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Studyguidech.5-10

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									                                                  PSYC 128-B Dev Psyc
                                                      Study Guide
                                                     Chapters 5 -10

Chapter 5
 What differentiates us from other animals? -speech
 Motor skill development – gender differences, etc.
 Childhood obesity – trends, causes, ways to address it
 Preoperational vs. concrete operational thinking - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_cognitive_development

Preoperational Period

The Preoperational stage is the second of four stages of cognitive development.[3] By observing sequences of
play, Piaget was able to demonstrate that towards the end of the second year, a qualitatively new kind of
psychological functioning occurs.

(Pre)Operatory Thought is any procedure for mentally acting on objects. The hallmark of the preoperational
stage is sparse and logically inadequate mental operations. During this stage, the child learns to use and to
represent objects by images, words, and drawings.[3] The child is able to form stable concepts as well as mental
reasoning and magical beliefs.[3] The child however is still not able to perform operations; tasks that the child
can do mentally rather than physically.[3] Thinking is still egocentric: The child has difficulty taking the
viewpoint of others. Two substages can be formed from preoperational thought.[3]

      The Symbolic Function Substage

           Occurs between about the ages of 2 and 4.[3] The child is able to formulate designs of objects that are not
              present.[3] Other examples of mental abilities are language and pretend play.[3] Although there is an
          advancement in progress, there are still limitations such as egocentrism and animism.[3] Egocentrism occurs
         when a child is unable to distinguish between their own perspective and that of another person's.[3] Children
         tend to pick their own view of what they see rather than the actual view shown to others.[3] An example is an
         experiment performed by Piaget and Barbel Inhelder.[3] Three views of a mountain are shown and the child is
          asked what a traveling doll would see at the various angles; the child picks their own view compared to the
         actual view of the doll.[3] Animism is the belief that inanimate objects are capable of actions and have lifelike
               qualities.[3] An example is a child believing that the sidewalk was mad and made them fall down.[3]

      The Intuitive Thought Substage

          Occurs between about the ages of 4 and 7.[3] Children tend to become very curious and ask many questions;
        begin the use of primitive reasoning.[3] There is an emergence in the interest of reasoning and wanting to know
          why things are the way they are.[3] Piaget called it the intuitive substage because children realize they have a
        vast amount of knowledge but they are unaware of how they know it.[3] Centration and conservation are both
             involved in preoperational thought.[3] Centration is the act of focusing all attention on one characteristic
            compared to the others.[3] Centration is noticed in conservation; the awareness that altering a substance's
         appearance does not change its basic properties.[3] Children at this stage are unaware of conservation.[3] They
         are unable to grasp the concept that a certain liquid can stay the same regardless of the container shape.[3] In
          Piaget's most famous task, a child is represented with two identical beakers containing the same amount of
        liquid.[3] The child usually notes that the beakers have the same amount of liquid.[3] When one of the beakers is
        poured into a taller and thinner container, children who are typically younger than 7 or 8 years old say that the
       two beakers now contain a different amount of liquid.[3] The child simply focuses on the height and width of the
       container compared to the general concept.[3] Piaget believes that if a child fails the conservation-of-liquid task,
           it is a sign that they are at the preoperational stage of cognitive development.[3] The child also fails to show
       conservation of number, matter, length, volume, and area as well.[3] Another example is when a child is shown 7
        dogs and 3 cats and asked if there are more dogs than cats. The child would respond positively. However when
          asked if there are more dogs than animals, the child would once again respond positively. Such fundamental
        errors in logic show the transition between intuitiveness in solving problems and true logical reasoning acquired
                                              in later years when the child grows up.

Piaget considered that children primarily learn through imitation and play throughout these first two stages, as
they build up symbolic images through internalized activity.[4][5]

Studies have been conducted among other countries to find out if Piaget's theory is universal.[3] Psychologist
Patricia Greenfield conducted a task similar to Piaget's beaker experiment in the West African nation of
Senegal.[3] Her results stated that only 50 percent of the 10-13 year olds understood the concept of
conservation.[3] Other cultures such as central Australia and New Guinea had similar results.[3] If adults had not
gained this concept, they would be unable to understand the point of view of another person.[3] There may have
been discrepencies in the communication between the experimenter and the children which may have altered
the results.[3] It has also been found that if conservation is not widely practiced in a particular country, the
concept can be taught to the child and training can improve the child's understanding.[3] Therefore, it is noted
that there are different age differences in reaching the understanding of conservation based on the degree to
which the culture teaches these tasks.[3]

        o

   Features of concrete operational thinking – conservation, decentering, reversibility, animism, artificialism


