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					           Simulation of OSPF Routing Protocol Using OPNET Module
                    (A Routing Protocol Based on the Link-State Algorithm)



 Mehboob Nazim Shehzad (1085)                                                  Najam-Ul-Sahar (1253)

  mehboobfraz85@gmail.com                                                          shinysehar@gmail.com

                                   Department of Computing and Technology

                                       Iqra University Islamabad Campus

                                Course Code: Research Methods and Skill (HMT401)

                                       Submit To: Dr. Jamil Ahmad

                                       Supervisor: Sir Abdul Hannan




Literature views:




In [1] the author proposes OSPF routing protocol apply on the adaptive dynamic routing strategy
in OPNET Modeler. In which author make the adaptive router network and link these router
based on cast. Because in that network OSPF work on routers so that OSPF work based on cast.
Link cast also change according to the effective bandwidth. Then the processor module also
implemented at the routers of effective bandwidths and then traffic select the lowest cast to reach
the destination path.



In [2] the author proposes OSPF protocol under different scenarios and under states. In fact the
main idea of the researcher is that to test the OSPF routing protocol in different scenarios. Firstly
make the network and deploy the OSPF TE (Traffic Engineering) for check the traffic on the
network. Then second one is to know router how much take the time for updates. Third one is to
check the HELLO packet times. In which we get main idea is that in OSPF routing protocol how
much take the time to update the router in case of any router connection fail. In 30 second router
update to other then router take other way chose for send the packet. That network based on 292
nodes and 765 links.
In [3] author proposes protect the network routing protocol and management protocols. Because
insider attacks are probably one of the most challenging research problem in network
management. In OSPF, a group of router make the network, these routers in that network
exchange information and forward packet to each other. In this paper the researcher analyzes the
OSPF and identifying the problems that create in that network during forwarding packets.
Because if one router have a problem then whole network disturbed due to this one. So that
researcher applies one attack to this OSPF network to analyze the performance of the OSPF
routing protocol. That attack very powerful and block the router to update in 60 minutes by
simple inter one wrong OSPF data unit. This work fully based on simulation and practice.



In [4] author proposes OSPF routing protocol simulation in different categories. First one is
Designated Router (DR) elect for constant time. In this case 50 routers can also accept the
convergence time, and if any problem create then retransmission possible. Second one is if router
has limited input buffers, then the compare the results between election and flooding protocols
increase the election time. In that effect create oscillatory behavior. In fact that 20-50 router
network has very low impact of buffer size. Third one is that in which DR and BDR are both
fails in same time, then convergence time increase. If convergence time increase then the router
cannot updated and data dropped in any condition. So that if interval increases then the
convergence time decrease.



In [5] author proposes the traffic engineering for adapting the routing of traffic to check the
performance and be able to use of network recourses. In this article, researcher describes the
intra domain traffic engineering that works base on the interior gateway protocol. Such as most
useful interior gateway protocol is OSPF routing protocol. In this report researcher describe the
OSPF configuration of links, based on a wide network view of traffic and topology with in a
domain. The researcher also compares different optimization results and collects the data. Main
idea of this research paper is also analyze the short path routing protocol are able to flow of
traffic in large IP network.

In [6] author describes the internet growth with the passage of time. Internet service Provider
(ISPs) increase the traffic demand with new technology and also recourses that utilization. In a
network packet also sent from source to destination with following protocol. The most
commonly use Intra domain routing protocol is OSPF. In OSPF routing protocol every link have
itself cast, but that cast set by a specific formula. The OSPF weight setting is also directly impact
on network performance. So that main problem is that which algorithm is more suitable for this
purpose. For this purpose researcher collect the results from different optimization scenarios for
comparisons. Researcher also applies the linear programming for this purpose, but most
commonly algorithm is used for this OSPF is Link State Algorithm.
References:

[1] Tatiana Brito, Lee Luan Ling., An OPNET Modeler Based Simulation Platform for Adaptive Routing
Protocol. Brazil : FEEC,UNICAMP Campanies,S.P.

[2] Anindya Basu, Jon G.Rieck., Stability Issues in OSPF Routing. Newyork : Bell Laboraties Aleri lnc.

[3] Brain Vetter,Feiyi Wang,S.Felix Wu., An Experimental Study of Insider Attacks for the OSPF Routing
Protocol. Carolina : secure and Highly Available networking Group,Dept.of Computer Science.North
Carolina State University. 5-30183.

[4] Deepinder Sidhu,Tayang Fu,Shukri Abdallah and Raj Nair., Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing
Protocol Simulation. Maryland : Rob Coltun. 20742 .

[5] Bernard Fortz,Jennifer Rexford and Mikkel Thorup., "Traffic Engineering With Traditional IP Routing
Protocols." IEEE Communications Magazine. October 2002, pp. 118-124.

[6] M.Ericsson,M.G.C.Resend And P.M. Pardalos., A Generic Algorithm for the weight setting problem in
OSPF Routing . Gainesville, USA. : s.n., October 9,2001.

				
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