •   Brandon
•   Charlottetown   •   Montreal
•   Halifax         •   Woodstock
•   Quebec City     •   Cranbrook
              Capital Cities

• Victoria is a larger    • Vancouver is also a
  city in B.C. It is on     large city. Like
  the water and has an      Victoria it is also on
  average temperature       the water -- in
  of 19 degrees             addition it has a
  centigrade. It also       mountain range that
  has the legislative       rise steeply from the
  building for the          water increasing the
  government of B.C.        amount of rain.
            Ridicule and Sarcasm

•   What a jerk!                  • Nice comment Einstein.
•   Hey metal mouth.              • Love the hair style.
•   Four eyes, get a life.        • That comment will go
•   You’re an idiot.                down in history.
•   So dumbo, fail again.         • Whoa, Michael Jordan
•   You’ll never have friends.      will be searching you out!
•   That car is a pile of junk.   • So who taught you to
                                    play baseball?
                                  • So, who dresses you?
 Testers for Ridicule and Sarcasm


• There is no such thing as a right answer, but
  if there was, that would be it.
• When they gave out brains, you thought
  they said trains and you are a million miles
  away.
• You have the mind of an ant.
• Bart simpson has nothing on you.
        Does this data set work?
               Mammals

•   Dog             •   Lizards
•   Elephant        •   Snakes
•   Humans          •   Emus
•   Lions           •   Ants
•   Deer            •   Eagles
•   Whales          •   Sharks
•   Gophers         •   Turtles
         Does this data set work?
                Elephants

•   trunk                •   beak
•   big ears             •   small ears
•   grey                 •   striped
•   very heavy           •   light
•   live in Africa       •   lives in Canada
•   tough wrinkly skin   •   a lot of feathers
•   can do hard work     •   does not work at all
                     Algebra

• A man sells oranges in the market … let O stand for the
  number of oranges.
• A women sells tennis balls … let X stand for the
  number of tennis balls.
• A bus takes students to a stadium … let S stand for the
  number of students.
• A restaurant serves 134 people on average each day …
  let Y stand for the number of people.
• Jets crash on average … let C stand for the number of
  crashes.
• Computer sales have doubled each month … let C
  stand for yearly sales.
        Quic kTime™ and a
    TIFF ( LZW) dec omp resso r
ar e need ed to s ee this picture.