Concrete operational stage

The Concrete operational stage is the third of four stages of cognitive development in Piaget's theory. This
stage, which follows the Preoperational stage, occurs between the ages of 7 and 12 years and is characterized
by the appropriate use of logic. Important processes during this stage are:

Seriation—the ability to sort objects in an order according to size, shape, or any other characteristic. For
example, if given different-shaded objects they may make a color gradient.

Transitivity- The ability to recognize logical relationships among elements in a serial order, and perform
'transitive inferences' (for example, If A is taller than B, and B is taller than C, then A must be taller than C).

Classification—the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, size or other
characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can include another.

Decentering—where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it. For example, the
child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller
cup.

Reversibility—the child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original
state. For this reason, a child will be able to rapidly determine that if 4+4 equals t, t−4 will equal 4, the original
quantity.

Conservation—understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or
appearance of the object or items.

Elimination of Egocentrism—the ability to view things from another's perspective (even if they think
incorrectly). For instance, show a child a comic in which Jane puts a doll under a box, leaves the room, and then
Melissa moves the doll to a drawer, and Jane comes back. A child in the concrete operations stage will say that
Jane will still think it's under the box even though the child knows it is in the drawer. (See also False-belief
task).

Children in this stage can, however, only solve problems that apply to actual (concrete) objects or events, and
not abstract concepts or hypothetical tasks.

       o
   Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive/language development – major points

Overview:

The major theme of Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the
development of cognition. Vygotsky (1978) states: "Every function in the child's cultural development appears
twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and
then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to
the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." (p57).

A second aspect of Vygotsky's theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the
"zone of proximal development" (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior .
Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range of skill that can be developed with
adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.

Vygotsky's theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For example, in
the learning of language, our first utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but once
mastered they become internalized and allow "inner speech".

Vygotsky's theory is complementary to the work of Bandura on social learning and a key component of situated learning theory.

Because Vygotsky's focus was on cognitive development, it is interesting to compare his views with those of Bruner and Piaget .

A comparison of Vygotsky and Piaget can be found at
http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/vygotsky.html
   Information processing theory – executive functions and memory, types of knowledge
   Theory of mind and false-belief task

Chapter 6
 Externalizing and internalizing tendencies, features of each
 Self-esteem in childhood – trends, Harter’s research
 Prosocial behavior – altruism, empathy, sympathy, how to teach it
 Raising a Moral Child article – role of religious training, ways to raise moral children
 Difference between shame and guilt
 Types of aggression, how is it differentiated
 Functions of play
 Gender separation in play
 Cyberbullying – examples of cyberbullying (see handout)
 Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
        Level 1 (Pre-Conventional)
        1. Obedience and punishment orientation
        (How can I avoid punishment?)
        2. Self-interest orientation
        (What's in it for me?)
        Level 2 (Conventional)
        3. Interpersonal accord and conformity
        (Social norms)
        (The good boy/good girl attitude)
        4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
        (Law and order morality)
        Level 3 (Post-Conventional)
        5. Social contract orientation
        6. Universal ethical principles
        (Principled conscience)

   Moral Development Video Follow-Along Sheet

Chapter 7 (see handout and textbook)
 Baumrind’s parenting styles

Authoritative Parenting

       lively and happy disposition
       self-confident about ability to master tasks.
       well developed emotion regulation
       developed social skills
       less rigid about gender-typed traits (exp: sensitivity in boys and independence in girls)

Authoritarian Parenting

       anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy disposition
       poor reactions to frustration (girls are particularly likely to give up and boys become especially hostile)
       do well in school (studies may show authoritative parenting is comparable)
       not likely to engage in antisocial activities (exp: drug and alcohol abuse, vandalism, gangs)

Permissive Parenting

       poor emotion regulation (under regulated)
       rebellious and defiant when desires are challenged.
       low persistence to challenging tasks
       antisocial behaviors

The permissive parent attempts to behave in a nonpunitive, acceptant and affirmative manner towards the
child's impulses, desires, and actions. She [the parent] consults with him [the child] about policy decisions and
gives explanations for family rules. She makes few demands for household responsibility and orderly behavior.
She presents herself to the child as a resource for him to use as he wishes, not as an ideal for him to emulate, nor
as an active agent responsible for shaping or altering his ongoing or future behavior. She allows the child to
regulate his own activities as much as possible, avoids the exercise of control, and does not encourage him to
obey externally defined standards. She attempts to use reason and manipulation, but not overt power to
accomplish her ends (p. 889).

The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of the child in
accordance with a set standard of conduct, usually an absolute standard, theologically motivated and formulated
by a higher authority. She [the parent] values obedience as a virtue and favors punitive, forceful measures to
curb self-will at points where the child's actions or beliefs conflict with what she thinks is right conduct. She
believes in keeping the child in his place, , in restricting his autonomy, and in assigning household
responsibilities in order to inculcate respect for work. She regards the preservation of order and traditional
structure as a highly valued end in itself. She does not encourage verbal give and take, believing that the child
should accept her word for what is right (p. 890).

The authoritative parent attempts to direct the child's activities but in a rational, issue-oriented manner. She
[the parent] encourages verbal give and take, shares with the child the reasoning behind her policy, and solicits
his objections when he refuses to conform. Both autonomous self-will and disciplined conformity are valued.
[She values both expressive and instrumental attributes, both autonomous self-will and disciplined conformity]
... Therefore she exerts firm control at points of parent-child divergence, but does not hem the child in with
restrictions. She enforces her own perspective as an adult, but recognizes the child's individual interests and
special ways. The authoritative parent affirms the child's present qualities, but also sets standards for future
conduct. She uses reason, power, and shaping by regime and reinforcement to achieve her objectives, and does
not base her decisions on group consensus or the individual child's desires. [... but also does not regard herself
as infallible, or divinely inspired.] (p. 891) [Note that portions in brackets are significant additions to the
prototype in Baumrind (1967).]

   Child maltreatment – types of abuse, statistics
   Sternberg’s theory of intelligence - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triarchic_theory_of_intelligence
   Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_multiple_intelligences
   Intrinsic v. extrinsic motivation
   Difference between achievement and IQ tests

Chapter 8
 Major points of Pam Stenzel video
 Secular trend in puberty – what is it? Reasons for it?
 Menarche and spermarche
 Role of adrenal androgens
 Primary vs. secondary sexual characteristics – difference between the two, examples of each
 Effects of early maturation on girls
 Physical appearance’s role in self-esteem
 Anorexia and bulimia nervosa – what are they? How many suffer?
 Trends in adolescence sexual activity
 Designing teen-friendly sex ed programs
Chapter 9
 Three theories of teenage thinking – Piaget, Kohlberg, Elkind (major ideas of each)
 Experience-sampling technique – what is it?
 Which teens thrive?
 Difference between a “clique” and “crowd”
 Steps from elementary cliques to romantic relationships (see chart in textbook)
 What factors increase the likelihood of gang formation? Who is likely to join?
 Psychosocial task of adolescence? Review Erikson’s theory of development

Chapter 10
 When does emerging adulthood begin/end? What causes variations in this timetable?
 Understand the concepts of the social clock, age norms, on time, and off time
 Marcia’s identity statuses – be able to list/define each
 Criticisms of Marcia’s theory
 Difference between secondary and primary labor markets
 Understand the psychosocial tasks associated with emerging adulthood
 Understand process involved in stimulus-value-role theory
 Know and be able to define adult attachment styles

Note: We will also have student presentation related to adolescence/emerging adulthood, and you may see questions
related to the presentation as well.

Other tips
You may also want to spend some time doing the following:
 Study quizzes
 Study handouts provided in class or in-class activity sheets
 Study any notes you have made on lectures/PowerPoints – Any PowerPoint presented in class is posted on eclass
 If you purchased the Study Guide that accompanies your textbook, use the review questions as practice tests
 Remember that any extra credit available will require you to provide short answers, all other questions (100 of
   them) will be multiple choice or True/False.
 If you find a concept listed above and don’t understand it based on the textbook’s info or what’s been said in class,
   don’t be afraid to do a little ‘extra’ –google it, see what reputable sources might add to your understanding, talk to
   or email me with your questions

   or email me with your questions

								
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